Doctor of Medicine, University Of Tokyo (2002)
Doctor of Philosophy, Jichi Medical School (2012)
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), previously known as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), is a significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HCT). However, the pathogenesis of this complication has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we identified the pre-transplant risk factors for the development of COP/BOOP using the Japan transplant registry database between 2005 and 2009. Among 9550 eligible recipients, 193 experienced COP/BOOP (2%). HLA disparity (odds ratio (OR) 1.51, P=0.05), female-to-male HCT (OR 1.53, P=0.023), and PBSC transplant (OR 1.84, P=0.0076) were significantly associated with an increased risk of COP/BOOP. On the other hand, BU-based myeloablative conditioning (OR 0.52, P=0.033), or fludarabine-based reduced-intensity conditioning (OR 0.50, P=0.0011) in comparison with a TBI-based regimen and in vivo T-cell depletion (OR 0.46, P=0.055) were associated with a lower risk. Of the 193 patients with COP/BOOP, 77 died, including non-relapse death in 46 (59%). Pulmonary failure and fatal infection accounted for 41% (n=19) and 26% (n=12) of the non-relapse death. Allogeneic immunity and conditioning toxicity could be associated with COP/BOOP. Prospective studies are required to elucidate the true risk factors for COP/BOOP and to develop a prophylactic approach.
View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2013.116
View details for Web of Science ID 000325643700010
View details for PubMedID 23933758
Systemic corticosteroid therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed a retrospective study to identify the factors affecting the response of grade II to IV acute GVHD to systemic corticosteroid therapy using the Japanese national registry data for patients who received first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with bone marrow (BM) (n = 1955), peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) (n = 642), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) (n = 839). Of 3436 patients, 2190 (63.7%) showed improvement of acute GVHD to first-line therapy with corticosteroids. Various factors were identified to predict corticosteroid response. Interestingly, UCB (versus HLA-matched related BM) transplantation was significantly associated with a higher probability of improvement, whereas HLA-matched unrelated BM and HLA-mismatched stem cell sources other than UCB were significantly associated with a lower probability of improvement. HLA-matched related PBSC transplantation was not significantly different from HLA-matched related BM transplantation. Patients without improvement from corticosteroid therapy had a 2.5-times higher nonrelapse mortality and a .6-times lower overall survival rate. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, a higher probability of improvement in grade II to IV acute GVHD with systemic corticosteroid therapy in patients after UCB transplantation than in those after BM and PBSC transplantation. A prospective study is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.05.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000322607000010
View details for PubMedID 23676716
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the pathogenesis and risks for the development of BOS have remained unclear. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for the development of BOS, which included the largest number of BOS cases; 196 patients with BOS were identified and compared with 1960 control recipients. The following were identified as significantly higher risk factors for the development of BOS: female recipients (OR 1.47, P = 0.019), ABO-mismatch HSCT (minor mismatch, OR 1.67, P = 0.015; major mismatch, OR 1.73, P = 0.012; bidirectional mismatch, OR 1.96, P = 0.018), busulfan+cyclophosphamide-based myeloablative conditioning (OR 1.74, P = 0.016), and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) involving the skin (OR 1.55, P = 0.011). On the other hand, the risk for the development of BOS was significantly lower in patients receiving cord blood transplantation (OR 0.26, P = 0.0011). With respect to other target organs of chronic GVHD, ocular involvement was significantly associated with BOS (OR 2.53, P < 0.001). Prospective studies are required to elucidate the risk factors for the development of BOS, and future investigations should focus on finding a prophylactic approach against BOS based on these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1111/tri.12093
View details for Web of Science ID 000319224300012
View details for PubMedID 23551210
The impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains a matter of debate. We have retrospectively examined the significance of HCV infection among recipients who received allogeneic HCT, using a Japan transplant outcome registry database between 2006 and 2009. Among 7,831 recipients, 136 were HCV-positive. The rate of hematopoietic recovery was lower in the HCV-positive group (neutrophil recovery of 500 × 10(6) /L or higher: 79% vs. 87% at Day 30, P?=?0.087; platelet recovery of 50 × 10(9) /L or higher: 57% vs. 65% at Day 60, P?=?0.012). The HCV-positive group had a significantly higher incidence of nonrelapse mortality 38% vs. 25% at 2 years, P?0.01) and inferior overall survival (41% vs. 51% at 2 years, P?0.01). A multivariate analysis revealed that HCV seropositivity was associated with an independent risk for higher nonrelapse mortality (hazard ratio: 1.65, P?0.01) and inferior overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.39, P?0.01). The incidences of death due to hepatic problems (8% vs. 2%, P?0.01), bacterial infection (10% vs. 4%, P?0.01), or graft failure (5% vs. 2%, P?=?0.084) tended to be higher in the HCV-positive group. HCV infection had an adverse impact on the clinical outcome following HCT, especially in the setting of unrelated transplantation. Careful evaluation before embarking on HCT and intensive assessment against complications are warranted in HCV-infected recipients. Am. J. Hematol. 88:477-484, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.23436
View details for PubMedID 23483626
Cellular immunity is important for the control of CMV infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (Allo-HCT). However, the actual in vivo dynamics of CMV-specific cytotoxic T cell (CMV-CTL) clones are still unclear. We conducted clone monitoring of tetramer(+) CMV-CTLs in HLA-A*2402-positive donor-patient pairs, using a direct single-cell analysis that enabled the simultaneous identification and quantification of CTL clones. Clone dynamics were assessed in three cases with or without CMV reactivation. In Case-1 without CMV reactivation, despite the long-term use of systemic steroid, dominant clones of Donor-1 persisted and remained dominant. The CMV-CTLs at 1 year after Allo-HCT included a high proportion of CD45RA(+)CCR7(-) effector and CD27(-)CD57(+)mature T cells. On the other hand, in Cases-2 and -3 with CMV reactivation, novel clones appeared and became dominant during the follow-up. Their CMV-CTLs included more CD27(+) immature T cells at 1 year after Allo-HCT. With regard to clonotypes, HLA-A*2402-restricted CMV-CTLs tended to select BV7 and BJ1-1 genes for complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β. Specific amino-acid sequences of CDR3 of TCR-β were found in each case. Patterns of clone reconstitution and phenotype would be different according to CMV reactivation. In vivo clone monitoring of CMV-CTLs could provide insight into the mechanism of immunological reconstitution following Allo-HCT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 12 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bmt.2013.122.
View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2013.122
View details for PubMedID 23933763
Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that adiponectin, which is secreted by adipose tissues, plays a critical role in obesity-related and autoimmune diseases. We compared the concentrations of adiponectin among 26 normal subjects and 34 allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. The concentrations of adiponectin were significantly higher in recipients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) than those in subjects without cGVHD (21.7 ± 11.0 vs 9.1 ± 6.1 ?g/mL in females, P < .001; and 10.1 ± 6.8 vs 4.3 ± 2.9 ?g/mL in males, P = .003). Multivariate analysis revealed that a higher concentration of adiponectin was associated with female sex (?-coefficient 8.2, P < .0001) and the severity of cGVHD (?-coefficient 6.6, 12.7, and 15.6, P < .01, each for mild, moderate, and severe cGVHD, respectively). In addition, adiponectin levels increased as cGVHD progressed, decreased as cGVHD improved, and did not change with stable cGVHD. In conclusion, adiponectin was associated with the severity of cGVHD and might play a role in the pathophysiology of cGVHD.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-10-316109
View details for Web of Science ID 000288848500031
View details for PubMedID 21258011
The combination of cyclophosphamide and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has widely been used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, however, alternative approaches such as G-CSF alone or etoposide followed by G-CSF have been investigated. We, therefore, retrospectively analyzed the effects of these mobilization methods on collection yield and disease outcome in ASCT for MM. We reviewed 146 MM patients from whom we intended to collect stem cells. For mobilization, 67, 58, and 21 patients received cyclophosphamide and G-CSF, etoposide and G-CSF, and G-CSF alone (including nonmyelosuppressive chemotherapy followed by G-CSF), respectively. Among them, 136 achieved the target number of HSCs (at least 2 x 10(6)/kg). Lower creatinine and higher albumin levels at diagnosis were significantly associated with successful yield. A lower number of infused HSCs, use of the etoposide for mobilization and high ISS were associated with delayed hematopoietic recovery. The mobilization methods did not significantly affect either the successful collection of more than 2 x 10(6) CD34-positive cells/kg or PFS after ASCT. G-CSF alone was sufficient for stem cell mobilization for a single ASCT. The optimal approach to collect HSCs in MM remains to be elucidated.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.21552
View details for Web of Science ID 000272481500009
View details for PubMedID 19862826
Although core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is generally considered to be a low-risk form of AML, the survival rate is still 50% to 60%. To evaluate the effectiveness of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with a PCR-negative graft we analyzed a series of consecutive CBF-AML patients. Between 1997 and 2006, 18 patients aged<60 years were referred under a diagnosis of CBF-AML. Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected after a second or further course of postremission therapy. When >2.0x10(6)/kg CD34-positive cells with minimal residual disease (MRD) undetectable by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had been collected, ASCT was performed with busulfan, etoposide, and cytarabine combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Event-free survival (EFS) and complications of ASCT were then assessed. Fourteen of the 18 patients received ASCT. The median observation period was 4.4 years. The 5-year EFS was 93% for ASCT patients, despite the presence of adverse factors. In 8 of 10 patients who had detectable MRD in the bone marrow before ASCT, MRD became undetectable after ASCT. Neutrophils recovered promptly within 2 weeks, but platelets recovered relatively slowly. Half of the patients suffered from varicella zoster virus infection. Although 1 case of myelodysplastic syndrome occurred, there was no case of relapse. ASCT with a PCR-negative graft was associated with excellent EFS. For patients with CBF-AML, especially with adverse factors or remnant MRD in the bone marrow, this strategy is the treatment of choice.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.08.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000260533900009
View details for PubMedID 18940681
We have reported a rare case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) recurring 19 years after the first presentation. Since 1984, 36 relapse cases 10 years or more after the first diagnosis have been reported. All cases were childhood ALL with a low to standard risk. Twenty-six attained CR2, and 18 of them remained in sustained CR2. The sustained CR2 ratio was 80% without transplantation. Sustained CR2 ratio was significantly lower in patients with lower leukocytes (<10 x 10(9)l(-1)) at initial presentation. A very late relapse of ALL remains chemosensitive, and its prognosis is not unfavorable.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.leukres.2007.07.026
View details for Web of Science ID 000254724300018
View details for PubMedID 17850867
Currently, acyclovir (ACV) at 1000 mg/day is widely used as prophylaxis in the early phase of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in Japan. However, low-dose ACV (200 mg/day) has been shown to prevent varicella zoster virus reactivation in the middle and late phases of HSCT.Therefore, in this study, we decreased the dose of ACV to 200 mg/day in the early phase after HSCT. We analyzed 93 consecutive herpes simplex virus (HSV)-seropositive patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT for the first time in our center between June 2007 and December 2011.Before August 2009, 38 patients received oral ACV at 1000 mg/day (ACV1000) until day 35 after HSCT, whereas 55 patients received oral ACV at 200 mg/day (ACV200) after September 2009. We compared the cumulative incidence of HSV infection in the 2 groups. Oral ACV was changed to intravenous administration because of intolerance in 66% and 45% of the patients in the ACV1000 and ACV200 groups, respectively (P = 0.060). The probability of severe stomatitis (Bearman grade II-III) was 76% and 60% in the ACV1000 and ACV200 groups, respectively (P = 0.12). The number of patients who developed HSV disease before day 100 after HSCT was 0 in the ACV1000 group and 2 in the ACV200 group, with a cumulative incidence of 3.6% (P = 0.43). HSV disease in the latter 2 patients was limited to the lips and tongue and was successfully treated with ACV or valacyclovir at a treatment dose.ACV at 200 mg/day appeared to be effective for preventing HSV disease in the early phase after HSCT.
View details for DOI 10.1111/tid.12118
View details for Web of Science ID 000325252700012
View details for PubMedID 23895431
Preemptive therapy with ganciclovir (GCV) based on the results of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay is a standard strategy for preventing CMV disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the appropriate threshold of antigenemia-positive cells for deciding when to start GCV remains unclear.This retrospective study included 80 recipients who received HCT from an alternative donor between 2007 and 2011. In 2009, we switched the threshold from 3 (3A group, n=24) to 20 (20A group, n=56) antigenemia-positive cells per two slides for preemptive therapy after HCT from an alternative donor.Early CMV disease within 100 days after HCT was observed in one patient in the 20A group. Antiviral agents including GCV, val-GCV, and foscarnet were given in 17 (71%) and 36 (64%) patients in the 3A and 20A groups, respectively (p=0.23). In 13 (23%) patients in the 20A group, the initiation of preemptive therapy was avoided because of the change in the cutoff value for CMV antigenemia. However, the total dose of GCV was not different between the two groups. The use of steroid was significantly associated with CMV antigenemia of at least 20 positive cells among patients with low-level antigenemia at the first detection.The increased threshold up to 20 positive cells for starting preemptive therapy was not associated with a significant increase in CMV disease, but the total dose of GCV was not reduced and there was one early CMV disease in the 20A group. We should explore how to identify patients who are at high risk for increased antigenemia among patients with low-level antigenemia, but at least, preemptive therapy should not be withheld in patients who are already receiving systemic steroid.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0073754
View details for Web of Science ID 000324481600096
View details for PubMedID 24040054
A mixing test is useful for distinguishing between coagulation factor deficiency and the presence of inhibitor as the cause of coagulopathy. However, we experienced a patient with acquired factor V (FV) inhibitor whose mixing test showed a coagulation factor deficiency pattern. A 65-year-old man with a tendency for bleeding was referred to our center. The laboratory data showed remarkable prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). FV activity was less than 3%. A mixing test showed a coagulation factor deficiency pattern. However, neither the tendency for bleeding nor the coagulation tests were corrected by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma. A few days later, a positive test for FV inhibitor of 3 Bethesda units was obtained. Therefore, we started prednisolone and plasma exchange, and the coagulation test results normalized after 6 weeks. Although an incubation period is generally not considered necessary in a mixing test for FV inhibitor, we repeated mixing tests with various incubation periods and confirmed an incubation period-dependent prolongation of the APTT. Therefore, a mixing test with an incubation period is recommended for the detection of FV inhibitor, since a mixing test without an incubation period may show a coagulation factor deficiency pattern when the titer of FV inhibitor is low.
View details for DOI 10.1179/1607845412Y.0000000072
View details for Web of Science ID 000324530700009
View details for PubMedID 23683688
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is a frequent complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although previous studies have revealed that cellular immunity is important for suppressing reactivation, the role of humoral immunity against VZV has been poorly evaluated. We analyzed inherited polymorphisms in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) heavy chain constant regions of 50 HSCT recipient-donor pairs to distinguish donor-derived and recipient-derived antibodies. Twelve pairs were informative regarding the origin of IgG, since either the donors (n = 3) or recipients (n = 9) were homozygous null for the IgG1m(f) allotype. In these 9 homozygous-null recipients, allotype-specific IgG against VZV were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with measles-IgG. All 9 homozygous-null recipients were monitored for more than 1 year after HSCT, with (n = 4, localized zoster) or without (n = 5) clinical VZV disease. In 3 patients with VZV disease, donor-derived IgG against VZV was elevated between 500 to 700 days after HSCT after the episode of VZV disease. In 1 patient who suffered from VZV disease just before HSCT, donor-derived VZV IgG was elevated within 3 months after HSCT. On the other hand, 2 patients who received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation from an IgG1m(f) null donor maintained recipient-derived IgG against VZV for more than 1 year, whereas it was decreased within 3 months in 1 recipient who received conventional conditioning. In conclusion, the production of anti-VZV IgG by recipient plasma cells persists long after RIC. In patients without symptomatic VZV reactivation, donor-derived anti-VZV IgG did not reach titers comparable to those measured in healthy virus carriers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.04.007
View details for PubMedID 23583826
Various biomarkers have been investigated with regard to their ability to predict the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 90 recipients who received HSCT between 2007 and 2011 in our institution, and evaluated the predictive value of the baseline serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels just before the initiation of conditioning for transplant-related complications after allogeneic HSCT. A receiver-operating characteristic curve revealed that the baseline serum CRP levels had an excellent predictive value for non-relapse mortality (NRM), with an area under the curve of 0.83. The sensitivity and specificity for NRM were 80% and 87%, respectively, with a cutoff of 0.6?mg/dL. With this cutoff value, multivariate analyses revealed that a higher baseline CRP level was an independent risk factor for NRM (HR 6.21, P<0.01), grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR 3.91, P=0.03) and poor overall survival (HR 3.27, P=0.0018). On the other hand, the baseline CRP level did not predict infectious events. These findings suggested that CRP levels before conditioning may be a useful predictive biomarker for poor survival.
View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2012.193
View details for PubMedID 23042494
Few studies have evaluated the risk factors for chronic GVHD and organ involvement associated with different graft types, including unrelated cord blood (U-CB). We retrospectively studied 4818 adult patients who received their first allogeneic transplantation and survived for at least 100 days. The incidence of chronic GVHD at 2 years was 37%. The following factors were associated with the development of chronic GVHD: female donor/male recipient, CMV-Ab seropositivity, matched related peripheral blood grafts vs matched related BM grafts, no in vivo T-cell depletion and the occurrence of grade II-IV acute GVHD. Among these factors, the association with acute GVHD occurrence was consistently significant across donor subtypes. The use of U-CB was not associated with chronic GVHD, but was associated with a low incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. Chronic GVHD patients who had received U-CB transplants showed less frequent involvement of the oral cavity (28% vs 55%), eye (12% vs 26%), liver (20% vs 44%), lung (11% vs 25%) and joint (0% vs 6%) than those with matched related BM grafts. In conclusion, we found that U-CB transplants were associated with a low incidence of extensive chronic GVHD and less frequent involvement of the oral cavity, eye, liver, lung and joints.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 30 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bmt.2013.151.
View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2013.151
View details for PubMedID 24076549
Hyperbilirubinemia in the early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is due to various causes. One of the most important causes of hyperbilirubinemia is veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (VOD/SOS). However, the prognosis of patients who are clinically diagnosed as SOS varies. We retrospectively evaluated 82 patients who underwent their first allogeneic HSCT. GVHD prophylaxis was a combination of short-term MTX and CsA (n=77) or tacrolimus (n=5). Thirty-three patients developed hyperbilirubinemia, with a bilirubin level of at least 2?mg/dL, within 20 days after HSCT. Of these patients, 24 were diagnosed as VOD/SOS using the modified Seattle criteria. Twenty-six recovered to a bilirubin level of <2?mg/dL. We focused on the serum alkaline phosphatase/total bilirubin ratio (ALP/TB) at the onset of hyperbilirubinemia and found that it significantly predicted the recovery from hyperbilirubinemia. OS was significantly higher in patients with a lower ALP/TB ratio (P=0.00056). In addition, a lower ALP/TB ratio was associated with better survival even in patients who were clinically diagnosed as SOS (P<0.001). The ALP/TB ratio at the onset of hyperbilirubinemia may be a useful predictor for the prognosis of hyperbilirubinemia and SOS early after HSCT.
View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2012.130
View details for Web of Science ID 000313519100018
View details for PubMedID 22750996
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive malignancy of T cells caused by human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Recent clinical studies have suggested that allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) improves the clinical course of ATL by harnessing a graft-versus-ATL effect, and that donor-derived HTLV-1 Tax-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) contribute to the graft-versus-ATL effect after HSCT. However, little is known about the immunological characteristics of Tax-specific CTLs in ATL patients who underwent HSCT.We serially analyzed frequencies, differentiation, functions and clonal dynamics of Tax-specific CTLs in paired samples of peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) from an ATL patient after HSCT at the single-cell level. We used flowcytometric and single-cell T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire analysis methods without culture steps.Donor-derived Tax-specific CTLs effectively suppressed HTLV-1 replication in both PB and BM at least during chronic graft-versus-host disease after HSCT. Furthermore, Tax-specific CTLs had comparable properties between BM and PB, except for preferential accumulation in BM rather than PB. Tax-specific CTLs persistently existed as less-differentiated CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) effector memory CTLs based on predominant phenotypes of CD27(+), CD28(+/-) and CD57(+/-). Our approach using single-cell TCR repertoire analysis method showed highly restricted oligoclonal responses of Tax-specific CTLs, and TCR BV7- or BV30- expressing two predominant CTL clones persistently existed and maintained strong cytotoxic activities against HTLV-1 in both PB and BM over three years after HSCT.These findings about Tax-specific CTLs provide insights into future directions for studies on immunotherapy against ATL.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10875-012-9729-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000312738800023
View details for PubMedID 22763862
Although the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), VZV meningoencephalitis is a rare life-threatening infectious disease after HSCT. We describe here a patient who developed VZV meningoencephalitis 2 years after human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated HSCT for acute myeloblastic leukemia. She developed chronic graft-versus-host disease, and cyclosporine (CSA) was continued until 17 months after HSCT. Low-dose acyclovir (ACV) at 200 mg/day was administered to prevent the reactivation of VZV from day -7 to the termination of CSA. At 22 months, she suddenly developed fever, loss of consciousness, and seizure, with generalized skin rash. A high level of VZV DNA was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). She was diagnosed to have VZV meningoencephalitis. Intravenous ACV at 30 mg/kg/day was given for 2 months. Although loss of consciousness was quickly resolved, some neurologic symptoms persisted. She did not have any known risk factors for VZV reactivation. Therefore, we should keep in mind that any HSCT recipient may develop VZV meningoencephalitis, and examination of CSF for VZV infection with an empiric administration of ACV may be recommended for HSCT recipients with central nervous system symptoms, even in the absence of skin manifestations.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00720.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000307731800002
View details for PubMedID 22340704
We retrospectively investigated L-index, which evaluates both the intensity and duration of lymphopenia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (n = 50). L-index was defined as the area over the lymphocyte curve during lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte count < 700/?L). We calculated the L-index from the start of conditioning to day 30 - L-index(30) - and to day 100 - L-index(100) - after HSCT. Multivariate analysis revealed that human leukocyte antigen mismatched donor, female gender, and non-lymphoid disease were significantly associated with high L-index(30). Grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease, alemtuzumab-containing regimen, and non-lymphoid disease were identified as independent significant factors for high L-index(100). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia was detected > 3 cells/2 slides by C10/11 method in 30 patients (CMV-AG ? 3 group) and was not detected in 20 patients (CMV-AG < 3 group). Although no significant difference was seen in absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 between the 2 groups, the L-index(30) was significantly higher in the CMV-AG ? 3 group than in the CMV-AG < 3 group (P = 0.050). L-index(30) was identified as an independent factor on CMV reactivation in multivariate analysis, when it was treated as a dichotomous variable with a cut-off value of 22,318, determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, both the intensity and duration of lymphopenia in early phase after HSCT evaluated on the basis of L-index(30) showed significant association with CMV reactivation.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00727.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000307731800014
View details for PubMedID 22469427
Patients with aplastic anemia (AA) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) often have persistent severe neutropenia and are susceptible to infectious complications. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical course of patients with AA or MDS who had neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500/µl) for more than 25 days. A total of 46 patients, 11 with AA and 35 with MDS, were included. Twenty-three patients had infectious events (IE), and the cumulative incidence of IE was 30% at 6 months and 51% at 1 year. The cumulative incidence of IE was 67% at 1 year in 30 patients who experienced very severe neutropenia of less than 200/µl. Overall survival in all patients was 76% at 6 months and 65% at 1 year. In a multivariate analysis, male sex, underlying diseases, and a neutrophil count of less than 200/µl as a time-dependent covariate significantly affected IE. In analyses that excluded patients with AA, male sex was the only factor. In conclusion, severe neutropenia was significantly associated with IE in patients with AA or MDS, and IE might be lethal. When we only considered patients with MDS, the neutrophil count alone could not be used to predict the prognosis.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hon.1001
View details for Web of Science ID 000304800800005
View details for PubMedID 21692099
Disseminated adenovirus disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is lethal in most cases, especially when it develops as fulminant hepatic failure. We encountered a patient who developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by adenovirus infection. She did not show manifestations of graft-versus-host disease and the results of serum tests for viral infection were all negative. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings were consistent with peliosis hepatitis. She died of fulminant hepatic failure, however, and pathological examinations of the liver specimen obtained after her death revealed adenovirus infection. In this report, we review the clinical characteristics and imaging findings of fulminant hepatic failure caused by adenovirus infection.
View details for DOI 10.2169/internalmedicine.51.6432
View details for Web of Science ID 000301293300012
View details for PubMedID 22333378
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is known to be associated with functional abnormalities of B cells, including hypergammaglobulinemia and monoclonal gammopathy (MG). However, the pathogenesis of these immunological disorders has not been clarified. We report a patient who developed donor-derived MDS followed by leukemic transformation after cord blood transplantation for MDS with MG. Interestingly, MG reappeared before development of donor-derived MDS. We analyzed the immunoglobulin allotype gene polymorphisms to determine whether the MG after cord blood transplantation was of recipient origin or donor origin. Results of genetic analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IgG1 allotype revealed that the MG after cord blood transplantation was of donor origin. Although the mechanism of donor-derived MG remains unclear, the persistent presence of recipient's antigen presenting cells might have induced the abnormal immunoglobulin production.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2011.09.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000297566500002
View details for PubMedID 21911093
Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the prognosis of patients who relapse after allogeneic HSCT has been extremely poor. Dasatinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a promising agent for the treatment of Ph-ALL. We report on a Ph-ALL patient who relapsed early after the first allogeneic HSCT, but achieved complete molecular remission with dasatinib alone. She remains in molecular remission 12 months after the second allogeneic HSCT. Dasatinib was generally well tolerated, but she developed myalgia, nausea and positive cytomegalovirus antigenemia. In addition, sudden-onset bloody diarrhea was observed 10 days after the second HSCT, which was possibly associated with the use of dasatinib in addition to the effect of the conditioning regimen and graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, dasatinib is an effective agent for Ph-ALL with a poor prognosis, but may be associated with specific adverse events including opportunistic infection and gastrointestinal bleeding.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12185-010-0678-6
View details for Web of Science ID 000282633900021
View details for PubMedID 20824399
We investigated the impact of neutropenia on the development of early bloodstream and pulmonary infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, and evaluated the utility of an index (D-index) that reflects both the intensity and duration of neutropenia. Fifty-eight patients (23 autologous, 35 allogeneic HSCT recipients) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The D-index was defined as the area over the neutrophil curve during neutropenia. We also evaluated the utility of the cumulative D-index from the start of neutropenia until the development of infection (c-D-index), which may enable real-time assessment of the risk for infection. The patients showed 12 and 7 episodes of bloodstream and pulmonary infection, respectively. The D-index, days of neutropenia (<500/microL) and days of profound neutropenia (<100/microL) had at least a nearly significant impact on the development of both bloodstream and pulmonary infections. On the other hand, the c-D-index, cumulative days of neutropenia, and cumulative days of profound neutropenia significantly affected pulmonary infection, but not bloodstream infection. The c-D-index had a high negative predictive value of 97.4% for pulmonary infection with a cutoff of 5500, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was similar to that of the cumulative days of neutropenia and profound neutropenia. Our results showed that although the c-D-index may be useful for identifying patients who are at low risk for early pulmonary infection after HSCT, its performance was similar to that of the simple duration of neutropenia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.04.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000282071500003
View details for PubMedID 20457267
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a lymphoproliferative malignancy associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Recently, it has been shown that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an effective treatment for ATL, and that HTLV-1 Tax-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTL) contribute to the graft-versus-ATL effect. In the present study, we, for the first time, analyzed the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of isolated Tax(301-309) (SFHSLHLLF)-specific CTLs in HLA-A*2402(+) ATL patients before and after allo-HSCT by single-cell reverse transcription-PCR. The Tax(301-309)-specific CTLs in bone marrow and peripheral blood showed highly restricted oligoclonal diversity. In addition, a unique conserved amino acid motif of "P-D/P-R" in TCR-beta complementarity-determining region 3 in either BV7- or BV18-expressing CTLs was observed not only in all of the samples from ATL patients, but also in samples from the same patient before and after HSCT. Furthermore, the P-D/P-R motif-bearing CTL clones established from peripheral blood samples after HSCT exhibited strong killing activity against the HTLV-1-infected T cells of the patient. CTL clones were not established in vitro from samples prior to allo-HSCT. In addition, CTL clones with a strong killing activity were enriched in vivo after HSCT in the patient. Hence, Tax(301-309)-specific CTLs in ATL patients might have a preference for TCR construction and induce strong immune responses against the HTLV-1-infected T cells of patients, which contribute to the graft-versus-ATL effects after allo-HSCT. However, further analyses with a larger number of patients and more frequent sampling after allo-HSCT is required to confirm these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0678
View details for Web of Science ID 000280557500008
View details for PubMedID 20647322
We investigated the serial changes in the blood CsA concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to twice-daily oral administration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (n=12). The microemulsion form of CsA, Neoral, was started at twice the last dose in intravenous infusion in two equally divided doses. The area under the concentration-time curve during oral administration (AUC(PO)) was significantly higher than the AUC during intravenous infusion (AUC(IV)) (median 7508 vs 6705 ng/ml x h, P=0.050). The median bioavailability of Neoral, defined as (AUC(PO)/DOSE(PO)) divided by (AUC(IV)/DOSE(IV)), was 0.685 (range, 0.45-1.04). Concomitant administration of oral voriconazole (n=4) significantly increased the bioavailability of Neoral (median 0.87 vs 0.54, P=0.017), probably due to the inhibition of gut CYP3A4 by voriconazole. Although the conversion from intravenous to oral administration of CsA at a ratio of 1:2 seemed to be appropriate in most patients, a lower conversion ratio may be better in patients taking oral voriconazole. To obtain a similar AUC, the target trough concentrations during twice-daily oral administration should be halved compared with the target concentration during continuous infusion.
View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2009.316
View details for Web of Science ID 000278573600020
View details for PubMedID 19898510
Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used in the conditioning regimen before allogeneic stem cell transplantation for aplastic anemia. However, there are several different preparations of ATG and little is known about the difference of their effects on transplantation outcome. Therefore, in this study, we retrospectively compared the effect of two different rabbit ATG preparations [Thymoglobulin (ATG-G) and ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F)] on immune recovery and cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation. The conditioning regimen was a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and ATG. Low dose total body irradiation was added in alternative donor transplantation. Four patients received ATG-F at 5 mg/kg/day from day -7 to day -3, whereas ATG-G was given at 2.5 mg/kg/day from day -5 to day -2 in three patients. There was no graft rejection and no grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. All three patients in the ATG-G group developed positive cytomegalovirus antigenemia including two with high-grade antigenemia, whereas two of the four patients in the ATG-F group were persistently negative. Immunological evaluation on day 60 revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell recoveries were delayed in the ATG-G group. These findings suggested that ATG-G has a stronger immunosuppressive activity than the ATG-F with a dose ratio of 1:2.5.
View details for DOI 10.1179/102453309X12583347113852
View details for Web of Science ID 000279000500008
View details for PubMedID 20557676
We retrospectively evaluated the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) level before chemotherapy for the prediction of infectious events during neutropenia in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Thirty-eight patients who underwent first induction chemotherapy and 37 patients who underwent first consolidation chemotherapy were analyzed separately. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed that the serum CRP level just before the first consolidation chemotherapy, but not just before the induction chemotherapy, had a significant predictive value for febrile neutropenia (FN) at a cut-off value of 0.19 mg/dl and documented infection (DI) at a cut-off value of 0.26 mg/dl. The high-sensitivity CRP measurement enabled the detection of slight increases in the serum CRP level, which might reflect a minute inflammation by occult infection, and discriminated high-risk patients for infectious events.
View details for DOI 10.3109/00365540903331019
View details for Web of Science ID 000274849700003
View details for PubMedID 20082574
The incidence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is highest among the elderly, and thus it is frequently associated with co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been few reports on the impact of these co-morbidities on survival in patients with AIHA. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 53 consecutive AIHA patients and assessed the impact of DM on survival. Eighteen of the 53 patients had DM. The estimated 4-year overall survival (4y-OS) for all patients was 84.9%. Infection was the most frequent cause of death, and fatal infections were exclusively observed in patients with DM. The deaths in DM patients occurred frequently within 1 year, to give significantly poor survival (4y-OS; 69.3% versus 93.6%, P=0.0064). The presence of DM was identified as the only significant risk factor for survival. A large prospective investigation is warranted to assess the impact of co-morbidities on survival in patients with AIHA.
View details for DOI 10.1179/102453309X12473408860262
View details for Web of Science ID 000272239300009
View details for PubMedID 19941744
Only some carriers of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) develop adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) after a long latency period, and an association has been reported between chronic refractory eczema, known as infective dermatitis, and young-onset ATLL. A 25-year-old female developed ATLL and underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in non-remission. She had chronic refractory eczema and corneal injury at the onset of ATLL. Remission of ATLL was achieved, and the HTLV-1 proviral load decreased after HSCT. In addition, her pre-existing eczema and corneal injuries almost disappeared. More than a year has passed since the transplantation was performed, and she has had no recurrence of either ATLL or lesions in the skin and eye. Her clinical course suggests a possible association between skin and eye lesions and HTLV-1 infection. Changes in the immunological condition after HSCT might play a key role. Special attention is needed when HTLV-1 carriers develop eye or skin lesions.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12185-009-0406-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000271070800018
View details for PubMedID 19705056
The appearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients previously positive for antibody to this antigen (HBsAb) is called reverse seroconversion, a rare complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which occurs almost exclusively after HSCT from an HBsAb-negative donor and the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD). However, we experienced a patient who developed reverse seroconversion 23 months after unrelated HSCT even in the absence of immunosuppressants use or CGVHD. Serum immunoglobulin level was persistently normal. Therefore, all HBsAb-positive recipients should be considered to be at risk for HBV reactivation, even in patients without any risk factors.
View details for DOI 10.1179/102453309X385223
View details for Web of Science ID 000268174700002
View details for PubMedID 19298717
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia from an alternative donor is associated with higher risks of graft rejection and severe graft-versus-host disease. We developed a conditioning regimen consisting of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and low-dose total body irradiation. Two adult female patients with transfusion-dependent very severe aplastic anemia underwent 1-locus mismatched transplantation using this regimen. Both patients achieved stable engraftment and the clinical course thereafter was uneventful with persistently normal ovarian function. This novel conditioning regimen may be suitable for alternative donor transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, especially in young female patients.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.21355
View details for Web of Science ID 000263855400010
View details for PubMedID 19195036
The clinical features and outcome of small intestinal lymphoma remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 23 patients who had non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a small intestinal lesion. With a median follow-up of 37 months, the 5-year overall survival and failure-free survival (FFS) were 64% and 60%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, a worse performance status at the start of treatment and the occurrence of abdominal symptoms or perforation during treatment were associated with poor survival. Perforation often resulted in a dismal prognosis in patients with uncontrollable lymphoma, but not in patients with lymphoma in remission. The role of surgery in small intestinal lymphoma remains equivocal. In the current study, surgery before other therapies favorably influenced FFS, and all patients who underwent complete resection of the small intestinal lesion had extremely favorable results. Further studies are warranted to establish optimal therapeutic strategies.
View details for DOI 10.3109/10428190903147629
View details for Web of Science ID 000271554400012
View details for PubMedID 19672778
Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) has been infrequently reported. Four PNH cases were treated with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) at our center. We assessed and reviewed the efficacy and safety of IST for PNH. ATG therapy was performed for progression of cytopenia in 3 classical-type and 1 marrow failure-type PNH cases. ATG was administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. Hydration and anticoagulant therapy were given as prophylaxis for thrombosis during ATG therapy. Cyclosporine was also given to the 3 classical-type PNH patients. Three patients showed hemolytic exacerbation and thrombocytopenia during ATG administration, and all needed to receive transfusions of red blood cells and platelets; however, renal failure and thrombosis did not occur. Anemia improved in all cases within 1 year, but thereafter, recurred in 2 cases. ATG therapy is a choice of treatment for PNH, although its mechanism remains unknown.
View details for PubMedID 18709982
To evaluate the efficacy of long-term prophylaxis with ultra-low-dose acyclovir against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation, we analyzed the records of 242 Japanese adult patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the first time from 1995 to 2006 at our hospital. We started long-term oral acyclovir at 200 mg/day in July 2001. Acyclovir was continued until the end of immunosuppressive therapy and at least 1 year after transplantation. Sixty-six patients developed VZV reactivation at a median of 248 days after HSCT, with a cumulative incidence of 34.7%. Only one breakthrough reactivation occurred during long-term acyclovir, which responded well to therapeutic dose of valacyclovir. The use of long-term acyclovir was the only independent determinant that significantly decreased the overall incidence of VZV reactivation (20% vs. 50%, P < 0.0001). With this prophylaxis, visceral dissemination and serious complications other than post-herpetic neuralgia was completely eliminated, and thereby need for hospitalization was significantly reduced (21% vs. 71%, P = 0.0034). Fifteen of the 57 patients who discontinued acyclovir developed VZV reactivation, with a cumulative incidence of 32.1%. VZV reactivation following discontinuation tended to occur in patients who were receiving immunosuppressive therapy at the cessation of acyclovir. These findings suggested that long-term prophylaxis of ultra-low-dose acyclovir resulted in a successful prevention of severe VZV-related symptoms and death, with a significantly decreased overall incidence of VZV reactivation. Prolongation of prophylactic acyclovir on profound immunosuppression might be important for thorough suppression of VZV reactivation.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.21152
View details for Web of Science ID 000256205000008
View details for PubMedID 18266207
Late cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease beyond day 100 after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an increasing problem after the introduction of preemptive ganciclovir (GCV) administration. To clarify the risk factors and outcome for late CMV reactivation and disease, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 101 Japanese adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT between 1998 and 2005 at our hospital. Fifty-one developed late positive CMV antigenemia, with a cumulative incidence of 53%. Recipient CMV seropositivity, the use of alemtuzumab, chronic GVHD, and high-dose steroids were significantly associated with late positive antigenemia. Eight patients developed late CMV disease, with a cumulative incidence of 8%, including retinitis and gastrointestinal disease. None progressed to a fatal disease. The use of alemtuzumab was identified as an independent significant risk factor for late CMV disease, although it was not associated with increased non-relapse mortality. Among the 51 patients with late positive antigenemia, 28 had consistently less than three positive cells, 25 of whom showed negative conversion without antiviral agents. In conclusion, late CMV antigenemia appeared to develop frequently, especially in patients with profound immune suppression; however, a fatal outcome could be prevented by optimal preemptive therapy. Low-level antigenemia may not require antiviral treatments.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12185-008-0051-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000254437000012
View details for PubMedID 18320138
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the mainstay of pharmacologic prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously reported that continuous infusion of CsA with a target blood level between 250 and 400 ng/ml significantly increased the incidence of acute GVHD compared to twice-daily infusion with a target trough level between 150 and 300 ng/ml. Thus, we raised the target level of CsA continuous infusion to 450-550 ng/ml. We treated 33 patients with the higher target level (CsA500) and compared the efficacy and toxicity with those in the 33 historical control patients (CsA300 group). Other transplantation procedures were not changed. The patients' characteristics were equivalent. The average CsA concentration was adjusted around 500 ng/ml and the actual daily dose was maintained at the initial dose (CsA 3mg/kg/day). Toxicities were equivalently observed among the two groups. The incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the CsA500 group (27 vs. 52%, P = 0.033). The target level of CsA was identified as an independent significant risk factor for grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = 0.039), adjusted for the presence of HLA mismatch. The incidence of chronic GVHD was also decreased in the CsA500 group (47 vs. 73%, P = 0.016). We conclude that the toxicity of the continuous CsA infusion with a target level of 450-550 ng/ml is acceptable and the efficacy to prevent acute GVHD is significant. A larger comparative study is warranted to confirm these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.21087
View details for Web of Science ID 000253559700012
View details for PubMedID 17918253
Although Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen detection is widely applied in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), false-positive reactions with fungus-derived antibiotics, other fungal genera or the passage of dietary GM through injured mucosa are a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative incidence and risk factors for false-positive GM antigenaemia.The records of 157 adult allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients were retrospectively analysed. Episodes of positive GM antigenaemia, defined as two consecutive GM results with an optical density index above 0.6, were classified into true, false and inconclusive GM antigenaemia by reviewing the clinical course.Twenty-five patients developed proven or probable IA with a 1 year cumulative incidence of 12.9%, whereas 50 experienced positive GM antigenaemia with an incidence of 32.2%. Among the total 58 positive episodes of the 50 patients, 29 were considered false-positive. The positive predictive value (PPV) was lower during the first 100 days than beyond 100 days after HSCT (37.5% versus 58.8%). Gastrointestinal chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was identified as the only independent significant factor for the increased incidence of false-positive GM antigenaemia (PPV 0% versus 66.7%, P = 0.02).GM antigen results must be considered cautiously in conjunction with other diagnostic procedures including computed tomography scans, especially during the first 100 days after HSCT and in patients with gastrointestinal chronic GVHD.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jac/dkm463
View details for Web of Science ID 000252544700028
View details for PubMedID 18055488
Twenty-three patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) have received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) in our institute from 1997 to 2005. Among them, 3 patients relapsed, and the other 4 patients (17%) showed cytogenetic abnormalities after the autoHSCT. In these 4 patients with AML1/MTG8 or CBFbeta/MYH11 AML, RT-PCR findings using bone marrow cells were all negative when a cytogenetic abnormality was detected. Myelodysplasia was not detected in the bone marrow and no abnormal findings were seen in the peripheral blood. Cytogenetic abnormalities were detected 12-48 months after AutoHSCT, which disappeared in three patients and decreased in the remaining one patient with a median follow up time of 51 months (30-72 months) after their detection. We present our finding together with a review of the literature on post-autoHSCT cytogenetic abnormalities not related to relapse or secondary leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome.
View details for PubMedID 17867297