Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director of Research, California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative (2013 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • David Wirtschafter NICU Quailty Improvement Award, California Association of Neonatologists (2010)
  • David W. Smith Pediatric Research Award, Western Society for Pediatric Research (2007)
  • Siegelman Pediatric Fellowship, Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health (2004-2006)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) Steering Committee, American Academy of Pediatrics (2011 - Present)
  • Assistant Editor / CME Editor, Neoreviews (2008 - Present)
  • Neonatal Delegation, International Liaison Committee on Neonatal Resuscitation (2011 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Certificate, University of California San Francisco, Implementation Science (2010)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University, Neonatology (2007)
  • MS, Stanford University, Epidemiology (2006)
  • Residency, Stanford University Hospitals, Pediatrics (2002)
  • MD, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Medicine (1999)
  • BS, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana, Electrical Engineering (1994)
  • Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (2008)
  • Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2001)

Community and International Work


  • China NRP Task Force, China

    Topic

    Neonatal resuscitation

    Partnering Organization(s)

    China Ministry of Health, AAP, Johnson & Johnson

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Perinatal and neonatal epidemiology.
Assessment of quality of care for mothers and newborns.
Quality improvement, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based practices.
Simulation in neonatal resuscitation.
Benefits of breast milk for preterm infants.

Publications

Journal Articles


  • The impact of an intervention package promoting effective neonatal resuscitation training in rural China. Resuscitation Xu, T., Wang, H., Gong, L., Ye, H., Yu, R., Wang, D., Wang, L., Feng, Q., Lee, H. C., McGowan, J. E., Zhang, T. 2014; 85 (2): 253-259

    Abstract

    To evaluate an intervention package promoting effective neonatal resuscitation training at county level hospitals across China.The intervention package was implemented across 4 counties and included expert seminars, training workshops, establishment of hospital-based resuscitation teams, and supervision of training by national and provincial instructors. Upon completing the activities, a survey was conducted in all county hospitals in the 4 intervention counties and 4 randomly selected control counties. Data on healthcare providers' knowledge and self-confidence, and incidence of deaths from birth asphyxia from 2009 to 2011 in all hospitals were collected and compared between the two groups.Eleven intervention and eleven control hospitals participated in the evaluation, with 97 and 87 health providers, respectively, completing the questionnaire survey. Over 90% of intervention hospitals had implemented neonatal resuscitation related practice protocols, while in control hospitals the proportion was less than 55%. The average knowledge scores of health providers in the intervention and control counties taking a written exam were 9.2±1.2 and 8.4±1.5, respectively (P<0.001) out of maximum possible score of 10, and the average self-confidence scores were 57.3±2.5 and 54.1±8.2, respectively (P<0.001). Incidence of birth asphyxia (defined as 1-min Apgar score≤7) decreased from 8.8% to 6.0% (P<0.001) in the intervention counties, and asphyxia-related deaths in the delivery room decreased from 27.6 to 5.0 per 100,000 (P=0.076). There was no difference over time in asphyxia rates for the control counties.The intervention has not only improved skills of health providers, decreased the mortality and morbidity of birth asphyxia, but also resulted in effective implementation of guidelines and protocols within hospitals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.10.020

    View details for PubMedID 24176723

  • Oral misoprostol versus vaginal dinoprostone for labor induction in nulliparous women at term. Journal of perinatology Faucett, A. M., Daniels, K., Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2014; 34 (2): 95-99

    Abstract

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of oral misoprostol to vaginal dinoprostone for labor induction in nulliparous women.Study design:Admissions for labor induction from January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. Patients receiving oral misoprostol were compared with those receiving vaginal dinoprostone. The primary outcome was time from induction agent administration to vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes included vaginal delivery within 24 h, mode of delivery and maternal and fetal outcomes.Result:A total of 680 women were included: 483 (71%) received vaginal dinoprostone and 197 (29%) received oral misoprostol. Women who received oral misoprostol had a shorter interval to vaginal delivery (27.2 vs 21.9 h, P<0.0001) and were more likely to deliver vaginally in <24 h (47% vs 64%, P=0.001). There was no increase in the rate of cesarean delivery or adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.Conclusion:Labor induction with oral misoprostol resulted in shorter time to vaginal delivery without increased adverse outcomes in nulliparous women.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2013.133

    View details for PubMedID 24157494

  • Incidence and Impact of CMV Infection in Very Low Birth Weight Infants. Pediatrics Turner, K. M., Lee, H. C., Boppana, S. B., Carlo, W. A., Randolph, D. A. 2014

    Abstract

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of nongenetic deafness in children in the United States and can cause neurodevelopmental impairment in term infants. Limited data exist regarding congenital CMV infections in preterm infants. We aimed to determine the incidence and association with outcomes of congenital CMV in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants.VLBW infants born in 1993 to 2008 and admitted to the University of Alabama in Birmingham Regional Neonatal ICU were screened on admission for congenital CMV. CMV status and clinical outcomes were identified by using internal patient databases and hospital-based medical records. The primary outcome was death. Secondary outcomes included evidence of neurologic injury in the form of abnormal cranial ultrasound findings, sensorineural hearing loss, or abnormal motor development. Multivariate analysis was performed.Eighteen of 4594 VLBW infants had congenital CMV (0.39%; 95% confidence interval, 0.25%-0.62%). An additional 16 infants (0.35%; 95% confidence interval, 0.21%-0.57%) were identified who acquired CMV postnatally. Congenital CMV was not associated with death. Compared with controls, congenitally infected VLBW infants were more likely to have hearing loss at initial screening (67% vs 9%, P < .0001) and confirmed at follow-up (83% vs 2.1%, P < .0001). Congenital CMV was also associated with abnormal neuroimaging (72% vs 25%, P < .0001) and adverse developmental motor outcomes (43% vs 9%, P = .02). Acquired CMV was not associated with any adverse outcomes.Congenital CMV in VLBW infants is associated with high rates of neurologic injury and hearing loss but not death.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-2217

    View details for PubMedID 24488749

  • Accounting for variation in length of NICU stay for extremely low birth weight infants. Journal of perinatology Lee, H. C., Bennett, M. V., Schulman, J., Gould, J. B. 2013; 33 (11): 872-876

    Abstract

    Objective:To develop a length of stay (LOS) model for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.Study Design:We included infants from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative with birth weight 401 to 1000 g who were discharged to home. Exclusion criteria were congenital anomalies, surgery and death. LOS was defined as days from admission to discharge. As patients who died or were transferred to lower level of care were excluded, we assessed correlation of hospital mortality rates and transfers to risk-adjusted LOS.Results:There were 2012 infants with median LOS 79 days (range 23 to 219). Lower birth weight, lack of antenatal steroids and lower Apgar score were associated with longer LOS. There was negligible correlation between risk-adjusted LOS and hospital mortality rates (r=0.0207) and transfer-out rates (r=0.121).Conclusion:Particularly because ELBW infants have extended hospital stays, identification of unbiased and informative risk-adjusted LOS for these infants is an important step in benchmarking best practice and improving efficiency in care.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2013.92

    View details for PubMedID 23949836

  • Measuring hospital quality using pediatric readmission and revisit rates. Pediatrics Bardach, N. S., Vittinghoff, E., Asteria-Peñaloza, R., Edwards, J. D., Yazdany, J., Lee, H. C., Boscardin, W. J., Cabana, M. D., Dudley, R. A. 2013; 132 (3): 429-436

    Abstract

    To assess variation among hospitals on pediatric readmission and revisit rates and to determine the number of high- and low-performing hospitals.In a retrospective analysis using the State Inpatient and Emergency Department Databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project with revisit linkages available, we identified pediatric (ages 1-20 years) visits with 1 of 7 common inpatient pediatric conditions (asthma, dehydration, pneumonia, appendicitis, skin infections, mood disorders, and epilepsy). For each condition, we calculated rates of all-cause readmissions and rates of revisits (readmission or presentation to the emergency department) within 30 and 60 days of discharge. We used mixed logistic models to estimate hospital-level risk-standardized 30-day revisit rates and to identify hospitals that had performance statistically different from the group mean.Thirty-day readmission rates were low (<10.0%) for all conditions. Thirty-day rates of revisit to the inpatient or emergency department setting ranged from 6.2% (appendicitis) to 11.0% (mood disorders). Study hospitals (n = 958) had low condition-specific visit volumes (37.0%-82.8% of hospitals had <25 visits). The only condition with >1% of hospitals labeled as different from the mean on 30-day risk-standardized revisit rates was mood disorders (4.2% of hospitals [n = 15], range of hospital performance 6.3%-15.9%).We found that when comparing hospitals' performances to the average, few hospitals that care for children are identified as high- or low-performers for revisits, even for common pediatric diagnoses, likely due to low hospital volumes. This limits the usefulness of condition-specific readmission or revisit measures in pediatric quality measurement.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-3527

    View details for PubMedID 23979094

  • The Continuum of Maternal Sepsis Severity: Incidence and Risk Factors in a Population-Based Cohort Study PLOS ONE Acosta, C. D., Knight, M., Lee, H. C., Kurinczuk, J. J., Gould, J. B., Lyndon, A. 2013; 8 (7)

    Abstract

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with uncomplicated maternal sepsis and progression to severe sepsis in a large population-based birth cohort.This retrospective cohort study used linked hospital discharge and vital statistics records data for 1,622,474 live births in California during 2005-2007. Demographic and clinical factors were adjusted using multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors.1598 mothers developed sepsis; incidence of all sepsis was 10 per 10,000 live births (95% CI = 9.4-10.3). Women had significantly increased adjusted odds (aOR) of developing sepsis if they were older (25-34 years: aOR = 1.29; ≥35 years: aOR = 1.41), had ≤high-school education (aOR = 1.63), public/no-insurance (aOR = 1.22) or a cesarean section (primary: aOR = 1.99; repeat: aOR = 1.25). 791 women progressed to severe sepsis; incidence of severe sepsis was 4.9 per 10,000 live births (95% CI = 4.5-5.2). Women had significantly increased adjusted odds of progressing to severe sepsis if they were Black (aOR = 2.09), Asian (aOR = 1.59), Hispanic (aOR = 1.42), had public/no-insurance (aOR = 1.52), delivered in hospitals with <1,000 births/year (aOR = 1.93), were primiparous (aOR = 2.03), had a multiple birth (aOR = 3.5), diabetes (aOR = 1.47), or chronic hypertension (aOR = 8.51). Preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage were also significantly associated with progression to severe sepsis (aOR = 3.72; aOR = 4.18). For every cumulative factor, risk of uncomplicated sepsis increased by 25% (95% CI = 17.4-32.3) and risk of progression to severe sepsis/septic shock increased by 57% (95% CI = 40.8-74.4).The rate of severe sepsis was approximately twice the 1991-2003 national estimate. Risk factors identified are relevant to obstetric practice given their cumulative risk effect and the apparent increase in severe sepsis incidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0067175

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321341000034

    View details for PubMedID 23843991

  • Perspectives on Promoting Breastmilk Feedings for Premature Infants During a Quality Improvement Project BREASTFEEDING MEDICINE Lee, H. C., Martin-Anderson, S., Lyndon, A., Dudley, R. A. 2013; 8 (2): 176-180

    Abstract

    This study investigated clinicians' perspectives during a quality improvement project to promote breastmilk feedings in premature infants.From 2009 to 2010, 11 hospitals in the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative participated in a project to promote breastmilk feedings in premature infants. Audio recordings of monthly meetings held to encourage sharing of ideas were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common themes related to barriers and solutions to breastmilk feeding promotion.Two broad categories were noted: communication and team composition. Communication subthemes included (1) communication among hospital staff, including consistent documentation, (2) communication with family, and (3) communication between transfer hospitals. Team composition subthemes included (4) importance of physician buy-in and (5) integrated teams designed to empower leaders.Optimizing communication among health professionals and parents and improving team composition may be key components of facilitating breastmilk feeding promotion in premature infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/bfm.2012.0056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317472700007

    View details for PubMedID 23186387

  • The accuracy of human senses in the detection of neonatal heart rate during standardized simulated resuscitation: implications for delivery of care, training and technology design. Resuscitation Chitkara, R., Rajani, A. K., Oehlert, J. W., Lee, H. C., Epi, M. S., Halamek, L. P. 2013; 84 (3): 369-372

    Abstract

    Auscultation and palpation are recommended methods of determining heart rate (HR) during neonatal resuscitation. We hypothesized that: (a) detection of HR by auscultation or palpation will vary by more than ± 15BPM from actual HR; and (b) the inability to accurately determine HR will be associated with errors in management of the neonate during simulated resuscitation.Using a prospective, randomized, controlled study design, 64 subjects participated in three simulated neonatal resuscitation scenarios. Subjects were randomized to technique used to determine HR (auscultation or palpation) and scenario order. Subjects verbalized their numeric assessment of HR at the onset of the scenario and after any intervention. Accuracy of HR determination and errors in resuscitation were recorded. Errors were classified as errors of omission (lack of appropriate interventions) or errors of commission (inappropriate interventions). Cochran's Q and chi square test were used to compare HR detection by method and across scenarios.Errors in HR determination occurred in 26-48% of initial assessments and 26-52% of subsequent assessments overall. There were neither statistically significant differences in accuracy between the two techniques of HR assessment (auscultation vs palpation) nor across the three scenarios. Of the 90 errors in resuscitation, 43 (48%) occurred in association with errors in HR determination.Determination of heart rate via auscultation and palpation by experienced healthcare professionals in a neonatal patient simulator with standardized cues is not reliable. Inaccuracy in HR determination is associated with errors of omission and commission. More reliable methods for HR assessment during neonatal resuscitation are required.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.07.035

    View details for PubMedID 22925993

  • Hospital-wide breastfeeding rates vs. breastmilk provision for very-low-birth-weight infants ACTA PAEDIATRICA Lee, H. C., Jegatheesan, P., Gould, J. B., Dudley, R. A. 2013; 102 (3): 268-272

    Abstract

    To investigate the relationship between breastmilk feeding in very-low-birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and breastmilk feeding rates for all newborns by hospital.This was a cross-sectional study of 111 California hospitals in 2007 and 2008. Correlation coefficients were calculated between overall hospital breastfeeding rates and breastmilk feeding rates of very-low-birth-weight infants. Hospitals were categorized in quartiles by crude and adjusted very-low-birth-weight infant rates to compare rankings between measures.Correlation between breastmilk feeding rates of very-low-birth-weight infants and overall breastfeeding rates varied by neonatal intensive care unit level of care from 0.13 for intermediate hospitals to 0.48 for regional hospitals. For hospitals categorized in the top quartile according to overall breastfeeding rate, only 46% were in the top quartile for both crude and adjusted very-low-birth-weight infant rates. On the other hand, when considering the lowest quartile for overall breastfeeding hospitals, three of 27 (11%) actually were performing in the top quartile of performance for very-low-birth-weight infant rates.Reporting hospital overall breastfeeding rates and neonatal intensive care unit breastmilk provision rates separately may give an incomplete picture of quality of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.12096

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314656600022

    View details for PubMedID 23174012

  • "Breastfeeding" by Feeding Expressed Mother's Milk PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Flaherman, V. J., Lee, H. C. 2013; 60 (1): 227-?

    Abstract

    This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313137500012

    View details for PubMedID 23178067

  • Comparing the utility of a novel neonatal resuscitation cart with a generic code cart using simulation: a randomised, controlled, crossover trial BMJ QUALITY & SAFETY Chitkara, R., Rajani, A. K., Lee, H. C., Hansen, S. F., Halamek, L. P. 2013; 22 (2): 124-129

    Abstract

    To compare a novel neonatal resuscitation cart (NRC) to a generic code cart (GCC).A prospective, randomised, controlled, crossover trial was performed to compare the utility of the NRC with the GCC during simulated deliveries of extremely low birthweight infants and infants with gastroschisis. Fifteen subjects participated. Mean times and accuracy of equipment and supply retrieval were compared for each scenario using the Wilcoxon test.Mean acquisition times for the NRC were always faster (by 58% to 74%) regardless of scenario (p<0.01). Accuracy of equipment selection did not differ. Ease of use was judged using a Likert scale (1=easiest to use; 5=most difficult), with mean score for NRC 1.1 and GCC 3.7 (p<0.0001). All subjects rated the NRC as easier to use.The NRC was superior to the GCC in acquisition speed, supply selection and ease of use.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001336

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314211900005

    View details for PubMedID 23112286

  • Caesarean delivery for twin gestation at 32-38 weeks does not lead to improved clinical outcomes for neonates or mothers. Evidence-based medicine Lee, H. C., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1136/eb-2013-101655

    View details for PubMedID 24361755

  • A Quality Improvement Project to Increase Breast Milk Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Kurtin, P. S., Wight, N. E., Chance, K., Cucinotta-Fobes, T., Hanson-Timpson, T. A., Nisbet, C. C., Rhine, W. D., Risingsun, K., Wood, M., Danielsen, B. H., Sharek, P. J. 2012; 130 (6): E1679-E1687

    Abstract

    To evaluate a multihospital collaborative designed to increase breast milk feeding in premature infants.Eleven NICUs in the California Perinatal Quality of Care Collaborative participated in an Institute for Healthcare Improvement-style collaborative to increase NICU breast milk feeding rates. Multiple interventions were recommended with participating sites implementing a self-selected combination of these interventions. Breast milk feeding rates were compared between baseline (October 2008-September 2009), implementation (October 2009-September 2010), and sustainability periods (October 2010-March 2011). Secondary outcome measures included necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) rates and lengths of stay. California Perinatal Quality of Care Collaborative hospitals not participating in the project served as a control population.The breast milk feeding rate in the intervention sites improved from baseline (54.6%) to intervention period (61.7%; P = .005) with sustained improvement over 6 months postintervention (64.0%; P = .003). NEC rates decreased from baseline (7.0%) to intervention period (4.3%; P = .022) to sustainability period (2.4%; P < .0001). Length of stay increased during the intervention but returned to baseline levels in the sustainability period. Control hospitals had higher rates of breast milk feeding at baseline (64.2% control vs 54.6% participants, P < .0001), but over the course of the implementation (65.7% vs 61.7%, P = .049) and sustainability periods (67.7% vs 64.0%, P = .199), participants improved to similar rates as the control group.Implementation of a breast milk/nutrition change package by an 11-site collaborative resulted in an increase in breast milk feeding and decrease in NEC that was sustained over an 18-month period.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-0547

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314802000033

    View details for PubMedID 23129071

  • Utilization of available prenatal screening and diagnosis: effects of the California screen program JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Blumenfeld, Y. J., Taylor, J., Lee, H. C., Hudgins, L., Sung, J. F., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2012; 32 (12): 907-912

    Abstract

    In 2009, the California Genetic Disease Branch introduced an aneuploidy screening program allowing Medi-Cal (state insured) patients access to state-sponsored first-trimester screening. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of greater access to prenatal screening on available resources at a single center.Data of prenatal screening and diagnostic procedures performed 4 months before the introduction of the program were compared with those of 12 months following the introduction.Between December 2008 and March 2010, 7689 women underwent first trimester screening, 1286 underwent amniocentesis and 398 underwent chorionic villus sampling. When a comparison was made between the 4 months before and the 12 months after the program's introduction, a greater number of nuchal translucency (NT) examinations was seen to have been performed (384 per month vs 513 per month, P=0.001). Prenatal diagnostic procedures did not increase, but a greater proportion was performed for positive screen results.Introduction of the California screening program was associated with increased NT procedures and fewer invasive procedures for advanced maternal age.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311831700002

    View details for PubMedID 22402484

  • Maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization in California JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE Lyndon, A., Lee, H. C., Gilbert, W. M., Gould, J. B., Lee, K. A. 2012; 25 (12): 2529-2535

    Abstract

    To determine the incidence and risk factors for maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization.Maternal morbidities were determined using ICD9-CM and vital records codes from linked hospital discharge and vital records data for 1,572,909 singleton births in California during 2005-2007. Socio-demographic, obstetric and hospital volume risk factors were estimated using mixed effects logistic regression models.The maternal morbidity rate was 241/1000 births. The most common morbidities were episiotomy, pelvic trauma, maternal infection, postpartum hemorrhage and severe laceration. Preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.96; 95% confidence interval 2.8,3.13), maternal age over 35 years, (AOR: 1.92; 1.79,2.06), vaginal birth after cesarean, (AOR: 1.81; 1.47,2.23) and repeat cesarean birth (AOR: 1.99; 1.87,2.12) conferred the highest odds of severe morbidity. Non-white women were more likely to suffer morbidity.Nearly one in four California women experienced complications during childbirth hospitalization. Significant health disparities in maternal childbirth outcomes persist in the USA.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/14767058.2012.710280

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311678300011

    View details for PubMedID 22779781

  • Factors Associated with Failure to Screen Newborns for Retinopathy of Prematurity JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Bain, L. C., Dudley, R. A., Gould, J. B., Lee, H. C. 2012; 161 (5): 819-823

    Abstract

    To evaluate ROP screening rates in a population-based cohort; and to identify characteristics of patients that were missed.We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative data from 2005-2007 for a cross-sectional study. Using eligibility criteria, screening rates were calculated for each hospital. Multivariable regression was used to assess associations between patient clinical and sociodemographic factors and the odds of missing screening.Overall rates of missed ROP screening decreased from 18.6% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2007. Higher gestational age (OR = 1.25 for increase of 1 week, 95% CI, 1.21-1.29), higher birth weight (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.10-1.15), and singleton birth (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34) were associated with higher probability of missing screening. Level II neonatal intensive care units and neonatal intensive care units with lower volume were more likely to miss screenings.Although ROP screening rates improved over time, larger and older infants are at risk for not receiving screening. Furthermore, large variations in screening rates exist among hospitals in California. Identification of gaps in quality of care creates an opportunity to improve ROP screening rates and prevent impaired vision in this vulnerable population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.04.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310370600013

    View details for PubMedID 22632876

  • Intestinal malrotation and catastrophic volvulus in infancy. journal of emergency medicine Lee, H. C., Pickard, S. S., Sridhar, S., Dutta, S. 2012; 43 (1): e49-51

    Abstract

    Intestinal malrotation in the newborn is usually diagnosed after signs of intestinal obstruction, such as bilious emesis, and corrected with the Ladd procedure.The objective of this report is to describe the presentation of severe cases of midgut volvulus presenting in infancy, and to discuss the characteristics of these cases.We performed a 7-year review at our institution and present two cases of catastrophic midgut volvulus presenting in the post-neonatal period, ending in death soon after the onset of symptoms. These two patients also had significant laboratory abnormalities compared to patients with more typical presentations resulting in favorable outcomes.Although most cases of intestinal malrotation in infancy can be treated successfully, in some circumstances, patients' symptoms may not be detected early enough for effective treatment, and therefore may result in catastrophic midgut volvulus and death.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2011.06.135

    View details for PubMedID 22325550

  • Clinician Perspectives on Barriers to and Opportunities for Skin-to-Skin Contact for Premature Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units BREASTFEEDING MEDICINE Lee, H. C., Martin-Anderson, S., Dudley, R. A. 2012; 7 (2): 79-84

    Abstract

    Our objective was to investigate key factors in promoting skin-to-skin contact (STSC) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).As part of a California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative on improving nutrition and promoting breastmilk feeding of premature infants, a multidisciplinary group of representatives from 11 hospitals discussed the progress and barriers in pursuing the project. A key component of the collaborative project was promotion of STSC. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and assessed using qualitative research methods with the aid of Atlas Ti software (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany). Two primary investigators studied the transcripts for themes related to STSC. Using an iterative approach, selected themes were explored, and representative quotes were selected.Barriers to promoting STSC fell into broad themes of implementation, institutional, and familial factors. The main challenge identified in implementation was defining a clinically stable eligible population of patients. Key institutional factors were education and motivation of staff. Familial factors involved facilitation and sustained motivation of mothers. In response to these barriers, opportunities for promoting STSC were enacted or suggested by the group, including defining clinical stability for eligibility, facilitating documentation, strategies to increase parent and staff education and motivation, and encouraging maternal visitation and comfort.Our findings may be useful for institutions seeking to develop policies and strategies to increase STSC and breastmilk feeding in their NICUs.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/bfm.2011.0004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302777000003

    View details for PubMedID 22011130

  • Trends in Cesarean Delivery for Twin Births in the United States: 1995-2008 Reply OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Boscardin, W. J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2012; 119 (3): 658-659
  • Trends in Cesarean Delivery for Twin Births in the United States 1995-2008 OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Boscardin, W. J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2011; 118 (5): 1095-1101

    Abstract

    To estimate trends and risk factors for cesarean delivery for twins in the United States.This was a cross-sectional study in which we calculated cesarean delivery rates for twins from 1995 to 2008 using National Center for Health Statistics data. We compared cesarean delivery rates by year and for vertex compared with breech presentation. The order of presentation for a given twin pair could not be determined from the available records and therefore analysis was based on individual discrete twin data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate independent risk factors, including year of birth and maternal factors, for cesarean delivery.Cesarean delivery rates for twin births increased steadily from 53.4% to 75.0% in 2008. Rates rose for the breech twin category (81.5%-92.1%) and the vertex twin category (45.1%-68.2%). The relative increase in the cesarean delivery rate for preterm and term neonates was similar. After risk adjustment, there was an average increase noted in cesarean delivery of 5% each year during the study period (risk ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.05).Cesarean delivery rates for twin births increased dramatically from 1995 to 2008. This increase is significantly higher than that which could be explained by an increase in cesarean delivery for breech presentation of either the presenting or second twin.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182318651

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296292600018

    View details for PubMedID 22015878

  • The Impact of Statistical Choices on Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Quality Ratings Based on Nosocomial Infection Rates ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Lee, H. C., Chien, A. T., Bardach, N. S., Clay, T., Gould, J. B., Dudley, R. A. 2011; 165 (5): 429-434

    Abstract

    To examine the extent to which performance assessment methods affect the percentage of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants included in performance assessments, the distribution of NICU performance ratings, and the level of agreement in those ratings.Cross-sectional study based on risk-adjusted nosocomial infection rates.NICUs belonging to the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative 2007-2008.One hundred twenty-six California NICUs and 10 487 VLBW infants.Three performance assessment choices: (1) excluding "low-volume" NICUs (those caring for <30 VLBW infants per year) vs a criterion based on confidence intervals, (2) using Bayesian vs frequentist hierarchical models, and (3) pooling data across 1 vs 2 years.Proportion of NICUs and patients included in quality assessment, distribution of ratings for NICUs, and agreement between methods using the ? statistic.Depending on the methods applied, 51% to 85% of NICUs and 72% to 96% of VLBW infants were included in performance assessments, 76% to 87% of NICUs were considered "average," and the level of agreement between NICU ratings ranged from 0.23 to 0.89.The percentage of NICUs included in performance assessments and their ratings can shift dramatically depending on performance measurement method. Physicians, payers, and policymakers should continue to closely examine which existing performance assessment methods are most appropriate for evaluating pediatric care quality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290113500009

    View details for PubMedID 21536958

  • Hypothermia in very low birth weight infants: distribution, risk factors and outcomes JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Miller, S. S., Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2011; 31: S49-S56

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to study the epidemiology of neonatal hypothermia in preterm infants using World Health Organization (WHO) temperature criteria.A population-based cohort of 8782 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born in California neonatal intensive care units in 2006 and 2007. Associations between admission hypothermia and maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes were determined using logistic regression.In all, 56.2% of infants were hypothermic. Low birth weight, cesarean delivery and a low Apgar score were associated with hypothermia. Spontaneous labor, prolonged rupture of membranes and antenatal steroid administration were associated with decreased risk of hypothermia. Moderate hypothermia was associated with higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Moderate and severe hypothermic conditions were associated with risk of death.Hypothermia by WHO criteria is prevalent in VLBW infants and is associated with IVH and mortality. Use of WHO criteria could guide the need for quality improvement projects targeted toward the most vulnerable infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2010.177

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289236900008

    View details for PubMedID 21448204

  • Improved outcomes with a standardized feeding protocol for very low birth weight infants JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY McCallie, K. R., Lee, H. C., Mayer, O., Cohen, R. S., Hintz, S. R., Rhine, W. D. 2011; 31: S61-S67

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized enteral feeding protocol for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants on nutritional, clinical and growth outcomes.Retrospective analysis of VLBW cohorts 9 months before and after initiation of a standardized feeding protocol consisting of 6-8 days of trophic feedings, followed by an increase of 20?ml/kg/day. The primary outcome was days to reach full enteral feeds defined as 160?ml/kg/day. Secondary outcomes included rates of necrotizing enterocolitis and culture-proven sepsis, days of parenteral nutrition and growth end points.Data were analyzed on 147 VLBW infants who received enteral feedings, 83 before ('Before') and 64 subsequent to ('After') feeding protocol initiation. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the After group attained enteral volumes of 120?ml/kg/day (43.9 days Before vs 32.8 days After, P=0.02) and 160?ml/kg/day (48.5 days Before vs 35.8 days After, P=0.02) significantly faster and received significantly fewer days of parenteral nutrition (46.2 days Before vs 31.3 days After, P=0.01). Necrotizing enterocolitis decreased in the After group among VLBW (15/83, 18% Before vs 2/64, 3% After, P=0.005) and ELBW infants (11/31, 35% Before vs 2/26, 8% After, P=0.01). Late-onset sepsis decreased significantly in the After group (26/83, 31% Before vs 6/64, 9% After, P=0.001). Excluding those with weight <3rd percentile at birth, the proportion with weight <3rd percentile at discharge decreased significantly after protocol initiation (35% Before vs 17% After, P=0.03).These data suggest that implementation of a standardized feeding protocol for VLBW infants results in earlier successful enteral feeding without increased rates of major morbidities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2010.185

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289236900010

    View details for PubMedID 21448207

  • Nosocomial Infection Reduction in VLBW Infants With a Statewide Quality-Improvement Model PEDIATRICS Wirtschafter, D. D., Powers, R. J., Pettit, J. S., Lee, H. C., Boscardin, W. J., Subeh, M. A., Gould, J. B. 2011; 127 (3): 419-426

    Abstract

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative quality-improvement model using a toolkit supplemented by workshops and Web casts in decreasing nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants.This was a retrospective cohort study of continuous California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative members' data during the years 2002-2006. The primary dependent variable was nosocomial infection, defined as a late bacterial or coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection diagnosed after the age of 3 days by positive blood/cerebro-spinal fluid culture(s) and clinical criteria. The primary independent variable of interest was voluntary attendance at the toolkit's introductory event, a direct indicator that at least 1 member of an NICU team had been personally exposed to the toolkit's features rather than being only notified of its availability. The intervention's effects were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model that risk adjusted for selected demographic and clinical factors.During the study period, 7733 eligible very low birth weight infants were born in 27 quality-improvement participant hospitals and 4512 very low birth weight infants were born in 27 non-quality-improvement participant hospitals. For the entire cohort, the rate of nosocomial infection decreased from 16.9% in 2002 to 14.5% in 2006. For infants admitted to NICUs participating in at least 1 quality-improvement event, there was an associated decreased risk of nosocomial infection (odds ratio: 0.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.96]) compared with those admitted to nonparticipating hospitals.The structured intervention approach to quality improvement in the NICU setting, using a toolkit along with attendance at a workshop and/or Web cast, is an effective means by which to improve care outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-1449

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287845400043

    View details for PubMedID 21339273

  • Antenatal Steroid Administration for Premature Neonates in California OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., Lyndon, A., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Dudley, R. A., Gould, J. B. 2011; 117 (3): 603-609

    Abstract

    To estimate risk factors for premature neonates not receiving antenatal steroids in a population-based cohort and to determine whether the gains of a quality-improvement collaborative project on antenatal steroid administration were sustained long-term.Clinical data for premature neonates born in 2005–2007 were obtained from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, which collects data on more than 90% of neonatal admissions in California. Eligible neonates had a birth weight of less than 1,500 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks and were born at a Collaborative hospital. These data were linked to administrative data from California Vital Statistics. Sociodemographic and medical risk factors for not receiving antenatal steroids were determined. We also examined the effect of birth hospital participation in a previous quality-improvement collaborative project. A random effects logistic regression model was used to determine independent risk factors.Of 15,343 eligible neonates, 23.1% did not receive antenatal steroids in 2005–2007. Hispanic mothers (25.6%), mothers younger than age 20 (27.6%), and those without prenatal care (52.2%) were less likely to receive antenatal steroids. Mothers giving birth vaginally (26.8%) and mothers with a diagnosis of fetal distress (26.5%) were also less likely to receive antenatal steroids. Rupture of membranes before delivery and multiple gestations were associated with higher likelihood of antenatal steroid administration. Hospitals that participated in a quality-improvement collaborative in 1999– 2000 had higher rates of antenatal steroid administration (85% compared with 69%, P<.001).A number of eligible mothers do not receive antenatal steroids. Quality-improvement initiatives to improve antenatal steroid administration could target specific high-risk groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31820c3c9b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287649400013

    View details for PubMedID 21446208

  • Transition to Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants NeoReviews Sridhar, S., Arguello, S., Lee, H. C. 2011; 12 (8): e141-147

    View details for DOI 10.1542/neo.12-3-e141

  • Translating evidence into practice, policy, and public health in perinatal medicine NeoReviews Lee, H. C., Dudley, R. A., Gonzales, R. 2011; 12 (8): e431-438

    View details for DOI 10.1542/neo.12-8-e431

  • Low Apgar score and mortality in extremely preterm neonates born in the United States ACTA PAEDIATRICA Lee, H. C., Subeh, M., Gould, J. B. 2010; 99 (12): 1785-1789

    Abstract

    To investigate the relationship between low Apgar score and neonatal mortality in preterm neonates.Infant birth and death certificate data from the US National Center for Health Statistics for 2001-2002 were analysed. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality for 690, 933 neonates at gestational ages 24-36 weeks. Mortality rates were calculated for each combination of gestational age and 5-min Apgar score. Relative risks of mortality, by high vs. low Apgar score, were calculated for each age.Distribution of Apgar scores depended on gestational age, the youngest gestational ages having higher proportions of low Apgar scores. Median Apgar score ranged from 6 at 24 weeks, to 9 at 30-36 weeks gestation. The relative risk of death was significantly higher at Apgar scores 0-3 vs. 7-10, including at the youngest gestational ages, ranging from 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.9, 3.4) at 24 weeks to 18.5 (95% confidence interval 15.7, 21.8) at 28 weeks.? Low Apgar score was associated with increased mortality in premature neonates, including those at 24-28 weeks gestational age, and may be a useful tool for clinicians in assessing prognosis and for researchers as a risk prediction variable.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01935.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283690300010

    View details for PubMedID 20626363

  • Prediction of Death for Extremely Premature Infants in a Population-Based Cohort PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Green, C., Hintz, S. R., Tyson, J. E., Parikh, N. A., Langer, J., Gould, J. B. 2010; 126 (3): E644-E650

    Abstract

    Although gestational age (GA) is often used as the primary basis for counseling and decision-making for extremely premature infants, a study of tertiary care centers showed that additional factors could improve prediction of outcomes. Our objective was to determine how such a model could improve predictions for a population-based cohort.From 2005 to 2008, data were collected prospectively for the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, which encompasses 90% of NICUs in California. For infants born at GAs of 22 to 25 weeks, we assessed the ability of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 5-factor model to predict survival rates, compared with a model using GA alone.In the study cohort of 4527 infants, 3647 received intensive care. Survival rates were 53% for the whole cohort and 66% for infants who received intensive care. In multivariate analyses of data for infants who received intensive care, prenatal steroid exposure, female sex, singleton birth, and higher birth weight (per 100-g increment) were each associated with a reduction in the risk of death before discharge similar to that for a 1-week increase in GA. The multivariate model increased the ability to group infants in the highest and lowest risk categories (mortality rates of >80% and <20%, respectively).In a population-based cohort, the addition of prenatal steroid exposure, sex, singleton or multiple birth, and birth weight to GA allowed for improved prediction of rates of survival to discharge for extremely premature infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-0097

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281535700047

    View details for PubMedID 20713479

  • Ultrasound estimation of fetal weight in small for gestational age pregnancies JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE Blumenfeld, Y. J., Lee, H. C., Pullen, K. M., Wong, A. E., Pettit, K., Taslimi, M. M. 2010; 23 (8): 790-793

    Abstract

    Approximately half of small for gestational age (SGA) cases are due to maternal or fetal pathology, and may result in significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. The estimated fetal weight (EFW) measurement is the cornerstone of ultrasonographic findings when diagnosing and managing SGA pregnancies. Our objective was to determine the ultrasound accuracy of EFW in SGA pregnancies.A retrospective chart review was performed of all pregnancies complicated by SGA from a single institution (Stanford University) over a 2-year-period (2004-2006). SGA was defined as EFW < or = 10%. 98 neonates whose last ultrasound for EFW occurred within 7 days of delivery were included in the study. The absolute differences between the EFW and birthweight (BW) were analyzed, and the absolute percent errors were calculated as (EFW - BW)/BW x 100. The mean absolute differences and mean absolute percent errors were analyzed across all gestational ages (GA) and EFWs using one-way analysis of variance.The mean absolute percent error for the entire cohort was 8.7% (+/-6.3%). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean absolute percent error across all GAs (<32 weeks, 32-36 weeks, >36 weeks), and EFWs (<1500 g, 1500-2000 g, >2000 g).Ultrasound measurement of EFW in SGA pregnancies is consistent across all GAs and EFW measurements.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/14767050903387052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280592200006

    View details for PubMedID 19968588

  • A National Survey of Pediatric Residents and Delivery Room Training Experience JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Chitkara, R., Halamek, L. P., Hintz, S. R. 2010; 157 (1): 158-U211

    Abstract

    To investigate current delivery room training experience in US pediatric residency programs and the relationship between volume of delivery room training and confidence in neonatal resuscitation skills.Links to a web-based survey were sent to pediatric residency programs and distributed to residents. The survey concerned delivery room attendance during training and comfort level in leading neonatal resuscitation for various scenarios. Comfort level was rated on a 1 to 9 scale. Mixed models accounted for residency programs as random effects.For PL-3s, the mean number of deliveries attended was 60 (standard deviation, 43), ranging from 13 to 143 deliveries for individual residency programs. Residents' confidence level in leading neonatal resuscitation was higher when attending more deliveries, with 90.3% of those attending>48 deliveries having average score 5 or greater vs 51.5% of those attending<21 deliveries. Higher attendance also correlated with confidence in endotracheal intubation and umbilical line placement.Wide variability existed within and among residency programs in number of deliveries attended. Volume of experience correlated with confidence in leading neonatal resuscitation and related procedural skills.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.01.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278649200037

    View details for PubMedID 20304418

  • Morbidity Risk at Birth for Asian Indian Small for Gestational Age Infants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Lee, H. C., Ramachandran, P., Madan, A. 2010; 100 (5): 820-822

    Abstract

    Whether the traditional definition of small for gestational age (SGA) is an appropriate marker of risk for populations that have relatively lower birthweight is unclear. We determined proportions of White and Asian Indian SGA infants and those admitted to the special care nursery. Compared with White infants, Asian Indian infants were more likely to be SGA (14.5% versus 2.7%) and more likely to be admitted to the special care nursery (20.7% versus 3.7%), suggesting that traditional definitions of SGA may be applicable as a marker of risk.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2009.165001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276828800015

    View details for PubMedID 20299660

  • Factors Influencing Breast Milk versus Formula Feeding at Discharge for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in California JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2009; 155 (5): 657-U94

    Abstract

    To investigate incidence and factors influencing breast milk feeding at discharge for very low birth weight infants (VLBW) in a population-based cohort.We used data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative to calculate incidence of breast milk feeding at hospital discharge for 6790 VLBW infants born in 2005-2006. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine which sociodemographic and medical factors were associated with breast milk feeding. The impact of removing risk adjustment for race was examined.At initial hospital discharge, 61.1% of VLBW infants were fed breast milk or breast milk supplemented with formula. Breast milk feeding was more common with higher birth weight and gestational age. After risk adjustment, multiple birth was associated with higher breast milk feeding. Factors associated with exclusive formula feeding were Hispanic ethnicity, African American race, and no prenatal care. Hospital risk-adjusted rates of breast milk feeding varied widely (range 19.7% to 100%) and differed when race was removed from adjustment.A substantial number of VLBW infants were not fed breast milk at discharge. Specific groups may benefit from targeted interventions to promote breast milk feeding. There may be benefit to reporting risk-adjusted rates both including and excluding race in adjustment when considering quality improvement initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.04.064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271570900014

    View details for PubMedID 19628218

  • Laparoscopy in women with unexplained infertility: a cost-effectiveness analysis FERTILITY AND STERILITY Moayeri, S. E., Lee, H. C., Lathi, R. B., Westphal, L. M., Milki, A. A., Garber, A. M. 2009; 92 (2): 471-480

    Abstract

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of laparoscopy for unexplained infertility.We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using a computer-generated decision analysis tree. Data used to construct the mathematical model were extracted from the literature or obtained from our practice. We compared outcomes following four treatment strategies: [1] no treatment, [2] standard infertility treatment algorithm (SITA), [3] laparoscopy with expectant management (LSC/EM), and [4] laparoscopy with infertility therapy (LSC/IT). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated, and one-way sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of varying base-case estimates.Academic in vitro fertilization practice.Computer-simulated patients assigned to one of four treatments.Fertility treatment or laparoscopy.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Using base-case assumptions, LSC/EM was preferred (ICER =$128,400 per live-birth in U.S. dollars). Changing the following did not alter results: rates and costs of multiple gestations, penalty for high-order multiples, infertility treatment costs, and endometriosis prevalence. Outcomes were most affected by patient dropout from infertility treatments-SITA was preferred when dropout was less than 9% per cycle. Less important factors included surgical costs, acceptability of twins, and the effects of untreated endometriosis on fecundity.Laparoscopy is cost effective in the initial management of young women with infertility, particularly when infertility treatment dropout rates exceed 9% per cycle.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.05.074

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268915200011

    View details for PubMedID 18722609

  • Changes in Attendance at Deliveries by Pediatric Residents 2000 to 2005 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lee, H. C., Rhee, C. J., Sectish, T. C., Hintz, S. R. 2009; 26 (2): 129-134

    Abstract

    We sought to determine if pediatric resident attendance at deliveries for newborn assessment and resuscitation had changed over the years at a training hospital. Data were abstracted from medical records of newborns discharged during the same 6-week periods for 5 consecutive academic years spanning a period before and after resident duty hour regulation changes were implemented. Names of personnel attending deliveries were noted in delivery records. The proportions of deliveries attended by any practitioner were compared by year, as well as the proportion of deliveries attended by practitioner type and training level. A total of 2666 delivery records were reviewed. The proportions of deliveries attended by any practitioner over the 5 years were similar, ranging from 43 to 49%. The proportion of deliveries attended by pediatric residents was highest at 51 to 57% from 2000 to 2002, declined to a low of 5% during 2002 to 2003, and rose to 20 to 23% during 2003 to 2005 ( P < 0.0001). The decrease in attendance by residents was compensated by an increase in attendance by hospitalists. At this training institution, pediatric resident attendance at deliveries declined substantially over recent years, likely due in part to resident duty hour regulations and increased use of hospitalists in roles previously held by residents.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0028-1091395

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262934700006

    View details for PubMedID 18850515

  • A quality improvement project to improve admission temperatures in very low birth weight infants JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lee, H. C., Ho, Q. T., Rhine, W. D. 2008; 28 (11): 754-758

    Abstract

    To review the results of a quality improvement (QI) project to improve admission temperatures of very low birth weight inborn infants.The neonatal intensive care unit at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital underwent a QI project to address hypothermic preterm newborns by staff education and implementing processes such as polyethylene wraps and chemical warming mattresses. We performed retrospective chart review of all inborn infants with birth weight <1500 g during the 18 months prior to (n=134) and 15 months after (n=170) the implementation period. Temperatures were compared between periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for potential confounding variables. We compared mortality rates and grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage rates between periods.The mean temperature rose from 35.4 to 36.2 degrees C (P<0.0001) after the QI project. The improvement was consistent and persisted over a 15-month period. After risk adjustment, the strongest predictor of hypothermia was being born in the period before implementation of the QI project (odds ratio 8.12, 95% confidence interval 4.63, 14.22). Although cesarean delivery was a strong risk factor for hypothermia prior to the project, it was no longer significant after the project. There was no significant difference in death or intraventricular hemorrhage detected between periods.There was a significant improvement in admission temperatures after a QI project, which persisted beyond the initial implementation period. Although there was no difference in mortality or intraventricular hemorrhage rates, we did not have sufficient power to detect small differences in these outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2008.92

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260795100005

    View details for PubMedID 18580878

  • Population trends in cesarean delivery for breech presentation in the United States, 1997-2003 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Gould, J. B. 2008; 199 (1)

    Abstract

    The objective of the study was to determine whether cesarean delivery for breech has increased in the United States.We calculated cesarean rates for term singletons in breech/malpresentation from 1997 to 2003 using National Center for Health Statistics data. We compared rates by sociodemographic groups and state. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to see whether factors associated with cesarean delivery differed over time.Breech cesarean rates increased overall from 83.8% to 85.1%. There was a significant increase in rates for most sociodemographic groups. There was little to no increase for mothers younger than 30 years old. There was wide variability in rates by state, 61.6-94.2% in 1997. Higher breech incidence correlated with lower cesarean rates, suggesting potential state bias in reporting breech.In the United States, breech infants are predominantly born by cesarean. There was a small increase in this trend from 1998 to 2002. There is wide variability by state, which is not explained by sociodemographic patterns and may be due to reporting differences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.11.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257205200021

    View details for PubMedID 18295181

  • School outcomes of late preterm infants: Special needs and challenges for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Chyi, L. J., Lee, H. C., Hintz, S. R., Gould, J. B., Sutcliffe, T. L. 2008; 153 (1): 25-31

    Abstract

    Because limited long-term outcome data exist for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation, we compared school outcomes between 32- to 33-week moderate preterm (MP), 34-36 week late preterm (LP) and full-term (FT) infants.A total of 970 preterm infants and 13 671 FT control subjects were identified from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Test scores, teacher evaluations, and special education enrollment from kindergarten (K) to grade 5 were compared.LP infants had lower reading scores than FT infants in K to first grade (P < .05). Adjusted risk for poor reading and math scores remained elevated in first grade (P < .05). Teacher evaluations of math skills from K to first grade and reading skills from K to fifth grade were worse for LP infants (P < .05). Adjusted odds for below average skills remained higher for math in K and for reading at all grades (P < .05). Special education participation was higher for LP infants at early grades (odds ratio, 1.4-2.1). MP infants had lower test and teacher evaluation scores than FT infants and twice the risk for special education at all grade levels.Persistent teacher concerns through grade 5 and greater special education needs among MP and LP infants suggest a need to start follow-up, anticipatory guidance, and interventions for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.01.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257154800010

    View details for PubMedID 18571530

  • Ambiguous Genitalia in the Newborn NeoReviews Chi, C., Lee, H. C., Neely, E. K. 2008; 9 (2): e78-84

    View details for DOI 10.1542/neo.9-2-e78

  • Oropharyngeal atresia in a preterm infant: A case report and review of the literature INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Lee, H. C., O-Lee, T. J., Madan, A., Koltai, P. 2007; 71 (9): 1485-1489

    Abstract

    Oropharyngeal atresia is a rare and often fatal condition that presents soon after birth with severe respiratory distress. We present a case of a premature infant who initially was suspected to have tracheo-esophageal atresia due to prenatal ultrasound findings of polyhydramnios and absent stomach bubble, but was found instead to have oropharyngeal atresia and a complete persistent buccopharyngeal membrane. This case is the first described in which the patient was successfully intubated through a small slit in the persistent membrane.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijport.2007.05.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249164000020

    View details for PubMedID 17597231

  • Diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus by a neonatologist with a compact, portable ultrasound machine JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lee, H. C., Silverman, N., Hintz, S. R. 2007; 27 (5): 291-296

    Abstract

    To conduct a pilot study assessing a neonatologist's accuracy in diagnosing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using compact, portable ultrasound after limited training.Prospective study of premature infants scheduled for echocardiography for suspected PDA. A neonatologist with limited training performed study exams before scheduled exams. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, compared to the scheduled echocardiogram interpreted by a cardiologist.There were 24 exams. Compared to the scheduled exam, the neonatologist's exam had sensitivity 69% (95% confidence interval (CI), 41 to 89%) and specificity 88% (95% CI, 47 to 99%). When a cardiologist interpreted the study exams, the sensitivity was 87% (95% CI, 60 to 98%) and specificity 71% (95% CI, 29 to 96%).A neonatologist with limited training was able to detect PDA with moderate success. A more rigorous training process or real-time transmission with cardiologist interpretation may substantially improve accuracy. Institutions with experienced technicians and on-site pediatric cardiologists may not gain from intensive training of neonatologists, but hospitals where diagnosis and treatment of PDA would be delayed may benefit from such processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246105400008

    View details for PubMedID 17363908

  • Postnatal cytomegalovirus infection from frozen breast milk in preterm, low birth weight infants PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Lee, H. C., Enright, A., Benitz, W. E., Madan, A. 2007; 26 (3): 276-276

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245089900022

    View details for PubMedID 17484235

  • Delivery mode by race for breech presentation in the US JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Gould, J. B. 2007; 27 (3): 147-153

    Abstract

    To determine if there are differential cesarean delivery rates by race and other socio-demographic factors for women with breech infants.We calculated cesarean delivery rates for 186 727 White, African American, Hispanic and Asian women delivering breech singletons with gestational age 26 to 41 weeks born in 1999 and 2000 using data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine differences in mode of delivery by race, adjusting for socio-demographic and medical factors.Cesarean rates for breech were >80% in most gestational age groups. In 14 of 18 groups, Whites had higher cesarean delivery rates than African Americans. However, this finding did not persist after risk adjustment. Hispanics were more likely to deliver by cesarean delivery than African Americans and Whites.Breech singleton infants are predominantly born by cesarean delivery. Although African-American women with breech presentation have lower cesarean delivery rates than Whites, this difference is not present after adjusting for socio-demographic and medical factors. Hispanics were more likely to be delivered by cesarean delivery and this difference was amplified after risk adjustment. Asians had slightly lower cesarean rates after risk adjustment, but this varied widely according to Asian subgroup.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211668

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244420900003

    View details for PubMedID 17314983

  • Survival rates and mode of delivery for vertex preterm neonates according to small- or appropriate-for-gestational-age status PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 118 (6): E1836-E1844

    Abstract

    The goal was to characterize the relationship between cesarean section delivery and death for preterm vertex neonates according to intrauterine growth.Maternal and infant data from the National Center for Health Statistics for 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. Neonates with gestational ages of 26 to 36 weeks were characterized as small for gestational age (<10th percentile) or appropriate for gestational age (10th to 90th percentile). Mortality rates at 28 days and relative risks were calculated for each gestational age group according to mode of delivery.Cesarean section rates were higher for small-for-gestational-age neonates compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates, most prominently from 26 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation, at which small-for-gestational-age neonates had cesarean section rates of 50% to 67%, whereas appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates had rates of 22% to 38%. Small-for-gestational-age neonates at gestational ages of <31 weeks had increased survival rates associated with cesarean section, whereas small-for-gestational-age neonates at >33 weeks and appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates overall had decreased survival rates associated with cesarean section. After adjustment for sociodemographic and medical factors, the survival advantage for small-for-gestational-age neonates at gestational ages of 26 to 30 weeks persisted.Cesarean section delivery was associated with survival for preterm small-for-gestational-age neonates but not preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates. We speculate that vaginal delivery may be particularly stressful for small-for-gestational-age neonates. We found no evidence that prematurity alone is a valid indication for cesarean section for preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2006-1327

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242478900081

    View details for PubMedID 17142505

  • Survival advantage associated with cesarean delivery in very low birth weight vertex neonates. Obstetrics and gynecology Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 107 (1): 97-105

    Abstract

    To identify the indications for and any survival advantage associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates delivered by cesarean.Maternal and infant data from the National Center for Health Statistics linked birth/death data set for 1999 to 2000 were analyzed. Maternal conditions associated with cesarean delivery were compared among birth weight groups for vertex neonates. Birth weight-specific 28-day mortality rates and relative risks were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to adjust for other factors that may be associated with survival.Cesarean delivery occurred frequently, more than 40% in most VLBW birth weight groups. Conditions associated with cesarean delivery in VLBW vertex neonates differed from those seen in non-VLBW vertex neonates. A survival advantage was associated with cesarean delivery in the birth weight analysis up to 1,300 g (P < .05). This decreased mortality for VLBW neonates delivered by cesarean persisted after adjusting for other factors associated with mortality.Very low birth weight vertex neonates are often born by cesarean delivery and have different maternal risk profiles from non-VLBW vertex neonates born by this route. Neonatal mortality was decreased in VLBW neonates delivered by cesarean. Further study is warranted to determine whether this may be a causal relationship or a marker of quality of care.II-2.

    View details for PubMedID 16394046

  • Visual Diagnosis: A Newborn Who Has Everted Eyelids NeoReviews Lee HC 2004; 5 (9): e390
  • Crosslinked hemoglobin inhibits endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated canine arteries GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY-THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Katusic, Z. S., Lee, H. C., Clambey, E. T. 1996; 27 (2): 239-244

    Abstract

    1. Several previous in vivo studies demonstrated that crosslinked hemoglobin is a potent vasoconstrictor capable of significantly increasing arterial blood pressure following systemic administration. The precise mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of crosslinked hemoglobin are not clear. The present study was designed to determine the effect of crosslinked hemoglobin on the endothelial L-arginine-nitric oxide biosynthesis pathway in isolated canine arteries. 2. Isolated femoral and renal arteries were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recordings. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187 were studied in the absence or in the presence of crosslinked hemoglobin or hemoglobin. A radioimmunoassay technique was used to determine levels of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP). 3. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (10(-4)M) selectively inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of L-NAME was reversed by L-arginine (3 x 10(-4)M). Crosslinked hemoglobin (10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5)M) inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-5)M) or A23187 (10(-9)-10(-6)M). In the same concentration range, purified bovine hemoglobin exerted a similar inhibitory effect on relaxations mediated by activation of endothelial cells. Crosslinked hemoglobin (10(-6)M) significantly reduced basal production of cyclic GMP, but did not affect production of cyclic AMP. Acetylcholine (10(-6)M) stimulated production of cyclic GMP. This effect of acetylcholine was abolished in the presence of crosslinked hemoglobin. 4. These studies demonstrate that crosslinked hemoglobin impairs endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated large conduit arteries. This effect appears to be mediated by the chemical antagonism of crosslinked hemoglobin against nitric oxide released from the endothelium. Inhibition of the endothelial L-arginine-nitric oxide biosynthesis pathway, with subsequent decrease of cyclic GMP in smooth muscle, may help to explain vasoconstrictor and pressor effects of crosslinked hemoglobin.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UD24400008

    View details for PubMedID 8919636

Books and Book Chapters


  • Hematologic abnormalities and jaundice Rudolph's Pediatrics Lee, H. C., Madan, A. McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Co.. 2011; 22nd ed.

Conference Proceedings


  • The Effect of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes on Neonatal Mortality Rates Blumenfeld, Y. J., Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Langen, E. S., Jafari, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2010: 1381-1386

    Abstract

    To estimate the effect of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on neonatal mortality.A cross-sectional study using a state perinatal database (California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative) was performed. Prenatal data, including ruptured membranes, corticosteroid administration, maternal age, maternal race, maternal hypertension, mode of delivery, and prenatal care, were recorded. Mortality rates were compared for neonates born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation without preterm PROM to those with recent (less than 18 hours before delivery) and prolonged (more than 18 hours before delivery) preterm PROM. Neonatal sepsis rates were also examined.Neonates born between 24 0/7 and 34 0/7 weeks of gestation from 127 California neonatal intensive care units between 2005 and 2007 were included (N=17,501). When analyzed by 2-week gestational age groups, there were no differences in mortality rates between those born with and without membrane rupture before delivery. The presence of prolonged preterm PROM was associated with decreased mortality at 24 to 26 weeks of gestation (18% compared with 31% for recent preterm PROM; odds ratio [OR] 1.79; confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.56) but increased mortality at 28 to 30 weeks of gestation (4% compared with 3% for recent preterm PROM; OR 0.44; CI 0.22, 0.88) when adjusted for possible confounding factors. Sepsis rates did not differ between those with recent or prolonged preterm PROM at any gestational age.The presence of membrane rupture before delivery was not associated with increased neonatal mortality in any gestational age group. The effects of a prolonged latency period were not consistent across gestational ages.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181fe3d28

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284491000021

    View details for PubMedID 21099606

  • PEDIATRIC RESIDENT ATTENDANCE AT DELIVERIES Chitkara, R., LEE, H., Hintz, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: 238-238

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