Chemical Cross-Linking Stabilizes Native-Like HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Antigens.
Journal of virology
2015; 90 (2): 813-828
Major neutralizing antibody immune evasion strategies of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer include conformational and structural instability. Stabilized soluble trimers such as BG505 SOSIP.664 mimic the structure of virion-associated Env but nevertheless sample different conformational states. Here we demonstrate that treating BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers with glutaraldehyde or a heterobifunctional cross-linker introduces additional stability with relatively modest effects on antigenicity. Thus, most broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) epitopes were preserved after cross-linking, whereas the binding of most weakly or nonneutralizing antibodies (non-NAb) was reduced. Cross-linking stabilized all Env conformers present within a mixed population, and individual conformers could be isolated by bNAb affinity chromatography. Both positive selection of cross-linked conformers using the quaternary epitope-specific bNAbs PGT145, PGT151, and 3BC315 and negative selection with non-NAbs against the V3 region enriched for trimer populations with improved antigenicity for bNAbs. Similar results were obtained using the clade B B41 SOSIP.664 trimer. The cross-linking method may, therefore, be useful for countering the natural conformational heterogeneity of some HIV-1 Env proteins and, by extrapolation, also vaccine immunogens from other pathogens.The development of a vaccine to induce protective antibodies against HIV-1 is of primary public health importance. Recent advances in immunogen design have provided soluble recombinant envelope glycoprotein trimers with near-native morphology and antigenicity. However, these trimers are conformationally flexible, potentially reducing B-cell recognition of neutralizing antibody epitopes. Here we show that chemical cross-linking increases trimer stability, reducing binding of nonneutralizing antibodies while largely maintaining neutralizing antibody binding. Cross-linking followed by positive or negative antibody affinity selection of individual stable conformational variants further improved the antigenic and morphological characteristics of the trimers. This approach may be generally applicable to HIV-1 Env and also to other conformationally flexible pathogen antigens.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.01942-15
View details for PubMedID 26512083
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- HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by native-like envelope trimers SCIENCE 2015; 349 (6244)
HIV-1 VACCINES. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by native-like envelope trimers.
2015; 349 (6244)
A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aac4223
View details for PubMedID 26089353
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Structural Constraints Determine the Glycosylation of HIV-1 Envelope Trimers
2015; 11 (10): 1604-1613
A highly glycosylated, trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates HIV-1 cell entry. The high density and heterogeneity of the glycans shield Env from recognition by the immune system, but paradoxically, many potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes involving this glycan shield. To better understand Env glycosylation and its role in bNAb recognition, we characterized a soluble, cleaved recombinant trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664) that is a close structural and antigenic mimic of native Env. Large, unprocessed oligomannose-type structures (Man8-9GlcNAc2) are notably prevalent on the gp120 components of the trimer, irrespective of the mammalian cell expression system or the bNAb used for affinity purification. In contrast, gp41 subunits carry more highly processed glycans. The glycans on uncleaved, non-native oligomeric gp140 proteins are also highly processed. A homogeneous, oligomannose-dominated glycan profile is therefore a hallmark of a native Env conformation and a potential Achilles' heel that can be exploited for bNAb recognition and vaccine design.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000356372100011
View details for PubMedID 26051934
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A Native-Like SOSIP.664 Trimer Based on an HIV-1 Subtype B env Gene
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2015; 89 (6): 3380-3395
Recombinant trimeric mimics of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike should expose as many epitopes as possible for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) but few, if any, for nonneutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A strain BG505 approach this ideal and are therefore plausible vaccine candidates. Here, we report on the production and in vitro properties of a new SOSIP.664 trimer derived from a subtype B env gene, B41, including how to make this protein in low-serum media without proteolytic damage (clipping) to the V3 region. We also show that nonclipped trimers can be purified successfully via a positive-selection affinity column using the bNAb PGT145, which recognizes a quaternary structure-dependent epitope at the trimer apex. Negative-stain electron microscopy imaging shows that the purified, nonclipped, native-like B41 SOSIP.664 trimers contain two subpopulations, which we propose represent an equilibrium between the fully closed and a more open conformation. The latter is different from the fully open, CD4 receptor-bound conformation and may represent an intermediate state of the trimer. This new subtype B trimer adds to the repertoire of native-like Env proteins that are suitable for immunogenicity and structural studies.The cleaved, trimeric envelope protein complex is the only neutralizing antibody target on the HIV-1 surface. Many vaccine strategies are based on inducing neutralizing antibodies. For HIV-1, one approach involves using recombinant, soluble protein mimics of the native trimer. At present, the only reliable way to make native-like, soluble trimers in practical amounts is via the introduction of specific sequence changes that confer stability on the cleaved form of Env. The resulting proteins are known as SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, and the current paradigm is based on the BG505 subtype A env gene. Here, we describe the production and characterization of a SOSIP.664 protein derived from a subtype B gene (B41), together with a simple, one-step method to purify native-like trimers by affinity chromatography with a trimer-specific bNAb, PGT145. The resulting trimers will be useful for structural and immunogenicity experiments aimed at devising ways to make an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.03473-14
View details for Web of Science ID 000350208900032
View details for PubMedID 25589637
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4337520
Impaired PIEZO1 function in patients with a novel autosomal recessive congenital lymphatic dysplasia.
2015; 6: 8329-?
Piezo1 ion channels are mediators of mechanotransduction in several cell types including the vascular endothelium, renal tubular cells and erythrocytes. Gain-of-function mutations in PIEZO1 cause an autosomal dominant haemolytic anaemia in humans called dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis. However, the phenotypic consequence of PIEZO1 loss of function in humans has not previously been documented. Here we discover a novel role of this channel in the lymphatic system. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identify biallelic mutations in PIEZO1 (a splicing variant leading to early truncation and a non-synonymous missense variant) in a pair of siblings affected with persistent lymphoedema caused by congenital lymphatic dysplasia. Analysis of patients' erythrocytes as well as studies in a heterologous system reveal greatly attenuated PIEZO1 function in affected alleles. Our results delineate a novel clinical category of PIEZO1-associated hereditary lymphoedema.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms9329
View details for PubMedID 26387913
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4578306
Structural Evolution of Glycan Recognition by a Family of Potent HIV Antibodies
2014; 159 (1): 69-79
The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is densely covered with self-glycans that should help shield it from recognition by the human immune system. Here, we examine how a particularly potent family of broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) has evolved common and distinct structural features to counter the glycan shield and interact with both glycan and protein components of HIV Env. The inferred germline antibody already harbors potential binding pockets for a glycan and a short protein segment. Affinity maturation then leads to divergent evolutionary branches that either focus on a single glycan and protein segment (e.g., Ab PGT124) or engage multiple glycans (e.g., Abs PGT121-123). Furthermore, other surrounding glycans are avoided by selecting an appropriate initial antibody shape that prevents steric hindrance. Such molecular recognition lessons are important for engineering proteins that can recognize or accommodate glycans.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.009
View details for Web of Science ID 000343095000010
View details for PubMedID 25259921
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4278586
- Developmental pathway for potent V1V2-directed HIV-neutralizing antibodies NATURE 2014; 509 (7498): 55-?
Stable 293 T and CHO cell lines expressing cleaved, stable HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers for structural and vaccine studies
Recombinant soluble, cleaved HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A BG505 sequence are being studied structurally and tested as immunogens in animals. For these trimers to become a vaccine candidate for human trials, they would need to be made in appropriate amounts at an acceptable quality. Accomplishing such tasks by transient transfection is likely to be challenging. The traditional way to express recombinant proteins in large amounts is via a permanent cell line, usually of mammalian origin. Making cell lines that produce BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers requires the co-expression of the Furin protease to ensure that the cleavage site between the gp120 and gp41 subunits is fully utilized.We designed a vector capable of expressing Env and Furin, and used it to create Stable 293 T and CHO Flp-In™ cell lines through site-specific recombination. Both lines produce high quality, cleaved trimers at yields of up to 12-15 mg per 1 × 109 cells. Trimer expression at such levels was maintained for up to 30 days (10 passages) after initial seeding and was consistently superior to what could be achieved by transient transfection. Electron microscopy studies confirm that the purified trimers have the same native-like appearance as those derived by transient transfection and used to generate high-resolution structures. They also have appropriate antigenic properties, including the presentation of the quaternary epitope for the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT145.The BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer-expressing cell lines yield proteins of an appropriate quality for structural studies and animal immunogenicity experiments. The methodology is suitable for making similar lines under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, to produce trimers for human clinical trials. Moreover, any env gene can be incorporated into this vector system, allowing the manufacture of SOSIP trimers from multiple genotypes, either by transient transfection or from stable cell lines.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1742-4690-11-33
View details for Web of Science ID 000336679400001
View details for PubMedID 24767177
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4032163
A Structurally Distinct Human Mycoplasma Protein that Generically Blocks Antigen-Antibody Union
2014; 343 (6171): 656-661
We report the discovery of a broadly reactive antibody-binding protein (Protein M) from human mycoplasma. The crystal structure of the ectodomain of transmembrane Protein M differs from other known protein structures, as does its mechanism of antibody binding. Protein M binds with high affinity to all types of human and nonhuman immunoglobulin G, predominantly through attachment to the conserved portions of the variable region of the κ and λ light chains. Protein M blocks antibody-antigen union, likely because of its large C-terminal domain extending over the antibody-combining site, blocking entry to large antigens. Similar to the other immunoglobulin-binding proteins such as Protein A, Protein M as well as its orthologs in other Mycoplasma species could become invaluable reagents in the antibody field.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1246135
View details for Web of Science ID 000349821400002
View details for PubMedID 24503852
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3987992
Structural Basis for Enhanced HIV-1 Neutralization by a Dimeric Immunoglobulin G Form of the Glycan-Recognizing Antibody 2G12
2013; 5 (5): 1443-1455
The human immunoglobulin G (IgG) 2G12 recognizes high-mannose carbohydrates on the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120. Its two antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) are intramolecularly domain exchanged, resulting in a rigid (Fab)2 unit including a third antigen-binding interface not found in antibodies with flexible Fab arms. We determined crystal structures of dimeric 2G12 IgG created by intermolecular domain exchange, which exhibits increased breadth and >50-fold increased neutralization potency compared with monomeric 2G12. The four Fab and two fragment crystalline (Fc) regions of dimeric 2G12 were localized at low resolution in two independent structures, revealing IgG dimers with two (Fab)2 arms analogous to the Fabs of conventional monomeric IgGs. Structures revealed three conformationally distinct dimers, demonstrating flexibility of the (Fab)2-Fc connections that was confirmed by electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and binding studies. We conclude that intermolecular domain exchange, flexibility, and bivalent binding to allow avidity effects are responsible for the increased potency and breadth of dimeric 2G12.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.11.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000328266400026
View details for PubMedID 24316082
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Cleavage strongly influences whether soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers adopt a native-like conformation
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2013; 110 (45): 18256-18261
We compare the antigenicity and conformation of soluble, cleaved vs. uncleaved envelope glycoprotein (Env gp)140 trimers from the subtype A HIV type 1 (HIV-1) strain BG505. The impact of gp120-gp41 cleavage on trimer structure, in the presence or absence of trimer-stabilizing modifications (i.e., a gp120-gp41 disulfide bond and an I559P gp41 change, together designated SOSIP), was assessed. Without SOSIP changes, cleaved trimers disintegrate into their gp120 and gp41-ectodomain (gp41ECTO) components; when only the disulfide bond is present, they dissociate into gp140 monomers. Uncleaved gp140s remain trimeric whether SOSIP substitutions are present or not. However, negative-stain electron microscopy reveals that only cleaved trimers form homogeneous structures resembling native Env spikes on virus particles. In contrast, uncleaved trimers are highly heterogeneous, adopting a variety of irregular shapes, many of which appear to be gp120 subunits dangling from a central core that is presumably a trimeric form of gp41ECTO. Antigenicity studies with neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies are consistent with the EM images; cleaved, SOSIP-stabilized trimers express quaternary structure-dependent epitopes, whereas uncleaved trimers expose nonneutralizing gp120 and gp41ECTO epitopes that are occluded on cleaved trimers. These findings have adverse implications for using soluble, uncleaved trimers for structural studies, and the rationale for testing uncleaved trimers as vaccine candidates also needs to be reevaluated.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1314351110
View details for Web of Science ID 000326550800058
View details for PubMedID 24145402
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A Next-Generation Cleaved, Soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, Expresses Multiple Epitopes for Broadly Neutralizing but Not Non-Neutralizing Antibodies
2013; 9 (9)
A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM). We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145). Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits). Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003618
View details for Web of Science ID 000324922300034
View details for PubMedID 24068931
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3777863
Activity-enhancing mutations in an E3 ubiquitin ligase identified by high-throughput mutagenesis
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2013; 110 (14): E1263-E1272
Although ubiquitination plays a critical role in virtually all cellular processes, mechanistic details of ubiquitin (Ub) transfer are still being defined. To identify the molecular determinants within E3 ligases that modulate activity, we scored each member of a library of nearly 100,000 protein variants of the murine ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) U-box domain for auto-ubiquitination activity in the presence of the E2 UbcH5c. This assay identified mutations that enhance activity both in vitro and in cellular p53 degradation assays. The activity-enhancing mutations fall into two distinct mechanistic classes: One increases the U-box:E2-binding affinity, and the other allosterically stimulates the formation of catalytically active conformations of the E2∼Ub conjugate. The same mutations enhance E3 activity in the presence of another E2, Ube2w, implying a common allosteric mechanism, and therefore the general applicability of our observations to other E3s. A comparison of the E3 activity with the two different E2s identified an additional variant that exhibits E3:E2 specificity. Our results highlight the general utility of high-throughput mutagenesis in delineating the molecular basis of enzyme activity.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1303309110
View details for Web of Science ID 000318037800007
View details for PubMedID 23509263
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3619334