Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Mesothelioma
  • Cancer > Thoracic Oncology
  • Thoracic Cancers
  • Oncology (Cancer)
  • Medical Oncology
  • Mesothelioma - Medical Oncology
  • thymic carcinoma
  • Lung Cancer - Medical Oncology
  • Thoracic Cancers - Medical Oncology
  • thymoma
  • Investigational Therapeutics

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Teaching Award, Stanford University Division of Oncology (2007, 2008, 2009, 2011)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Johns Hopkins University (06/1996)
  • Merit Award, American Society of Clinical Oncology (05/2003)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Stanford University Medical Center (2003) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University Medical Center (1999) CA
  • Board Certification: Medical Oncology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2003)
  • Internship:Stanford University Medical Center (1997) CA
  • Medical Education:Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1996) MD
  • M. D., Johns Hopkins University, Medicine (1996)
  • A.B., Princeton University, Molecular Biology (1992)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Wakelee is a clinical investigator with a focus in lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies. Along with her other colleagues in thoracic medical oncology at Stanford she is focused on clinical trials with agents that are specifically targeted to known mutations in lung cancer. These trials focus on EGFR targeted agents, and drugs which overcome resistance to traditional EGFR targeted drugs. She is also focusing on Met targeted drugs such as onartuzumab, tivantinib and cabozantinib. Earlier work on anti-angiogenesis agents continues as well.
Dr. Wakelee is an active member of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and is the prinicipal investigator of a large adjuvant trial for patients with completely resected lung cancer who are randomized to chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab.
Thymic malignancies are an understudied rare disease and Dr. Wakelee has developed 2 clinical trials in this patient population. She serves as the chair of the research working group of the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) and is working to further expand the research portfolio in this patient population.
Dr. Wakelee is also involved in several collaborative efforts with her colleagues in thoracic surgery and radiation oncology (a multi-disciplinary trial for stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients and cyberknife protocols for early stage patients not eligible for surgery), as well as in pulmonary medicine (analysis of blood samples for circulating lung tumor cells and other basic science projects). She has active collaborations with population scientists at CPIC looking at lung cancer related questions. She is also very focused on exploring lung cancer questions in the Women's Health Initiative through collaborations with Marcia Stefanick.

Clinical Trials


  • A Phase II Study of Amrubicin in Relapsed or Refractory Thymic Malignancies Recruiting

    Primary Objectives: Assessment of efficacy Secondary Objectives: Assessment of toxicity

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  • Safety and Tolerability Study of SNS-314 for Advanced Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    This is a study to assess the safety and tolerability of SNS-314 in advanced solid tumors in humans.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sipra Choudhury, (650) 736 - 2563.

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  • Immunobiology of Cancer Not Recruiting

    To learn whether or not an Interferon defect in cell signaling, recently discovered in immune cells from melanoma patients as well as breast cancer patients, is common to all cancers.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Diana Simons, (650) 498 - 7943.

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  • Clinical and Pathologic Studies of Patients Undergoing Treatment With EGFR Inhibitors Not Recruiting

    Cetuximab, erlotinib, and panitumumab are all recently FDA approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors that treat a wide variety of tumor types, such as colon, lung, and head and neck. Blockade of the EGFR results in inhibition of multiple downstream pathways, leading to slowed tumor growth. In addition, these inhibitors may enhance anti-tumor immune responses through uncharacterized mechanisms. While producing significant responses in many settings, EGFR inhibitors also result in significant skin toxicity (rash) in a high percentage of patients. Multiple studies have correlated the presence and severity of rash with clinical response. Unfortunately, severe rash can often lead to dose delays, reductions, or even discontinuation of EGFR inhibitors, thus limiting their efficacy. The mechanism of both the rash and its correlation with tumor response is poorly understood. Skin biopsies display a robust leukocyte infiltrate, but a systematic analysis of the type of infiltrating leukocytes, activation state, or homing receptor expression has not been performed. Chemokines and chemokine receptors control leukocyte trafficking to the skin and other tissue sites, and defined receptor profiles for skin-, gut-, and lung-homing leukocytes are well established. In this study, the investigators propose to evaluate the homing phenotype of leukocytes from peripheral blood and skin biopsies of patients receiving EGFR inhibitors. The investigators will use RNA microarrays to evaluate the expression of chemokines and other key genes regulated in skin during treatment. The investigators will utilize in vitro methods to investigate effects of EGFR inhibitors on imprinting of T cell tissue-specific homing receptors. The investigators will examine correlations among the pathologic data, clinical findings, and tumor response. If validated, peripheral blood evaluation could potentially be used as a predictive indicator for patients receiving EGFR inhibitors. This study may also identify novel targets for limiting skin toxicity while receiving EGFR inhibitors, thus allowing maximal dosing and clinical response from these agents.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Russell Pachynski, (650) 906 - 6530.

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  • A Phase I/II Study of Bexarotene in Combination With ZD1839 (IRESSA®) in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of Phase 1 of this study is to evaluate the safety of the combination regimen, bexarotene and ZD1839. Phase II will evaluate the median survival, time to disease progression, and toxicity.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Molecular Analysis of Thoracic Malignancies Recruiting

    Primary Objective: To collect detailed clinical information on patients with thoracic malignancies via the electronic medical record and a detailed patient questionnaire, collect blood samples, retrieve paraffin embedded tissue if not collected at Stanford, and perform exploratory molecular analysis of tumor tissues.

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  • Three Different Radiation Therapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Cisplatin and Etoposide Recruiting

    Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as etoposide and cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. It is not yet known which radiation therapy regimen is more effective when given together with chemotherapy in treating patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. This randomized phase III trial is comparing different chest radiation therapy regimens to see how well they work in treating patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer.

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  • ExAblate Conformal Bone System Treatment of Metastatic Bone Tumors for the Palliation of Pain Recruiting

    A study to evaluate the safety and initial effectiveness of the ExAblate 2100 Conformal Bone System in the treatment of pain resulting from metastatic bone tumors.

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  • Saracatinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Thymoma or Thymic Cancer Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial is studying how well saracatinib works in treating patients with relapsed or refractory thymoma or thymic cancer. Saracatinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • ExAblate (Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery) Treatment of Metastatic Bone Tumors for the Palliation of Pain Not Recruiting

    A Pivotal Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness and Safety of ExAblate Treatment of Metastatic Bone and Multiple Myeloma Tumors for the Palliation of Pain in Patients Who are not Candidates for Radiation Therapy

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kamil Unver, (650) 725 - 9810.

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  • Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Specialized radiation therapy that delivers a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor may kill more tumor cells and cause less damage to normal tissue. It is not yet known which regimen of stereotactic body radiation therapy is more effective in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying the side effects of two radiation therapy regimens and to see how well they work in treating patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact laura gable, (650) 736 - 0798.

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  • CyberKnife Radiosurgical Treatment of Inoperable Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to assess the short and long-term outcomes after CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients who are medically inoperable.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • 4D-CT-based Ventilation Imaging for Adaptive Functional Guidance in Radiotherapy Recruiting

    To determine the appropriate class of deformable image registration algorithm and metric best suited for four-dimensional (4D) CT-based ventilation assessment.

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  • LDK378 in Adult Patients With ALK-activated NSCLC Previously Treated With Chemotherapy and Crizotinib Not Recruiting

    A single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study. Treatment with LDK378 750 mg qd will continue until the patient experiences unacceptable toxicity that precludes further treatment, discontinues treatment at the discretion of the investigator or patient, starts a new anti-cancer therapy and/or dies. LDK378 may be continued beyond RECIST-defined PD as assessed by the investigator if, in the judgment of the investigator, there is evidence of clinical benefit. In these patients tumor assessment should continue as per the schedule of assessments until treatment with LDK378 is permanently discontinued. Patients who discontinue the study medication in the absence of progression will continue to be followed for tumor assessment until the time of PD as assessed by the investigator

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo , 650-724-1388.

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  • A Study of ASA404 or Placebo in Combination With Docetaxel in Second-line Treatment for (Stage IIIb/IV) Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine if adding ASA404 to docetaxel chemotherapy makes the cancer treatment more effective in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Phase IIa Desipramine in Small Cell Lung Cancer and Other High-Grade Neuroendocrine Tumors Recruiting

    Intrapatient dose escalation of desipramine. Start at 75 mg daily. Increase by 75 mg weekly to maximum of 450 mg daily. Taper desipramine upon disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or patient withdrawal from study.

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  • Bendamustine Hydrochloride and Rituximab With or Without Bortezomib Followed by Rituximab With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With High-Risk Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Lymphoma Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as bendamustine hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab, can block cancer growth in different ways. Some block the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Others find cancer cells and help kill them or carry cancer-killing substances to them. Bortezomib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Biological therapies, such as lenalidomide, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop cancer cells from growing. It is not yet known whether giving bendamustine hydrochloride and rituximab together alone is more effective than giving bendamustine hydrochloride and rituximab together with bortezomib or lenalidomide in treating follicular lymphoma. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying giving bendamustine hydrochloride and rituximab together with or without bortezomib followed by rituximab with or without lenalidomide to see how well they work in treating patients with high-risk stage II, stage III, or stage IV follicular lymphoma.

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  • Paclitaxel With or Without Cixutumumab as Second-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Esophageal Cancer or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is studying giving paclitaxel and cixutumumab together to see how well they work compared to paclitaxel alone in treating patients with metastatic esophageal cancer or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as cixutumumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Giving paclitaxel together with cixutumumab may kill more tumor cells.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Deryn Warner, (650) 723 - 2876.

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  • An Investigational Drug, PF-02341066, Is Being Studied In Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With A Specific Gene Profile Involving The Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene Not Recruiting

    This is a Phase 2 trial that will evaluate the safety and efficacy of PF-02341066 in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with a specific gene profile involving the ALK gene. This trial will also allow patients from a Phase 3 trial who received standard of care chemotherapy (Study A8081007) to receive PF-02341066.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Chemotherapy Alone or Chemotherapy Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Surgery Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as oxaliplatin, leucovorin calcium, fluorouracil, and capecitabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy alone is more effective then chemotherapy plus radiation therapy in treating rectal cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II/III trial studies how well chemotherapy alone compared to chemotherapy plus radiation therapy works in treating patients with rectal cancer undergoing surgery.

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  • Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy With or Without Panitumumab in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Cetuximab Closed as of 05/14/10) Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel and carboplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies, such as panitumumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Giving these treatments before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy and radiation therapy are more effective when given with or without panitumumab in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer. (cetuximab closed as of 05/14/10) PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying chemotherapy and radiation therapy to see how well they work when given with or without panitumumab in treating patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. (cetuximab closed as of 05/14/10)

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  • Phase I Vorinostat Concurrent With Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat given concurrently with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLCA) brain metastases in patient with 1-4 lesions.

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  • Phase II Docetaxel / Carboplatin / XRT + Surgical Resection in Stage III NSCLC Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to assess how well this particular combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery works to help people with locally advanced lung cancer, how well PET scans indicates whether someone has responded to chemotherapy and radiation, and gene expression patterns related to outcomes in patients with locally advanced lung cancer who receive this treatment regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Nexavar® Versus Placebo in Locally Advanced/Metastatic RAI-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Not Recruiting

    Trial of sorafenib versus placebo in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to radioiodine

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ruth Lira, (650) 723 - 1367.

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  • Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil With or Without Celecoxib in Treating Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as oxaliplatin, leucovorin calcium, and fluorouracil, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Celecoxib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. It is not yet known whether giving oxaliplatin, leucovorin calcium, and fluorouracil is more effective with or without celecoxib in treating colon cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying giving oxaliplatin, leucovorin calcium, and fluorouracil together to compare how well they work when given together with or without celecoxib in treating patients with stage III colon cancer previously treated with surgery.

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  • A Study of Onartuzumab (MetMAb) in Combination With Bevacizumab (Avastin) Plus Platinum And Paclitaxel or With Pemetrexed Plus Platinum in Patients With Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of RO5490258 (MetMab) in combination with either of two backbone chemotherapy regimens in the first-line setting in patients with incurable Stage IIIB or IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. In Cohort 1, patients will be randomized to receive 4 cycles of bevacizumab (Avastin) 15 mg/kg iv, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 iv, platinum (cisplatin/carboplatin) iv plus either MetMab 15 mg/kg iv or placebo on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. In Cohort 2, patients will be randomized to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 iv, platinum (cisplatin/carboplatin) iv plus either MetMAb 15 mg/m2 iv or placebo on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Patients who have not progressed after 4 cycles will be offered maintenance therapy with their assigned treatment of bevacizumab plus either MetMAb or placebo (Cohort 1) or pemetrexed plus either MetMAb or placebo (Cohort 2). Anticipated time on st! udy treatment is until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie SanPedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression and Identification of Progenitor Cells in Lung Carcinoma Recruiting

    This study will investigate gene expression profiles in normal human lung tissue, lung carcinoma and metastatic tumor to the lung. The expression of up to 20,000 genes in a given lung tissue sample will be examined by cDNA microarray analysis and compared to normal lung tissue. In addition, we hope to identify a particular subset of lung cancer cells with an enhanced capacity for proliferation and self-renewal , analogous to the stem cells recently identified for certain types of leukemia, breast cancer and brain tumors.

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  • Octreotide Acetate and Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b or Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Locally Advanced, High-Risk Neuroendocrine Tumor Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial is studying giving octreotide acetate together with recombinant interferon alfa-2b to see how well it works compared with giving octreotide acetate together with bevacizumab in treating patients with metastatic or locally advanced, high-risk neuroendocrine tumor. Octreotide acetate and recombinant interferon alfa-2b may interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow the growth of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. It is not yet known whether giving octreotide acetate together with recombinant interferon alfa-2b is more effective than giving octreotide acetate together with bevacizumab in treating patients with neuroendocrine tumor.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Deryn Warner, (650) 723 - 2876.

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  • BLP25 Liposome Vaccine and Bevacizumab After Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IIIA or Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Vaccines may help the body build an effective immune response to kill tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Giving vaccine therapy together with bevacizumab after chemotherapy and radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells. PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying the side effects of giving BLP25 liposome vaccine together with bevacizumab after chemotherapy and radiation therapy in treating patients with newly diagnosed stage IIIA or stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer that cannot be removed by surgery.

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  • A Phase 1 Dose Escalation Study of OMP-21M18 in Subjects With Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    This is an open-label Phase 1 dose escalation study of OMP-21M18 in subjects with previously treated solid tumors for which there is no remaining standard curative therapy and no therapy with a demonstrated survival benefit. Up to 30 subjects will be enrolled at up to 4 centers. Subjects will be assessed for safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics, biomarkers, and efficacy. No formal interim analyses will be performed. Prior to enrollment, subjects will undergo screening to determine study eligibility. Upon enrollment, subjects will receive weekly intravenous (IV) infusions of OMP-21M18 for 9 weeks. After 9 weeks of treatment, subjects will be assessed for disease status. If there is no evidence of disease progression or if the tumor is smaller, then subjects may continue to receive IV infusions of OMP-21M18 every other week until disease progression. Dose escalation will be conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The dose levels of OMP 21M18 will be 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg administered IV weekly for 9 doses. No dose escalation or reduction will be allowed within a dose cohort. The dose may be administered at any time during the day. Three subjects will be treated at each dose level if no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) are observed. If 1 of 3 subjects experience a DLT, that dose level will be expanded to 6 subjects. If 2 or more subjects experience a DLT, no further subjects will be dosed at that level and 3 additional subjects will be added to the preceding dose cohort unless 6 subjects have already been treated at that dose level. Subjects will be assessed for DLTs from the time of the first dose through 7 days after administration of the 4th dose, but prior to administration of the 5th dose (i.e., Days 0-28). Dose escalation, if appropriate, will occur after all subjects in a cohort have completed their Day 28 DLT assessment.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • Randomized Study to Compare CyberKnife to Surgical Resection In Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    Lung cancer remains the most frequent cause of cancer death in both men and women in the world. Surgical resection using lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling has been a standard of care for operable early stage NSCLC. Several studies have reported high local control and survival using SBRT in stage I NSCLC patients. SBRT is now an accepted treatment for medically inoperable patients with stage I NSCLC and patients with operable stage I lung cancer are entered on clinical protocols. The purpose of this study is to conduct a phase III randomized study to compare CyberKnife SBRT with surgery, the current standard of care for stage I operable NSCLC.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Tivantinib With or Without Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Locally Advanced Kidney Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well tivantinib with or without erlotinib hydrochloride works in treating patients with metastatic or locally advanced kidney cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Tivantinib and erlotinib hydrochloride may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Preeti Chavan, 650-725-0426.

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  • Bevacizumab or Pemetrexed Disodium Alone or In Combination After Induction Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel and carboplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Bevacizumab may also stop the growth of non-small cell lung cancer by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Pemetrexed disodium may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some enzymes needed for cell growth. It is not yet known whether giving bevacizumab or pemetrexed disodium alone or in combination is more effective in treating non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying bevacizumab and pemetrexed disodium alone or in combination after induction therapy to see how well they work in treating patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

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  • Imaging and Biomarkers of Hypoxia in Solid Tumors Recruiting

    To establish PET imaging with the tracer FMISO as an accurate and reliable method for measuring the oxygen content of a tumor and to establish the measurement of secreted markers in blood as an accurate and reliable method for measuring the oxygen content of a tumor.

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  • Study to Evaluate Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of CO-1686 in Previously Treated Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to characterize safety, PK and preliminary efficacy of CO-1686 in patients with mutant EGFR Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

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  • Manuka Honey in Preventing Esophagitis-Related Pain in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy For Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Manuka honey may prevent or reduce esophagitis-related pain caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It is not yet known whether Manuka honey is more effective than standard care in preventing pain. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II clinical trial is studying Manuka honey to see how well it works in preventing esophagitis-related pain in patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy for lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laura Gable, (650) 736 - 0798.

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  • Radiation Therapy in Preventing CNS Metastases in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. It is not yet known if giving radiation therapy to the head is effective in preventing CNS metastases in patients who have stage III non-small cell lung cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well radiation therapy to the head works in preventing CNS metastases in patients who have been previously treated for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Derek Huang, (650) 725 - 0203.

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  • Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, or Stage IIIA Non-Small Lung Cancer That Was Removed By Surgery Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial is studying chemotherapy and bevacizumab to see how well they work compared to chemotherapy alone in treating patients with stage IB, stage II, or stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer that was removed by surgery. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Bevacizumab also may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Giving chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy is more effective with or without bevacizumab in treating non-small cell lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Maria Pitsiouni, 650-721-6977.

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  • A Study of HGS1029 (AEG40826-2HCl) in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of HGS1029 in subjects with advanced solid tumors and to determine a phase 2 dose.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • Safety and Efficacy Clinical Study of SNS-595 in Patients With Advanced Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the objective tumor response rate to SNS-595 in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • A 3rd/4th Line Placebo-controlled Trial of Sorafenib in Patients With Predominantly Non Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to see if sorafenib plus best supportive care (i.e. in addition to the non-cancer treatments patients would normally receive) is an effective treatment for lung cancer compared to best supportive care alone. The safety and tolerability of the two treatment groups will also be compared. The goal of the study is to test the ability of sorafenib to improve survival compared to best supportive care alone.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. This may be an effective treatment for extensive stage small cell lung cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is comparing how well radiation therapy to the brain works when given with or without radiation therapy to other areas of the body in treating patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer.

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  • A Study of HGS1036 in Combination With Chemotherapy in Subjects With Advanced Solid Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of HGS1036 when used in combination with the standard chemotherapeutic regimens paclitaxel plus carboplatin, cisplatin plus etoposide, or docetaxel.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jennifer Vargas, 650-723-0371 .

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  • AMG 655 in Combination With AMG 479 in Advanced, Refractory Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    This is a multi-center, 2-part phase 1b/2 study of AMG 655 in combination with AMG 479 to be conducted in the United States and Spain. Part 1 is a dose escalation segment to identify a dose of AMG 655 in combination with AMG 479 that is safe and tolerable. Part 2 will evaluate the safety and estimate the efficacy of AMG 655 at the dose selected in Part 1 in combination with AMG 479 for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC (non-squamous histology; squamous histology), CRC, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and sarcoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • CT-2103/Carboplatin vs Paclitaxel/Carboplatin for NSCLC in Women With Estradiol > 25 pg/mL Not Recruiting

    This study is designed to test whether CT-2103/carboplatin provides improved overall survival compared to paclitaxel/carboplatin in women with NSCLC who have estradiol levels >30 pg/ml.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Preclinical studies indicate that sorafenib is a potent inhibitor of Raf kinase in vitro and in vivo, with significant dose-dependent, anti-tumor activity in four different human tumor types including colon, pancreatic, lung, and ovarian. This activity was cytostatic in nature and was maintained if dosing was continued. That is, tumor growth is suspended while the drug is administered but returns to baseline rates when the agent is withdrawn. Therefore, the optimal schedule will be an uninterrupted one. To assess the activity of sorafenib in a timely manner and with a meaningful interpretation, a randomized discontinuation design was adopted in the present trial, conducted in a population who were potentially sensitive to sorafenib. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying sorafenib to see how well it works compared to placebo in treating patients with refractory non-small cell lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Not Recruiting

    This phase I trial studies how well talactoferrin works in treating patients with relapsed or refractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or squamous cell head and neck cancer. Biological therapies, such as talactoferrin, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Phase 1 Trial of Oral Ixabepilone Not Recruiting

    This Phase 1 study of oral ixabepilone given every 6 hours for 3 doses on Day 1, every 21 days, was a dose-finding study designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety of this dosing schedule in participants with advanced cancer

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • Cetuximab, Cisplatin, Fluorouracil, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Anal Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some find tumor cells and kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Others interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin and fluorouracil, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Cetuximab may help cisplatin and fluorouracil work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drugs. It may also make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Giving cetuximab together with chemotherapy and radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells. PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well giving cetuximab together with cisplatin, fluorouracil, and radiation therapy works in treating immunocompetent patients with stage I (closed to accrual as of 11/3/2008), stage II, (some stage II closed to accrual as of 11/3/2008) or stage III anal cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Deryn Warner, (650) 723 - 2876.

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  • Pulmonary Interstitial Lymphography in Early Stage Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most deadly cancer in the world. NSCLC annually causes 150,000 deaths in the US and greater than 1 million worldwide. The standard treatment for early stage NSCLC is lobectomy with lymphadenectomy. However, many patients are poor operative candidates or decline surgery. An emerging alternative is Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). Mounting evidence from Phase I/II studies demonstrates that SBRT offers excellent local control. Most SBRT trials focused on small, peripheral tumors in inoperable patients. Increasingly, clinical trials study SBRT in operable patients, often with larger, central tumors. Using clinical staging, a significant proportion of patients harbor occult nodal metastases when undergoing SBRT to the primary tumor alone. Subgroups of patients carry even higher risk of nodal metastases. These nodal metastases frequently would be removed by surgical intervention. However, SBRT, at present, is only directed at the primary tumor, potentially leading to regional failures in otherwise curable patients. To increase the effectiveness of SBRT for lung tumors, the next logical step is to explore whether the highest risk areas of disease spread can be identified and targeted. Regional failure could be reduced and outcome improved in a significant proportion of patients treated with SBRT if the primary nodal drainage (PND) were identified, targeted and treated in addition to the primary tumor. We propose to conduct a study to determine how well water soluble iodinated contrast material when injected directly into the tumor can be visualized on CT scan and integrated into radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laura Gable, (650) 736 - 0798.

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  • Clinical Study of BYM338 for the Treatment of Unintentional Weight Loss in Patients With Cancer of the Lung or the Pancreas Not Recruiting

    A safety & efficacy clinical study of the investigational medicinal product BYM338 for the treatment of unintentional weight loss in patients with cancer of the lung or the pancreas

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • A Study of Enzastaurin and Erlotinib in Patients With Solid Tumors and Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    Phase I: A study to see what doses of Enzastaurin and Erlotinib are best tolerated by patients with solid tumor cancer. Phase II: A study to see how long patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with Enzastaurin and Erlotinib live

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Combined With Cetuximab and/or Cixutumumab in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is studying how well giving carboplatin and paclitaxel together with cetuximab and/or cixutumumab works in treating patients with stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as carboplatin and paclitaxel, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab and cixutumumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Giving chemotherapy together with monoclonal antibody therapy may kill more tumor cells. It is not yet known whether carboplatin and paclitaxel are more effective when given with cetuximab and/or cixutumumab in treating non-small cell lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lauren Pernicka, (650) 721 - 6977.

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  • A Study of CDX-1127 in Patients With Select Solid Tumor Types or Hematologic Cancers Recruiting

    This is a study of CDX-1127, a therapy that targets the immune system and may act to promote anti-cancer effects. The study enrolls patients with hematologic cancers (certain leukemias and lymphomas), as well as patients with select types of solid tumors.

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  • Study of XL647 in Subjects With NSCLC Who Have Progressed After Responding to Treatment With Gefitinib or Erlotinib Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine the best confirmed response rate of daily administration of the multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor (including EGFR and VEGFR2) XL647 in subjects with NSCLC who have progressed after responding to treatment with either erlotinib or gefitinib.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Study of Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography in Guiding Radiation Therapy in Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan work in guiding radiation therapy compared to standard radiation therapy treatment in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Imaging procedures, such as PET scan and CT scan, may help doctors plan radiation therapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

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  • Erlotinib Plus Tivantinib (ARQ 197) Versus Single Agent Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate progression-free survival among subjects with KRAS mutation positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) treated with erlotinib plus tivantinib (ARQ 197) compared to single agent chemotherapy.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lei Shura, 650-723-2312.

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  • A Study of Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Study of the Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor GDC-0449 in Combination With Rosiglitazone or Combined Oral Contraceptive in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors That Are Refractory to Standard Therapy or for Whom No Standard Therapy Exists Not Recruiting

    This is a single-arm, multicenter, Phase Ib study designed to describe the effect of GDC-0449 on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone and oral contraceptives in patients with advanced solid tumors who are refractory to treatment or for whom no standard therapy exists.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ruth Lira, (650) 723 - 1367.

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  • A Study of XL184 (Cabozantinib) With or Without Erlotinib in Adults With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    In Phase 1 of this study, the purpose is to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and highest safe dose of the multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (including VEGFR2, MET, and RET) XL184 in combination with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib administered to adults with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). In Phase 2 of this study, the purpose is to evaluate the objective response rate of daily oral administration of XL184 with or without erlotinib in subjects with NSCLC who have progressed after responding to treatment with erlotinib.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Study of XL647 Administered Orally Daily to Patients With Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and tolerability of the multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor (including EGFR, VEGFR2, ErbB2, and EphB4) XL647 when given orally daily to adults with advanced solid tumors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Fehling, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • Study of GDC-0973/XL518 in Patients With Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    This non-randomized, open-label, study will determine the highest safe dose of GDC-0973/XL518, how often it should be taken, how well patients with cancer tolerate GDC-0973/XL518 and will assess the pharmacokinetic effect of midazolam and dextromethorphan on the study drug.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • An Observational Study of the Ethnic Impact of Patients Undergoing Second (2nd) Line Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Pemetrexed Not Recruiting

    This large, non-randomized observational study is being conducted to provide data about the impact of ethnic origin on outcomes and resource utilization during the 2nd line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a routine medical care setting.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • A Phase 1 Study of MPDL3280A (an Engineered Anti-PDL1 Antibody) in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    This Phase I, multicenter, first in human, open-label, dose escalation study will evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of MPDL3280A administered as single agent by intravenous (IV) infusion to patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid malignancies or hematologic malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Rajapaksa Amanda, 650-725-6301.

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  • Identification of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Lung Cancer Patients Recruiting

    The primary aim of this study is to determine whether we can identify human lung cancer tumor cells in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients.

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  • Study of Cabozantinib (XL184) in Adults With Advanced Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not XL184 demonstrates anti-tumor activity in selected tumor types under a randomized discontinuation trial (RDT) design. Subjects who have responded to study drug after 12 weeks of open-label XL184 administration will continue to take XL184. Subjects who are clearly progressing will discontinue study treatment and subjects who demonstrate stable disease will be randomized to either XL184 or placebo. For individual patients, once disease progression is observed, the blind will be broken and subjects who were randomized to placebo will be offered the option to receive open-label XL184. Subjects who progressed while taking XL184 will discontinue study treatment. Emerging data may support enrollment in an open-label, non-randomized expansion cohort (NRE). There will be NRE cohorts for prostate and ovarian cancers.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1694.

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  • An Investigational Drug, PF-02341066 Is Being Studied Versus Standard Of Care In Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With A Specific Gene Profile Involving The Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene Not Recruiting

    This is a Phase 3 trial comparing the safety and anti-tumor activity of PF-02341066 versus pemetrexed or docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with specific gene profile involving the ALK gene after failure of one previous chemotherapy regimen that included one platinum drug.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Phase I Erlotinib and Dovitinib (TKI258) in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Not Recruiting

    This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of giving erlotinib and dovitinib together to treat patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Erlotinib blocks the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and has known activity in non-small cell lung cancer and dovitinib blocks the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other targets which may be important to treat lung cancer. The combination of both drugs may work better than either drug alone, but may also have increased side effects. This trial will look at the side effects of combining the drugs and look for how effective the combination may be.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Phase II Trial of Bevacizumab in Combination With Pemetrexed as 2nd Line Therapy in Patients With Stable Brain Metastases From Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    This study seeks to evaluate the safety of combining bevacizumab and pemetrexed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with stable brain metastases as second line chemotherapy, while also looking for an improvement in progression free survival (PFS) as well as overall survival.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • A Study of Aflibercept Administered in Combination With Pemetrexed and Cisplatin in Patients With Advanced Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether the combination of aflibercept, pemetrexed and cisplatin is safe and effective.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • A Study of Onartuzumab (MetMAb) Versus Placebo in Combination With Paclitaxel Plus Platinum in Patients With Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with paclitaxel plus platinum in patients with incurable Stage IIIB or Stage IV squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients will be randomized to receive either onartuzumab (MetMAb) 15 mg/kg iv or placebo on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle in combination with 4 cycles of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 iv and platinum (carboplatin/cisplatin) iv on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Patients who have not progressed after 4 cycles will continue with either onartuzumab (MetMAb) or placebo as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Evaluation of Cyberknife Precision Radiation Delivery System for Unresectable Malignant Lung Cancer Not Recruiting

    This study has two primary objectives. The first objective is to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) that can be delivered with stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with inoperable malignant lung tumors. Once the MTD is established, the second objective is to determine the efficacy of radiosurgical ablation of lung tumors in terms of symptoms and radiographic responses.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lisa Zhou, (650) 736 - 4112.

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  • Erlotinib With or Without Hydroxychloroquine in Chemo-Naive Advanced NSCLC and (EGFR) Mutations Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to learn if adding hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to erlotinib helps treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Another goal of this research study is to learn more about NSCLC and how it may respond to study treatment. Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a type of drug called a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). TKIs block a protein called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR may control tumor growth and tumor cell survival. However, although TKI drugs can work for some lung cancer patients for a period of time, eventually the tumor finds a way to resist or counteract the TKI treatment and it begins to grow again. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug approved by the FDA for treating malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, and several other diseases. Laboratory research suggests that when HCQ is given with a TKI, it may help delay or prevent TKI resistance from developing.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Zeina Babetty, (650) 723 - 2983.

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  • Phase II Bevacizumab, Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Newly Diagnosed Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Excluding Squamous Cell) Not Recruiting

    This is a phase II, open label, single arm, multi-institutional trial with a primary endpoint of improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (excluding squamous cell carcinoma). All patients will be treated with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) in combination with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8 every 3 weeks) and carboplatin (AUC of 5 every 3 weeks). Patients will receive a maximum of 6 cycles of chemotherapy, but treatment with bevacizumab will continue as long as patients have no evidence of progressive disease and no significant treatment related toxicities.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, (650) 724 - 1388.

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  • Erlotinib in Patients With Resected, Early Stage NSCLC With Confirmed Mutations in the EGFR Not Recruiting

    In this research study erlotinib will be given to eligible participants whose lung cancer has been removed by surgery. Eligible patients have adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small lung cancer, and must have 1 or more of the following characteristics: be female, be of Asian or Pacific Rim descent and/or be a never smoker. The potential participant's tumor will be examined for Epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutations. EGFR is a protein that is overexpressed in most non-small cell lung cancers. Some EGFR has been found to have specific mutations and the participant must have one of these mutations in his tumor. Erlotinib blocks this protein and may control tumor growth and increase survival. Previous research has shown that erlotinib is most effective for people who have these specific mutations in the EGFR.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lei Shura, 650-723-2312.

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  • Adjuvant Afatinib in Stage I-III NSCLC With EGFR Mutation Recruiting

    This research study is a Phase II clinical trial, which tests the safety and effectiveness of an investigational drug to learn whether the drug works in treating a specific cancer. "Investigational" means that the drug is still being studied. It also means that the FDA has not yet approved afatinib for use in patients. In this research study the investigators are looking to see if taking afatinib after surgery works better when taken over a short period of time, compared to a long period of time.

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  • A Phase 2 Study of MPDL3280A (an Engineered Anti-PDL1 Antibody) in Patients With PD-L1 Positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - "FIR" Recruiting

    This multicenter, single-arm study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of MPDL3280A in patients with PD-L1-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients will receive an intravenous dose of 1200 mg MPDL3280A on Day 1 of 21-day cycles for a maximum of 16 cycles.

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  • Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cabozantinib-s-Malate Alone or In Combination as Second or Third Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well giving erlotinib hydrochloride and cabozantinib-s-malate alone or in combination works as second or third line therapy in treating patient with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. Erlotinib hydrochloride and cabozantinib-s-malate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. It is not yet known whether giving erlotinib hydrochloride together with cabozantinib-s-malate is more effective than erlotinib hydrochloride or cabozantinib-s-malate alone in treating non-small cell lung cancer.

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  • 18F FPPRGD2 Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Predicting Early Response in Patients With Cancer Receiving Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial studies fluorine 18 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled pegylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (18F FPPRGD2) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in predicting early response in patients with cancer receiving anti-angiogenesis therapy. Diagnostic procedures, such as 18F FPPRGD2 PET/CT, may be a less invasive method of finding cancer early and determining response to treatment

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  • Pemetrexed Disodium or Observation in Treating Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Without Progressive Disease After First-Line Chemotherapy Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Pemetrexed disodium may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying how well pemetrexed disodium or observation works in treating patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma without progressive disease after first-line chemotherapy.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


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Publications

Journal Articles


  • A Double-Blind Randomized Discontinuation Phase-II Study of Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) in Previously Treated Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E2501 JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Lee, J., Hanna, N. H., Traynor, A. M., Carbone, D. P., Schiller, J. H. 2012; 7 (10): 1574-1582

    Abstract

    Sorafenib is a raf kinase and angiogenesis inhibitor with activity in multiple cancers. This phase-II study in heavily pretreated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (? 2 prior therapies) used a randomized discontinuation design.Patients received 400 mg of sorafenib orally twice daily for two cycles (2 months) (step 1). Responding patients on step 1 continued on sorafenib; progressing patients went off study, and patients with stable disease were randomized to placebo or sorafenib (step 2), with crossover from placebo allowed upon progression. The primary endpoint of this study was the proportion of patients having stable or responding disease 2 months after randomization.There were 299 patients evaluated for step 1; of these, 81 eligible patients were randomized on step 2 and received sorafenib (n = 50) or placebo (n = 31). The 2-month disease control rates after randomization were 54% and 23% for patients initially receiving sorafenib and placebo, respectively, p = 0.005. The hazard ratio for progression on step 2 was 0.51 (95% [confidence interval] CI 0.30, 0.87, p = 0.014) favoring sorafenib. A trend in favor of overall survival with sorafenib was also observed (13.7 versus 9.0 months from time of randomization), hazard ratio 0.67 (95% CI 0.40-1.11), p = 0.117. A dispensing error occurred, which resulted in the unblinding of some patients, but not before completion of the 8-week initial step 2 therapy. Toxicities were manageable and as expected.The results of this randomized discontinuation trial suggest that sorafenib has single-agent activity in a heavily pretreated, enriched patient population with advanced NSCLC. These results support further investigation with sorafenib as a single agent in larger, randomized studies in NSCLC.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31826149ba

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308919400020

    View details for PubMedID 22982658

  • Lung cancer incidence in never smokers JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Chang, E. T., Gomez, S. L., Keegan, T. H., Feskanich, D., Clarke, C. A., Holmberg, L., Yong, L. C., Kolonel, L. N., Gould, M. K., West, D. W. 2007; 25 (5): 472-478

    Abstract

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although smoking remains the predominant cause of lung cancer, lung cancer in never smokers is an increasingly prominent public health issue. However, data on this topic, particularly lung cancer incidence rates in never smokers, are limited.We reviewed the existing literature on lung cancer incidence and mortality rates among never smokers and present new data regarding rates in never smokers from the following large, prospective cohorts: Nurses' Health Study; Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; California Teachers Study; Multiethnic Cohort Study; Swedish Lung Cancer Register in the Uppsala/Orebro region; and First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study.Truncated age-adjusted incidence rates of lung cancer among never smokers age 40 to 79 years in these six cohorts ranged from 14.4 to 20.8 per 100,000 person-years in women and 4.8 to 13.7 per 100,000 person-years in men, supporting earlier observations that women are more likely than men to have non-smoking-associated lung cancer. The distinct biology of lung cancer in never smokers is apparent in differential responses to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and an increased prevalence of adenocarcinoma histology in never smokers.Lung cancer in never smokers is an important public health issue, and further exploration of its incidence patterns, etiology, and biology is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2006.07.2983

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244176000003

    View details for PubMedID 17290054

  • A Case Series of Lengthy Progression-Free Survival With Pemetrexed-Containing Therapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Harboring ROS1 Gene Rearrangements. Clinical lung cancer Riess, J. W., Padda, S. K., Bangs, C. D., Das, M., Neal, J. W., Adrouny, A. R., Cherry, A., Wakelee, H. A. 2013; 14 (5): 592-595

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2013.04.008

    View details for PubMedID 23810364

  • Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of bexarotene in combination with gefitinib in the third-line treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: brief report. Anti-cancer drugs Padda, S. K., Chhatwani, L., Zhou, L., Jacobs, C. D., Lopez-Anaya, A., Wakelee, H. A. 2013; 24 (7): 731-735

    Abstract

    Gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and bexarotene (a rexinoid) affect similar oncogenic pathways and are both metabolized through cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. We studied the combination of bexarotene and gefitinib in the third-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer to examine pharmacokinetic interactions and establish the maximum tolerated dose. This was a single-institution, nonrandomized, open-label, phase I clinical trial with a standard 3+3 dose escalation. Three patients were enrolled at each dose level on the basis of pharmacokinetic analysis with dose level 1 including gefitinib (Iressa) 250 mg oral daily and bexarotene (Targretin) 400 mg/m oral daily and dose level +1 including gefitinib 500 mg oral daily and bexarotene 400 mg/m oral daily. Patients received gefitinib alone for 2 weeks to allow for steady state and thereafter, bexarotene was added. In dose level 1, two of three patients had undetectable gefitinib levels at day 15 for unknown reasons. However, the peak levels on day 29 for all three patients receiving 250 mg of gefitinib with bexarotene are lower than published peak levels. Among the three patients in dose level +1, ?40% lower gefitinib plasma concentrations were noted on day 29 compared with day 15 along with a mean 44% reduction in area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24). Bexarotene appears to lower the Cmax and AUC0-24 of gefitinib through cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. Our results have pharmacokinetic implications for ongoing trials that combine bexarotene with other small molecules in the era of personalized cancer therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CAD.0b013e32836100d7

    View details for PubMedID 23552470

  • A Patient With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Development of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis While on Targeted Treatment With Crizotinib JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Riess, J. W., Nagpal, S., Neal, J. W., Wake, H. A. 2013; 11 (4): 389-394

    Abstract

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LM) is an infrequent yet morbid and often fatal complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Management of LM is multimodal, often involving systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and a variety of symptom management maneuvers to address elevated intracranial pressure, pain, and mood changes that can accompany the disease. It is increasingly recognized that tumors with actionable mutations in NSCLC, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations, respond well to systemic therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors yet often progress in the central nervous system. More information is needed regarding the natural history and optimal management of LM in specific molecular subtypes of NSCLC. This case report summarizes the management of a patient with ALK-positive NSCLC who developed LM while on targeted treatment with crizotinib within the context of current NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology and recently published studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317543800006

    View details for PubMedID 23584342

  • A Case Series of NSCLC Patients with Different Molecular Characteristics and Choroidal Metastases Improvement in Vision with Treatment Including Pemetrexed and Bevacizumab JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Riess, J. W., Nagpal, S., Das, M., Neal, J. W., Kim, J. W., Wakelee, H. A. 2013; 8 (2): E17-E18

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31827690da

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316204900003

    View details for PubMedID 23328555

  • Aflibercept in lung cancer EXPERT OPINION ON BIOLOGICAL THERAPY Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A. 2013; 13 (1): 115-120

    Abstract

    Angiogenesis, the recruitment and growth of blood vessels, is a process central to the growth of solid tumors. One of the key mediators of angiogenesis is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands. An antibody to VEGF-A, bevacizumab, has demonstrated a survival benefit in conjunction with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aflibercept (VEGF Trap) is a recombinant VEGF receptor-antibody protein fusion with higher affinity for VEGF-A than bevacizumab, plus affinity for VEGF-B and placental growth factor (PlGF). AREAS COVERED: This article reviews recent clinical trials investigating the role of aflibercept in the treatment of lung cancer, both published in the literature and those for which preliminary data have been presented at major scientific meetings. EXPERT OPINION: Aflibercept has proven Phase III efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer, but in lung cancer, large clinical trials have not yielded positive results. There remains hope that identification of biomarkers of response will one day help select patients most likely to benefit from antiangiogenesis therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1517/14712598.2013.745847

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312219700010

    View details for PubMedID 23199019

  • A phase II study of enzastaurin in combination with erlotinib in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer LUNG CANCER Clement-Duchene, C., Natale, R. B., Jahan, T., Krupitskaya, Y., Osarogiagbon, R., Sanborn, R. E., Bernstein, E. D., Dudek, A. Z., Latz, J. E., Shi, P., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 78 (1): 57-62

    Abstract

    Regardless of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, erlotinib improves survival for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after one or more chemotherapy regimens. Enzastaurin is an oral serine/threonine kinase inhibitor. This phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib and enzastaurin in NSCLC, a combination with promise to overcome EGFR resistance based on preclinical models.Eligible patients with advanced NSCLC (IIIB or IV) who had failed one or two prior systemic treatment regimen(s) were enrolled and received erlotinib 150 mg/day and enzastaurin 500 mg/day (after a 1125-mg loading dose on day 1, cycle 1), both orally in 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).From January 2008 to July 2009, 49 patients were enrolled: 29 (59%) men and 20 (41%) women; 8 (16%) were non-smokers. The median PFS was 1.7 months (one-sided 90% CI: 1.5-NA) and median overall survival (OS) was 8.3 months (95% CI: 5.3-14.3). Five patients had partial response, for an overall response rate of 10.2%; the disease control rate was 30.6% (responders+10 patients with stable disease). Grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events in ?5% of patients were diarrhea, acne, and nausea. One possibly drug-related death due to interstitial lung disease occurred during the study.In previously treated, unselected, advanced NSCLC patients, the addition of enzastaurin to erlotinib did not improve PFS, response, or OS compared with historical data of single-agent erlotinib, but was well tolerated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.06.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309801700009

    View details for PubMedID 22809813

  • Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Trakul, N., Chang, C. N., Harris, J., Chapman, C., Rao, A., Shen, J., Quinlan-Davidson, S., Filion, E. J., Wakelee, H. A., Colevas, A. D., Whyte, R. I., Dieterich, S., Maxim, P. G., Hristov, D., Tran, P., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M. 2012; 84 (1): 231-237

    Abstract

    Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy.We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume ?12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED ?100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2).The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02).A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.10.071

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308061900060

    View details for PubMedID 22381907

  • A phase I dose-escalation study of aflibercept administered in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin in patients with advanced solid tumours BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER Diaz-Padilla, I., Siu, L. L., San Pedro-Salcedo, M., Razak, A. R., Colevas, A. D., Shepherd, F. A., Leighl, N. B., Neal, J. W., Thibault, A., Liu, L., Lisano, J., Gao, B., Lawson, E. B., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 107 (4): 604-611

    Abstract

    To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and pharmacodynamics of aflibercept, and to identify the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of aflibercept in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin.Aflibercept was administered at escalating doses of 2, 4, or 6 mg kg(-1) in combination with fixed doses of pemetrexed (500 mg m(-2)) plus cisplatin (75?mg?m(-2)) every 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for PK analyses. Serum antiaflibercept antibodies were quantified to assess their impact on systemic aflibercept concentrations.Eighteen patients were enrolled. One patient dosed at 4 mg kg(-1) experienced grade 3 hypophosphatemia (dose-limiting toxicity; DLT), which prompted a cohort expansion. No further DLTs were observed in the 4 mg kg(-1) cohort or the 6 mg kg(-1) dose cohort. Most common adverse events (AEs) of all grades included (%): fatigue (89), anaemia (89), nausea (83), hyponatremia (78), and neutropenia (72). Grade ? 3 AEs consistent with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy included (%): hypertension (22), pulmonary embolism (11), and deep vein thrombosis (6). Five patients (28%) experienced mild neurocognitive disturbance. No episodes of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) were noted.The results of this phase I study allowed further evaluation of the combination of aflibercept with pemetrexed and cisplatin in a phase II study. The RP2D of aflibercept was 6 mg kg(-1), to be administered intravenously every 3 weeks in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bjc.2012.319

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307770300005

    View details for PubMedID 22805331

  • ERCC1 expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using a novel detection platform correlates with progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving platinum chemotherapy. Lung cancer Das, M., Riess, J. W., Frankel, P., Schwartz, E., Bennis, R., Hsieh, H. B., Liu, X., Ly, J. C., Zhou, L., Nieva, J. J., Wakelee, H. A., Bruce, R. H. 2012; 77 (2): 421-426

    Abstract

    To utilize a novel circulating tumor cell (CTC) technology to quantify ERCC1 expression on CTCs and determine whether ERCC1 expression levels predict efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).ERCC1 expression was measured in 17 metastatic NSCLC patients who received platinum-based therapy and had ≥2 intact CTCs with acceptable ERCC1 expression assay results. ERCC1 levels were determined from average expression on individual CTCs in each sample. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated from the date of therapy initiation.PFS decreased with increasing ERCC1 expression (p<0.04, F-test, linear regression). Lack of ERCC1 expression was associated with longer PFS (266 days versus 172 days, log-rank, p<0.02) in a Kaplan-Meier analysis using ERCC expression level of 1 as a cutoff (range 0-30). The difference in survival was statistically significant with a hazard ratio of 4.20 (95% CI 1.25-14.1, p<0.02, log-rank). PFS was also observed to decrease with increased cytokeratin (CK) expression (p<0.01 long-rank (Cox regression) and F-test (linear regression)). The hazard ratio is 4.38 (95% CI 1.76-10.9) for each log-change in CK value until progression was noted on imaging.Low expression of ERCC1 on CTCs correlates with PFS in patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving platinum-based therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 22555222

  • Differential effect of age on survival in advanced NSCLC in women versus men: Analysis of recent Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) studies, with and without bevacizumab LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H. A., DAHLBERG, S. E., Brahmer, J. R., Schiller, J. H., Perry, M. C., Langer, C. J., Sandler, A. B., Belani, C. P., Johnson, D. H. 2012; 76 (3): 410-415

    Abstract

    The impact of age on prognosis in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may differ by sex.Eligible patients (N=1590) from E1594, a 4-arm platinum-based chemotherapy trial, and E4599 (carboplatin/paclitaxel ± bevacizumab) chemotherapy arm were divided into male and female cohorts and separated into age groups of <60 or ?60 years old. Eligible E4599 patients (N=850) were similarly separated by age and sex and by treatment (± bevacizumab). Survival was calculated separately for each cohort.The median survival time (MST) for women ?60 years old treated with chemotherapy alone on E1594 and E4599 was 11.6 months versus 9.0 months for women <60 (p=0.03). MST was 7.4 and 8.3 months for men ?60 and <60 years old respectively (NS). In E4599 the age <60 by bevacizumab treatment interaction was statistically significant (p=0.03) for women (younger had greater benefit), with no age effect in men.In this unplanned, exploratory subgroup analysis of advanced stage NSCLC ECOG trials, women ?60 years old treated with chemotherapy live longer than men and younger women. In contrast, bevacizumab survival benefit was more pronounced in men of any age and in younger women on E4599.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.12.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304688300023

    View details for PubMedID 22266041

  • Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer management: novel targets and recent clinical advances. Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O Riess, J. W., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 10 (4): 226-234

    Abstract

    Lung cancer continues to be the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and other developed countries. The most common subtype is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Within NSCLC, we are discovering remarkable molecular heterogeneity. Most current actionable mutations have been identified in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, but now new mutations are being discovered in squamous cell histology patients as well. This molecular heterogeneity provides an opportunity for clinical trials to exploit various candidate oncogene-addicted pathways in NSCLC. This article focuses on 2 shifting paradigms in NSCLC management: the recent advances in targeted therapy and maintenance treatment.

    View details for PubMedID 22706483

  • A phase I dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of enzastaurin and erlotinib in patients with advanced solid tumors CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Padda, S. K., Krupitskaya, Y., Chhatwani, L., Fisher, G. A., Colevas, A. D., Pedro-Salcedo, M. S., Decker, R., Latz, J. E., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 69 (4): 1013-1020

    Abstract

    Enzastaurin, an oral serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, targets the protein kinase C and AKT pathways with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects. Erlotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, has activity in solid tumors. Based on the promising combination of EGFR inhibitors and anti-angiogenic agents, this phase I trial was initiated.This single-institution, open-label, non-randomized trial used a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation model in patients with advanced solid malignancies including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two dose levels of enzastaurin (with loading doses) were explored: 250 mg daily and 500 mg daily. Erlotinib was given at 150 mg daily.Sixteen patients were enrolled in this study (median age, 64 years). Most patients were heavily pre-treated, female, and Caucasian and had NSCLC. The highest dose of enzastaurin, 500 mg daily, was tolerated with no unexpected adverse events and no alteration in the pharmacokinetics of either drug at this dose level. The mean clearance was 5.75 L/h for erlotinib and 53.8 L/h for enzastaurin. The most common possibly drug-related grade 3-4 adverse events included diarrhea (25.0%), neurologic symptoms (18.8%), and vomiting (18.8%). Activity was noted, with a partial response in one patient and prolonged disease stability for >12 cycles in three patients.The combination of enzastaurin 500 mg daily and erlotinib 150 mg daily is well tolerated and does not alter the pharmacokinetics of the individual drugs, with clinical activity seen. A phase II trial of this combination has been initiated in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00280-011-1792-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302327300019

    View details for PubMedID 22160298

  • A phase I pharmacokinetic study of bexarotene with vinorelbine and cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Middleton, G., Dunlop, D., Ramlau, R., Leighl, N., Hao, D., Lopez-Anaya, A., Zatloukal, P., Jacobs, C. D. 2012; 69 (3): 815-824

    Abstract

    This is a phase I study of the retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (Targretin(®)) in combination with the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and vinorelbine and lipid-lowering therapy. This study looked for pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between the agents in parallel with a phase III study of the combination.Patients (n = 26) with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer received intravenous cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 1 and at 4-week intervals plus intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m(2) weekly. Continuous oral bexarotene therapy (400 mg/m(2)/day) was initiated at day 4. Lipid-lowering therapy was initiated in all patients due to hypertriglyceridemia associated with bexarotene use. PK profiles of the chemotherapeutic agents were obtained on day 1 (without bexarotene) and during cycles 2-4 (with bexarotene). Vinorelbine (n = 18) and free cisplatin (n = 17) PK parameters in evaluable patients were determined using non-compartmental methods.Mean vinorelbine and free cisplatin clearance and dose-corrected AUC values with bexarotene were within 20% of respective values without concomitant bexarotene. Bexarotene levels did not vary with or without co-administration of the chemotherapeutic agents. There was no evidence of increased toxicity when bexarotene was co-administered with the chemotherapeutic agents.Bexarotene does not substantially affect vinorelbine or cisplatin PK, and the combination is well tolerated. The results are consistent with the mechanisms of elimination of vinorelbine (high metabolic clearance) and cisplatin (non-enzymatic and renal elimination).

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00280-011-1771-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302325600025

    View details for PubMedID 22057854

  • Maintenance Bevacizumab is Associated With Increased Hemoglobin in Patients With Advanced, Nonsquamous, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer CANCER INVESTIGATION Riess, J. W., Logan, A. C., Krupitskaya, Y., Padda, S., Clement-Duchene, C., Ganjoo, K., Colevas, A. D., San Pedro-Salcedo, M., Kuo, C. J., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 30 (3): 231-235

    Abstract

    We retrospectively analyzed hematologic parameters in 22 patients with advanced, nonsquamous, NSCLC undergoing VEGF inhibition on a phase II clinical trial of bevacizumab, carboplatin, and gemcitabine. We also examined TTP in relation to hemoglobin changes. Median hemoglobin increased significantly from a 12.9 g/dL pretreatment to 13.8 g/dL (p =.01) after the second cycle of maintenance bevacizumab until the first off cycle measurement. There was no difference in TTP in patients who achieved a rise in hemoglobin compared with patients who did not (median 238 days vs. 268 days, p =.38.) Maintenance bevacizumab is associated with increased hemoglobin in advanced, nonsquamous, NSCLC patients.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/07357907.2012.656862

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300657200005

    View details for PubMedID 22360362

  • A phase I pharmacokinetic study of bexarotene with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Rodon, J., Jacobs, C. D., Chu, Q., Rowinsky, E. K., Lopez-Anaya, A., Takimoto, C. H., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 69 (3): 825-834

    Abstract

    Preclinical data suggest that the synthetic retinoid bexarotene may be an effective chemopreventive agent and that it may act synergistically in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether repeated doses of bexarotene capsules affect pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel or carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.Patients received treatment with paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin to provide a target AUC of 6 mg min/mL (day 1) every 3 weeks. Continuous oral bexarotene therapy (400 mg/m(2)/day) was initiated on Day 4, and patients started lipid-lowering therapy prior to beginning chemotherapy. Blood sampling to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of the chemotherapeutic agents with or without bexarotene was performed during cycle 1 (without concomitant bexarotene) and during cycle 2 (with concomitant bexarotene).An analysis of drug concentration data from 16 patients indicated that bexarotene did not affect the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, free carboplatin, or total carboplatin concentrations. However, both maximal plasma concentrations and total exposure of bexarotene increased by 80% in the presence of paclitaxel-carboplatin by an, as of yet, unexplained mechanism. The toxicities observed resembled those of either the chemotherapy regimen or bexarotene alone, and there was no evidence for an enhancement of any drug-related toxicity with the combined treatment.The administration of bexarotene, paclitaxel, and carboplatin is feasible and safe; however, the increased bexarotene plasma concentrations and exposure warrant further investigation if this combination is to be utilized clinically.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00280-011-1770-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302325600026

    View details for PubMedID 22057853

  • The effect of bexarotene on atorvastatin pharmacokinetics: results from a phase I trial of bexarotene plus chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Takimoto, C. H., Lopez-Anaya, A., Chu, Q., Middleton, G., Dunlop, D., Ramlau, R., Leighl, N., Rowinsky, E. K., Hao, D., Zatloukal, P., Jacobs, C. D., Rodon, J. 2012; 69 (2): 563-571

    Abstract

    Bexarotene (Targretin(®) capsules) is a retinoid-X-receptor agonist and an inducer of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. This phase I trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and drug-drug interactions of bexarotene with chemotherapy and a lipid-lowering agent (atorvastatin or fenofibrate). This trial was run in parallel with phase III trials of the combinations to determine whether repeated doses of bexarotene capsules affect the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the chemotherapeutic or the lipid-lowering agents.Patients (n = 48) with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were treated with repetitive cycles of either paclitaxel/carboplatin or cisplatin/vinorelbine chemotherapy, bexarotene (400 mg/m(2)/day) administered continuously starting on day 4 of chemotherapy, and a lipid-lowering drug, either atorvastatin or fenofibrate, starting at least 5 days before chemotherapy due to hypertriglyceridemia induced by bexarotene. Extensive plasma sampling to characterize the PK profiles of the lipid-lowering drugs, relevant chemotherapy agents was performed on day 1 (without bexarotene) and during chemotherapy cycles 2 or 3 (with bexarotene).Here, we report the drug-drug interactions between the lipid-lowering agents and bexarotene. Mean atorvastatin clearance and dose-corrected AUC values were reduced by nearly 50% with the addition of concomitant bexarotene. As fenofibrate was less effective at controlling hypertriglyceridemia, too few patients received this agent to make any meaningful conclusions about drug-drug interactions.A drug-drug interaction was seen in this trial with bexarotene co-administration leading to a significant reduction in the AUC of atorvastatin. The likely mechanism for this interaction is through induction of CYP3A4 by bexarotene given the role of this enzyme in the metabolism of atorvastatin. Knowledge of this interaction is important for optimizing lipid management with atorvastatin for patients receiving bexarotene.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00280-011-1772-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299516700030

    View details for PubMedID 22057855

  • Metabolic Tumor Volume is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated Definitively for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Lee, P., Bazan, J. G., Lavori, P. W., Weerasuriya, D. K., Quon, A., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Wakelee, H. A., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W. 2012; 13 (1): 52-58

    Abstract

    Fluorine-18 flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has rapidly become the standard of care for staging patients with lung cancer. We evaluated the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV), a measure of tumor burden on FDG-PET imaging, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated definitively.A retrospective review identified 61 patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET imaging for pretreatment staging. Metabolically active tumor regions were segmented on the PET scans semiautomatically to calculate the total body MTV. We determined the relationship of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with MTV in the entire cohort, and in the subgroup treated definitively.The estimated median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 11.1 months and 18.9 months. Higher MTV was significantly associated with worse OS (P = 0.00075) and PFS (P = 0.00077). For definitively treated patients, when MTV was analyzed as a binary value above or below the median value, 2-year PFS was 60% versus 39.7% (median PFS 34.9 vs. 11.9 months) and 2-year OS was 79.7% versus 33.3% (median OS 41.9 vs. 18.9 months), respectively (log-rank P = 0.12 for PFS and P = 0.066 for OS). When MTV was analyzed as a continuous variable, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated a trend to worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31; P = 0.12) and significantly worse OS (HR = 1.53; P = 0.018) with increasing MTV after controlling for known prognostic variables.Tumor burden as assessed by MTV yields prognostic information on survival beyond that of established prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC treated definitively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2011.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299270900008

    View details for PubMedID 21703935

  • XL647-A Multitargeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Results of a Phase II Study in Subjects with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Who Have Progressed after Responding to Treatment with Either Gefitinib or Erlotinib JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Pietanza, M. C., Lynch, T. J., Lara, P. N., Cho, J., Yanagihara, R. H., Vrindavanam, N., Chowhan, N. M., Gadgeel, S. M., Pennell, N. A., Funke, R., Mitchell, B., Wakelee, H. A., Miller, V. A. 2012; 7 (1): 219-226

    Abstract

    Although patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations commonly experience significant regressions when treated with erlotinib or gefitinib, they uniformly develop resistance to these agents. The secondary EGFR T790M mutation is found in 50% of patients with acquired resistance. Herein, we studied XL647, an oral small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR, VEGFR2, HER2, and EphB4, in NSCLC patients known or suspected of having tumors harboring T790M.Eligible patients included those with relapsed or recurrent advanced NSCLC who progressed after ?12 weeks of stable disease or response to erlotinib or gefitinib and/or those patients with a documented EGFR T790M. XL647 300 mg was administered once daily. The primary end point was objective response rate. Pretreatment plasma samples were collected for mutation testing of circulating tumor DNA.Forty-one patients were enrolled; 33 were evaluable for efficacy. One partial response was observed (response rate 3% and 90% confidence interval, 0% to 14%). Of patients whose tumors harbored T790M, 67% (8/12) had progression of disease as best response compared with 14% (3/21) of those without this mutation. Plasma samples from 40 patients were available for mutation testing, 14 (35%) of which were found to have EGFR mutations.The 3% response rate observed did not meet the prespecified threshold to recommend further study of XL647 in patients who develop acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib. Patients with T790M had a significantly worse progression-free survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31822eebf9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300305600032

    View details for PubMedID 22011666

  • Current Management of Small Cell Lung Cancer CLINICS IN CHEST MEDICINE Neal, J. W., Gubens, M. A., Wakelee, H. A. 2011; 32 (4): 853-?

    Abstract

    Confined to one side of the chest, limited stage small cell lung cancer is treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, yet has a long-term survival rate of only 15%. Extensive stage disease has initial response rates to chemotherapy exceeding 70%. However, the disease almost invariably progresses and becomes fatal. Many recent clinical trials have failed to show superiority of newer chemotherapeutics or targeted therapies compared with the standard chemotherapy backbone of platinum plus etoposide. Numerous promising targeted therapies and other agents are still in development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccm.2011.07.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297822700017

    View details for PubMedID 22054891

  • American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutation Testing for Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Considering First-Line EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Keedy, V. L., Temin, S., Somerfield, M. R., Beasley, M. B., Johnson, D. H., McShane, L. M., Milton, D. T., Strawn, J. R., Wakelee, H. A., Giaccone, G. 2011; 29 (15): 2121-2127

    Abstract

    An American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) provisional clinical opinion (PCO) offers timely clinical direction to ASCO's membership following publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing data from major studies. This PCO addresses the clinical utility of using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to predict the benefit of taking a first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). CLINICAL CONTEXT: Patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC have a significantly higher rate of partial responses to the EGFR TKIs gefitinib and erlotinib. In the United States, approximately 15% of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung harbor activating EGFR mutations. EGFR mutation testing is widespread at academic medical centers and in some locales in community practice. As of yet, there is no evidence of an overall survival (OS) benefit from selecting treatment based on performing this testing. RECENT DATA: One large phase III trial (the Iressa Pan-Asia Study [IPASS] trial), three smaller phase III randomized controlled trials using progression-free survival as the primary end point, and one small phase III trial with OS as the primary end point, all involving first-line EGFR TKIs and chemotherapy doublets, form the basis of this PCO. PROVISIONAL CLINICAL OPINION: On the basis of the results of five phase III randomized controlled trials, patients with NSCLC who are being considered for first-line therapy with an EGFR TKI (patients who have not previously received chemotherapy or an EGFR TKI) should have their tumor tested for EGFR mutations to determine whether an EGFR TKI or chemotherapy is the appropriate first-line therapy. NOTE. ASCO's provisional clinical opinions (PCOs) reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and literature available at the time they are written and are intended to assist physicians in clinical decision making and identify questions and settings for further research. Because of the rapid flow of scientific information in oncology, new evidence may have emerged since the time a PCO was submitted for publication. PCOs are not continually updated and may not reflect the most recent evidence. PCOs cannot account for individual variation among patients and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It is the responsibility of the treating physician or other health care provider, relying on independent experience and knowledge of the patient, to determine the best course of treatment for the patient. Accordingly, adherence to any PCO is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made by the physician in light of each patient's individual circumstances. ASCO PCOs describe the use of procedures and therapies in clinical practice and cannot be assumed to apply to the use of these interventions in the context of clinical trials. ASCO assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of ASCO's PCOs, or for any errors or omissions.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2010.31.8923

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290716900044

    View details for PubMedID 21482992

  • Tumor Volume as a Potential Imaging-Based Risk-Stratification Factor in Trimodality Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Kozak, M. M., Murphy, J. D., Schipper, M. L., Donington, J. S., Zhou, L., Whyte, R. I., Shrager, J. B., Hoang, C. D., Bazan, J., Maxim, P. G., Graves, E. E., Diehn, M., Hara, W. Y., Quon, A., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W. 2011; 6 (5): 920-926

    Abstract

    The role of trimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to be defined. We hypothesized that imaging parameters on pre- and postradiation positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging are prognostic for outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT)/resection/consolidation chemotherapy and could help risk-stratify patients in clinical trials.We enrolled 13 patients on a prospective clinical trial of trimodality therapy for resectable locally advanced NSCLC. PET-CT was acquired for radiation planning and after 45 Gy. Gross tumor volume (GTV) and standardized uptake value were measured at pre- and post-CRT time points and correlated with nodal pathologic complete response, loco-regional and/or distant progression, and overall survival. In addition, we evaluated the performance of automatic deformable image registration (ADIR) software for volumetric response assessment.All patients responded with average total GTV reductions after 45 Gy of 43% (range: 27-64%). Pre- and post-CRT GTVs were highly correlated (R² = 0.9), and their respective median values divided the patients into the same two groups. ADIR measurements agreed closely with manually segmented post-CRT GTVs. Patients with GTV ? median (137 ml pre-CRT and 67 ml post-CRT) had 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 14% versus 75% for GTV less than median, a significant difference (p = 0.049). Pre- and post-CRT PET-standardized uptake value did not correlate significantly with pathologic complete response, PFS, or overall survival.Preoperative CRT with carboplatin/docetaxel/45 Gy resulted in excellent response rates. In this exploratory analysis, pre- and post-CRT GTV predicted PFS in trimodality therapy, consistent with our earlier studies in a broader cohort of NSCLC. ADIR seems robust enough for volumetric response assessment in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31821517db

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289554100012

    View details for PubMedID 21774104

  • Survival following Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latina, and Non-Hispanic White Women Who Have Never Smoked CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION Gomez, S. L., Chang, E. T., Shema, S. J., Fish, K., Sison, J. D., Reynolds, P., Clement-Duchene, C., Wrensch, M. R., Wiencke, J. L., Wakelee, H. A. 2011; 20 (3): 545-554

    Abstract

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among U.S. Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and Latina women despite low smoking prevalence. This study examined survival patterns following non-small cell lung cancer in a population-based sample of lung cancer cases from the San Francisco Bay Area Lung Cancer Study (SFBALCS).Women diagnosed with lung cancer from 1998 to 2003 and 2005 to 2008 and identified through the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were telephone-screened for eligibility for the SFBALCS. The screener data were linked to the cancer registry data to determine follow-up. This analysis included 187 non-Hispanic (NH) white, 23 U.S.-born Latina, 32 foreign-born Latina, 30 U.S.-born API, and 190 foreign-born API never-smokers diagnosed with lung cancer and followed through 2008.All-cause survival was poorer among APIs [HR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.0-2.8) among U.S.-born APIs and HR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.9-1.5) among foreign-born APIs] and Latinas [HR=2.1 (95% CI: 1.2-3.6) among U.S.-born Latinas; HR=1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.3) among foreign-born Latinas] relative to NH whites. These survival differences were not explained by differences in selected sociodemographic or clinical factors.Further research should focus on factors such as cultural behaviors, access to or attitudes toward health care, and genetic variations as possible explanations for these striking racial/ethnic differences.Latina and API female never-smokers diagnosed with lung cancer were up to two times more likely to die than NH whites, highlighting the need for additional research to identify the underlying reasons for the disparities and heightened clinical awareness.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0965

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288067200017

    View details for PubMedID 21239685

  • A Phase II First-Line Study of Gemcitabine, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab in Advanced Stage Nonsquamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Clement-Duchene, C., Krupitskaya, Y., Ganjoo, K., Lavori, P., McMillan, A., Kumar, A., Zhao, G., Padda, S., Zhou, L., San Pedro-Salcedo, M., Colevas, A. D., Wakelee, H. A. 2010; 5 (11): 1821-1825

    Abstract

    Bevacizumab improves responses and progression-free survival when added to first-line paclitaxel/carboplatin or cisplatin/gemcitabine for patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. This study was designed to evaluate toxicities and efficacy of gemcitabine/carboplatin/bevacizumab.Patients with untreated advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer, with no evidence of brain metastases and not on anticoagulation were eligible. Patients received gemcitabine 1000 mg/m on days 1 and 8; carboplatin area under the curve 5 day 1; and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg day 1 every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. Bevacizumab was then continued every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.From July 2006 to December 2008, 48 patients were enrolled: 23 (48%) men, 25 (52%) women, and 19 (40%) never smokers. One patient never received therapy and is not included in the analysis. Median cycle number was 8 (1-42) with 37 patients (78.7%) completing ?4 cycles of three drugs. Dose reductions occurred in 34 (72.3%) patients. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (47%/15%), thrombocytopenia (11%/15%), anemia (6%/0%), dyspnea (6%/2%), bacterial pneumonia (4%/0%), and hypertension (4%/2%). No neutropenic fevers occurred. One patient died of hemoptysis. Grade 3 bleeding occurred in three other patients. There were seven (14.9%) partial responses. Median time to first event (progression/death/toxicity requiring discontinuation) was 6.4 months (95% confidence interval: 4.8-7.9 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 12.8 months (95% confidence interval: 10.0-16.5). The OS is 57% at 1 year and 10% at 2 years.Although perhaps skewed by a high proportion of nonsmokers and women, treatment with gemcitabine/carboplatin/bevacizumab has an acceptable toxicity profile with promising median OS despite a low response rate.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181f1d23c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283491100017

    View details for PubMedID 20881641

  • Voreloxin, a First-in-Class Anticancer Quinolone Derivative, in Relapsed/Refractory Solid Tumors: A Report on Two Dosing Schedules CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Advani, R. H., Hurwitz, H. I., Gordon, M. S., Ebbinghaus, S. W., Mendelson, D. S., Wakelee, H. A., Hoch, U., Silverman, J. A., Havrilla, N. A., Berman, C. J., Fox, J. A., Allen, R. S., Adelman, D. C. 2010; 16 (7): 2167-2175

    Abstract

    Voreloxin, a novel replication-dependent DNA-damaging agent, intercalates DNA and inhibits topoisomerase II. Voreloxin induces site-selective DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis. We report the phase 1 experience of voreloxin in patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors, including dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity.Two dose-escalation studies evaluated voreloxin administered i.v. every 3 weeks (SPO-0001) or weekly for 3 weeks every 28 days (SPO-0002). In SPO-0001, patients were classified as heavily pretreated (HP) or minimally pretreated (MP) based on therapeutic history.In the SPO-0001 study, 41 patients (24 HP/17 MP) were treated in eight dose cohorts (3-75 mg/m(2)). At 60 mg/m(2), four HP patients experienced DLTs: grade 4 neutropenia (n = 3, one with fever) and grade 3 febrile neutropenia/pneumonia (n = 1). At 75 mg/m(2), two MP patients experienced DLTs: grade 4 neutropenia/thrombocytopenia (n = 1) or grade 2 oral thrush for >29 days (n = 1). Therefore, the MTD was 48 mg/m(2) (HP patients) and 60 mg/m(2) (MP patients). In the SPO-0002 study, 21 patients were treated in six dose cohorts (3-24 mg/m(2)). At 18 mg/m(2), two patients experienced DLTs: grade 3 neutropenia, one with pleural effusion (>14 days each). The MTD was 15 mg/m(2). Voreloxin exhibited low clearance (2 L/h/m(2)), a long terminal half-life (22 hours), and dose-proportional exposure. Overall, 31 of 62 patients had stable disease and 1 patient (ovarian cancer) had a partial response per Rustin criteria.Voreloxin showed an acceptable safety profile with clinical activity in patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors. The MTD was schedule-dependent. Voreloxin is currently in clinical studies of ovarian cancer and acute myeloid leukemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2236

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278595800021

    View details for PubMedID 20233886

  • Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of lexatumumab (HGS-ETR2) given every 2 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumors ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Patnaik, A., Sikic, B. I., Mita, M., Fox, N. L., Miceli, R., Ullrich, S. J., Fisher, G. A., Tolcher, A. W. 2010; 21 (2): 376-381

    Abstract

    Lexatumumab (HGS-ETR2) is a fully human agonistic mAb to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 that activates the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and has potent preclinical antitumor activity. Materials and methods: This phase 1, dose escalation study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs) and immunogenicity of lexatumumab administered i.v. every 14 days in patients with advanced solid tumors.Thirty-one patients received lexatumumab over five dose levels (0.1-10 mg/kg). Most (26 of 31) received four or more cycles of treatment. One patient at 10 mg/kg experienced a possibly related dose-limiting toxicity of grade 3 hyperamylasemia. Nine patients achieved stable disease. One patient with chemotherapy-refractive Hodgkin's disease experienced a mixed response. Lexatumumab PKs were linear up to 10 mg/kg. At the 10 mg/kg dose, the mean (+/-standard deviation) t(1/2b) was 13.67 +/- 4.07 days, clearance was 4.95 +/- 1.93 ml/day/kg, V(1) was 45.55 ml/kg and V(ss) was 79.08 ml/kg, indicating that lexatumumab distributes outside the plasma compartment. No human antihuman antibodies were detected.Lexatumumab can be safely administered every 14 days at 10 mg/kg. The PK profile supports this schedule. Further evaluation of lexatumumab at this dose schedule is warranted, including combination trials with other agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdp292

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274087600029

    View details for PubMedID 19633048

  • Uncovering Disparities in Survival after Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer among Asian/Pacific Islander Ethnic Populations in California CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION Chang, E. T., Shema, S. J., Wakelee, H. A., Clarke, C. A., Gomez, S. L. 2009; 18 (8): 2248-2255

    Abstract

    Asians may have better survival after non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than non-Asians. However, it is unknown whether survival varies among the heterogeneous U.S. Asian/Pacific Islander (API) populations. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify survival differences among APIs with NSCLC. Differences in overall and disease-specific survival were analyzed in the California Cancer Registry among 16,577 API patients diagnosed with incident NSCLC between 1988 and 2007. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models with separate baseline hazards by disease stage. Despite better overall and disease-specific survival among APIs compared with non-Hispanic Whites, differences were evident across API populations. Among women, Japanese (overall survival HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.27) and APIs other than those in the six largest ethnic groups (other APIs; HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33) had significantly poorer overall and disease-specific survival than Chinese. By contrast, South Asian women had significantly better survival than Chinese (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.97). Among men, Japanese (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24), Vietnamese (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16), and other APIs (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.28) had significantly poorer overall and disease-specific survival than Chinese. Other factors independently associated with poorer survival were lower neighborhood socioeconomic status, involvement with a non-university hospital, unmarried status, older age, and earlier year of diagnosis. APIs have significant ethnic differences in NSCLC survival that may be related to disparate lifestyles, biology, and especially health care access or use. To reduce the nationwide burden of lung cancer mortality, it is critical to identify and ameliorate hidden survival disparities such as those among APIs.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0332

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268958600016

    View details for PubMedID 19622719

  • Ramucirumab, a fully human mAb to the transmembrane signaling tyrosine kinase VEGFR-2 for the potential treatment of cancer CURRENT OPINION IN INVESTIGATIONAL DRUGS Krupitskaya, Y., Wakelee, H. A. 2009; 10 (6): 597-605

    Abstract

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, and is mediated, at least in part, by a large family of VEGF ligands and receptors. Ramucirumab, which is being developed by ImClone Systems Inc, is a fully human mAb that binds human VEGFR-2, thus blocking VEGF binding and inhibiting angiogenesis. Proof-of-concept preclinical studies with the mouse mAb DC-101 supported this hypothesis, and ramucirumab inhibited cell proliferation in vitro, as well as tumor progression in mouse xenograft models of human cancer. Ramucirumab was well tolerated on weekly and fortnightly schedules in phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced cancers; mechanism-related DLTs were hypertension and deep venous thrombosis. Stable disease was also observed in several patients treated on either schedule, and several patients on the weekly schedule exhibited partial responses. At the time of publication, ramucirumab was undergoing assessment in phase II trials as a monotherapy in hepatocellular, renal cell and ovarian carcinomas. Ramucirumab was also in phase II trials in combination with dacarbazine in melanoma, with mitoxantrone/prednisone in prostate cancer, with carboplatin/paclitaxel in NSCLC and with oxaliplatin/folinic acid/5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer. A phase III trial in combination with docetaxel in breast cancer was also ongoing. Pending results from these trials, ramucirumab may be a useful addition to current antiangiogenic therapies. The results are awaited with interest.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266692900010

    View details for PubMedID 19513949

  • Gemcitabine and pemetrexed administered in rapid sequence as front-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II clinical trial ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY West, H. L., Wakelee, H. A., Perry, M. C., Belt, R. J., Chen, R., Obasaju, C. 2009; 20 (5): 850-856

    Abstract

    Previous studies of the gemcitabine-pemetrexed combination in patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) utilized a 90-min delay between gemcitabine and pemetrexed administration. This phase II study evaluated activity when these agents were administered in rapid succession.Chemonaive patients with late-stage NSCLC received gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, with pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) immediately following day 8 gemcitabine every 21 days for six cycles, folic acid, B(12), and steroid prophylaxis.Fifty-four enrolled patients (53 treated) completed a median of four cycles. Median dose intensity was 84% (gemcitabine) and 83% (pemetrexed); 68% of patients required dose adjustments. Response was as follows: complete response, 0; partial response, 7 (13%); stable disease, 29 (54%); progressive disease, 9 (17%); and unknown/unavailable, 9 (17%). Median progression-free and overall survival was 4.6 and 12.4 months, respectively. Common grade 3 or 4 toxic effects were as follows: neutropenia (40%); fatigue and dyspnea (21% each); pneumonia (17%); febrile neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (11% each); and anemia (6%).The gemcitabine-pemetrexed combination is minimally active in late-stage NSCLC, with a high incidence of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects requiring frequent dose adjustments. A gemcitabine dose <1250 mg/m(2) warrants consideration for future trials exploring this doublet. Administering day 8 pemetrexed immediately after gemcitabine does not appear to negatively impact therapeutic index.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdn715

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265739700008

    View details for PubMedID 19150937

  • Osteoblastic Bone Flare on F18-FDG PET in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Receiving Bevacizumab in Addition to Standard Chemotherapy JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Krupitskaya, Y., Eslamy, H. K., Nguyen, D. D., Kumar, A., Wakelee, H. A. 2009; 4 (3): 429-431

    Abstract

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used routinely to follow therapeutic response in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In responding patients it is generally expected that the observed decrease in fluorodeoxyglucose uptake should be similar in all lesions. In other disease entities though, isolated cases have been documented of asynchronous increases in activity in metastatic bone lesions ("bone flare") despite evidence of therapeutic response or stability in other lesions. Here, we describe four NSCLC cases in which the results of interim PET scans were misleading due to osteoblastic flare phenomenon. In all four cases, patients were treated with bevacizumab in addition to standard chemotherapy. All four patients developed isolated worsening of their skeletal metastases on PET/CT (computed tomography) analysis (increase in fluorodeoxyglucose activity) despite apparent response or stable disease elsewhere. Subsequent scans confirmed that the "worsening" was transient, consistent with a flare response. Awareness of the phenomena is important for physicians treating NSCLC patients, particularly with bevacizumab.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263961500026

    View details for PubMedID 19247091

  • Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Current Status and Future Challenges in Cancer Therapy BIODRUGS Hsu, J. Y., Wakelee, H. A. 2009; 23 (5): 289-304

    Abstract

    The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway has been a significant addition to cancer therapy. One of the VEGF family members, VEGF-A (commonly referred to as VEGF), has been demonstrated to be important in angiogenesis. Although the mechanism of action of these antibodies is still under study, the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab has been approved for treatment of various solid cancers including colorectal, lung, and breast cancers as well as glioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma. Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer did not improve disease-free survival. Bevacizumab is being tested in other clinical settings such as adjuvant therapy, maintenance therapy, and in combination with both chemotherapy and other targeted agents such as the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor erlotinib. In addition to bevacizumab, other antibody-based therapies targeting the VEGF pathway are being tested. Ramucirumab and IMC-18F1 are monoclonal antibodies that target the VEGF receptors VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-1, respectively. Aflibercept (VEGF-Trap), a peptide-antibody fusion targeting VEGF ligand, is being tested in clinical trials. Much research is focused on identifying biomarkers to predict which patients will benefit from anti-VEGF therapy. Recent results suggest that VEGF single nucleotide polymorphisms may be predictive of patient response to bevacizumab. Improved imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can better characterize the efficacy of anti-angiogenic agents. As anti-VEGF treatments such as bevacizumab have been integrated into the treatment of many different types of cancers, the development of bevacizumab-resistant tumors has become more common. Recent studies show that targeting other angiogenesis signaling pathways such as platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C), Bombina variagata peptide 8 (Bv8, also known as prokineticin-2), and VEGFR-3 may lead to enhanced response in anti-VEGF resistant tumors. In the future, tailored treatments consisting of combinations of chemotherapy, other targeted therapies, and anti-angiogenesis agents will hopefully result in better patient outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271048500003

    View details for PubMedID 19754219

  • Cooperative Group Research Efforts in Lung Cancer 2008: Focus on Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H., Kernstine, K., Vokes, E., Schiller, J., Baas, P., Saijo, N., Adjei, A., Goss, G., Gaspar, L., Gandara, D. R., Choy, H., Putnam, J. ". 2008; 9 (6): 346-351

    Abstract

    Clinical trials performed within the cooperative group system play a substantial role in the advancing of lung cancer therapy. Interactions between the leaders of the cooperative groups are critical and occur regularly throughout the year, but the annual Lung Cancer Congress provides a unique forum for representatives from each group to present ongoing and planned studies in an interactive forum. Herein, we highlight discussion from the 9th annual Lung Cancer Congress in June 2008, focused on advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many studies are looking at the addition of targeted agents such as bevacizumab, cetuximab, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, and apoptosis-inducing agents to chemotherapy. Personalizing therapy by better selection of patients for particular drugs is also being emphasized, most notably epidermal growth factor receptor fluorescence in situ hybridization overexpression and other predictions of response with cetuximab. Future articles in this series will address early and locally advanced NSCLC as well as other thoracic malignancies such as small-cell lung cancer and mesothelioma. Ongoing trials within the cooperative groups are an essential component of the persistent improvement in the treatment of lung cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.3816/CLC.2008.n.050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261302100005

    View details for PubMedID 19073517

  • Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected non-small cell lung cancer. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Wakelee, H., Chhatwani, L. 2008; 20 (3): 198-203

    Abstract

    Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but even for stage IA, disease relapse rates remain as high as 30%. Patients with completely resected (R0) N1 disease have about a 50% chance of relapse. In the past 5 years, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy has finally been demonstrated for patients with lung cancer. Improvements of 5% to 10% 5-year survival have been reported with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Still, cure rates have significant room for improvement and ongoing trials with "targeted" agents such as those active against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vaccine therapy will hopefully further increase the odds for patients with resected disease. Other studies looking at tumor gene and protein expression will lead us toward better identification of patients most likely to benefit from therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2008.09.001

    View details for PubMedID 19038728

  • Sex differences in lung-cancer susceptibility: a smoke screen? LANCET ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Gomez, S. L., Chang, E. T. 2008; 9 (7): 609-610

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257527400006

    View details for PubMedID 18598927

  • Summary statement - Novel Agents in the Treatment of Lung Cancer: Fifth Cambridge Conference assessing opportunities for combination therapy JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Lynch, T. J., Blumenschein, G. R., Engelman, J. A., Espinoza-Delgado, I., Govindan, R., Hanke, J., Hanna, N. H., Heymach, J. V., Hirsch, F. R., Janne, P. A., Lilenbaum, R. C., Natale, R. B., Riely, G. J., Sequist, L. V., Shapiro, G. T., Shaw, A., Shepherd, F. A., Socinski, M., Sorensen, A. G., Wakelee, H. A., Weitzman, A. 2008; 3 (6): S107-S112

    Abstract

    The promise of effective targeted therapy for lung cancer requires rigorous identification of potential targets combined with intensive discovery and development efforts aimed at developing effective "drugs" for these targets. We now recognize that getting the right drug to the right target in the right patient is more complicated than one could have imagined a decade ago. As knowledge of targets and development of agents have proliferated and advanced, so too have data demonstrating the biologic heterogeneity of tumors. The finding that lung cancers are genetically diverse and can exhibit several pathways of resistance in response to targeted agents makes the prospect for curative therapy more daunting. It is becoming increasingly clear that single-agent treatment will be the exception rather than the rule. This information raises important new questions about the development and assessment of novel agents in lung cancer treatment: (1) How do we identify the most important drug targets for tumor initiation and maintenance? (2) What is the best way to assess drug candidates that may only be relevant in a small fraction of patients? (3) What models do we use to predict clinical response and identify effective combinations? And (4) how do we bring combination regimens to the clinic, particularly when the agents are not yet approved individually and may be under development from different companies? The Fifth Cambridge Conference on Novel Agents in the Treatment of Lung Cancer was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 1-2, 2007, to discuss these questions by reviewing recent progress in the field and advancing recommendations for research and patient care. New information, conclusions, and recommendations considered significant for the field by the program faculty are summarized here and presented at greater length in the individual articles and accompanying discussions that comprise the full conference proceedings. A CME activity based on this summary is also available at www.informedicalcme.com/cme.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256828300001

    View details for PubMedID 18520291

  • Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. 2008; 3 (6): S113-S118

    Abstract

    Angiogenesis, formation of new vasculature, is critical to cancer growth. Agents that block angiogenesis, in particular bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds vascular endothelial growth factor, the key ligand in angiogenesis, have become an important option for many patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Activity was first demonstrated in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E4599, a large phase 3 trial that randomized patients with newly diagnosed, nonsquamous NSCLC to receive carboplatin/paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The study demonstrated significant improvements in response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival with the addition of bevacizumab. Median overall survival improved from 10.3 to 12.3 months (p = 0.003). Significant toxic effects, including fatal hemoptysis, however, resulted in 15 treatment-related deaths in the bevacizumab arm. The beneficial results were recently confirmed in the European Avastin in Lung Cancer B017704 (AVAiL) trial. In AVAiL, patients with newly diagnosed nonsquamous NSCLC were randomized to receive cisplatin/gemcitabine with or without bevacizumab at doses of either 7.5 or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Both doses resulted in statistically significant improvements in response rate and progression-free survival, but overall survival results have yet to be presented. Based on these encouraging results, the drug is now being studied in earlier-stage disease as neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy and in locally advanced NSCLC. Exploration of the safety and efficacy of the drug in combination with other chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, and in previously excluded patient populations such as those with brain metastases, is also ongoing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256828300002

    View details for PubMedID 18520292

  • Complications of ablative therapies in lung cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Padda, S., Kothary, N., Donington, J., Cannon, W., Loo, B. W., Kee, S., Wakelee, H. 2008; 9 (2): 122-126

    Abstract

    Two cases of complications secondary to the use of microwave ablation (MWA) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are discussed herein. The first case involves a 62-year-old man with stage IB NSCLC who declined surgery and pursued MWA. Within 7 months, he had residual disease at the MWA treatment site, and surgery was performed. The patient was found to have pleural and chest wall involvement, making complete resection impossible. The second case involves an 86-year-old woman with a second local recurrence of NSCLC and previous treatment including surgery and chemoradiation therapy. She was initially a surgical candidate but declined surgery and pursued MWA. Within 6 months, she had residual disease at the MWA treatment site. A second MWA was performed, and she developed a large cavitary abscess at the MWA site and had subsequent clinical decline. Less invasive ablation therapies and stereotactic radiosurgery are being developed for patients with inoperable lung cancer. Because these modalities have recently been developed, trials that clearly show efficacy and survival benefit are yet to be completed. Ablation procedures can result in complications, including residual disease and cavitary lesions susceptible to infection. These cases highlight the caution that should still be observed when recommending lung ablation strategies and the importance of selecting appropriate patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255039000010

    View details for PubMedID 18501100

  • Cooperative group portfolio in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Are we making progress? CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Langer, C. J., Wakelee, H., Schiller, J., Choy, H., Shepherd, F., Vokes, E. E., Adjei, A. A., Baas, P., Saijo, N., Gandara, D. R. 2008; 9 (2): 85-91

    Abstract

    Combined-modality therapy has emerged as the standard of care for fit patients with unresectable, locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Concurrent chemotherapy/radiation has demonstrated therapeutic superiority compared with sequential or asynchronous chemotherapy and radiation in this setting. The role of consolidation or maintenance therapy with targeted agents or conventional cytotoxic agents remains unclear. We explore the portfolio of clinical trials being conducted in locally advanced NSCLC by North American cooperative oncology groups as well as ongoing trials in Europe and Japan. These efforts focus on radiation dose escalation using image-guided radiation therapy as well as newer cytotoxic agents (eg, pemetrexed) and targeted therapies (eg, cetuximab, bevacizumab, and etc) thus far unexplored in this setting.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255039000004

    View details for PubMedID 18501094

  • Diagnosis in oncology - Lung cancer presenting with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Witteles, W. H., Schrier, S. L., Wakelee, H. A. 2008; 26 (7): 1171-1174
  • Cooperative group research efforts in lung cancer: Focus on early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H., Langer, C., Vokes, E., Schiller, J., Baas, P., Saijo, N., Adjei, A., Shepherd, F., Choy, H., Gandara, D. R. 2008; 9 (1): 9-15

    Abstract

    Many of the most significant advances in the treatment of lung cancer have come from trials run within the cooperative group system. The leaders of the lung cancer section of each group interact throughout the year, but an annual lung cancer congress in Hawaii provides a forum for extensive discussions of ongoing and planned trials. This article is the first in a series that will focus on the key points of this discussion held at the 8th Annual Lung Cancer Congress in June 2007. Early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer trials are highlighted in this manuscript. Current work in adjuvant therapy is focused on exploring the use of bevacizumab in addition to chemotherapy for resected disease in a large Intergroup study and the use of more "personalized" chemotherapy based on specific genomic or protein expression profiles of individual tumors in smaller exploratory studies. The question of postoperative radiation therapy is being addressed within the cooperative groups. Alternative approaches to surgery, such as lesser resections in smaller tumors and accelerated radiation including stereotactic radiosurgery, are also under investigation within this framework. Ongoing trials within the cooperative groups continue to drive steady improvement in the treatment of lung cancer and offer great promise for the future.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252840000002

    View details for PubMedID 18282352

  • Metabolic tumor burden predicts for disease progression and death in lung cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Lee, P., Weerasuriya, D. K., Lavori, P. W., Quon, A., Hara, W., Maxim, P. G., Le, Q., Wakelee, H. A., Donington, J. S., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W. 2007; 69 (2): 328-333

    Abstract

    In lung cancer, stage is an important prognostic factor for disease progression and survival. However, stage may be simply a surrogate for underlying tumor burden. Our purpose was to assess the prognostic value of tumor burden measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging.We identified 19 patients with lung cancer who had staging PET-CT scans before any therapy, and adequate follow-up (complete to time of progression for 18, and death for 15 of 19). Metabolically active tumor regions were segmented on pretreatment PET scans semi-automatically using custom software. We determined the relationship between times to progression (TTP) and death (OS) and two PET parameters: total metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and standardized uptake value (SUV).The estimated median TTP and OS for the cohort were 9.3 months and 14.8 months. On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, an increase in MTV of 25 ml (difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with increased hazard of progression and of death (5.4-fold and 7.6-fold), statistically significant (p = 0.0014 and p = 0.001) after controlling for stage, treatment intent (definitive or palliative), age, Karnofsky performance status, and weight loss. We did not find a significant relationship between SUV and TTP or OS.In this study, high tumor burden assessed by PET MTV is an independent poor prognostic feature in lung cancer, promising for stratifying patients in randomized trials and ultimately for selecting risk-adapted therapies. These results will need to be validated in larger cohorts with longer follow-up, and evaluated prospectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.04.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249796100002

    View details for PubMedID 17869659

  • Adjuvant chemotherapy of stage I non-small cell lung cancer in North America JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Gandara, D. R., Wakelee, H., Calhoun, R., Jablons, D. 2007; 2 (7): S125-S127

    Abstract

    The utility of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now well established. Although a number of randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in the overall population treated, subset analysis, excepting Japanese studies, has uniformly shown the greatest efficacy for patients with stage II and III disease and the least benefit for patient with stage I disease. We review data regarding adjuvant therapy of stage I NSCLC from clinical trials performed in North America and Europe. Pertinent trials from Japan are discussed elsewhere in this issue.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247937100007

    View details for PubMedID 17603308

  • Role of anti-angiogenesis agents in treating NSCLC: focus on bevacizumab and VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Current treatment options in oncology Cabebe, E., Wakelee, H. 2007; 8 (1): 15-27

    Abstract

    OPINION STATEMENT: Successful inhibition of angiogenesis with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab has improved the efficacy seen with standard cytotoxic therapy in NSCLC. The addition of bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy improved response rate and progression free survival and added 2 months to median overall survival for those patients with advanced stage NSCLC on the treatment arm of E4599. Bevacizumab is now a standard agent to add to frontline carboplatin and paclitaxel for patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC who meet the eligibility criteria from the landmark E4599 trial. Unfortunately about half of all patients are not eligible either because they have squamous histology, brain metastases, or are on anti-coagulation. Ongoing trials are further exploring the safety of bevacizumab in these patient populations, as well as in combination with other cytotoxic regimens. Exploration of other applications of bevacizumab in the second-line and adjuvant setting are ongoing as well. The largest class of drugs that block angiogenesis are the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target the VEGF receptor (VEGFR). These drugs are still in development, and though two are now on the market for treating other malignancies, their role in NSCLC is under investigation. These agents have the advantages of hitting multiple targets, convenient oral administration, and potential for lower cost. Their lack of target specificity leads to unexpected toxicity, but also promising efficacy. For example, the overall objective response rate of 9.5% with single agent sunitinib compares similarly to that of pemetrexed or docetaxel in previously treated NSCLC patients, but toxicity, notably fatigue, lead to discontinuation in 38% of patients. Hypertension, hemorrhage and cavitation are common toxicities amongst this class of agents. Rash, fatigue, myalgia, and hand-foot syndrome are more specifically seen with TKIs. These compounds may also be synergistic or additive with traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and other novel compounds. In early trials sorafenib as a single agent has shown no clinical response in previously treated NSCLC patients, whereas clinical benefit in combination with erlotinib or chemotherapy has been seen in early studies. Vandetanib has demonstrated objective responses as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in previously treated NSCLC patients. A phase I trial of AZD2171 with carboplatin and paclitaxel in newly diagnosed advanced stage NSCLC also demonstrated promising results with 6 of 15 patients achieving partial responses. NSCLC specific trials are also underway, or in development for pazopanib, axitinib, AMG 706, XL647, enzastaurin, and other TKIs. Other anti-angiogenesis agents with different mechanisms of action include thalidomide and its derivatives, monoclonal antibodies to the VEGFRs, and VEGF Trap, a chimeric molecule which combines extracellular portions of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 with the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G1 to form a molecule that binds and "traps" VEGF. Despite modest improvements, prognosis continues to be poor for patients with advanced NSCLC. Bevacizumab is a first step into the world of angiogenesis inhibitors for NSCLC and though it only offers a modest survival benefit in a limited patient population, it paves the way for the development of the next generation of anti-angiogenesis inhibitors. We can hope that further improvements in survival will follow.

    View details for PubMedID 17634832

  • Optimal adjuvant therapy for non-small cell lung cancer - How to handle stage I disease ONCOLOGIST Wakelee, H., Dubey, S., Gandara, D. 2007; 12 (3): 331-337

    Abstract

    The standard of care for resected stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) now includes adjuvant chemotherapy based on the results of three phase III studies using cisplatin-based regimens--the International Adjuvant Lung Trial, the National Cancer Institute of Canada JBR.10 trial, and the Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association trial. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I disease remains controversial. A recent meta-analysis (the Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation) showed potential harm with the addition of adjuvant cisplatin for stage IA disease and no survival benefit for this modality in stage IB disease. Updated results from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9633 trial, the only trial to focus exclusively on stage IB patients, no longer show a statistically significant survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in this population, except for the subgroup of patients with larger tumors. It may be that trials have been underpowered to detect a small benefit for patients with stage IB disease, or there may really not be benefit to adding adjuvant therapy for this stage of disease. Additional markers, such as tumor size or the presence or absence of certain tumor proteins like ERCC1, may help to determine which patients with resected stage I NSCLC may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Strategies such as inhibition of angiogenesis pathways and the epidermal growth factor receptor are under exploration.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/theoncologist.12-3-331

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245543600012

    View details for PubMedID 17405898

  • Results of a phase I dose-escalation study using single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Le, Q., Loo, B. W., Ho, A., Cotrutz, C., Koong, A. C., Wakelee, H., Kee, S. T., Constantinescu, D., Whyte, R. I., Donington, J. 2006; 1 (8): 802-809

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to report initial results of a phase I study using single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with inoperable lung tumors.Eligible patients included those with inoperable T1-2N0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or solitary lung metastases. Treatments were delivered by means of the CyberKnife. All patients underwent computed tomography-guided metallic fiducial placement in the tumor for image-guided targeting. Nine to 20 patients were treated per dose cohort starting at 15 Gy/fraction followed by dose escalation of 5 to 10 Gy to a maximal dose of 30 Gy/fraction. A minimal 3-month period was required between each dose level to monitor toxicity.Thirty-two patients (21 NSCLC and 11 metastatic tumors) were enrolled. At 25 Gy, pulmonary toxicity was noted in patients with prior pulmonary RT and treatment volumes greater than 50 cc; therefore, dose escalation to 30 Gy was applied only to unirradiated patients and treatment volume less than 50 cc. Ten patients received doses less than 20 Gy, 20 received 25 Gy, and two received 30 Gy. RT-related complications were noted for doses greater than 25 Gy and included four cases of grade 2 to 3 pneumonitis, one pleural effusion, and three possible treatment-related deaths. The 1-year freedom from local progression was 91% for dose greater than 20 Gy and 54% for dose less than 20 Gy in NSCLC (p = 0.03). NSCLC patients had significantly better freedom from relapse (p = 0.003) and borderline higher survival than those with metastatic tumors (p = 0.07).Single-fraction stereotactic RT is feasible for selected patients with lung tumors. For those with prior thoracic RT, 25 Gy may be too toxic. Higher dose was associated with improved local control. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine the treatment efficacy and toxicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241649300008

    View details for PubMedID 17409963

  • A multidisciplinary approach to management in a patient with bilateral superior sulcus non-small-cell lung carcinoma CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Roy, M. S., Le, Q., Donington, J. S., Wakelee, H. A. 2006; 8 (2): 146-148

    Abstract

    Superior sulcus tumors comprise a rare subset of non-small-cell lung carcinomas that are particularly challenging to treat because of their location and extent of nerve and vessel involvement. In this report, we present a case illustrating the uncommon situation of a patient presenting with bilateral superior sulcus tumors, and we review the latest combined therapeutic approach developed to aggressively treat the more common unilateral presentation of these tumors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242173600010

    View details for PubMedID 17026817

  • Lung cancer in women: Exploring sex differences in susceptibility, biology, and therapeutic response CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Donington, J. S., Le, Q., Wakelee, H. A. 2006; 8 (1): 22-29

    Abstract

    Src tyrosine kinases regulate a large number of important mechanisms in normal and cancerous cells, are overexpressed in a broad range of tumors including lung cancer, and thus represent a potential target for cancer therapy. Preclinical experiments indicate that small-molecule inhibitors of Src block tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Phase I data from healthy volunteers also suggest that inhibitors of Src prevent bone resorption. Several phase II trials with small-molecule inhibitors of Src are under way or have been initiated in lung cancer and in other malignancies, as discussed herein.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242173500003

    View details for PubMedID 16870042

  • Current status of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer: Implications for the new intergroup trial CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H. A., Schiller, J. H., Gandara, D. R. 2006; 8 (1): 18-21

    Abstract

    Adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of stage II-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer is now the standard of care based on the results of 3 phase III studies using cisplatin-based regimens, IALT (International Adjuvant Lung Trial), The National Cancer Institute of Canada JBR.10, and ANITA (Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association). The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IB disease remains controversial, even more so now that the updated results from CALGB (Cancer and Leukemia Group B) trial 9633 are statistically negative. CALGB 9633 was the only randomized adjuvant trial to use a carboplatin backbone and focused exclusively on patients with stage IB disease. Initial results, reported in 2004, showed a significant survival advantage with the addition of chemotherapy, but the 2006 updated results are no longer statistically significant. The next large intergroup adjuvant trial in non-small-cell lung cancer will look at bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy. Because of the recent update, this trial will now limit patients with stage IB disease to those with larger tumors (>or= 4 cm) and will likely include only cisplatin-based regimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242173500002

    View details for PubMedID 16870041

  • Sunitinib: A newly approved small-molecule inhibitor of angiogenesis DRUGS OF TODAY Cabebe, E., Wakelee, H. 2006; 42 (6): 387-398

    Abstract

    The advent of targeted therapies has allowed treatment to be directed at signaling pathways integral to tumor growth and survival. Sunitinib (SU11248, sunitinib malate; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) is a novel oral small-molecule multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has demonstrated direct antitumor activity and antiangiogenic action. It targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), stem-cell factor receptor and Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 3 receptor tyrosine-kinases. In January 2006, sunitinib malate was granted approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor after disease progression on, or intolerance to, imatinib mesylate, as well as for the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer. This review will discuss the development of sunitinib, particularly in acute myeloid leukemia, imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal cell cancer. The review will also discuss ongoing trials with sunitinib in other malignancies such as neuroendocrine tumors and breast cancer, as well as its potential future development in combination therapy with other agents and in other malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1358/dot.2006.42.6.985633

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240040300004

    View details for PubMedID 16845442

  • Survival differences by sex for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial 1594 JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Wang, W., Schiller, J. H., Langer, C. J., Sandler, A. B., Belani, C. P., Johnson, D. H. 2006; 1 (5): 441-446

    Abstract

    Previous data suggest that women may live longer with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than men. We evaluated whether sex affected survival in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) E1594 trial. E1594 randomized patients with advanced NSCLC to one of four platinum doublets and found that all four regimens had comparable efficacy.Patients in the E1594 database were divided into male and female cohorts; response and survival were calculated separately for each cohort. Known prognostic factors and differences in toxicity profiles were compared between the two cohorts.All 1157 eligible patients (431 women, 726 men) from E1594 were included in this analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in performance status, weight loss of >10%, stage, or incidence of brain metastases between women and men. Response rates were similar (19% for both; P = 0.15). The median survival time for women, however, was significantly longer at 9.2 months (95% CI, 8.1-10.4 months) versus only 7.3 months for men (95% CI, 6.8-8.0 months) (P = 0.004 log-rank test). Toxicity was generally greater in women than in men.Women in ECOG 1594 had a 1.9-month statistically significant improvement in median survival compared with men, despite similar response rates and greater toxicity and no difference in other known prognostic factors. These data strongly support the significance of sex as a separate prognostic factor in advanced NSCLC and emphasize the importance of sex as a stratification factor in future phase III NSCLC trials.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239233300011

    View details for PubMedID 17409897

  • Changes in the natural history of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - Comparison of outcomes and characteristics in patients with advanced NSCLC entered in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials before and after 1990 CANCER Wakelee, H. A., Bernardo, P., Johnson, D. H., Schiller, J. H. 2006; 106 (10): 2208-2217

    Abstract

    Demographic factors and treatment regimens were evaluated in relation to differences in outcome between patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were diagnosed and treated on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II and III trials from 1981 to 1990 and from 1991 to 2000.In this retrospective analysis, 6 advanced NSCLC trials were identified between 1981 and 1990, and 3 trials were identified after 1990. Patient characteristics (n = 3398 patients) and other clinical outcomes were analyzed, including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).Patients who entered on trials after 1990 more likely were women, received a cisplatin-containing regimen, had a performance status of 0 or 1, had Stage IIIB (vs. Stage IV) disease, had tumors with adenocarcinoma histology, had weight loss < or = 10%, and had pulmonary-only metastases (although more total metastases and brain metastases) compared with patients who were diagnosed before 1990. OS was longer post-1990 than pre-1990 (8.2 months vs. 5.8 months pre-1990), and PFS was longer post-1990 (3.5 months vs. 2.6 months pre-1990; P<.001 for both). In addition, the median interval from the date of disease progression to death increased by nearly 62% in the later decade.Improved survival in more recent NSCLC trials was explained in part by the enrollment of patients with more favorable prognostic factors. A change in the natural history of the disease was reflected by some of these changes, including increased numbers of women with the disease and changes in the patterns of metastases. Changes in eligibility criteria also accounted for some improvements in prognostic factors and improved second line therapies in the later decade. Thus, the survival improvements are likely to be multifactorial, with improved therapies also playing a major role.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.21869

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237278300016

    View details for PubMedID 16604529

  • An evaluation of tumor oxygenation and gene expression in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancers CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Le, Q. T., Chen, E., Salim, A., Cao, H. B., Kong, C. S., Whyte, R., Donington, J., Cannon, W., Wakelee, H., Tibshirani, R., Mitchell, J. D., Richardson, D., O'Byrne, K. J., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J. 2006; 12 (5): 1507-1514

    Abstract

    To directly assess tumor oxygenation in resectable non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and to correlate tumor pO2 and the selected gene and protein expression to treatment outcomes.Twenty patients with resectable NSCLC were enrolled. Intraoperative measurements of normal lung and tumor pO2 were done with the Eppendorf polarographic electrode. All patients had plasma osteopontin measurements by ELISA. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA IX) staining of tumor sections was done in the majority of patients (n = 16), as was gene expression profiling (n = 12) using cDNA microarrays. Tumor pO2 was correlated with CA IX staining, osteopontin levels, and treatment outcomes.The median tumor pO2 ranged from 0.7 to 46 mm Hg (median, 16.6) and was lower than normal lung pO2 in all but one patient. Because both variables were affected by the completeness of lung deflation during measurement, we used the ratio of tumor/normal lung (T/L) pO2 as a reflection of tumor oxygenation. The median T/L pO2 was 0.13. T/L pO2 correlated significantly with plasma osteopontin levels (r = 0.53, P = 0.02) and CA IX expression (P = 0.006). Gene expression profiling showed that high CD44 expression was a predictor for relapse, which was confirmed by tissue staining of CD44 variant 6 protein. Other variables associated with the risk of relapse were T stage (P = 0.02), T/L pO2 (P = 0.04), and osteopontin levels (P = 0.001).Tumor hypoxia exists in resectable NSCLC and is associated with elevated expression of osteopontin and CA IX. Tumor hypoxia and elevated osteopontin levels and CD44 expression correlated with poor prognosis. A larger study is needed to confirm the prognostic significance of these factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235988000016

    View details for PubMedID 16533775

  • Second- and third-line treatments in non-small cell lung cancer. Current treatment options in oncology Kumar, A., Wakelee, H. 2006; 7 (1): 37-49

    Abstract

    Slow but steady progress has been made in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. For first-line therapy, multiple chemotherapy combination therapies can extend survival and improve quality of life. And recently, for the first time ever, a noncytotoxic agent, the antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab, has been shown to improve survival when added to chemotherapy. Striking improvements have also been made in second-line treatment. In August 2004, only one agent was US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in this setting, docetaxel, but by the beginning of 2005, two more were available, pemetrexed and erlotinib. All three of these drugs can significantly benefit patients, with 1-year survival in excess of 30%. Choosing between the three agents can be challenging, and this review focuses on the toxicity differences and predictors of response that can help guide this decision. Docetaxel and pemetrexed, both traditional intravenous cytotoxins, are excellent options for patients who have shown some response to first-line chemotherapy, but at this time, no other means exist to determine likelihood of response. When choosing between the two, pemetrexed causes significantly less neutropenia than does docetaxel, at least on the standard every-3-week regimen. With erlotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, there are factors that can predict for response, including little or no smoking history, and adenocarcinoma histology. Therefore, patients who fit these characteristics are good candidates for second-line erlotinib. However, the relationship between response to erlotinib and improved survival remains unclear, and several laboratory analyses that may help further, such as evaluation of EGFR gene copy number, are still under development. Although erlotinib is the only FDA-approved option currently available for third-line therapy, many patients with good performance status may benefit from third-line therapy and beyond. In addition to the approved second-line options, other single-agent chemotherapies to consider for treatment beyond second-line are gemcitabine, irinotecan, and oral topotecan. Many new drugs, including bevacizumab, ZD6474 (AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE), sorafenib, cetuximab, paclitaxel poliglumex, epothilones, and others, alone or in combination with traditional agents, are currently undergoing investigation and hold great promise.

    View details for PubMedID 16343367

  • Targeting angiogenesis with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor small-molecule inhibitors: Novel agents with potential in lung cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H. A., Schiller, J. H. 2005; 7: S31-S38

    Abstract

    The treatment of lung cancer remains a significant challenge. Although chemotherapy remains the standard approach, a plateau has been reached in its efficacy. The development of novel targeted agents, particularly those targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor, has given us another approach. Developments with antiangiogenesis agents hold promise as new approaches in lung cancer therapy. Much of the work to date has focused on the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab. In this article we will focus on the tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the VEGF receptors. These compounds, including sunitinib (SU11248; Sutent), vatalanib (PTK787), ZD6474, AZD2171, GW786034, sorafenib (BAY 43-9006), CP-547,632, and AG013736, are still at an early stage of development. We present phase I data (and phase II/III data when available) of these compounds and discuss their potential development in the treatment of lung cancer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242719700005

    View details for PubMedID 16159417

  • Activity of novel cytotoxic agents in lung cancer: Epothilones and topoisomerase I inhibitors CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H. A., Sikic, B. I. 2005; 7: S6-S12

    Abstract

    The treatment of lung cancer--small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)--is a significant challenge in oncology. The best reported median survival remains near 1 year in advanced NSCLC despite several decades of steady improvement and extensive research with traditional chemotherapy drugs and novel compounds targeted to different aspects of tumor cell growth and function (such as the epidermal growth factor receptor). Extensive-stage SCLC survival is only slightly better. Novel "targeted" therapeutic agents hold promise, but cytotoxic therapy remains the backbone of treatment. Many new cytotoxic agents are currently in development. In this review, we will focus on 2 classes of cytotoxins: epothilones and topoisomerase I inhibitors. Epothilones are microtubule stabilizers with a mechanism of action similar to that of the taxanes, with preclinical activity superior to that of the taxanes. Phase I trials have been completed for patupilone and ixabepilone, and there are encouraging phase II data with ixabepilone in NSCLC. A phase II trial of patupilone is ongoing. The camptothecins, which are topoisomerase I inhibitors, have a long history in the treatment of lung cancer, but the currently available drugs, topotecan and irinotecan, have limitations. Gimatecan and other novel camptothecins have superior preclinical activity and promising phase I/II data in NSCLC and SCLC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242719700002

    View details for PubMedID 16159420

  • Phase II study of gefitinib, fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin therapy in previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kuo, T., Cho, C. D., Halsey, J., Wakelee, H. A., Advani, R. H., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Sikic, B. I. 2005; 23 (24): 5613-5619

    Abstract

    To investigate the gefitinib, fluorouracil (FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin regimen (IFOX) in previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Eligible patients had stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma and had demonstrated progression or intolerance to a prior chemotherapy regimen not including oxaliplatin. Each cycle consisted of 14 days. Cycle 1 consisted of oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) during 2 hours on day 1, hours 0 to 2; leucovorin 200 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 2, hours 0 to 2; FU 400 mg/m2 IV push on days 1 and 2; and FU 600 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 2, hours 2 to 24 (FOLFOX-4). All subsequent cycles consisted of FOLFOX-4 with gefitinib at 500 mg/d administered orally throughout the 14-day cycle.Twenty-seven patients were enrolled onto the study. The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was two, and 74% of all patients received prior irinotecan. Nine of the 27 patients (33%) and six of the 20 patients (30%) who had prior FU and irinotecan had a partial response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Group criteria. Median overall survival was 12.0 months. Median event-free survival was 5.4 months. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities included neutropenia (48%), diarrhea (48%), nausea (22%), and vomiting (15%).IFOX is an active regimen in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, demonstrating higher response rates than those reported with FOLFOX-4 alone in a similar patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2005.08.359

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231371700034

    View details for PubMedID 16110021

  • Post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) or chemoradiotherapy (CPORT) following resection of stages II and IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) does not increase the expected risk of death from intercurrent disease (DID) in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) trial E3590 LUNG CANCER Wakelee, H. A., Stephenson, P., Keller, S. M., Wagner, H., Herskovic, A., Komaki, R., Marks, R. S., Perry, M. C., Livingston, R. B., Johnson, D. H. 2005; 48 (3): 389-397

    Abstract

    To determine the influence of adjuvant therapy on the risk of DID following resection of NSCLC, we compared the actuarial rate of non-cancer related deaths of patients who had been entered in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E3590 (a phase III trial of adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected stages II and IIIA NSCLC) to the actuarial death rate of age and gender matched controls. Following surgery, patients were randomized to receive either PORT (5040 cGy in 28 daily fractions) or CPORT (PORT plus four cycles of cisplatin (60 mg/m2, day 1) and etoposide (120 mg/m2, days 1-3) administered concurrently). The study accrued 488 patients, 242 to the PORT only arm and 246 to the CPORT arm. The overall 4 years actuarial rate of DID for the two arms combined, with a median follow-up of 82 months, was 12.9%, not significantly different from the 10.1% expected rate of DID, based on mortality rates for age and gender matched controls derived from US vital statistics and corrected for smoking status (p=0.16). Survival distributions with regard to DID did not differ between the two treatment arms (p=0.96). DID increased with age (treated as a continuous variable, p<0.01), but was not affected by histology, side of chest irradiated, type of surgery, FEV1 or weight loss in the previous 6 months. The risk of DID following resection of stages II and IIIA NSCLC is not increased in patients who received PORT or CPORT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.11.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229645600012

    View details for PubMedID 15893008

  • A phase I trial of irinotecan (CPT-11) with amifostine in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Wakelee, H., Fisher, G. A. 2005; 23 (3): 241-242

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10637-005-6732-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228876800006

    View details for PubMedID 15868380

  • Docetaxel in advanced non-small cell lung cancer EXPERT REVIEW OF ANTICANCER THERAPY Wakelee, H., Ramalingam, S., Belani, C. P. 2005; 5 (1): 13-24

    Abstract

    Based on the survival benefit demonstrated in large randomized clinical trials, docetaxel is approved for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in both the first- and second-line settings. The efficacy of docetaxel in combination with cisplatin is equivalent to some, and superior to other, platinum-based doublets for first-line management of NSCLC, and has a manageable toxicity profile. Carboplatin-based regimens and nonplatinum combinations with docetaxel also have proven efficacy in first-line therapy of patients with advanced NSCLC. Combinations of docetaxel with various novel targeted agents have produced encouraging data in Phase II studies. This article reviews recent studies of docetaxel as a single agent and in combination regimens with cytotoxic and more recent targeted agents in the management of advanced NSCLC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233979300003

    View details for PubMedID 15757434

  • Optimizing first-line treatment options for patients with advanced NSCLC ONCOLOGIST Wakelee, H., Belani, C. P. 2005; 10: 1-10

    Abstract

    The median survival time for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor, despite years of research into new chemotherapy combinations. Platinum-based chemotherapy has long been the standard of care for the initial treatment of advanced NSCLC. While no one particular platinum-based chemotherapy regimen is definitely superior to the others (as demonstrated in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group's E1594 trial), three randomized phase III trials (the Southwest Oncology Group 9509, Italian Lung Cancer Project, and TAX326 trials) have recently demonstrated that taxane-platinum doublets are better tolerated than a combination of vinorelbine and cisplatin (VC). Moreover, a combination of docetaxel and cisplatin produced superior survival and quality of life than VC in the TAX326 study. Nonplatinum combinations, such as a taxane-gemcitabine doublet, appear promising and better tolerated than their platinum-based comparators in other studies. Efforts to evaluate chemotherapy specifically in elderly patients and in those with poor performance status (PS) have increased. Single-agent chemotherapy has been safely administered to these populations, but platinum-based doublet therapy may also be feasible in both elderly patients and patients with PS scores of 2. The addition of the monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, bevacizumab, to standard chemotherapy for patients with non-squamous cell advanced NSCLC significantly extended median survival in the E4599 randomized trial. Each incremental advance demonstrates that progress can be made in first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234419400001

    View details for PubMedID 16368866

  • Novel approaches for the treatment of small cell lung cancer HEMATOLOGY-ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Wakelee, H., Kelly, K. 2004; 18 (2): 499-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hoc.2004.01.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221346600014

    View details for PubMedID 15094184

  • Delta F508-CFTR channels: Kinetics, activation by forskolin, and potentiation by xanthines AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY HAWS, C. M., Nepomuceno, I. B., Krouse, M. E., Wakelee, H., Law, T., Xia, Y., Nguyen, H., Wine, J. J. 1996; 270 (5): C1544-C1555

    Abstract

    Trafficking, activation, and kinetics of delta F508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and CFTR were compared in stably transduced C127I mouse mammary epithelial cells. Western blots detected a small amount of fully glycosylated delta F508-CFTR Efflux of 125I was stimulated by forskolin with the same mean effective concentration (EC50; approximately 0.5 microM) for CFTR and delta F508-CFTR cells, but the maximum response was reduced more than fivefold and its latency increased approximately threefold in delta F508-CFTR cells. In delta F508-CFTR cells, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; EC50 = 1.45 microM) and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX; EC50 = 58 microM) increased the peak forskolin-stimulated efflux rate approximately 2.5-fold and decreased the time to peak. A sevenfold increase in intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels accompanied potentiation of forskolin-induced 125I efflux by IBMX but not by CPX. Elevation of intracellular cAMP increased linear voltage-independent whole cell currents 30-fold in CFTR and 4-fold in delta F508-CFTR cells; the response rate in delta F508-CFTR cells was much slower. Single-channel currents were detected in 57 of 68 cell-attached patches from forskolin-prestimulated CFTR cells vs. 6 of 35 patches in delta F508-CFTR cells. Mean number of active channels per patch was 4.1 for CFTR [open probability (Po) = 0.34] and 0.2 for delta F508-CFTR (Po = 0.11). The lower Po of delta F508-CFTR resulted from an approximately threefold longer mean interburst interval. We estimate that forskolin-stimulated chloride conductance of delta F508-CFTR C127I cells is < 5% of CFTR cells. CPX is approximately 25-fold more potent than IBMX in potentiating delta F508-CFTR and may operate by a mechanism other than elevation of cAMP.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ81400034

    View details for PubMedID 8967457

Conference Proceedings


  • A phase II first line study of gemcitabine, carboplatin and bevacizumab in advanced stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer Clement-Duchene, C., Krupitskaya, Y., Ganjoo, K., Lavori, P., Kumar, A., Zhao, G., Padda, S., San Pedro-Salcedo, M., Wakelee, H. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: S674-S674
  • A phase II first-line study of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and bevacizumab (GCB) in advanced (adv) stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Krupitskaya, Y., Ganjoo, K., Lavori, P. W., Kumar, A., Clement-Duchene, C., Zhao, G., Padda, S., San Pedro-Salcedo, M., Wakelee, H. A. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2009

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