Use of eculizumab and plasma exchange in successful combined liver-kidney transplantation in a case of atypical HUS associated with complement factor H mutation.
2014; 29 (3): 477-480
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) evolves into end-stage renal failure in nearly half of affected patients and is associated with defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway. Patients with a complement factor H (CFH) mutation have a 30-100% risk of graft loss due to aHUS recurrence or graft thrombosis. Since CFH is produced predominantly by the liver, combined liver-kidney transplant is a curative treatment option. One major unexpected risk includes liver failure secondary to uncontrolled complement activation. We report a successful combined liver-kidney transplantation with perioperative plasma exchange and use of the humanized anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab.An 11-month-old female presented with oliguric renal failure after 3 weeks of flu-like symptoms in the absence of diarrhea. Following the identification of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in her stool, she was discharged home on peritoneal dialysis with a diagnosis of Shiga toxin-associated HUS. Three months later, she developed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neurological involvement. aHUS was diagnosed and confirmed, and genetic testing revealed a mutation in CFH SCR20. Once donor organs became available, she received preoperative plasma exchange followed by eculizumab infusion with intra-operative fresh frozen plasma prior to combined liver-kidney transplant. At 19 months post-transplant, she continues to have excellent allograft and liver function without signs of disease recurrence.Perioperative use of eculizumab in conjunction with plasma exchange during simultaneous liver-kidney transplant can be used to inhibit terminal complement activity, thereby optimizing successful transplantation by reducing the risk of graft thrombosis.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-013-2630-5
View details for PubMedID 24221349