Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • Medical Oncology
  • Hematology
  • Cancer > Hematology
  • Cancer > Blood and Marrow Transplant

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Chair, BMT Clinical Trials Network - NCI & NHLBI (2012 - 2014)
  • Medical Informatics Director, Stanford Hospital -Stanford Cancer Center (2011 - Present)
  • ASBMT Executive Committee - Secretary, American Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (2011 - Present)
  • NMDP Data Safety Monitoring Board, National Marrow Donor Program (2009 - Present)
  • ASH Communications Committee, American Society of Hematology (2007 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Division Teaching Award, Dept of Medicine (2003)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship:University of Chicago Hospitals (1997) IL
  • Residency:University of Chicago Hospitals (1993) IL
  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1994) CA
  • Internship:University of Chicago Hospitals (1991) IL
  • Medical Education:University of Texas Health Science Center (1990) TX
  • B.A., Baylor University, Psychology (1986)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


haploidentical transplantation, adoptive immnotherapy, follicular lymphoma, supportive care

Clinical Trials


  • Protocol For A Research Database For Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Other Cellular Therapies and Marrow Toxic Injuries Recruiting

    The primary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of observational data that can be used to study HSC transplantation. A secondary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of data to study marrow toxic injuries. Objectives: To learn more about what makes stem cell transplants work well, such as determining the following: - how well recipients recover from their transplant - how recovery after a transplant can be improved - how access to transplant for different groups of patients can be improved - how well donors recover from the collection procedures

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  • Bone Marrow Grafting for Leukemia and Lymphoma Recruiting

    Bone Marrow Grafting for Leukemia and Lymphoma

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  • Transplantation for Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Fluticasone Propionate, Azithromycin, and Montelukast Sodium in Treating Patients With Bronchiolitis Obliterans Who Previously Underwent Stem Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies how well giving fluticasone propionate, azithromycin, and montelukast sodium (FAM) together works in treating patients with bronchiolitis obliterans who previously underwent stem cell transplant. FAM may be an effective treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Social Adaptation in Long Term Survivors of Blood and Marrow Transplantation Not Recruiting

    1. To explore specific aspects of social adaptation such as social connectedness, occupational outcomes and family relationships in lymphoma patients after autologous blood or marrow transplantation (BMT). 2. To investigate how social adaptation varies with time lapsed since BMT and with the life stage as determined by patient?s age. Understanding both the positive and negative aspects of cancer and cancer therapy leads to opportunities to promote adaptive strategies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Prophylactic Use of Maribavir for the Prevention of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to investigate whether or not maribavir is safe and effective for preventing CMV disease when taken by mouth for up to 12 weeks in patients who have had a stem cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Janice Brown, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Post T-plant Infusion of Allogeneic Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Consolidative Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Disorders Recruiting

    This study examines CIK (Cytokine Induced Killer Cells) as Consolidative Therapy after Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation.

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  • Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0802) Not Recruiting

    The study is a Phase III, randomized double blind, placebo controlled, and trial evaluating the addition of MMF vs. placebo to systemic corticosteroids as initial therapy for acute GVHD. The primary endpoint will be GVHD free survival at Day 56 post randomization.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Not Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best way to give nilotinib when given together with imatinib mesylate after donor stem cell transplant in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Nilotinib and imatinib mesylate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Haploid Allogeneic Transplant Using the CliniMACS System Not Recruiting

    To assess the proportion of patients with donor neutrophil engraftment on or before day 30 post transplant. To assess the incidence of acute GvHD during the first 100 days after transplantation.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • TLI & ATG for Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for MDS and MPD Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of TLI/ATG conditioning for allogeneic HCT for elderly patients with advanced stage MDS and MPD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase II Poor Risk Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) of Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) Followed by Matched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplantation as Consolidation to Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (AHCT) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma who are not likely to be cured by the conventional transplantation regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Cyclosporine Eye Drops in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Eye in Patients Who Have Undergone Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Failure Disorder Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Cyclosporine eye drops may prevent graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder. PURPOSE: This randomized phase I trial is studying how well cyclosporine eye drops work in preventing graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • A Phase 3 Study of Brentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35) in Patients at High Risk of Residual Hodgkin Lymphoma Following Stem Cell Transplant (The AETHERA Trial) Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) and best supportive care (BSC) compared to placebo and BSC in treatment of residual Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sarah Robeson, (650) 725 - 1647.

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  • Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplant for Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Myeloproliferative Disorders Not Recruiting

    To improve survival outcomes for patients with MDS and MPD with a nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Post-transplant Autologous Cytokine-induced Killer (CIK) Cells for Treatment of High Risk Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to conduct a phase I study of adoptive immunotherapy with autologous, ex-vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells to reduce the relapse rate in autologous stem cell transplant patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sherry Moore, (650) 725 - 7951.

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  • Allogeneic HCT Using Nonmyeloablative Host Conditioning With TLI & ATG vs SOC in AML Not Recruiting

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the bone marrow that mostly affects older adults. Even with the best chemotherapy, two-year disease-free survival is achieved in a minority of patients. Bone marrow transplantation from a sibling donor may improve cure rates; however, patients over 50 years of age have a high risk of complications and therefore generally are excluded from this treatment option. Recently our group developed a transplantation strategy for older cancer patients that protects against transplant-associated complications, yet does not interfere with the ability of the transplanted donor cells to destroy cancer cells. With this new method, we can now safely evaluate transplantation as a curative therapy for AML patients over the age of 50. We have assembled clinical and scientific researchers throughout the state of California to study and compare bone marrow transplantation using our new approach with the best standard of care chemotherapy in AML patients over the age of 50. The results of this study have the potential to establish a new treatment standard that will improve survival of older AML patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, 650-725-1647.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation From Related Haploidentical Donors in Older Patients With Indolent Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transplanting CD34+ selected hematopoietic cells from a haploidentical related donor following a nonmyeloablative regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Effectiveness of a Blood Stem Cell Transplant That Uses Low Dose Chemotherapy in People With Relapsed Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (BMT CTN #0701) Not Recruiting

    Blood stem cell transplants are one treatment option for people with lymphoma or other types of blood cancers. For this type of treatment, family members or unrelated donors with a similar tissue type usually donate their blood stem cells to the transplant patients. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a type of blood stem cell transplant that uses lower doses of chemotherapy in people with relapsed follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 725 - 1072.

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  • 90Y-IBRITUMOMAB Tiuxetan and AHCI With HD Chemotherapy and Autologous Transplantation for Relapsed or Resistant NHL Not Recruiting

    To test a new way to approach hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Relapsed or Resistant Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Vaccine Therapy for Multiple Myeloma Utilizing Idiotype-Pulsed Allogeneic Dendritic Cells Not Recruiting

    Patients with Multiple myeloma who have undergone non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant will receive 6 vaccinations of donor derived dendritic cells combined with specific protein produced by multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Haploidentical Allogeneic Transplant w/Post Transplant Infusion of Regulatory T-cells (BMT Protocol 204) Not Recruiting

    When a match related or matched unrelated donor is not available a Haploidentical donor (parent, sibling or child)is immediately available. The challenges associated with haploidentical HCT include increased risk of GVHD, graft rejection and impaired immune reconstitution. This trial will evaluate the safety and feasibility of simultaneous administration of conventional T cells and regulatory T cells after haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to overcome these challenges.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ginna Laport, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Intravenous Administration of RGI-2001 in Patient Undergoing Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT) Recruiting

    The clinical trial is a Phase 1/2a, open-label, multi-center, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of RGI-2001 in patients undergoing AHSCT, with radiation or non-radiation myeloablative preparative treatment. The study will be separated into two parts; a dose escalation phase to assess safety, followed by a large expansion phase to further evaluate the pharmacologic effects of either a Maximum Tolerated Dose, Maximum Feasible Dose or optimal pharmacologically active dose of RGI-2001. The initial dose escalation safety portion of the study (Part 1) will include higher risk patients and limit the unrelated donor transplants. After safety is established in part 1 of the study, the second portion of the study will expand the enrollment criteria and allow transplantation by either related or unrelated donors. This study will endeavor to identify the dose range at which RGI-2001 has an acceptable safety profile, at which biologic activity is observed, and to guide possible dose levels to utilize in later phase studies based on biological activity.

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  • Phase I/II MAHCT w/ TCell Depleted Graft w/ Simultaneous Infusion Conventional and Regulatory T Cell Recruiting

    For patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic myeloablative (MA) HCT with a T cell depleted graft, the infusion of naturally occurring regulatory T cells with conventional T cells (T cell addback) in pre-defined doses and ratios will reduce the incidence of acute graft vs host disease while augmenting the graft vs leukemia effect and improving immune reconstitution.

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  • Phase I/II of a CpG-Activated Whole Cell Vaccine Followed by Autologous Immunotransplant for MCL Recruiting

    While autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHCT) has been shown to cure some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) still has a prognosis marked by relapse. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of treating newly diagnosed MCL patients with an autologous, tumor-derived vaccine followed by re-infusion of vaccine-primed T cells combined with standard autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHCT). CpG-MCL vaccine is derived from each patient's own tumor, treated in vitro with the immunostimulatory CpG-enriched oligodeoxynucleotide - PF-3512676 - and irradiated. The overall treatment schema is that patients receive: induction chemotherapy, priming vaccinations, leukapheresis to harvest vaccine-primed T cells, preparative myeloablative chemotherapy followed by AHCT, re-infusion of vaccine-primed T-cells ('immunotransplant') and repeat vaccinations zero and three months post-AHCT.

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  • Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Post-Transplant Immunotherapy Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of activated T cells can effectively treat relapsed disease following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation without causing GVHD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine the toxicity and feasibility of non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants for multiple myeloma from unrelated donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • CD34 Selection of the Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Graft for Autologous Transplant Not Recruiting

    Evaluate the feasibility and safety of autologous transplantation of CD34+Thy-1+ hematopoietic stem cells afer high dose marrow ablative chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil as Graft Versus Host Disease Prophylaxis in Myeloablative Matched Related Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil GVHD prophylaxis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Phase II Trial of Rituximab and Corticosteroid Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize the addition of rituximab to prednisone for the initial treatment of chronic GVHD will increase the overall response rate, and enable a more rapid and effective steroid taper.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Double Cord Versus Haploidentical (Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network #1101) Recruiting

    Hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT)are one treatment option for people with leukemia or lymphoma. Family members,unrelated donors or banked umbilical cordblood units with similar tissue type can be used for HCT. This study will compare the effectiveness of two new types of bone marrow transplants in people with leukemia or lymphoma: one that uses bone marrow donated from family members with only partially matched bone marrow; and, one that uses two partially matched cord blood units.

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  • Defibrotide for Patients With Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease: A Treatment IND Study Recruiting

    Single arm, open-label study to provide Defibrotide to patients diagnosed with VOD. Defibrotide is no longer available though the Emergency Use IND mechanism (also known as compassionate use, or single patient named use). This protocol is the only mechanism by which Defibrotide can be made available to patients in the U.S.

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  • Defibrotide for the Treatment of Severe Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplant Patients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to (1) demonstrate the efficacy and safety (toxicity) of 25 mg/kg/day of Defibrotide in patients with severe veno-occlusive disease (sVOD) and (2) evaluate serum and endothelial markers of VOD through the analysis of blood samples.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Stem Cell Transplant With Lenalidomide Maintenance in Patients With Multiple Myeloma (BMT CTN 0702) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, multicenter trial of tandem autologous transplants plus maintenance therapy versus the strategy of single autologous transplant plus consolidation therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) followed by maintenance therapy or single autologous transplant plus maintenance therapy as part of upfront treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Lenalidomide will be used as maintenance therapy for three years in all arms.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase II Trial of Prophylactic Rituximab Therapy for Prevention of CGVHD Not Recruiting

    To determine if Rituximab administered after allogeneic transplantation decreases the incidence of chronic GvHD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Autologous Followed by Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with poor risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This trial uses a combination of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using the patient's own cells. This is followed with non-myeloablative transplant using stem cells from a related or unrelated donor to try and generate an anti-lymphoma response from the new immune system.

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  • High Dose Chemotherapy and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of NHL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Pilot Study of Imatinib Mesylate in Steroid Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To determine if subjects with steroid refractory cGVHD can tolerate imatinib mesylate and whether their cGVHD responds to imatinib mesylate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0801) Not Recruiting

    This study is designed as a combined Phase II/III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective comparative study of sirolimus plus prednisone versus sirolimus/calcineurin-inhibitor plus prednisone for the treatment of chronic GVHD. Patients will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomized to an experimental arm of one of the two pre-specified experimental arms (sirolimus + prednisone or the comparator arm of sirolimus + calcineurin inhibitor + prednisone) in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the overall and disease free survival of recipients who have received G-CSF mobilized stem cells from HLA matched sibling donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate Palifermin (rHuKGF) in the Reduction of Acute Graft Versus Host Disease in Subjects With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Allogeneic Marrow/PBPC Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the incidence of grade 2-4 GVHD and WHO grades 3-4 Oral Mucositis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus & Mycophenolate Mofetil as GVHD Prophylaxis in Myeloablative, Matched Related Donor HCT Not Recruiting

    GVHD prophylaxis of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for patients undergoing matched related allogeneic transplant for acute and chronic leukemia, MDS, high risk NHL and HL

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Ph II of Autologous Followed by Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the toxicity and tolerability of this tandem autologous/allogeneic transplant approach for patients with advanced stage multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • High -Dose Sequential Therapy and Single Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    This study uses a sequence of high-dose chemotherapy drugs and a stem cell transplant to treat multiple myeloma. The study is being performed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of treatment. Specifically, the study is designed to reduce the risk of interstitial pneumonitis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Comparing Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Versus Bone Marrow Transplantation in Individuals With Hematologic Cancers Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) versus marrow from unrelated donors for transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recipients will be stratified by transplant center and disease risk and will be randomized to either the PBSC or marrow arm in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Sirolimus as Treatment of Steroid-Refractory or Steroid-Dependent Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To study the effectiveness of an immunosuppressive drug, sirolimus in the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease in combination with prednisone.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation Using TL1 & ATG for Older Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    To measure how frequently and to what degree a complication of transplant cell acute graft versus host disease (GV/HD) occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Mixed Chimera Allo Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    To determine toxicity and feasibility of mixed chimera allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants for multiple myeloma; prepare and vaccinate patients with allogenic dendritic cell vaccinations following mixed chimera allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Ph II of Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG In Patients w/ Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Recruiting

    Non-myeloablative approach for allogeneic transplant is a reasonable option, especially given that the median age at diagnosis is 55-60 years and frequently present compromised skin in these patients, which increases the risk of infection. Therefore, we propose a clinical study with allogeneic HSCT using a unique non-myeloablative preparative regimen, TLI/ATG, to treat advanced MF/SS.

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  • Sirolimus/Tacrolimus Versus Tacrolimus/Methotrexate for Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of sirolimus and tacrolimus versus tacrolimus and methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in individuals with hematologic cancer. Participants will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomly assigned to the sirolimus/tacrolimus or tacrolimus/methotrexate arms at a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase 1 Infused Donor T Regulatory Cells in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic GVHD Recruiting

    Two investigational devices, the CliniMACS cell selection system and the BD influx highspeed cell sorter, will be used together to isolate highly purified regulatory T cells from the donor's cellular product. It is believed that using these devices in combination will produce a cellular product that is highly purified to prevent the infusion of other T cells that may contribute to graft versus host disease.

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  • Gemcitabine and Hodgkin's Disease Chemotherapy Followed by Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Rescue for Hodgkin's Disease Not Recruiting

    Phase II Gemcitabine + HD Chemotherapy Followed by PBSC Rescue for HD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Autologous or reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chemotherapy-sensitive mantle-cell lymphoma: analysis of transplantation timing and modality. Journal of clinical oncology Fenske, T. S., Zhang, M., Carreras, J., Ayala, E., Burns, L. J., Cashen, A., Costa, L. J., Freytes, C. O., Gale, R. P., Hamadani, M., Holmberg, L. A., Inwards, D. J., Lazarus, H. M., Maziarz, R. T., Munker, R., Perales, M., Rizzieri, D. A., Schouten, H. C., Smith, S. M., Waller, E. K., Wirk, B. M., Laport, G. G., Maloney, D. G., Montoto, S., Hari, P. N. 2014; 32 (4): 273-281

    Abstract

    To examine the outcomes of patients with chemotherapy-sensitive mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) following a first hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT), comparing outcomes with autologous (auto) versus reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic (RIC allo) HCT and with transplantation applied at different times in the disease course.In all, 519 patients who received transplantations between 1996 and 2007 and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research were analyzed. The early transplantation cohort was defined as those patients in first partial or complete remission with no more than two lines of chemotherapy. The late transplantation cohort was defined as all the remaining patients.Auto-HCT and RIC allo-HCT resulted in similar overall survival from transplantation for both the early (at 5 years: 61% auto-HCT v 62% RIC allo-HCT; P = .951) and late cohorts (at 5 years: 44% auto-HCT v 31% RIC allo-HCT; P = .202). In both early and late transplantation cohorts, progression/relapse was lower and nonrelapse mortality was higher in the allo-HCT group. Overall survival and progression-free survival were highest in patients who underwent auto-HCT in first complete response. Multivariate analysis of survival from diagnosis identified a survival benefit favoring early HCT for both auto-HCT and RIC allo-HCT.For patients with chemotherapy-sensitive MCL, the optimal timing for HCT is early in the disease course. Outcomes are particularly favorable for patients undergoing auto-HCT in first complete remission. For those unable to achieve complete remission after two lines of chemotherapy or those with relapsed disease, either auto-HCT or RIC allo-HCT may be effective, although the chance for long-term remission and survival is lower.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2013.49.2454

    View details for PubMedID 24344210

  • Prospective cohort study comparing intravenous busulfan to total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation BLOOD Bredeson, C., LeRademacher, J., Kato, K., DiPersio, J. F., Agura, E., Devine, S. M., Appelbaum, F. R., Tomblyn, M. R., Laport, G. G., Zhu, X., McCarthy, P. L., Ho, V. T., Cooke, K. R., Armstrong, E., Smith, A., Rizzo, J. D., Burkart, J. M., Pasquini, M. C. 2013; 122 (24): 3871-3878

    Abstract

    We conducted a prospective cohort study testing the noninferiority of survival of ablative intravenous busulfan (IV-BU) vs ablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens in myeloid malignancies. A total of 1483 patients undergoing transplantation for myeloid malignancies (IV-BU, N = 1025; TBI, N = 458) were enrolled. Cohorts were similar with respect to age, gender, race, performance score, disease, and disease stage at transplantation. Most patients had acute myeloid leukemia (68% IV-BU, 78% TBI). Grafts were primarily peripheral blood (77%) from HLA-matched siblings (40%) or well-matched unrelated donors (48%). Two-year probabilities of survival (95% confidence interval [CI]), were 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%) and 48% (95% CI, 43%-54%, P = .019) for IV-BU (relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98, P = .03) and TBI, respectively. Corresponding incidences of transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18% (95% CI, 16%-21%) and 19% (95% CI, 15%-23%, P = .75) and disease progression were 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) and 39% (95% CI, 34%-44%, P = .08). The incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was 5% for IV-BU and 1% with TBI (P < .001). There were no differences in progression-free survival and graft-versus-host disease. Compared with TBI, IV-BU resulted in superior survival with no increased risk for relapse or TRM. These results support the use of myeloablative IV-BU vs TBI-based conditioning regimens for treatment of myeloid malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-08-519009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329737600010

    View details for PubMedID 24081656

  • Simplified Validated Prognostic Model for Progression-Free Survival after Autologous Transplantation for Hodgkin Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Hahn, T., McCarthy, P. L., Carreras, J., Zhang, M., Lazarus, H. M., Laport, G. G., Montoto, S., Hari, P. N. 2013; 19 (12): 1740-1744

    Abstract

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) prognostic models based on factors measured at time of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) are limited by small sample sizes. Models based on information at diagnosis are often not uniformly collected or available at transplantation. We propose an easily implementable prognostic model for progression-free survival (PFS) post-AHCT based on factors available at transplantation in a large international cohort of HL patients. The outcomes of 728 AHCT recipients for relapsed/refractory HL were studied. Patients were randomly selected for model development (n = 337) and validation (n = 391). The multivariate model identified 4 major adverse risk factors at the time of AHCT with the following relative weights: Karnofsky performance score <90 and chemotherapy resistance at AHCT were each assigned 1 point, whereas at least 3 chemotherapy regimens pre-AHCT and extranodal disease at AHCT were each assigned 2 points. Based on the total score summed for the 4 adverse risk factors, 3 risk groups were identified: low (score = 0), intermediate (score = 1 to 3), or high (score = 4 to 6). The 4-year PFS for the low- (n = 176), intermediate- (n = 261), and high- (n = 283) risk groups were 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63% to 78%), 60% (95% CI, 53% to 66%), and 42% (95% CI, 36% to 49%), respectively. The prognostic model was validated in an independent cohort. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research model is based on factors easily available at the time of AHCT and discriminates patients with favorable post-AHCT outcomes as well as an intermediate-risk group. This model should assist in the prospective evaluation of alternative treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.09.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327361100015

    View details for PubMedID 24096096

  • Autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with secondary CNS involvement BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Maziarz, R. T., Wang, Z., Zhang, M., Bolwell, B. J., Chen, A. I., Fenske, T. S., Freytes, C. O., Gale, R. P., Gibson, J., Hayes-Lattin, B. M., Holmberg, L., Inwards, D. J., Isola, L. M., Khoury, H. J., Lewis, V. A., Maharaj, D., Munker, R., Phillips, G. L., Rizzieri, D. A., Rowlings, P. A., Saber, W., Satwani, P., Waller, E. K., Maloney, D. G., Montoto, S., Laport, G. G., Vose, J. M., Lazarus, H. M., Hari, P. N. 2013; 162 (5): 648-656

    Abstract

    Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS(+) ) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS(-) ). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS(+) patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS(+) group with a subset of CNS(-) patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n = 55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n = 96) at the time of AHCT. CNS(+) patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjh.12451

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323158400009

    View details for PubMedID 23829536

  • Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Systemic Mature T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Smith, S. M., Burns, L. J., Van Besien, K., LeRademacher, J., He, W., Fenske, T. S., Suzuki, R., Hsu, J. W., Schouten, H. C., Hale, G. A., Holmberg, L. A., Sureda, A., Freytes, C. O., Maziarz, R. T., Inwards, D. J., Gale, R. P., Gross, T. G., Cairo, M. S., Costa, L. J., Lazarus, H. M., Wiernik, P. H., Maharaj, D., Laport, G. G., Montoto, S., Hari, P. N. 2013; 31 (25): 3100-?

    Abstract

    To analyze outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.Outcomes of 241 patients (112 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, 102 peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified, 27 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma) undergoing autologous HCT (autoHCT; n = 115; median age, 43 years) or allogeneic HCT (alloHCT; n = 126; median age, 38 years) were analyzed. Primary outcomes were nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Patient, disease, and HCT-related variables were analyzed in multivariate Cox proportional hazard models to determine association with outcomes.AutoHCT recipients were more likely in first complete remission (CR1; 35% v 14%; P = .001) and with chemotherapy-sensitive disease (86% v 60%; P < .001), anaplastic large-cell histology (53% v 40%; P = .04), and two or fewer lines of prior therapy (65% v 44%; P < .001) compared with alloHCT recipients. Three-year PFS and OS of autoHCT recipients beyond CR1 were 42% and 53%, respectively. Among alloHCT recipients who received transplantations beyond CR1, 31% remained progression-free at 3 years, despite being more heavily pretreated and with more refractory disease. NRM was 3.5-fold higher (95% CI, 1.80 to 6.99; P < .001) for alloHCT. In multivariate analysis, chemotherapy sensitivity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.87) and two or fewer lines of pretransplantation therapy (HR, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.15 to 11.72) were prognostic of survival.These data describe the roles of autoHCT and alloHCT in T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and suggest greater effectiveness earlier in the disease course, and limited utility in multiply relapsed disease. Notably, autoHCT at relapse may be a potential option for select patients, particularly those with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma histology.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2012.46.0188

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330540600011

    View details for PubMedID 23897963

  • Impact of Pretransplantation Conditioning Regimens on Outcomes of Allogeneic Transplantation for Chemotherapy-Unresponsive Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Grade III Follicular Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Hamadani, M., Saber, W., Ahn, K. W., Carreras, J., Cairo, M. S., Fenske, T. S., Gale, R. P., Gibson, J., Hale, G. A., Hari, P. N., Hsu, J. W., Inwards, D. J., Kamble, R. T., Klein, A., Maharaj, D., Marks, D. I., Rizzieri, D. A., Savani, B. N., Schouten, H. C., Waller, E. K., Wirk, B., Laport, G. G., Montoto, S., Maloney, D. G., Lazarus, H. M. 2013; 19 (5): 746-753

    Abstract

    Patients with chemorefractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas generally have a poor prognosis. We used the observational database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to study the outcome of 533 patients with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or grade III follicular lymphoma (FL-III) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA; n = 307) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST; n = 226) between 1998 and 2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Only 45% of the patients at transplantation had a Karnofsky performance score of ≥90%. Median follow-up of surviving patients after MA and RIC/NST allo-HCT is 35 months and 30 months, respectively. At 3 years, MA allo-HCT was associated with a higher NRM compared with RIC/NST (53% versus 42%; P = .03), similar PFS (19% versus 23%; P = .40), and lower OS (19% versus 28%; P = .02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, FL-III histology was associated with lower NRM (relative risk [RR], .52), reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .42), and superior PFS (RR, .51) and OS (RR, .53), whereas MA conditioning was associated with reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .66). Despite a refractory state, a small subset of DLBCL and FL-III patients can attain durable remissions after allo-HCT. Conditioning regimen intensity was not associated with PFS and OS despite a higher risk of relapse/progression with RIC/NST allo-HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.01.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318132500011

    View details for PubMedID 23380340

  • Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Graft-Versus-Tumor Effects After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Storb, R., Gyurkocza, B., Storer, B. E., Sorror, M. L., Blume, K., Niederwieser, D., Chauncey, T. R., Pulsipher, M. A., Petersen, F. B., Sahebi, F., Agura, E. D., Hari, P., Bruno, B., McSweeney, P. A., Maris, M. B., Maziarz, R. T., Langston, A. A., Bethge, W., Vindelov, L., Franke, G., Laport, G. G., Yeager, A. M., Huebel, K., Deeg, H. J., Georges, G. E., Flowers, M. E., Martin, P. J., Mielcarek, M., Woolfrey, A. E., Maloney, D. G., Sandmaier, B. M. 2013; 31 (12): 1530-1538

    Abstract

    We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities.Patients received low-dose total-body irradiation ± fludarabine before HCT from HLA-matched related (n = 611) or unrelated (n = 481) donors, followed by mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor to aid engraftment and control GVHD. Median patient age was 56 years (range, 7 to 75 years). Forty-five percent of patients had comorbidity scores of ? 3. Median follow-up time was 5 years (range, 0.6 to 12.7 years).Depending on disease risk, comorbidities, and GVHD, lasting remissions were seen in 45% to 75% of patients, and 5-year survival ranged from 25% to 60%. At 5 years, the nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 24%, and the relapse mortality rate was 34.5%. Most NRM was a result of GVHD. The most significant factors associated with GVHD-associated NRM were serious comorbidities and grafts from unrelated donors. Most relapses occurred early while the immune system was compromised. GVT effects were comparable after unrelated and related grafts. Chronic GVHD, but not acute GVHD, further increased GVT effects. The potential benefit associated with chronic GVHD was outweighed by increased NRM.Allogeneic HCT relying on GVT effects is feasible and results in cures of an appreciable number of malignancies. Improved results could come from methods that control progression of malignancy early after HCT and effectively prevent GVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2012.45.0247

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317831500015

    View details for PubMedID 23478054

  • Conditioning regimens for allotransplants for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: myeloablative or reduced intensity? BLOOD Bacher, U., Klyuchnikov, E., Le-Rademacher, J., Carreras, J., Armand, P., Bishop, M. R., Bredeson, C. N., Cairo, M. S., Fenske, T. S., Freytes, C. O., Gale, R. P., Gibson, J., Isola, L. M., Inwards, D. J., Laport, G. G., Lazarus, H. M., Maziarz, R. T., Wiernik, P. H., Schouten, H. C., Slavin, S., Smith, S. M., Vose, J. M., Waller, E. K., Hari, P. N. 2012; 120 (20): 4256-4262

    Abstract

    The best conditioning regimen before allogeneic transplantation for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains to be clarified. We analyzed data from 396 recipients of allotransplants for DLBCL receiving myeloablative (MAC; n = 165), reduced intensity (RIC; n = 143), or nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMAC; n = 88) regimens. Acute and chronic GVHD rates were similar across the groups. Five-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was higher in MAC than RIC and NMAC (56% vs 47% vs 36%; P = .007). Five-year relapse/progression was lower in MAC than in RIC/NMAC (26% vs 38% vs 40%; P = .031). Five-year progression-free survival (15%-25%) and overall survival (18%-26%) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. In multivariate analysis, NMAC and more recent transplant year were associated with lower NRM, whereas a lower Karnofsky performance score (< 90), prior relapse resistant to therapy, and use of unrelated donors were associated with higher NRM. NMAC transplants, no prior use of rituximab, and prior relapse resistant to therapy were associated with a greater risk of relapse/progression. In conclusion, allotransplantation with RIC or NMAC induces long-term progression-free survival in selected DLBCL patients with a lower risk of NRM but with higher risk of lymphoma progression or relapse.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2012-06-436725

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311637400022

    View details for PubMedID 23007405

  • Palifermin for the reduction of acute GVHD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Jagasia, M. H., Abonour, R., Long, G. D., Bolwell, B. J., Laport, G. G., Shore, T. B., Durrant, S., Szer, J., Chen, M., Lizambri, R., Waller, E. K. 2012; 47 (10): 1350-1355

    Abstract

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of palifermin to reduce the incidence of severe (grade 3-4) acute GVHD after myeloablation and allo-SCT. Adults who received allo-SCT for hematologic malignancies received placebo or palifermin 60 ?g/kg daily on three consecutive days before conditioning and a single dose of 180 ?g/kg after conditioning, but often 1 or 2 days before allo-SCT. Subjects received MTX (plus CYA or tacrolimus) on days 1, 3, 6 and 11. Acute GVHD was evaluated once weekly and oral mucositis was evaluated daily. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo (n=78) or palifermin (n=77). Conditioning included TBI in approximately half of the subjects (48% placebo, 51% palifermin). The primary efficacy end point, subject incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD, was similar between treatment groups (17% placebo, 16% palifermin). Grade 3-4 oral mucositis (73% placebo, 81% palifermin) and other secondary efficacy end points were similar between treatment groups. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were skin/s.c. events such as rash, pruritus, and erythema. This exploratory study of acute GVHD after myeloablation and allo-SCT did not provide evidence of a treatment effect with this dosing regimen of palifermin.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.261

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309957700016

    View details for PubMedID 22327131

  • Alternate Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Using Lower Intensity Conditioning: A Report from the CIBMTR BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Hale, G. A., Shrestha, S., Le-Rademacher, J., Burns, L. J., Gibson, J., Inwards, D. J., Freytes, C. O., Bolwell, B. J., Hsu, J. W., Slavin, S., Isola, L., Rizzieri, D. A., Gale, R. P., Laport, G. G., Montoto, S., Lazarus, H. M., Hari, P. N. 2012; 18 (7): 1036-1043

    Abstract

    We analyzed the outcomes of 248 (61% male) adult recipients of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-mismatched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) after reduced or lower intensity conditioning (RIC), reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1997 to 2004. Median age was 52 (range: 18-72 years); 31% had a Karnofsky performance score <90. Follicular NHL (43%) was the major histology. Incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 43% at 100 days; and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 44% at 3 years. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 100 days was 24%. Three-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 41% and 32%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and HLA mismatch were associated with increased TRM. High-grade histology, ATG use, and chemotherapy resistance were associated with lower PFS. Older age, shorter interval from diagnosis to HCT, non-total body irridiation (TBI) conditioning regimens, ex vivo T cell depletion, and HLA-mismatched unrelated donors were associated with mortality. GVHD did not influence relapse or PFS. Older age, aggressive histology, and chemotherapy resistance correlated with poorer survival. For selected patients with NHL, lack of an available sibling donor should not be a barrier to allogeneic HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.11.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305667900008

    View details for PubMedID 22155506

  • Prophylactic rituximab after allogeneic transplantation decreases B-cell alloimmunity with low chronic GVHD incidence BLOOD Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Narasimhan, B., Chen, G. L., Jones, C. D., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Weng, W., Benjamin, J. E., Schaenman, J., Brown, J., Ramirez, J., Zehnder, J. L., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B. 2012; 119 (25): 6145-6154

    Abstract

    B cells are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We hypothesized that prophylactic anti-B-cell therapy delivered 2 months after transplantation would decrease allogeneic donor B-cell immunity and possibly the incidence of cGVHD. Therefore, in the present study, patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 22) and mantle-cell lymphoma (n = 13) received a total lymphoid irradiation of 80 cGy for 10 days and antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/d for 5 days. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was infused weekly on days 56, 63, 70, and 77 after transplantation. The incidence of acute GVHD was 6%. The cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3%. Rituximab treatment after allogeneic transplantation significantly reduced B-cell allogeneic immunity, with complete prevention of alloreactive H-Y Ab development in male patients with female donors (P = .01). Overall survival and freedom from progression at 4 years for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were 73% and 47%, respectively; for mantle-cell lymphoma patients, they were 69% and 53%, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-12-395970

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307398700030

    View details for PubMedID 22563089

  • Tandem Transplantation for Follicular Lymphoma: The Best of Both Worlds? BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G. 2012; 18 (6): 820-821

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.04.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304642800002

    View details for PubMedID 22531489

  • Tandem chemo-mobilization followed by high-dose melphalan and carmustine with single autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Chen, A. I., Negrin, R. S., McMillan, A., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Arai, S., Weng, W., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. 2012; 47 (4): 516-521

    Abstract

    Single autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) with high-dose melphalan prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma but is not curative. We conducted a study of intensive single AHCT using tandem chemo-mobilization with CY and etoposide followed by high-dose conditioning with melphalan 200 mg/m(2) plus carmustine 15 mg/kg. One hundred and eighteen patients in first consolidation (CON1) and 58 patients in relapse (REL) were transplanted using this intensified approach. Disease response improved from 32% very good PR (VGPR)+CR pre-mobilization to 76% VGPR+CR post transplant in CON1. With a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the median EFS was 2.8 years, and the median OS was 5.1 years in CON1. OS from time of transplant was significantly shorter for REL (3.4 years) compared with CON1 (5.1 years; P=0.02). However, OS from time of diagnosis was similar in REL (6.1 years) and CON1 (6.0 years; P=0.80). The 100-day non-relapse mortality in the CON1 and REL groups was 0% and 7%, respectively. In summary, intensified single AHCT with tandem chemo-mobilization and augmented high-dose therapy is feasible in multiple myeloma and leads to high-quality response rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700008

    View details for PubMedID 21602899

  • Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as GVHD prophylaxis in myeloablative, matched-related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L., Florek, M., Armstrong, R., McCune, J. S., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Sheehan, K., Lavori, P., Negrin, R. 2012; 47 (4): 581-588

    Abstract

    We investigated sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with advanced hematological malignancies receiving myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-identical sibling donors. On the basis of pre-study stopping rules, the trial was closed to accrual after enrollment of 11 adult patients. In all, 7 of the 11 patients received BU-containing preparative regimens. Sirolimus was discontinued in three patients because of the toxicity-related events of severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, portal vein thrombosis, altered mental status and in one patient because of the risk of poor wound healing. In all, 6 of the 11 patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD (AGVHD) a median of 15.5 days post HCT. Two of three patients with grade IV AGVHD had sirolimus discontinued by 9 days post HCT. All patients responded to AGVHD therapy without GVHD-related deaths. There were two non-relapse- and two relapse-related deaths. At a median follow-up of 38 months (2-47 months), 7 of 11 patients were alive without disease. MMF and sirolimus GVHD prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of AGVHD, however, there were no GVHD-related deaths. The severe toxicities in the patients receiving the BU-containing preparative regimens limited the continued use of sirolimus and MMF for the prevention of AGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700018

    View details for PubMedID 21552302

  • Changing role of stem cell transplantation in follicular lymphoma. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program Laport, G. G. 2012; 2012: 417-425

    Abstract

    Patients with advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) have numerous treatment options, including observation, radiotherapy, single-agent or combination chemotherapy, mAbs, and radioimmunoconjugates. These therapies can extend progression-free survival but none can provide a cure. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains the only curable therapy for FL, with the field shifting more toward the use of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens because of the lower associated nonrelapse mortality compared with myeloablative regimens. However, GVHD and infection are still problematic in the allo-HSCT population. Autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) confers high response rates and prolongs progression-free survival in relapsed patients who are chemosensitive, and an increasing amount of data suggest that auto-HSCT may be curative if offered to relapsed patients who are not heavily pretreated. Auto-HSCT has no role as consolidation therapy for patients in first remission based on the results from 3 large randomized trials. Novel conditioning regimens with radioimmunoconjugates have been used in both auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT regimens and results have shown efficacy even in chemorefractory patients. Therefore, with the exception of patients in first remission, the optimal timing for HSCT remains controversial. However, the outcomes seen after auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT continue to improve, and HSCT represents a treatment modality that should be considered in all FL patients, especially while their disease remains chemoresponsive.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/asheducation-2012.1.417

    View details for PubMedID 23233613

  • Follicular Lymphoma: Prognostic Factors, Conventional Therapies, and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Sehn, L. H., Fenske, T. S., Laport, G. G. 2012; 18 (1): S82-S91

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.11.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299239500018

    View details for PubMedID 22226118

  • Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Treated with High-Dose Chemotherapy and Transplantation of Purified Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Mueller, A. M., Kohrt, H. E., Cha, S., Laport, G., Klein, J., Guardino, A. E., Johnston, L. J., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 18 (1): 125-133

    Abstract

    Metastatic breast cancer remains a major treatment challenge. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with rescue by autologous mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) is controversial, in part because of contamination of MPB by circulating tumor cells. CD34(+)Thy-1(+) selected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) represent a graft source with a greater than 250,000-fold reduction in cancer cells. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a pilot study to determine feasibility and engraftment using HDCT and purified HSC in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-two patients who had been treated with standard chemotherapy were enrolled into a phase I/II trial between December 1996 and February 1998, and underwent HDCT followed by rescue with CD34(+)Thy-1(+) HSC isolated from autologous MPB. More than 12 years after the end of the study, 23% (5 of 22) of HSC recipients are alive, and 18% (4 of 22) are free of recurrence with normal hematopoietic function. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 60 months. Retrospective comparison with 74 patients transplanted between February 1995 and June 1999 with the identical HDCT regimen but rescue with unmanipulated MPB indicated that 9% of patients are alive, and 7% are without disease. Median PFS was 10 months, and median OS was 28 months. In conclusion, cancer-depleted HSC following HDCT resulted in better than expected 12- to 14-year PFS and OS in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These data prompt us to look once again at purified HSC transplantation in a protocol powered to test for efficacy in advanced-stage breast cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303140200015

    View details for PubMedID 21767515

  • Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial LANCET ONCOLOGY Krishnan, A., Pasquini, M. C., Logan, B., Stadtmauer, E. A., Vesole, D. H., Alyea, E., Antin, J. H., Comenzo, R., Goodman, S., Hari, P., Laport, G., Qazilbash, M. H., Rowley, S., Sahebi, F., Somlo, G., Vogl, D. T., Weisdorf, D., Ewell, M., Wu, J., Geller, N. L., Horowitz, M. M., Giralt, S., Maloney, D. G. 2011; 12 (13): 1195-1203

    Abstract

    Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma, but disease progression remains an issue. Allogeneic HSCT might reduce disease progression, but can be associated with high treatment-related mortality. Thus, we aimed to assess effectiveness of allogeneic HSCT with non-myeloablative conditioning after autologous HSCT compared with tandem autologous HSCT.In our phase 3 biological assignment trial, we enrolled patients with multiple myeloma attending 37 transplant centres in the USA. Patients (<70 years old) with adequate organ function who had completed at least three cycles of systemic antimyeloma therapy within the past 10 months were eligible for inclusion. We assigned patients to receive an autologous HSCT followed by an allogeneic HSCT (auto-allo group) or tandem autologous HSCTs (auto-auto group) on the basis of the availability of an HLA-matched sibling donor. Patients in the auto-auto group subsequently underwent a random allocation (1:1) to maintenance therapy (thalidomide plus dexamethasone) or observation. To avoid enrolment bias, we classified patients as standard risk or high risk on the basis of cytogenetics and ?2-microglobulin concentrations. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate differences in 3-year progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) between patients with standard-risk disease in the auto-allo group and the best results from the auto-auto group (maintenance, observation, or pooled). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00075829.Between Dec 17, 2003, and March 30, 2007, we enrolled 710 patients, of whom 625 had standard-risk disease and received an autologous HSCT. 156 (83%) of 189 patients with standard-risk disease in the auto-allo group and 366 (84%) of 436 in the auto-auto group received a second transplant. 219 patients in the auto-auto group were randomly assigned to observation and 217 to receive maintenance treatment, of whom 168 (77%) completed this treatment. PFS and overall survival did not differ between maintenance and observation groups and pooled data were used. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 3-year PFS were 43% (95% CI 36-51) in the auto-allo group and 46% (42-51) in the auto-auto group (p=0·671); overall survival also did not differ at 3 years (77% [95% CI 72-84] vs 80% [77-84]; p=0·191). Within 3 years, 87 (46%) of 189 patients in the auto-allo group had grade 3-5 adverse events as did 185 (42%) of 436 patients in the auto-auto group. The adverse events that differed most between groups were hyperbilirubinaemia (21 [11%] patients in the auto-allo group vs 14 [3%] in the auto-auto group) and peripheral neuropathy (11 [6%] in the auto-allo group vs 52 [12%] in the auto-auto group).Non-myeloablative allogeneic HSCT after autologous HSCT is not more effective than tandem autologous HSCT for patients with standard-risk multiple myeloma. Further enhancement of the graft versus myeloma effect and reduction in transplant-related mortality are needed to improve the allogeneic HSCT approach.US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70243-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298150200021

    View details for PubMedID 21962393

  • Long-term Outcomes Among Older Patients Following Nonmyeloablative Conditioning and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Advanced Hematologic Malignancies JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Sorror, M. L., Sandmaier, B. M., Storer, B. E., Franke, G. N., Laport, G. G., Chauncey, T. R., Agura, E., Maziarz, R. T., Langston, A., Hari, P., Pulsipher, M. A., Bethge, W., Sahebi, F., Bruno, B., Maris, M. B., Yeager, A., Petersen, F. B., Vindelov, L., McSweeney, P. A., Huebel, K., Mielcarek, M., Georges, G. E., Niederwieser, D., Blume, K. G., Maloney, D. G., Storb, R. 2011; 306 (17): 1874-1883

    Abstract

    A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions.To describe outcomes of patients 60 years or older after receiving minimally toxic nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT.From 1998 to 2008, 372 patients aged 60 to 75 years were enrolled in prospective clinical HCT trials at 18 collaborating institutions using conditioning with low-dose total body irradiation alone or combined with fludarabine, 90 mg/m(2), before related (n = 184) or unrelated (n = 188) donor transplants. Postgrafting immunosuppression included mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor.Overall and progression-free survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cumulative incidence estimates were calculated for acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease, toxicities, achievement of full donor chimerism, complete remission, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox regression models.Overall, 5-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 27% (95% CI, 22%-32%) and 41% (95% CI, 36%-46%), respectively, leading to 5-year overall and progression-free survival of 35% (95% CI, 30%-40%) and 32% (95% CI, 27%-37%), respectively. These outcomes were not statistically significantly different when stratified by age groups. Furthermore, increasing age was not associated with increases in acute or chronic graft-vs-host disease or organ toxicities. In multivariate models, HCT-specific comorbidity index scores of 1 to 2 (HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.08-2.31]) and 3 or greater (HR, 1.97 [95% CI, 1.38-2.80]) were associated with worse survival compared with an HCT-specific comorbidity index score of 0 (P = .003 overall). Similarly, standard relapse risk (HR, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.10-2.54]) and high relapse risk (HR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.43-3.43]) were associated with worse survival compared with low relapse risk (P < .001 overall).Among patients aged 60 to 75 years treated with nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT, 5-year overall and progression-free survivals were 35% and 32%, respectively.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296376200021

    View details for PubMedID 22045765

  • Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for Patients with Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Baker, J., Armstrong, R., Wong, R. M., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Benjamin, J. E., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S. 2011; 17 (11): 1679-1687

    Abstract

    Donor leukocyte infusions induce remissions in some patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication of this strategy. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a unique population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express the CD3(+)CD56(+) phenotype and show marked up-regulation of the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D (CD314). CIK cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted and NKG2D-dependent in target recognition and cytotoxicity. We explored the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of allogeneic CIK cells in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic HCT. Eighteen patients (median age, 53 years; range, 20-69 years) received CIK cell infusions at escalating doses of 1 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 4), 5 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 6), and 1 × 10(8) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 8). The median expansion of CD3(+) cells was 12-fold (range, 4- to 91-fold). CD3(+)CD56(+) cells represented a median of 11% (range, 4%-44%) of the harvested cells, with a median 31-fold (range, 7- to 515-fold) expansion. Median CD3(+)CD314(+) cell expression was 53% (range, 32%-78%) of harvested cells. Significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Acute GVHD grade I-II was seen in 2 patients, and 1 patient had limited chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 1-69 months) from CIK infusion, the median overall survival was 28 months, and the median event-free survival was 4 months. All deaths were due to relapsed disease; however, 5 patients had longer remissions after infusion of CIK cells than from allogeneic HCT to relapse. Our findings indicate that this form of adoptive immunotherapy is well tolerated and induces a low incidence of GVHD, supporting further investigation as an upfront modality to enhance graft-versus-tumor responses in high-risk patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296829000016

    View details for PubMedID 21664472

  • Non-myeloablative conditioning with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL Ram, R., Storb, R., Sandmaier, B. M., Maloney, D. G., Woolfrey, A., Flowers, M. E., Maris, M. B., Laport, G. G., Chauncey, T. R., Lange, T., Langston, A. A., Storer, B., Georges, G. E. 2011; 96 (8): 1113-1120

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the majority of older adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not candidates for myeloablative conditioning regimens. A non-myeloablative preparative regimen is a reasonable treatment option for this group. We sought to determine the outcome of non-myeloablative conditioning and allogeneic transplantation in patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Fifty-one patients (median age 56 years) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from sibling or unrelated donors after fludarabine and 2 Gray total body irradiation. Twenty-five patients had Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Eighteen of these patients received post-grafting imatinib.With a median follow-up of 43 months, the 3-year overall survival was 34%. The 3-year relapse/progression and non-relapse mortality rates were 40% and 28%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades II and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were 53% and 6%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 44%. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in first complete remission and post-grafting imatinib were associated with improved survival (P=0.005 and P=0.03, respectively). Three-year overall survival rates for patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission and beyond first remission were 52% and 8%, respectively. For patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission who received post-grafting imatinib, the 3-year overall survival rate was 62%; for the subgroup without evidence of minimal residual disease at transplantation, the overall survival was 73%.For patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission, non-myeloablative conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, with post-grafting imatinib for Philadelphia chromosome-positive disease, can result in favorable long-term survival.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2011.040261

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294722700008

    View details for PubMedID 21508120

  • Autologous versus Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Chemosensitive Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma beyond First Complete Response or First Partial Response BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Tomblyn, M. R., Ewell, M., Bredeson, C., Kahl, B. S., Goodman, S. A., Horowitz, M. M., Vose, J. M., Negrin, R. S., Laport, G. G. 2011; 17 (7): 1051-1057

    Abstract

    Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) typically experience an indolent course; however, the disease is rarely curable with conventional chemotherapy. Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can extend progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), but relapse is the primary cause of failure. Allogeneic HCT confers lower relapse rates due to a graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allows the performance of allogeneic HCT with lower toxicity. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted a prospective multicenter trial comparing these two strategies in patients with relapsed, chemotherapy-sensitive FL. Patients were assigned to a treatment arm based on the availability of an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD). Those with an MSD underwent allogeneic HCT (n = 8) with the FCR preparative regimen (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide [Cy], rituximab [RTX]) and received tacrolimus and methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Those without an MSD (n = 22) underwent mobilization with Cy, RTX, and filgrastim and received a conditioning regimen of either CBV (Cy, carmustine, Etoposide [VP16]) or total body irradiation with Cy and VP16. Patients undergoing autologous HCT received 4 doses of weekly maintenance RTX (375 mg/m²) starting on day +42 post-HCT. Sixteen patients were in complete remission, 10 patients were in partial remission, and 1 patient had stable disease after salvage therapy and before HCT. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 1-51 months). OS was 73% in autologous HCT versus 100% in allogeneic HCT, and PFS was 63% in autologous HCT versus 86% in allogeneic HCT. No patient had grade II-IV acute GVHD; two patients developed extensive chronic GVHD. Three autologous recipients died from nonrelapse causes. This trial closed early because of slow accrual. We show that the FCR regimen is well tolerated, and that both allogeneic and autologous HCT result in promising 3-year OS and PFS in patients with relapsed FL.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.11.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292059300014

    View details for PubMedID 21073974

  • Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Naik, S., Wong, R., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Johnston, L. 2011; 46 (2): 192-199

    Abstract

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 20-60) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0?mg/kg (days -8 to -5), etoposide 60?mg/kg (day -4), CY 60?mg/kg (day -2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n=41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n=8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n=8), and myelodysplasia (n=39). Thirty-six percent (n=35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n=61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.6-14.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 22-42) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 21-41). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 15-33) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 20-38) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 29-47) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade II-IV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 18-36) and 29% (95% CI 18-40), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P=0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P=0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2010.114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287190700004

    View details for PubMedID 20498648

  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma: autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation as first-line therapy CURRENT OPINION IN ONCOLOGY Laport, G. G. 2010; 22 (5): 409-413

    Abstract

    The peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas associated with an unfavorable prognosis compared with the B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The PTCLs are characterized by high remission rates after frontline therapy, but relapse inevitably occurs. The impact of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) as early consolidation therapy will be the focus of this review.In several prospective trials, only PTCL patients with responsive disease after induction chemotherapy proceeded to AHCT. The progression-free survivals ranged from 30% to 40% with low toxicity. The outcomes in retrospective trials appear more favorable but such trials were affected by a selection bias because only chemosensitive patients actually proceeded to AHCT, whereas the prospective studies were intention-to-treat analyses. Most of the published trials demonstrated that prognostic models such as the International Prognostic Index and the Prognostic Index for T-cell lymphoma help predict outcome after AHCT.Current data support the use of AHCT as early consolidation therapy for PTCL patients who are chemosensitive after induction chemotherapy. However, approximately one-third of patients are early induction failures and thus are not able to proceed to AHCT. Additionally, disease relapse remains the leading cause of treatment failure after AHCT, and thus more intensive treatment strategies or better noncross-resistant therapies are greatly needed early in the course of the disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CCO.0b013e32833d58d9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280552600001

    View details for PubMedID 20683269

  • Phase I/II Trial of GN-BVC, a Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine-Containing Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Recurrent and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arai, S., Letsinger, R., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Horning, S. J. 2010; 16 (8): 1145-1154

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation with augmented BCNU regimens is effective treatment for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); however, BCNU-related toxicity and disease recurrence remain challenges. We designed a conditioning regimen with gemcitabine in combination with vinorelbine in an effort to reduce the BCNU dose and toxicity without compromising efficacy. In this phase I/II dose escalation study, the gemcitabine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 1250 mg/m(2), and a total of 92 patients were treated at this dose to establish safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of BCNU-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints included 2-year freedom from progression (FFP), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Sixty-eight patients (74%) had 1 or more previously defined adverse risk factors for transplant (stage IV at relapse, B symptoms at relapse, greater than minimal disease pretransplant). The incidence of BCNU-related toxicity was 15% (95% confidence interval, 9%-24%). Only 2% of patients had a documented reduction in diffusing capacity of 20% or greater. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the FFP at 2 years was 71% and the OS at 2 years was 83%. Two-year FFP was 96%, 72%, 67%, and 14% for patients with 0 (n = 24), 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 23), or 3 (n = 8) risk factors, respectively. Regression analysis identified PET status pretransplant and B symptoms at relapse as significant prognostic factors for FFP. This new transplant regimen for HL resulted in decreased BCNU toxicity with encouraging FFP and OS. A prospective, risk-modeled comparison of this new combination with other conditioning regimens is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280137800013

    View details for PubMedID 20197102

  • The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma: An Evidence-Based Review BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Oliansky, D. M., Gordon, L. I., King, J., Laport, G., Leonard, J. P., McLaughlin, P., Soiffer, R. J., van Besien, K. W., Werner, M., Jones, R. B., McCarthy, P. L., Hahn, T. 2010; 16 (4): 443-468

    Abstract

    Clinical research examining the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations reached unanimously by a panel of follicular lymphoma experts are: (1) autologous SCT is recommended as salvage therapy based on pre-rituximab data, with a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival; (2) autologous SCT is not recommended as first-line treatment for most patients because of no significant improvement in OS; (3) autologous SCT is recommended for transformed follicular lymphoma patients; (4) reduced intensity conditioning before allogeneic SCT appears to be an acceptable alternative to myeloablative regimens; (5) an HLA-matched unrelated donor appears to be as effective an HLA-matched related donor for reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic SCT. There are insufficient data to make a recommendation on the use of autologous SCT after rituximab-based salvage therapy. Eleven areas of needed research in the treatment of follicular lymphoma with SCT were identified and are presented in the review.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.01.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276288600001

    View details for PubMedID 20114084

  • Long-term follow-up of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving purged autografts after induction failure BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Benjamin, J. E., Chen, G. L., Cao, T. M., Cao, P. D., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R., Laport, G. G. 2010; 45 (2): 303-309

    Abstract

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not achieve a complete response to front-line combination chemotherapy are often offered high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). However, the efficacy of this therapy in this patient population has been addressed in only a few published reports. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with a diagnosis of de novo DLBCL who underwent AHCT at our center between 1988 and 2002, and identified 43 consecutive patients who had not achieved a CR before AHCT, although most showed at least a partial response (PR) to either induction or subsequent salvage chemotherapy. A total of 15 patients received a conditioning regimen that included high-dose chemotherapy with fractionated TBI (FTBI), whereas 28 patients received high-dose chemotherapy only. All autografts were treated ex vivo with MoAbs and complement in an effort to remove any residual malignant B cells. A total of 33 (77%) patients achieved a CR after AHCT. With a median follow-up of 7.3 years, the 5-year OS was 69% and EFS was 59%. Four patients died from non-relapse mortality. By univariate analyses, the following characteristics did not significantly impact OS: disease stage at diagnosis, age-adjusted IPI (International Prognostic Index) score, age > or =40 years, earlier radiotherapy and the use of FTBI in the conditioning regimen. These results confirm the long-term efficacy of AHCT for patients with DLBCL after induction failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2009.152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274397400013

    View details for PubMedID 19597427

  • TLI and ATG conditioning with low risk of graft-versus-host disease retains antitumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Turnbull, B. B., Heydari, K., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2009; 114 (5): 1099-1109

    Abstract

    A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268491100025

    View details for PubMedID 19423725

  • Long-term remission of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from matched sibling donors: a 20-year experience with the fractionated total body irradiation-etoposide regimen BLOOD Laport, G. G., Alvarnas, J. C., Palmer, J. M., Snyder, D. S., Slovak, M. L., Cherry, A. M., Wong, R. M., Negrin, R. S., Blume, K. G., Forman, S. J. 2008; 112 (3): 903-909

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only known curative modality for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL). Sixty-seven patients with HLA-matched sibling donors received fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) and high-dose VP16, whereas 11 patients received FTBI/VP16/cyclophosphamide, and 1 patient received FTBI/VP16/busulfan. The median age was 36 years. At the time of HCT, 49 patients (62%) were in first complete remission (CR1) and 30 patients (38%) were beyond CR1 (> CR1). The median follow-up was 75 months (range, 14-245 months). The 10-year overall survival for the CR1 and beyond CR1 patients was 54% and 29% (P = .01), respectively, and event-free survival was 48% and 26% (P = .02), respectively. There was no significant difference in relapse incidence (28% vs 41%, P = .28), but nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher in the beyond CR1 patients, (31% vs 54%, P = .03, respectively). By univariate analysis, factors affecting event-free and overall survival were white blood cell count at diagnosis (< 30 x 10(9)/L vs > 30 x 10(9)/L) and disease status (CR1 vs > CR1). The median time to relapse for CR1 and for beyond CR1 patients was 12 months and 9 months, respectively. Our results indicate that FTBI/VP16 with or without cyclophosphamide confers long-term survival in Ph(+) ALL patients and that disease status at the time of HCT is an important predictor of outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-03-143115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258257900062

    View details for PubMedID 18519812

  • Long-term results of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphoma: The Stanford experience BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Chen, A. I., McMillan, A., Neprin, R. S., Horning, S. J., Laport, G. G. 2008; 14 (7): 741-747

    Abstract

    The peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) carry a worse prognosis compared to B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There is no uniform standard therapy for PTCL, and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) is often offered as consolidation in first remission or at relapse because of the poor outcomes with conventional therapy. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent AHCT for PTCL from 1989 to 2006. Fifty-three cases were identified consisting of systemic anaplastic large cell (n = 18), PTCL unspecified (n = 17), angioimmunoblastic (n = 9), nasal type extranodal NK/T (n = 7), hepatosplenic (n = 2), and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (n = 1). Fifteen patients were transplanted in first complete or partial response (CR1/PR1), 32 in second or beyond CR or PR (CR2/PR2+), and 11 with primary refractory disease (REF). With a median follow-up was 5 years (range: 1.0-11.5), the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 25% and 48%, respectively. Disease status at AHCT had a significant impact on PFS and OS. The 5-year PFS for patients in CR1/PR1, CR2/PR2+, and REF was 51%, 12%, and 0%, respectively, and the corresponding figures for OS were 76%, 40%, and 30%, respectively. The pretransplant factors that impacted survival were disease status and the number of prior regimens. Histology, age, sex, stage, B symptoms, bone marrow involvement, and duration of first response did not significantly affect PFS or OS. Based on these results, AHCT as consolidation therapy in first complete or partial response may offer a durable survival benefit. However, AHCT with conventional salvage chemotherapy has minimal durable benefit in patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL, and thus novel strategies and/or allogeneic HCT should be more aggressively explored in lieu of AHCT for relapsed/ refractory PTCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.04.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256971000002

    View details for PubMedID 18541192

  • Reduced-intensity conditioning follow by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative disorders BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Sandmaier, B. M., Storer, B. E., Scott, B. L., Stuart, M. J., Lange, T., Maris, M. B., Agura, E. D., Chauncey, T. R., Wong, R. M., Forman, S. J., Petersen, F. B., Wade, J. C., Epner, E., Bruno, B., Bethge, W. A., Curtin, P. T., Maloney, D. G., Blume, K. G., Storb, R. F. 2008; 14 (2): 246-255

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative strategy for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). We report the results of 148 patients (median age = 59 years old) with de novo MDS (n = 40), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after antecedent MDS/MPD (n = 49), treatment-related MDS (t-MDS) (n = 25), MPD (n = 27), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) (n = 7) who underwent allogeneic HCT using a conditioning regimen of low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) alone (200 cGy) on day 0 (n = 5) or with the addition of fludarabine (Flu) 30 mg/m(2)/day on days -4 to -2 (n = 143). Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Seventy-five patients (51%) received an allograft from a matched related donor (MRD), and 73 patients (49%) were recipients of unrelated donor (URD) grafts. There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute (gr II-IV) and chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) between the recipients of related and unrelated donor grafts. By day +28, 75% of patients demonstrated mixed T cell chimerism. Graft rejection was seen in 15% of patients. With a median follow-up of 47 (range: 6-89) months, the 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) are both 27% for all patients, with a relapse incidence of 41%. The 3-year RFS for the patients with de novo MDS, AML after antecedent MDS/MPD, t-MDS, MPD, and CMML were 22%, 20%, 29%, 37%, and 43%, respectively, and the 3-year OS was 20%, 23%, 27%, 43%, and 43%, respectively. The 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 32%. Factors associated with a lower risk of relapse were the development of extensive cGVHD and having a low risk or intermediate-1 risk International Prognostic Score for the de novo MDS patients. Nonmyeloablative HCT confers remissions in patients who otherwise were not eligible for conventional HCT but for whom relapse is the leading cause of treatment failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.11.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253271100009

    View details for PubMedID 18215785

  • Controversies in lymphoma: The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma and peripheral T cell lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Dreger, P., Laport, G. G. 2008; 14 (1): 100-107

    Abstract

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) are distinct lymphoma subtypes that each comprise about approximately 10% of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although both subtypes are characterized by high remission rates to frontline chemotherapy, the prognosis is generally poor because of inevitable relapse within 1-2 years or less, depending on the specific histology. Patients with MCL who achieve a complete remission with upfront conventional chemotherapy currently have several options for consolidative therapy including maintenance therapy with rituximab, autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and more recently, allogeneic HCT utilizing a reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. In the autologous HCT setting, the added efficacy of rituximab is under active investigation as a method of in vivo purging during hematopoietic cell mobilization, as part of the conditioning regimen and as post-HCT maintenance therapy. For patients with PTCL, autologous HCT is commonly offered at relapse but there are a few prospective series utilizing autologous HCT as consolidation of CR1 with encouraging results. There is no conclusive evidence regarding the efficacy of allogeneic HCT, but outcomes with RIC regimens appear promising. This review summarizes the current role of HCT for patients with MCL in first remission and for patients with PTCL as consolidation and for relapsed/refractory disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.10.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252333500026

    View details for PubMedID 18162229

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hodgkin lymphoma: a concise review LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Laport, G. G. 2008; 49 (10): 1854-1859

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the standard of care for most patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, the role of allogeneic HCT for this patient population is less defined. In retrospective analyses, allogeneic HCT with myeloablative conditioning confers lower relapse rates compared to autologous HCT but the higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) offsets any survival benefit. This observed prohibitive NRM has thus fueled the increasing use of allogeneic HCT with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) especially for patients who have failed a prior autologous HCT. Results with RIC allogeneic HCT appear promising with chemosensitive patients faring the best. Donor leukocyte infusions has been reported to induce durable remissions in relapsed HL patients even in patients who did not receive prior cytoreductive therapy which thus lends support to a graft versus HL effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10428190802304974

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260326500006

    View details for PubMedID 18949609

  • Mantle cell lymphoma in first complete remission BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G. 2007; 13 (9): 1118-1119

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.08.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249152200015

    View details for PubMedID 17697975

  • High-dose carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Law, L. Y., Horning, S. J., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E. 2006; 12 (7): 703-711

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been shown to be curative in a group of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A previous study has demonstrated equivalent outcomes with a conditioning regimen based on total body irradiation and another not based on total body irradiation with preparative therapy using cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) in autologous HCT. We investigated the safety and efficacy of using CBV in an allogeneic setting. Patients were required to have relapsed or be at high risk for subsequent relapse of NHL. All patients had a fully HLA-matched sibling donor. Patients received carmustine (15 mg/kg), etoposide (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) on days -6, -4, and -2, respectively, followed by allogeneic HCT. All patients were treated with cyclosporine and methylprednisolone as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Thirty-one patients (median age, 46 years) who were felt to be inappropriate candidates for autologous transplantation were enrolled. Each subject had a median of 3 previous chemotherapy regimens. All patients engrafted. Fifteen of 31 patients are alive. Median follow-up time was 11.5 months (range, .4-126). There were 8 deaths due to relapse. Nonrelapse mortality (n = 8) included infection (n = 3), GVHD (n = 2), diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (n = 1), veno-occlusive disease in the setting of concurrent acute GVHD of the liver (n = 1), and leukoencephalopathy (n = 1). Probabilities of event-free survival and overall survival were, respectively, 44% (95% confidence interval, 26%-62%) and 51% (33%-69%) at 1 year and 44% (26%-62%) and 47% (29%-65%) at 5 years. Probability of relapse was 33% (15%-51%) at 1 year and 5 years. Probability of nonrelapse mortality was 31% (13%-49%) at 1 year and 5 years. Incidences were 29% for acute GVHD and 39% for chronic GVHD. None of the 12 patients who developed chronic GVHD has disease recurrence. Patients who had required >3 previous chemotherapy regimens before HCT had an increased probability of relapse. CBV is an effective preparative regimen for patients with aggressive NHL who undergo allogeneic HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2006.02.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238774800002

    View details for PubMedID 16785059

  • The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation for follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G. 2006; 12 (1): 59-65

    Abstract

    The overall survival with follicular lymphoma has not significantly changed over the last few decades, and there is no universal agreement as to the optimal first-line or subsequent therapy. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) confers high response rates and improved progression-free survival in advanced-stage disease, and more recent data indicate a positive effect on overall survival. Initial results with myeloablative allogeneic HCT unequivocally demonstrated a reduction in relapse/progression compared with autologous HCT, but it is associated with prohibitive nonrelapse mortality. Nonmyeloablative or reduced-intensity regimens have substantially reduced up-front toxicity, and preliminary data seem highly encouraging with regard to efficacy. Novel strategies include the use of rituximab for in vivo purging and maintenance therapy. The incorporation of radioimmunoconjugates into conditioning regimens to deliver targeted radiotherapy also appears promising. This review summarizes current and new developments regarding the role of HCT for patients with follicular lymphoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.10.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235171200012

    View details for PubMedID 16399587

  • Rhabdomyolysis after concomitant use of cyclosporine and simvastatin in a patient transplanted for multiple myeloma BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Tong, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R. 2005; 36 (8): 739-740

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705128

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232318400017

    View details for PubMedID 16086041

  • Protective conditioning for acute graft-versus-host disease NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Lowsky, R., Takahashi, T., Liu, Y. P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., GRUMET, F. C., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Hoppe, R. T., Bloch, D. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S. 2005; 353 (13): 1321-1331

    Abstract

    Conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte serum protects mice against acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. We tested this strategy in humans.Thirty-seven patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia underwent an experimental conditioning regimen with 10 doses of total lymphoid irradiation (80 cGy each) plus antithymocyte globulin, followed by an infusion of HLA-matched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from related or unrelated donors who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.Of the 37 transplant recipients, only 2 had acute GVHD after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Potent antitumor effects in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases were shown by the change from partial to complete remission. In the transplant recipients who underwent conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin, the fraction of donor CD4+ T cells that produced interleukin-4 after in vitro stimulation increased by a factor of five, and the proliferative response to alloantigens in vitro was reduced, as compared with normal control subjects and control subjects who underwent conditioning with a single dose of total-body irradiation (200 cGy).A regimen of total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte globulin decreases the incidence of acute GVHD and allows graft antitumor activity in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia treated with hematopoietic-cell transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232146200004

    View details for PubMedID 16192477

  • Engraftment and survival following reduced-intensity allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation is affected by CD8(+) T-cell dose BLOOD Cao, T. M., Shizuru, J. A., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Stuart, M. J., GRUMET, F. C., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2005; 105 (6): 2300-2306

    Abstract

    The influence of graft composition on clinical outcomes after reduced-intensity conditioning is not well-characterized. In this report we prospectively enumerated CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (G-PBMC) allografts in 63 patients who received transplants following non-myeloablative conditioning with total body irradiation 200 cGy plus fludarabine as treatment for malignant diseases. Donors were HLA-identical siblings (n = 38) or HLA-matched unrelated individuals (n = 25). By univariate analyses G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose in at least the 50th percentile favorably correlated with full donor blood T-cell chimerism (P = .03), freedom from progression (P = .001), and overall survival (P = .01). No G-PBMC cell dose influenced grade II to IV acute or extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. In multivariate analysis only G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose (P = .003; RR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.6) was associated with improved freedom from progression. Infusion of low G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose for reduced-intensity allografting may adversely affect T-cell engraftment and survival outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2004-04-1473

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227630500020

    View details for PubMedID 15572597

  • CD34, CD49 and CD8 cell doses do not influence engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, or survival following myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical peripheral blood allografting for hematologic malignancies EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Cao, T. M., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2005; 33 (3): 279-285

    Abstract

    Optimal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell (G-PBMC) graft compositions for myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) have not been identified. G-PBMC cell contents were analyzed for influence on outcomes.Human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-identical related donor AHCT was used to treat 101 patients with hematologic malignancies at a single institution between 1995 and 2002. CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses were enumerated by flow cytometry and evaluated by univariate analysis.Categorized by the median of cell doses infused, no G-PBMC cell dose significantly correlated with neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Incidence of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 24.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.9-33.3) and was not significantly influenced by evaluated G-PBMC cell doses. With a median follow-up time of 18 months for surviving patients, estimates for extensive chronic GVHD was 43.8% (95% CI: 31.4-56.2), for freedom from progression was 69.5% (95% CI: 58.1-80.9), and for overall survival was 46.9% (95% CI: 35.5-58.3). CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses were not significantly predictive of extensive chronic GVHD, freedom from progression or overall survival. Additionally, comparing patients receiving the upper versus lower 33rd percentiles of CD34+ cell dose, associations with extensive chronic GVHD remained insignificant (p=0.21; relative risk (RR)=1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9).G-PBMC graft content does not influence outcomes after myeloablative AHCT. In particular, no significant association between extensive chronic GVHD was identified with any G-PBMC cell dose, including CD34.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2004.12.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227829300003

    View details for PubMedID 15730851

  • Multiple unrelated clonal abnormalities in host bone marrow cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation LEUKEMIA RESEARCH Kebriaei, P., Winter, J. N., Laport, G. G., Le Beau, M. M., Dewald, G., Larson, R. A. 2004; 28 (5): 537-540

    Abstract

    A 22-year-old man with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) received fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (1440cGy) and etoposide (60 mg/kg) followed by infusion of 10 x 10(6) /kg CD34+ selected stem cells from his mother. Donor and recipient were 50% matched at the HLA-A and -B loci and 100% at HLA-DR. Mixed lymphocyte culture reaction was negative. Post-stem cell transplant (SCT) immunosuppression consisted of antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine, and prednisone, and was discontinued after 7 months. The donor graft was rejected 2 years post-SCT. At 7 years post-SCT, he is clinically well with normal blood counts and no evidence of CML or myelodysplasia despite the presence over 6 years of multiple clones with balanced translocations and deletions in host bone marrow cells. The emergence of clonal hematopoiesis may provide insights into therapy-related leukemogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.leukres.2003.09.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221156200015

    View details for PubMedID 15068908

  • Adoptive transfer of costimulated T cells induces lymphocytosis in patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma following CD34(+)-selected hernatopoietic cell transplantation BLOOD Laport, G. G., Levine, B. L., Stadtmauer, E. A., Schuster, S. J., Luger, S. I., Grupp, S., Bunin, N., Strobl, F. J., Cotte, J., Zheng, Z. H., Gregson, B., Rivers, P., Vonderheide, R. H., Liebowitz, D. N., Porter, D. L., June, C. H. 2003; 102 (6): 2004-2013

    Abstract

    We explored the feasibility and toxicity of administering escalating doses of anti-CD3/CD28 ex vivo costimulated T cells as a therapeutic adjunct for patients with relapsed, refractory, or chemotherapy-resistant, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following high-dose chemotherapy and CD34+-selected hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Sixteen patients had infusions on day 14 after HCT of autologous T cells that had been stimulated using beads coated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. At baseline, the subjects had severe quantitative and functional T-cell impairments. The culture procedure partially reversed impaired cytokine responsiveness in T cells in vitro and in vivo. Transient dose-dependent infusion toxicities were observed. There was a rapid reconstitution of lymphocytes; however, there were persistent defects in CD4 T cells. Most interestingly, 5 patients had a delayed lymphocytosis between day 30 and day 120 after HCT. Maximal clinical responses included 5 patients with a complete response (CR), 7 patients with a partial response (PR), and 4 patients with stable disease. At a median follow-up of 33 months (range, 26-60 months), 5 patients are alive with stable or relapsed disease and 3 patients remain in CR. In conclusion, this phase 1 trial demonstrates that adoptive transfer of autologous costimulated T cells (1) is feasible in heavily pretreated patients with advanced NHL, (2) is associated with a rapid recovery of lymphocyte counts, (3) reverses cytokine activation deficits in vitro, and (4) is associated with delayed lymphocytosis in a subset of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2003-01-0095

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185322800020

    View details for PubMedID 12763934

  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Current hematology reports Laport, G. G. 2003; 2 (1): 49-56

    Abstract

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has traditionally included the administration of maximally tolerated doses of chemoradiotherapy, which have been associated with significant treatment-related toxicities. Thus, less intensive conditioning regimens have been explored as a safer alternative to conventional ASCT. Nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NMSCT) has been one of the most promising recent developments in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, and early studies have yielded encouraging results with high engraftment rates and sustained remissions. This approach incorporates immunosuppressive doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to achieve a mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimeric state and allows the development of a donor immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect as the primary means of disease eradication. This review discusses the background and rationale behind NMSCT and its impact on the treatment of patients with acute leukemia.

    View details for PubMedID 12901154

  • A phase II trial of docetaxel for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization for patients with breast cancer and ovarian cancer BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Fleming, G. F., Waggoner, S., Zimmerman, T. M., Grinblatt, D. L., Williams, S. F. 2001; 27 (7): 677-681

    Abstract

    As docetaxel is known to have significant antineoplastic activity against breast and ovarian cancer, we explored its application as a peripheral blood stem cell mobilizing agent in 33 women with stage lll-IV ovarian carcinoma (n = 10) or stage ll-lV breast cancer (n = 23) who were in preparation for high-dose chemotherapy. Eleven patients had bone and/or bone marrow involvement with their disease. The median number of prior regimens received before mobilization was two (range 1-3). The three dose levels administered were 100 mg/m(2), 110 mg/m(2) and 120 mg/m(2). Patients received one dose of docetaxel in the outpatient setting followed by G-CSF (10 microg/kg/day) starting 4 days after docetaxel administration. Leukapheresis commenced when WBC >1.0 x 10(9)/l or when the WBC began to rise after reaching a nadir. Ninety-seven percent of patients began leukapheresis within 7-9 days after receiving docetaxel (range 7-10 days). The collection goal was >/=2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Twenty-seven (82%) patients reached this goal in a median of 2 leukapheresis days (range 1-3). No grade 2-4 nonhematologic toxicities were noted. Thirteen patients (55%) showed a WBC nadir >1.0 x 10(9)/l. None of the patients experienced neutropenic fever or required blood or platelet transfusion support. In conclusion, docetaxel + G-CSF is an effective, well-tolerated regimen for PBPC mobilization which can be safely administered in the outpatient setting with minimal toxicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168369900002

    View details for PubMedID 11360105

  • Allogeneic cell therapy for patients who relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Porter, D. L., Luger, S. M., Duffy, K. M., Stadtmauer, E. A., Laport, G., Schuster, S. J., Orloff, G., Tsai, D., McDaid, K., Kathakali, A., Leonard, D. G., Antin, J. H. 2001; 7 (4): 230-238

    Abstract

    Allogeneic donor leukocytes can be used after nonmyeloablative conditioning to exploit their graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity in the setting of reduced conditioning-regimen toxicity. This approach may be particularly useful for patients who relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, GVT activity, toxicity, and ability to establish mixed chimerism may differ in patients who were heavily pretreated prior to SCT compared with patients treated earlier in the course of their disease. We have performed a series of studies of nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation and present data on the subset of 14 patients treated for relapse after autologous SCT: 4 patients received no conditioning and unstimulated donor leukocyte infusions (DLI), 10 patients received conditioning with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide followed by unstimulated or granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), 4 patients received no graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and 10 patients received cyclosporine GVHD prophylaxis. All but 1 patient had sustained donor chimerism at least 30 days after allogeneic cell therapy (ACT), and 8 patients had more than 80% donor chimerism after ACT. Acute GVHD developed in 11 patients (grade III-IV, n = 6). Aplasia was more frequent in the patients receiving unstimulated PBSCs, despite the development of mixed chimerism. There were 6 complete responses and 4 partial responses; response was independent of conditioning and growth-factor stimulation of the donor graft. Five patients died of treatment-related causes and 4 patients died from progressive disease. Four patients remained alive 27 to 194 weeks (median, 66 weeks) after ACT. Prior autologous SCT may define a subset of patients at particularly high risk for GVHD and other toxicity after ACT. However, these data show that ACT with either DLI or G-CSF-stimulated blood cells results in direct GVT activity in some patients with Hodgkin's disease, myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, even after relapse from autologous SCT. Most patients developed donor chimerism with minimal conditioning. Alternative prophylactic regimens that control GVHD while maintaining GVT are needed to improve outcomes in these heavily pretreated patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168435400006

    View details for PubMedID 11349810

  • Soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentration as a biochemical indicator for acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation JOURNAL OF HEMATOTHERAPY & STEM CELL RESEARCH Mathias, C., Mick, R., Grupp, S., Duffy, K., Harris, F., Laport, G., Stadtmauer, E., Luger, S., Schuster, S., Wasik, M. A., Porter, D. L. 2000; 9 (3): 393-400

    Abstract

    When interleukin-2 (IL-2) binds to the IL-2 receptor (IL2-R) on activated T cells, a soluble portion of the receptor (sIL2-R) is released. After allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), the serum concentration of sIL2-R may, therefore, be a useful surrogate marker for T cell activation that results in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). To determine if the sIL2-R concentration is a useful marker to help establish a diagnosis of aGVHD, serial sIL2-R concentrations were measured weekly for 4 weeks in 43 patients after allogeneic BMT. Grafts were from HLA-matched siblings (n = 33), 5/6 HLA-matched siblings (n = 3) or matched unrelated donors (n = 7). GVHD prophylaxis included cyclosporine A (CSA)/methotrexate (MTX) (n = 25), solumedrol/CSA (n = 15), or T cell depletion (n = 3). Twenty-three patients developed aGVHD (Grade I, 7; Grade II, 12; Grade III, 4) a median of 28 days after transplant. There was a significant association between a clinical diagnosis of aGVHD and an increase in the sIL2-R concentration (p < 0.001). The mean percent increase (+/-SE) over baseline for patients with a clinical diagnosis of aGVHD was 294% (+/-57%) by week 2 (n = 12), 431% (+/-116%) by week 3 (n = 14), and 650% (+/-315%) by week 4 (n = 9) after BMT. For each 100% increase over baseline, the likelihood of having aGVHD increased by 18%. Six of 20 patients without aGVHD became critically ill and exhibited marked increases in sIL2-R concentrations, similar to patients with a clinical diagnosis of aGVHD who never became critically ill. Fourteen patients without aGVHD who did not become critically ill exhibited negligible increases of sIL2-R in 2- to 4-week period after BMT. These data suggest that serial measurements sIL2-R concentration are helpful in establishing the diagnosis of aGVHD, but are not useful in the most acutely ill patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088102300013

    View details for PubMedID 10894361

  • A dose escalation study of total body irradiation followed by high-dose etoposide and allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for the treatment of advanced hematologic malignancies BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Sobecks, R. M., Daugherty, C. K., Hallahan, D. E., Laport, G. F., Wagner, N. D., Larson, R. A. 2000; 25 (8): 807-813

    Abstract

    Since approximately 30% of leukemia patients relapse after allogeneic BMT using total body irradiation (TBI)-based preparative regimens, treatment intensity may be suboptimal. The killing of leukemia cells is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose. We studied the feasibility and toxicity of escalating the doses of fractionated TBI above our previous prescription of 13.5 Gy. Sixteen evaluable patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were treated with twice daily TBI using a high-energy source (18-24 MV). The first patient cohort (n = 11) received a total dose of 14.4 Gy in nine fractions, and the second cohort (n = 5) received doses escalated to 15.3 Gy. All patients received high-dose etoposide (60 mg/kg) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation following the TBI. All patients had HLA-identical sibling donors. The median times for neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 13.5 and 12 days, respectively, and did not differ between the two cohorts. All but one patient developed treatment-related grade 3 or 4 mucositis. There were three cases of grade 4 pulmonary toxicity and three cases of grade 4 hepatic toxicity among the 14.4 Gy cohort, and one case each of grade 4 pulmonary and hepatic toxicities among the 15.3 Gy cohort. In most cases comorbid conditions contributed to these toxicities. Two patients had significant GVHD of the GI tract. Six relapses occurred, five (45%) in the 14.4 Gy cohort and one (20%) in the 15.3 Gy cohort. The 100-day treatment-related mortality rates were 9% and 20% for the 14.4 Gy and 15.3 Gy cohorts, respectively, and the median survivals were 226 and 201 days, respectively. We conclude that TBI dose escalation above the previously used 13.5 Gy dose is feasible using a high-energy source and high-dose etoposide. Acute and chronic toxicities were primarily related to GVHD, infection and relapse rather than to TBI.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086605100002

    View details for PubMedID 10808200

  • Transplantation with low-density autologous PBSC prepared with BDS60 for women with stage II, III and IV breast cancer CYTOTHERAPY Laport, G. G., Valone, F. H., Zimmerman, T. M., Grinblatt, D. L., Van Vlasselaer, P., Still, B. J., Williams, S. F. 2000; 2 (3): 179-185

    Abstract

    DS60 is a novel buoyant density solution, whose density has been adjusted to enrich PBSC from subjects who have been mobilized with cytokines alone, or cytokines plus chemotherapy. This report describes the use of BDS60 to enrich autologous PBSC that were used for hematological reconstitution after myeloablative chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.Fifty-one consecutive patients with high-risk Stage II or III breast cancer or chemotherapy-sensitive Stage IV breast cancer were enrolled. Forty-seven completed treatment and were evaluable. After mobilization with cyclophosphamide (4.0 g/m(2) i.v. once) and filgrastim (10 microg/kg/day), the patients underwent leukapheresis and the products were enriched with BDS60 using the DACS300 Kit. Myeloablative chemotherapy, given on Day -5 through Day -2, consisted of cyclophosphamide (1.5 g/m(2)/day), thiotepa (150 mg/m(2)/day) and carboplatin (200 mg/m(2)/day).Forty-one patients underwent a single leukapheresis procedure to achieve the target number of BDS60-enriched CD34+ cells for transplantation (> or = 2 x 10(6)/kg). Five of the other six patients had less than the target number of cells in the leukapheresis product and thus required 2-4 leukapheresis procedures. Median cell recovery was 76.8% for CD34+ cells, 39.1% for nucleated cells, and 17.7% for platelets. Erythrocyte contamination of the final product was negligible. The median time to sustained neutrophil count > 500/mm(3) was 9 days (range: 8-12) and the median time to platelet count > 20 000/mm(3), without transfusion support, was also 9 days (range: 6-15). There were no late graft failures. Infusion-related adverse events were mild and no adverse events were attributed to the use of BDS60 to enrich CD34+ cells.BDS60 is an effective, rapid method for enrichment of CD34+ cells by buoyant density centrifugation and the resulting cell product is safe and effective for engraftment after myeloablative therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088076200002

    View details for PubMedID 12042040

  • The role of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma SEMINARS IN ONCOLOGY Laport, G. F., Williams, S. F. 1998; 25 (4): 503-517

    Abstract

    Many patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) can be cured today with combination chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. However, for patients with suboptimal responses to initial therapy or for patients with refractory or relapsed disease, salvage therapy alone is usually inadequate to achieve long-term survival. High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell rescue has emerged as the treatment of choice for such patients as long-term disease-free survival can be obtained in a significant number of these patients. Dose-intensive treatment has been equivocally shown effective for certain patients with Hodgkin's and NHL, whether or not chemosensitivity is shown before transplant. However, HDC has yet to consistently yield durable responses in patients with indolent NHL. Additionally, perhaps the International Prognostic Index can now help identify "high-risk" NHL patients who may benefit from investigative approaches such as frontline HDC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075488300012

    View details for PubMedID 9728600

  • High-dose chemotherapy consolidation with autologous stem cell rescue in metastatic breast cancer: a 10-year experience BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. F., Grad, G., Grinblatt, D. L., Bitran, J. D., Williams, S. F. 1998; 21 (2): 127-132

    Abstract

    One hundred women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue at our institution beginning in 1986. The patients underwent induction chemotherapy from June 1986 to December 1993. Patients who showed stable or responsive disease underwent HDC with cyclophosphamide (CY) at 7.5 g/m2 and thiotepa (TPA) at 675 mg/m2 or the same doses of CY and TPA with carmustine at 450 mg/m2. The source of stem cell rescue was either BM alone, BM and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) or PBPC alone if patients had BM involvement with MBC. With a median follow-up of 62 months (range 1-109 months), median survival from reinfusion was 16 months with a 5-year survival of 19+/-4%. The median event-free survival (EFS) was 8 months with a 5-year EFS of 11+/-3%. Patients achieving a complete response to induction therapy showed a higher 5-year EFS from reinfusion of 31+/-8% in contrast to 3+/-3% (P = 0.006) for patients who achieved a partial response to induction therapy prior to HDC. Marrow involvement or source of stem cell rescue did not affect outcome. Our mature results confirm that high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue can confer a prolonged DFS in a subset of women with MBC. However, the high rate of relapse remains a universally disturbing problem in this patient population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072225400004

    View details for PubMedID 9489628

  • Treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia SEMINARS IN ONCOLOGY Laport, G. F., Larson, R. A. 1997; 24 (1): 70-82

    Abstract

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has served as a model for the cure of neoplasia by chemotherapy. Current treatment results in complete remissions in 80% to 90% of cases with long-term survival of 30% to 40%. Mature B cell and T cell ALL cases that previously had a poor prognosis are now viewed as favorable subgroups. Treatment regimens have evolved empirically into complex schemes, although few of the individual components have been rigorously tested in randomized trials. Maintenance therapy is a standard component of pediatric ALL, but its benefit has not been completely established in adults, although two trials which omitted maintenance are notable for short disease-free survival. Optimal consolidation and intensification therapy remains controversial with numerous trials suggesting benefit, but several randomized trials fail to confirm improved disease-free survival. Central nervous system prophylaxis is an integral step in treatment. Identification of subtypes of ALL with different prognosis and treatment requirements offers the potential to improve management and survival in ALL.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WH66800009

    View details for PubMedID 9045306

Conference Proceedings


  • Outcomes After Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Total Lymphoid Irradiation and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin in Lymphoid Malignancies After Failed Autologous Transplantation Kanate, A. S., Efron, B., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Benjamin, J., Johnston, L., Arai, S., Weng, W., Negrin, R., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2013: S154-S155
  • TLI-ATG Conditioning and Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients with MDS and MPN Benjamin, J., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H., Laport, G. G., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Negrin, R., Lowsky, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2013: S113-S114
  • Non-Myeloablative Conditioning with Total Lymphoid Irradiation and ATG and Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms, and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. Benjamin, J., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H. E., Laport, G. G., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2012
  • Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain (FLC) and Heavy Chain/Light Chain (HLC) Assays - Comparison with Electrophoretic Responses in Multiple Myeloma (MM) Hari, P., Pasquini, M. C., Logan, B. R., Stadtmauer, E. A., Krishnan, A., Howard, A., Alvi, S., Harding, S., Carter, S. L., Rajkumar, V., Alyea, E. P., Qazilbash, M., Laport, G. G., Maloney, D. G., Giralt, S., Vesole, D. H. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2011: 1241-1242
  • LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP OF METASTATIC BREAST CANCER PATIENTS RECEIVING HIGHLY PURIFIED AUTOLOGOUS CD34+THY-1+HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS AFTER HIGH-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY Mueller, A. M., Kohrt, H. E., Laport, G. G., Negrin, R. S., Cha, S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: S198-S198
  • Noninvasive Prediction of Graft-Versus-Host Disease Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation by Gene Expression Profiling. Li, L., Kohrt, H., Heish, S., Alizadeh, A., Laport, G., Shizuru, J., Negrin, R., Strober, S., Lowsky, R., Sarwal, M. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 483-483
  • Long-term outcomes of high-dose therapy using busulfan, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with high-risk or advanced stages of myeloid malignancies Naik, S. G., Negrin, R., Laport, G., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Arai, S., Blume, K., Wong, R., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2009
  • Outcomes Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) Using Non-Myeloablative Conditioning with Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG) Confirm a Low Incidence of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) with Retained Anti-Tumor Activity. Kohrt, H., Turnbull, B., Laport, G., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Johnston, L., Arai, S., Weng, W. K., Benjamin, J., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Lavori, P., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2008: 1136-1137
  • Prophylactic Rituximab after Reduced Intensity Conditioning Transplantation Results in Low Chronic Gvhd Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Jones, C., Zhender, J., Lowsky, R., Strober, S., Shizuru, J., Negrin, R., Johnston, L., Laport, G., Schaenman, J., Brown, J., Weng, W., Letsinger, R., Wong, R., Lavori, P., Miklos, D. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2008: 178-178
  • Phase I/II Trial of a Novel Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine-Containing Conditioning Regimen in Autologous Hemotopoietic Cell Transplantation for High-Risk Recurrent and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma. Arai, S., Letsinger, R., Johnston, L., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Wong, R., Lavori, P., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Horning, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2008: 765-766
  • Autologous versus reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with follicular non-hodgkins lymphoma (FL) beyond first complete response or first partial response Laport, G., Bredeson, C., Tomblyn, M. R., Kahl, B. S., Goodman, S. A., Ewell, M., Klein, J., Horowitz, M. M., Vose, J. M., Negrin, R. S. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2008
  • Autologous cytokine-induced killer cells as post-transplant cellular immunotherapy Arai, S., Sheehan, K., Moore, S., Laport, G., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Goldstein, K., Weng, W., Shizuru, J., Horning, S., Negrin, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2007: 179A-179A
  • Rituximab infusion two months after total lymphoid irradiation-antithymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG) nonmyeloablative transplantation maintains B-cell disease control with minimal GVHD Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Jones, C., Zehnder, J., Lowsky, R., Strober, S., Shizuru, J., Negrin, R., Johnston, L., Laport, G., Goldstein, K., Brown, J., Elder, L., Tierney, K., Lavori, P., Miklos, D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2007: 103-103
  • Rituximab infusion two months after nonmyeloablative transplantation maintains B-cell disease control with minimal GVHD. Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Jones, C., Zehnder, J., Lowsky, R., Strober, S., Shizuru, J., Negrin, R., Johnston, L., Laport, G., Goldstein, K., Brown, J. (., Miklos, D. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 823A-823A
  • Clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using nonmyeloablative host conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and anti-thymocyte globulin confirm a low incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and retained graft anti-tumor activity. Lowsky, R., Stockert-Goldstein, K., Laport, G., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Shizuru, J., Johnston, L., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Strober, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 182A-182A
  • Cytokine induced killer (CIK) cells as post-transplant immunotherapy following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Stockerl-Goldstein, K., Johnston, L. J., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Baker, J., Negrin, R. S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 126A-126A
  • High dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary refractory diffuse large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cao, T. M., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Cao, P. D., Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. J., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 462B-463B
  • Haploidentical non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) conditioning protects against acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) Lowsky, R., Heydari, K., Sahaf, B., Shizuru, J., Laport, G., Johnston, L., Stockerl-Goldstein, K., Arai, S., Miklos, D., Blume, K., Herzenberg, L., Negrin, R., Strober, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2005: 814A-815A
  • A phase I trial with extended cohort of gemcitabine and vinorelbine followed by autologous peripheral blood stream cell transplantation for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Arai, S., Negrin, R., Blume, K., Johnston, L., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J., Stockerl-Golstein, K., Letsinger, R., Wong, R., Horning, S. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2005: 597S-597S
  • Engraftment and survival following non-myeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for malignant diseases is affected by CD8(+) T-cell dose. Cao, T. M., Shizuru, J. A., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Stuart, M. J., Brown, J. M., GRUMET, F. C., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2004: 56A-56A
  • Non-myeloablative conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in high levels of regulatory natural killer T cells and low incidences of acute GVHD and tumor relapse. Lowsky, R., Jones, S. D., Mitra, S., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K., JOHNSTON, L. J., Stuart, M. J., Herzenberg, L. A., Hoppe, R. T., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2003: 152A-153A

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