Bio

Bio


Dr. Poultsides is an Associate Professor of Surgery at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He is an oncologic surgeon specializing in the removal of pancreatic, liver and other abdominal tumors. He joined Stanford in 2009 after completing fellowship training in Surgical Oncology at Memorial Sloan Kettering and in Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery at Johns Hopkins. He previously received General Surgery residency training at the University of Connecticut and medical school education at the University of Athens in his native Greece.

Dr. Poultsides sits on the guidelines panel of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. His research focuses on clinical outcomes assessment following multidisciplinary treatment of hepatic, pancreatic and gastrointestinal malignancies. He has received a Masters Degree in Epidemiology from Stanford University and has led several nationwide, multi-institutional clinical research collaborations across several academic medical centers in the US. Within Stanford, Dr. Poultsides has developed a novel interdisciplinary research program assessing the completeness of surgical resection for pancreatic cancer. He has served as the principal investigator in two, first in human, prospective clinical trials evaluating the role of mass spectrometric and intraoperative fluorescent imaging during surgery for pancreatic cancer. These research efforts were funded through the 2012 Stanford Hospital Cancer Innovation Fund award and the 2016 Stanford Cancer Institute translational research award.

For his contributions to the education of the next generation of surgeons, Dr. Poultsides received the John Austin Collins, MD annual teaching award from the Stanford Surgery residents in 2013 and the Best Rotation award from the Stanford Surgery chief residents in 2012, 2016, 2017, and 2018.

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > GI Oncology
  • Liver Neoplasms
  • Pancreas Neoplasms
  • Gastric Neoplasms
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • Sarcoma
  • Adrenal Neoplasms
  • General Surgery

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Clinical Practice Guidelines Panel Member, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Gastric and Esophageal Cancer (2014 - Present)
  • Instructor in Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2008 - 2009)

Honors & Awards


  • Bay Area Top Doctors, Castle Connolly (2018)
  • Best PGY-5 Rotation Award, Stanford General Surgery Chief Residents (2018)
  • Bay Area Top Doctors, Castle Connolly (2017)
  • Best PGY-5 Rotation Award, Stanford General Surgery Chief Residents (2017)
  • James Foster Visiting Professor, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (2017)
  • Best PGY-5 Rotation Award, Stanford General Surgery Chief Residents (2016)
  • Translational Research Award, Stanford Cancer Institute (2016)
  • John Austin Collins, MD Memorial Award for Outstanding Teaching and Dedication to Resident Training, Department of Surgery, Stanford University (2013)
  • Best PGY-5 Rotation Award, Stanford General Surgery Chief Residents (2012)
  • Cancer Innovation Fund Award, Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2012)
  • Henry Mannix, Jr, MD Award for Clinical and Academic Excellence, Saint Francis Hospital & Medical Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine (2007)
  • Ludwig J. Pyrtek, MD Prize for Clinical and Scientific Capabilities, Department of Surgery, Hartford Hospital, University of Connecticut School of Medicine (2007)
  • Andrew Canzonetti, MD Award, Outstanding 4th Year Surgery Resident, Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine (2006)
  • Charles Polivy, MD Memorial Award, Department of Surgery, Hartford Hospital, University of Connecticut School of Medicine (2005)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Associate Editor, BMC Cancer (2015 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Surgical Oncology (2017 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Annals of Surgical Oncology (2018 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (2018 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (2009) MD
  • Fellowship:Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (2008) NY
  • Residency:University of Connecticut-School of Medicine (2007) CT
  • Internship:University of Connecticut-School of Medicine (2003) CT
  • MS, Stanford University, Epidemiology (2011)
  • Board Certification: General Surgery, American Board of Surgery (2008)
  • Medical Education:University of Athens Medical School (2000) Greece

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Clinical trials of experimental diagnostics and therapeutics; outcomes analysis following combined modality treatment of hepatic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal malignancies.

Clinical Trials


  • Prognostic Value of Baseline Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion Parameters of Pancreatic Cancer for Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy or Surgical Resection Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is first, to determine whether baseline perfusion characteristics of pancreatic cancer, as characterized by CT perfusion studies, can predict tumor response to treatment by stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The second goal of this study is to determine whether baseline perfusion characteristics in those patients with resectable pancreatic cancer correlate with immunohistologic markers of angiogenesis such as microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lindee Burton, (650) 725 - 4712.

    View full details

  • Panitumumab-IRDye800 in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer Undergoing Surgery Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best dose of panitumumab-IRDye800 and to see how well it works in finding cancer in patients with pancreatic cancer who are undergoing surgery. Panitumumab-IRDye800 is a combination of the antibody drug panitumumab and IRDye800CW, an investigational dye that can be seen using a special camera. Panitumumab-IRDye800 may attach to tumor cells and make them more visible during surgery in patients with pancreatic cancer.

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  • Cetuximab-IRDye 800CW and Intraoperative Imaging in Finding Pancreatic Cancer in Patients Undergoing Surgery Not Recruiting

    This phase 1-2 trial studies the side effects and best dose of cetuximab-IRDye 800CW when used with intraoperative imaging and to see how well they work in finding pancreatic cancer in patients undergoing surgery. Cetuximab-IRDye 800CW may help doctors better identify cancer in the operating room by making the cancer visible when viewed through a special imaging device.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Alifia Hasan, 650-721-4088.

    View full details

Teaching

2018-19 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Role of Additional Organ Resection in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Analysis of 167 Patients from the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Database ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Smith, P., Kiernan, C. M., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Prescott, J., Pawlik, T., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J., Shirley, L. A., Fields, R. C., Jin, L., Weber, S., Salem, A., Sicklick, J., Gad, S., Yopp, A., Mansour, J., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Votanopoulos, K., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G., Solorzano, C. C. 2018; 25 (8): 2308–15

    Abstract

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive cancer. This report describes factors and outcomes associated with resection of extra-adrenal organs en bloc during index adrenalectomy.Patients who underwent ACC resection for non-metastatic disease from 1993 to 2014 at 13 participating institutions of the US-ACC Group were included in the study. Factors associated with en bloc resection were assessed by uni- and multivariate analysis. The primary end point was overall survival.In this study, 167 patients were included and categorized as adrenalectomy with en bloc resection (AdEBR) if they had extra-adrenal organs removed or adrenalectomy (Ad) if they did not. The demographics were similar between the AdEBR (n = 68, 40.7%) and Ad groups, including age, gender, race, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, and body mass index (BMI). The AdEBR group had larger tumors (13 vs. 10 cm), more open operations (97.1 vs. 63.6%), and more lymph node dissections (LNDs) (36.8 vs. 12.1%). The most common organs removed were kidney (55.9%), liver (27.9%), and spleen (23.5%). Multiple organs were removed in 38.2% (n = 26) of the patients. Margin-negative resections were similar between the two groups. In the multivariate Cox regression adjusted for T and N stages, LND, margin, size, and hormone hypersecretion, en bloc resection was not associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; p = 0.323).The study findings validated current practice by showing that en bloc resection should occur at index adrenalectomy for ACC when a T4 lesion is suspected pre- or intraoperatively, or when it is necessary to avoid tumor rupture. However, in this study, when a negative margin resection was otherwise achieved, removal of extra-adrenal organs en bloc was not associated with additional survival benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-018-6546-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000437120000034

    View details for PubMedID 29868977

  • Surgical Management of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma in Patients with Cirrhosis: Impact of Lymphadenectomy on Peri-Operative Outcomes WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY Bagante, F., Spolverato, G., Weiss, M., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Ruzzenente, A., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 42 (8): 2551–60

    Abstract

    The consequences of lymphadenectomy (LND) on cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have not been investigated. We sought to analyze the impact of LND on morbidity among patients undergoing resection for ICC.A total of 1005 patients who underwent hepatectomy for ICC at one of the 14 participating institutions between 1990 and 2015 were identified. A propensity score match analysis was performed to reduce confounding biases between cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups.Cirrhosis was diagnosed in 118 (11.7%) patients. Among non-cirrhotic patients, 63% underwent major liver resection versus only 20% among patients with cirrhosis (p < 0.001). LND was also less common among cirrhotic versus non-cirrhotic patients (19 vs. 50%, p < 0.001). The incidence of complications was 41 and 30% among patients who did not and did have cirrhosis, respectively (p = 0.022). The propensity-matched cohort included 150 patients. The incidence of complications was 71% among patients who underwent lymphadenectomy versus 23% among patients who did not undergo lymphadenectomy (OR 8.39) (p < 0.001). In the propensity-matched analysis, the median HLN was comparable among patients independent of cirrhosis status (median HLN: non-cirrhosis, 2.5 vs. cirrhosis, 2) (p = 0.95). While lymphadenectomy was associated with a higher risk of infections (non-cirrhosis, 0% vs. cirrhosis, 21%, p < 0.001) among patients with cirrhosis, infections were not associated with lymphadenectomy among non-cirrhotic patients (p = 0.19).Lymphadenectomy was associated with an increased risk of complications among patients with cirrhosis undergoing surgery for ICC. The benefit of lymphadenectomy in cirrhotic patients should be considered in light of the higher risk of postoperative complications compared with non-cirrhotic patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-017-4453-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000438097800036

    View details for PubMedID 29299649

  • Monitoring Gastric Myoelectric Activity After Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Diet "Readiness". American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Dua, M. M., Navalgund, A., Axelrod, S., Axelrod, L., Worth, P. J., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. C. 2018

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Post-operative delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a frustrating complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We studied whether monitoring of post-operative gastric motor activity using a novel wireless patch system can identify patients at risk for DGE.METHODS: Eighty-one patients were prospectively studied since 2016; 75 patients were analyzed for this study. After PD, battery-operated wireless patches (G-Tech Medical) that acquire gastrointestinal myoelectrical signals are placed on the abdomen and transmit data by Bluetooth. Patients were divided into EARLY and LATE groups, by diet tolerance of 7 days (ERAS goal). Subgroup analysis was done of patients included after ERAS initiation.RESULTS: The EARLY and LATE groups had 50 and 25 patients, respectively, with length of stay (LOS) 7 and 11 days (p<0.05). Nasogastric insertion was required in 44% of the LATE group. Tolerance of food was noted by 6 vs 9 days in the EARLY vs LATE group (p<0.05) with higher cumulative gastric myoelectrical activity. Diminished gastric myoelectrical activity accurately identified delayed tolerance to regular diet in a logistical regression analysis (area under the curve (AUC), 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92). The gastric myoelectrical activity also identified delayed LOS status with an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88). Stomach signal continued to be predictive in 90% of the ERAS cohort despite earlier oral intake.CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of gastric activity after PD can distinguish patients with shorter or longer times to diet. This non-invasive technology provides data to identify patients at risk for DGE and may guide timing of oral intake by gastric "readiness."

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpgi.00074.2018

    View details for PubMedID 30048596

  • Association of BRAF Mutations With Survival and Recurrence in Surgically Treated Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Liver Cancer JAMA SURGERY Margonis, G., Buettner, S., Andreatos, N., Kim, Y., Wagner, D., Sasaki, K., Beer, A., Schwarz, C., Loes, I., Smolle, M., Kamphues, C., He, J., Pawlik, T. M., Kaczirek, K., Poultsides, G., Lonning, P., Cameron, J. L., Burkhart, R. A., Gerger, A., Aucejo, F. N., Kreis, M. E., Wolfgang, C. L., Weiss, M. J. 2018; 153 (7): e180996

    Abstract

    BRAF mutations are reportedly associated with aggressive tumor biology. However, in contrast with primary colorectal cancer, the association of V600E and non-V600E BRAF mutations with survival and recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) has not been well studied.To investigate the prognostic association of BRAF mutations with survival and recurrence independently and compared with other prognostic determinants, such as KRAS mutations.In this cohort study, all patients who underwent resection for CRLM with curative intent from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2016, at the institutions participating in the International Genetic Consortium for Colorectal Liver Metastasis and had data on BRAF and KRAS mutational status were retrospectively identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess long-term outcomes.Hepatectomy in patients with CRLM.The association of V600E and non-V600E BRAF mutations with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).Of 853 patients who met inclusion criteria (510 men [59.8%] and 343 women [40.2%]; mean [SD] age, 60.2 [12.4] years), 849 were included in the study analyses. Forty-three (5.1%) had a mutated (mut) BRAF/wild-type (wt) KRAS (V600E and non-V600E) genotype; 480 (56.5%), a wtBRAF/wtKRAS genotype; and 326 (38.4%), a wtBRAF/mutKRAS genotype. Compared with the wtBRAF/wtKRAS genotype group, patients with a mutBRAF/wtKRAS genotype more frequently were female (27 [62.8%] vs 169 [35.2%]) and 65 years or older (22 [51.2%] vs 176 [36.9%]), had right-sided primary tumors (27 [62.8%] vs 83 [17.4%]), and presented with a metachronous liver metastasis (28 [64.3%] vs 229 [46.8%]). On multivariable analysis, V600E but not non-V600E BRAF mutation was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.76; 95% CI, 1.74-4.37; P < .001) and DFS (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.30-3.20; P = .002). The V600E BRAF mutation had a stronger association with OS and DFS than the KRAS mutations (β for OS, 10.15 vs 2.94; β for DFS, 7.14 vs 2.27).The presence of the V600E BRAF mutation was associated with worse prognosis and increased risk of recurrence. The V600E mutation was not only a stronger prognostic factor than KRAS but also was the strongest prognostic determinant in the overall cohort.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2018.0996

    View details for Web of Science ID 000439168600001

    View details for PubMedID 29799910

  • Intraoperative Pancreatic Cancer Detection using Tumor-Specific Multimodality Molecular Imaging. Annals of surgical oncology Tummers, W. S., Miller, S. E., Teraphongphom, N. T., Gomez, A., Steinberg, I., Huland, D. M., Hong, S., Kothapalli, S., Hasan, A., Ertsey, R., Bonsing, B. A., Vahrmeijer, A. L., Swijnenburg, R., Longacre, T. A., Fisher, G. A., Gambhir, S. S., Poultsides, G. A., Rosenthal, E. L. 2018; 25 (7): 1880–88

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Operative management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is complicated by several key decisions during the procedure. Identification of metastatic disease at the outset and, when none is found, complete (R0) resection of primary tumor are key to optimizing clinical outcomes. The use of tumor-targeted molecular imaging, based on photoacoustic and fluorescence optical imaging, can provide crucial information to the surgeon. The first-in-human use of multimodality molecular imaging for intraoperative detection of pancreatic cancer is reported using cetuximab-IRDye800, a near-infrared fluorescent agent that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor.METHODS: A dose-escalation study was performed to assess safety and feasibility of targeting and identifying PDAC in a tumor-specific manner using cetuximab-IRDye800 in patients undergoing surgical resection for pancreatic cancer. Patients received a loading dose of 100mg of unlabeled cetuximab before infusion of cetuximab-IRDye800 (50mg or 100mg). Multi-instrument fluorescence imaging was performed throughout the surgery in addition to fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging ex vivo.RESULTS: Seven patients with resectable pancreatic masses suspected to be PDAC were enrolled in this study. Fluorescence imaging successfully identified tumor with a significantly higher mean fluorescence intensity in the tumor (0.09±0.06) versus surrounding normal pancreatic tissue (0.02±0.01), and pancreatitis (0.04±0.01; p<0.001), with a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 67.0%. The mean photoacoustic signal in the tumor site was 3.7-fold higher than surrounding tissue.CONCLUSIONS: The safety and feasibilty of intraoperative, tumor-specific detection of PDAC using cetuximab-IRDye800 with multimodal molecular imaging of the primary tumor and metastases was demonstrated.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-018-6453-2

    View details for PubMedID 29667116

  • Clinical Trigonometry: Right Hepatic Trisegmentectomy After Radiation Trisegmentectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Titan, A. L., Devereaux, K., Louie, J. D., Poultsides, G. A. 2018; 63 (6): 1419–23

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-017-4797-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000432319200009

    View details for PubMedID 29119415

  • Perioperative and long-term outcome of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma involving the hepatic hilus after curative-intent resection: comparison with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hilar cholangiocarcinoma SURGERY Zhang, X., Bagante, F., Chen, Q., Beal, E. W., Lv, Y., Weiss, M., Popescu, I., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 163 (5): 1114–20

    Abstract

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with hepatic hilus involvement has been either classified as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and short- and long-term outcomes after curative resection for hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in comparison with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.A total of 912 patients with mass-forming peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 101 patients with hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 159 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing curative resection from 2000 to 2015 were included from two multi-institutional databases. Clinicopathologic characteristics and short- and long-term outcomes were compared among the 3 groups.Patients with hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma had more aggressive tumor characteristics (eg, higher frequency of vascular invasion and lymph nodes metastasis) and experienced more extensive resections in comparison with either peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients. The odds of lymphadenectomy and R0 resection rate among patients with hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were comparable with hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients, but higher than peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients (lymphadenectomy incidence, 85.1% vs 42.5%, P < .001; R0 rate, 75.2% vs 88.8%, P < .001). After curative surgery, patients with hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma experienced a higher rate of technical-related complications compared with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients. Of note, hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was associated with worse disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival after curative resection versus peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (median disease-specific survival, 26.0 vs 54.0 months, P < .001; median recurrence-free survival, 13.0 vs 18.0 months, P = .021) and hilar cholangiocarcinoma (median disease-specific survival, 26.0 vs 49.0 months, P = .003; median recurrence-free survival, 13.0 vs 33.4 months, P < .001).Mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with hepatic hilus involvement is a more aggressive type of cholangiocarcinoma, which showed distinct clinicopathologic characteristics, worse long-term outcomes after curative resection, in comparison with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2018.01.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000431940600021

    View details for PubMedID 29398035

  • Oncologic effects of preoperative biliary drainage in resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Percutaneous biliary drainage has no adverse effects on survival JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Zhang, X., Beal, E. W., Merath, K., Ethun, C. G., Salem, A., Weber, S. M., Thuy Tran, Poultsides, G., Son, A. Y., Hatzaras, I., Jin, L., Fields, R. C., Weiss, M., Scoggins, C., Martin, R. G., Isom, C. A., Idrees, K., Mogal, H. D., Shen, P., Maithel, S. K., Schmidt, C. R., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 117 (6): 1267–77

    Abstract

    The objective of the current study was to define long-term survival of patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) after preoperative percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) versus endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD).Between 2000 and 2014, 240 patients who underwent curative-intent resection for HCCA were identified at 10 major hepatobiliary centers. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as disease-specific survival (DSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed among patients.The median decrease in total bilirubin levels after biliary drainage was similar comparing PTBD (n = 104) versus EBD (n = 92) (mg/dL, 4.9 vs 4.9, P = 0.589) before surgery. There was no difference in baseline demographic characteristics, type of surgical procedure performed, final AJCC tumor stage or postoperative morbidity among patients who underwent EBD only versus PTBD (all P > 0.05). Patients who underwent PTBD versus EBD had a comparable long-term DSS (median, 43.7 vs 36.9 months, P = 0.802) and RFS (median, 26.7 vs 24.0 months, P = 0.571). The overall pattern of recurrence relative to regional or distant disease was also the same among patients undergoing PTBD and EBD (P = 0.669) CONCLUSIONS: Oncologic outcomes including DSS and RFS were similar among patients who underwent PTBD versus EBD with no difference in tumor recurrence location.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24945

    View details for Web of Science ID 000439810400022

    View details for PubMedID 29205351

  • Transplantation Versus Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma An Argument for Shifting Treatment Paradigms for Resectable Disease Ethun, C. G., Lopez-Aguiar, A. G., Anderson, D. J., Adams, A. B., Fields, R. C., Doyle, M. B., Chapman, W. C., Krasnick, B. A., Weber, S. M., Mezrich, J. D., Salem, A., Pawlik, T. M., Poultsides, G., Tran, T. B., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Martin, R. G., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Cardona, K., Maithel, S. K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018: 797–805

    Abstract

    To investigate the influence of type of surgery (transplant vs resection) on overall survival (OS) in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (H-CCA).Outcomes after resection for H-CCA are poor, yet transplantation is currently only reserved for well-selected patients with unresectable disease.All patients with H-CCA who underwent resection from 2000 to 2015 at 10 institutions were included. Three institutions additionally had active H-CCA transplant protocols with similar selection criteria over similar time periods.Of 304 patients with suspected H-CCA, 234 underwent attempted resection and 70 were enrolled in a transplant protocol. Excluding incomplete/R2 resections (n = 43), patients who were enrolled, but did not undergo transplant (n = 24), and transplants without confirmed H-CCA diagnoses (n = 5), 191 patients underwent curative-intent resection and 41 curative-intent transplant. Compared with resection, transplant patients were younger (52 vs 65 years; P < 0.001), and more frequently had primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; 61% vs 2%; P < 0.001) and received chemotherapy and/or radiation (98% vs 57%; P < 0.001). Groups were otherwise similar in demographics and comorbidities. Patients who underwent transplant for confirmed H-CCA diagnosis had improved OS compared with resection (3-year: 72% vs 33%; 5-year: 64% vs 18%; P < 0.001). Among patients who underwent resection for tumors <3 cm with lymph-node negative disease, and excluding PSC patients, transplant was still associated with improved OS (3-year: 54% vs 44%; 5-year: 54% vs 29%; P = 0.03). Transplant remained associated with improved survival on intention-to-treat analysis, even after accounting for tumor size, lymph node status, and PSC (P = 0.049).Resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma that meets criteria for transplantation (<3 cm, lymph-node negative disease) is associated with substantially decreased survival compared to transplant for the same criteria with unresectable disease. Prospective trials are needed and justified.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002574

    View details for Web of Science ID 000430269000016

    View details for PubMedID 29064885

  • The Impact of Intraoperative Re-Resection of a Positive Bile Duct Margin on Clinical Outcomes for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Zhang, X., Squires, M. H., Bagante, F., Ethun, C. G., Salem, A., Weber, S. M., Thuy Tran, Poultsides, G., Son, A. Y., Hatzaras, I., Jin, L., Fields, R. C., Weiss, M., Scoggins, C., Martin, R. G., Isom, C. A., Idrees, K., Mogal, H. D., Shen, P., Maithel, S. K., Schmidt, C. R., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 25 (5): 1140–49

    Abstract

    The impact of re-resection of a positive intraoperative bile duct margin on clinical outcomes for resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) remains controversial. We sought to define the impact of re-resection of an initially positive frozen-section bile duct margin on outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for HCCA.Patients who underwent curative-intent resection for HCCA between 2000 and 2014 were identified at 10 hepatobiliary centers. Short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed among patients stratified by margin status.Among 215 (83.7%) patients who underwent frozen-section evaluation of the bile duct, 80 (37.2%) patients had a positive (R1) ductal margin, 58 (72.5%) underwent re-resection, and 29 ultimately had a secondary negative margin (secondary R0). There was no difference in morbidity, 30-day mortality, and length of stay among patients who had primary R0, secondary R0, and R1 resection (all p > 0.10). Median and 5-year survival were 22.3 months and 23.3%, respectively, among patients who had a primary R0 resection compared with 18.5 months and 7.9%, respectively, for patients with an R1 resection (p = 0.08). In contrast, among patients who had a secondary R0 margin with re-resection of the bile duct margin, median and 5-year survival were 30.6 months and 44.3%, respectively, which was comparable to patients with a primary R0 margin (p = 0.804). On multivariable analysis, R1 margin resection was associated with decreased survival (R1: hazard ratio [HR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.7; p = 0.027), but secondary R0 resection was associated with comparable long-term outcomes as primary R0 resection (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.3; p = 0.829).Additional resection of a positive frozen-section ductal margin to achieve R0 resection was associated with improved long-term outcomes following curative-intent resection of HCCA.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-018-6382-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000429536700010

    View details for PubMedID 29470820

  • Nomogram predicting the risk of recurrence after curative-intent resection of primary non-metastatic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: An analysis of the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group Merath, K., Bagante, F., Beal, E. W., Lopez-Aguiar, A. G., Poultsides, G., Makris, E., Rocha, F., Kanji, Z., Weber, S., Fisher, A., Fields, R., Krasnick, B. A., Idrees, K., Smith, P. M., Cho, C., Beems, M., Schmidt, C. R., Dillhoff, M., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. WILEY. 2018: 868–78

    Abstract

    The risk of recurrence after resection of non-metastatic gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is poorly defined. We developed/validated a nomogram to predict risk of recurrence after curative-intent resection.A training set to develop the nomogram and test set for validation were identified. The predictive ability of the nomogram was assessed using c-indices.Among 1477 patients, 673 (46%) were included in the training set and 804 (54%) in y the test set. On multivariable analysis, Ki-67, tumor size, nodal status, and invasion of adjacent organs were independent predictors of DFS. The risk of death increased by 8% for each percentage increase in the Ki-67 index (HR 1.08, 95% CI, 1.05-1.10; P < 0.001). GEP-NET invading adjacent organs had a HR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.03-2.65; P = 0.038), similar to tumors ≥3 cm (HR 1.67, 95% CI, 1.11-2.51; P = 0.014). Patients with 1-3 positive nodes and patients with >3 positive nodes had a HR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.12-2.87; P = 0.014) and 2.51 (95% CI, 1.50-4.24; P < 0.001), respectively. The nomogram demonstrated good ability to predict risk of recurrence (c-index: training set, 0.739; test set, 0.718).The nomogram was able to predict the risk of recurrence and can be easily applied in the clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24985

    View details for Web of Science ID 000434145500008

    View details for PubMedID 29448303

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5992105

  • The impact of caudate lobe resection on margin status and outcomes in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a multi-institutional analysis from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium SURGERY Bhutiani, N., Scoggins, C. R., McMasters, K. M., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M., Weber, S. M., Schmidt, C. R., Fields, R. C., Idrees, K., Hatzaras, L., Shen, P., Maithel, S. K., Martin, R. G. 2018; 163 (4): 726–31

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of caudate resection on margin status and outcomes during resection of extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma.A database of 1,092 patients treated for biliary malignancies at institutions of the Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium was queried for individuals undergoing curative-intent resection for extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Patients who did versus did not undergo concomitant caudate resection were compared with regard to demographic, baseline, and tumor characteristics as well as perioperative outcomes.A total of 241 patients underwent resection for a hilar cholangiocarcinoma, of whom 85 underwent caudate resection. Patients undergoing caudate resection were less likely to have a final positive margin (P = .01). Kaplan-Meier curve of overall survival for patients undergoing caudate resection indicated no improvement over patients not undergoing caudate resection (P = .16). On multivariable analysis, caudate resection was not associated with improved overall survival or recurrence-free survival, although lymph node positivity was associated with worse overall survival and recurrence-free survival, and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was associated with improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival.Caudate resection is associated with a greater likelihood of margin-negative resection in patients with extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Precise preoperative imaging is critical to assess the extent of biliary involvement, so that all degrees of hepatic resections are possible at the time of the initial operation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2017.10.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428971700014

    View details for PubMedID 29306541

  • Outcomes after vascular resection during curative-intent resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a multi-institution study from the US extrahepatic biliary malignancy consortium Schimizzi, G. V., Jin, L. X., Davidson, J. T., Krasnick, B. A., Ethun, C. G., Pawlik, T. M., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Hawkins, W. G., Strasberg, S. M., Doyle, M. B., Chapman, W. C., Martin, R. G., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Fields, R. C. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2018: 332–39

    Abstract

    Surgical resection is the cornerstone of curative-intent therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). The role of vascular resection (VR) in the treatment of HC in western centres is not well defined.Utilizing data from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium, patients were grouped into those who underwent resection for HC based on VR status: no VR, portal vein resection (PVR), or hepatic artery resection (HAR). Perioperative and long-term survival outcomes were analyzed.Between 1998 and 2015, 201 patients underwent resection for HC, of which 31 (15%) underwent VR: 19 patients (9%) underwent PVR alone and 12 patients (6%) underwent HAR either with (n = 2) or without PVR (n = 10). Patients selected for VR tended to be younger with higher stage disease. Rates of postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were similar when stratified by vascular resection status. On multivariate analysis, receipt of PVR or HAR did not significantly affect OS or RFS.In a modern, multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for HC, VR appears to be a safe procedure in a highly selected subset, although long-term survival outcomes appear equivalent. VR should be considered only in select patients based on tumor and patient characteristics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2017.10.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427729300007

    View details for PubMedID 29169904

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5970648

  • Preoperative Risk Score and Prediction of Long-Term Outcomes after Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Sasaki, K., Margonis, G. A., Andreatos, N., Bagante, F., Weiss, M., Barbon, C., Popescu, I., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Aucejo, F. N., Pawlik, T. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 393–405

    Abstract

    Accurate prediction of prognosis for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains a challenge. We sought to define a preoperative risk tool to predict long-term survival after resection of ICC.Patients who underwent hepatectomy for ICC at 1 of 16 major hepatobiliary centers between 1990 and 2015 were identified. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed and a prognostic model was developed based on the regression β-coefficients on data in training set. The model was subsequently assessed using a validation set.Among 538 patients, most patients had a solitary tumor (median tumor number 1; interquartile range 1 to 2) and median tumor size was 5.7 cm (interquartile range 4.0 to 8.0 cm). Median and 5-year overall survival was 39.0 months and 39.0%, respectively. On multivariable analyses, preoperative factors associated with long-term survival included tumor size (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18), natural logarithm carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.45), albumin level (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.99), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). A weighted composite prognostic score was constructed based on these factors: [9 + (1.12 × tumor size) + (2.81 × natural logarithm carbohydrate antigen 19-9) + (0.50 × neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) + (-2.79 × albumin)]. The model demonstrated good performance in the testing (area under the curve 0.696) and validation (0.691) datasets. The model performed better than both the T categories (area under the curve 0.532) and the cumulative stage classifications in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual, 8th edition (area under the curve 0.559). When assessing risk of death within 1 year of operation, a risk score ≥25 had a positive predictive value of 59.8% compared with a positive predictive value of 35.3% for American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual, 8th edition T4 disease and 31.8% for stage IIIB disease.Postsurgical long-term outcomes could be predicted using a composite weighted scoring system based on preoperative clinical parameters. The preoperative risk model can be used to inform patient to provider conversations and expectations before operation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.12.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428298600008

    View details for PubMedID 29274841

  • Clinicopathologic score predicting lymph node metastasis in T1 gastric cancer. Surgery Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Weber, S. M., Schmidt, C., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2018; 163 (4): 889–93

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Although gastrectomy with adequate regional nodal examination is considered the standard of care for invasive gastric adenocarcinoma, endoscopic resection has been adopted increasingly in select patients with T1 gastric cancer. The objective of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of lymph node metastasis in patients in the United States with T1 gastric cancer.METHODS: Patients who underwent operative resection for T1 gastric cancer between 2000 and 2012 were identified from a multi-institutional database. Clinicopathologic predictors of lymph node metastasis were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. A preoperative score was created, assigning points based on each variable's regression coefficient.RESULTS: Among 835 patients with gastric cancer undergoing curative-intent surgical resection, 176 patients (20.5%) had T1 disease confirmed on final pathology. Of those, 38 patients (22%) had lymph node metastasis. Independent predictors of lymph node involvement on multivariate analysis were poor differentiation, T1b stage, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor size >2cm. A clinicopathologic risk score composed of these 4 variables was created. Receiver operating curve analysis showed excellent discrimination (area under the curve=0.79) and 100% sensitivity in detecting lymph node metastasis when only one of the aforementioned factors was present.CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of U.S. patients with T1 gastric adenocarcinoma, the lack of lymph node involvement could be predicted by the absence of several unfavorable factors, including T stage, poor differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, and size >2cm.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2017.09.021

    View details for PubMedID 29398039

  • Prospective Evaluation of Results of Reoperation in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Annals of surgery Norton, J. A., Krampitz, G. W., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Fraker, D. L., Alexander, H. R., Jensen, R. T. 2018; 267 (4): 782–88

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of reoperation in patients with persistent or recurrent Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES).BACKGROUND: Approximately, 0% to 60% of ZES patients are disease-free (DF) after an initial operation, but the tumor may recur.METHODS: A prospective database was queried.RESULTS: A total of 223 patients had an initial operation for possible cure of ZES and then were subsequently evaluated serially with cross sectional imaging-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, more recently octreoscan-and functional studies for ZES activity. The mean age at first surgery was 49 years and with an 11-year mean follow-up 52 patients (23%) underwent reoperation when ZES recurred with imageable disease. Results in this group are analyzed in the current report. Reoperation occurred on a mean of 6 years after the initial surgery with a mean number of reoperations of 1 (range 1-5). After reoperation 18/52 patients were initially DF (35%); and after a mean follow-up of 8 years, 13/52 remained DF (25%). During follow-up, 9/52 reoperated patients (17%) died, of whom 7 patients died a disease-related death (13%). The overall survival from first surgery was 84% at 20 years and 68% at 30 years. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 status did not affect survival, but DF interval and liver metastases did.CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that a significant proportion of patients with ZES will develop resectable persistent or recurrent disease after an initial operation. These patients generally have prolonged survival after reoperation and 25% can be cured with repeat surgery, suggesting all ZES patients postresection should have systematic imaging, and if tumor recurs, advise repeat operation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002122

    View details for PubMedID 29517561

  • Implications of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Etiology on Recurrence and Prognosis after Curative-Intent Resection: a Multi-Institutional Study WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY Zhang, X., Chakedis, J., Bagante, F., Beal, E. W., Lv, Y., Weiss, M., Popescu, I., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 42 (3): 849–57

    Abstract

    We sought to investigate the prognosis of patients following curative-intent surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) stratified by hepatitis B (HBV-ICC), hepatolithiasis (Stone-ICC), and no identifiable cause (conventional ICC) etiologic subtype.986 patients with HBV-ICC (n = 201), stone-ICC (n = 103), and conventional ICC (n = 682) who underwent curative-intent resection were identified from a multi-institutional database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to mitigate residual bias.HBV-ICC patients more often had cirrhosis, earlier stage tumors, a mass-forming lesion, well-to-moderate tumor differentiation, and an R0 resection versus stone-ICC or conventional ICC patients. Five-year recurrence-free survival among HBV-ICC and conventional ICC patients was 23.9 and 17.8%, respectively, versus a recurrence-free of only 8.3% among patients with stone-ICC. Similarly, 5-year overall survival among patients with stone-ICC was only 18.3% compared with 48.9 and 38.0% for patients with HBV-ICC and conventional ICC, respectively. On PSM, patients with stone-ICC group had equivalent long-term outcomes as HBV-ICC patients. In contrast, on PSM, stone-ICC patients had a median overall survival of only 18.0 months versus 44.0 months for patients with conventional ICC. Median overall survival after intrahepatic-only recurrence among patients who had stone-ICC (6.0 months) was worse than OS among HBV-ICC (13.0 months) or conventional ICC (12.0 months) (p = 0.006 and p = 0.082, respectively).While HBV-ICC had a better prognosis on unadjusted analyses, these differences were mitigated on PSM suggesting no stage-for-stage differences in outcomes compared with stone-ICC or conventional ICC. In contrast, patients with stone-ICC had worse long-term outcomes. These data highlight the relative importance of ICC etiology relative to established clinicopathological factors in the prognosis of patients with ICC.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-017-4199-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000424278600029

    View details for PubMedID 28879598

  • Accuracy of the ACS NSQIP Online Risk Calculator Depends on How You Look at It: Results from the United States Gastric Cancer Collaborative AMERICAN SURGEON Beal, E. W., Saunders, N. D., Kearney, J. F., Lyon, E., Wei, L., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Worhunsky, D. J., Votanopoulos, K. I., Ejaz, A., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Swords, D., Acher, A. W., Weber, S. M., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T., Schmidt, C. R. 2018; 84 (3): 358–64

    Abstract

    The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program online risk calculator for estimating risk after operation for gastric cancer using the United States Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Nine hundred and sixty-five patients who underwent resection of gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2000 and December 2012 at seven academic medical centers were included. Actual complication rates and outcomes for patients were compared. Most of the patients underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (404, 41.9%) and partial gastrectomy with gastrojejunostomy (239, 24.8%) or Roux-en-Y reconstruction (284, 29.4%). The C-statistic was highest for venous thromboembolism (0.690) and lowest for renal failure at (0.540). All C-statistics were less than 0.7. Brier scores ranged from 0.010 for venous thromboembolism to 0.238 for any complication. General estimates of risk for the cohort were variable in terms of accuracy. Improving the ability of surgeons to estimate preoperative risk for patients is critically important so that efforts at risk reduction can be personalized to each patient. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program risk calculator is a rapid and easy-to-use tool and validation of the calculator is important as its use becomes more common.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428720300018

    View details for PubMedID 29559049

  • Cytoreductive debulking surgery among patients with neuroendocrine liver metastasis: a multi-institutional analysis HPB Ejaz, A., Reames, B. N., Maithel, S., Poultsides, G. A., Bauer, T. W., Fields, R. C., Weiss, M. J., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 20 (3): 277–84

    Abstract

    Management of neuroendocrine liver metastasis (NELM) in the setting of unresectable disease is poorly defined and the role of debulking remains controversial. The objective of the current study was to define outcomes following non-curative intent liver-directed therapy (debulking) among patients with NELM.612 patients were identified who underwent liver-directed therapy of NELM from a multi-institutional database. Outcomes were stratified according to curative (R0/R1) versus non-curative ≥ 80% debulking (R2).179 (29.2%) patients had an R2/debulking procedure. Patients undergoing debulking more commonly had more aggressive high-grade tumors (R0/R1: 12.8% vs. R2: 35.0%; P < 0.001) or liver disease burden that was bilateral (R0/R1: 52.8% vs. R2: 75.6%; P < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 51 months, median (R0/R1: not reached vs. R2: 87 months; P < 0.001) and 5-year survival (R0/R1: 85.2% vs. R2: 60.7%; P < 0.001) was higher among patients who underwent an R0/R1 resection compared with patients who underwent a debulking operation. Among patients with ≥50% NELM liver involvement, median and 5-year survival following debulking was 55.4 months and 40.6%, respectively.Debulking operations for NELM provided reasonable long-term survival. Hepatic debulking for patients with NELM is a reasonable therapeutic option for patients with grossly unresectable disease that may provide a survival benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2017.08.039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427622300011

    View details for PubMedID 28964630

  • Incidence and Prognosis of Primary Gastrinomas in the Hepatobiliary Tract JAMA SURGERY Norton, J. A., Foster, D. S., Blumgart, L. H., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Fraker, D. L., Alexander, H., Jensen, R. T. 2018; 153 (3): e175083

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.5083

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427993200001

    View details for PubMedID 29365025

  • Adjuvant therapy is associated with improved survival after curative resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A multi-institution analysis from the US extrahepatic biliary malignancy consortium JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Krasnick, B. A., Jin, L. X., Davidson, J. T., Sanford, D. E., Ethun, C. G., Pawlik, T. M., Poultsides, G. A., Thuy Tran, Idrees, K., Hawkins, W. G., Chapman, W. C., Doyle, M. M., Weber, S. M., Strasberg, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. G., Isom, C. A., Scoggins, C., Schmidt, C. R., Shen, P., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Fields, R. C. 2018; 117 (3): 363–71

    Abstract

    Curative-intent treatment for localized hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) requires surgical resection. However, the effect of adjuvant therapy (AT) on survival is unclear. We analyzed the impact of AT on overall (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) in patients undergoing curative resection.We reviewed patients with resected HC between 2000 and 2015 from the ten institutions participating in the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. We analyzed the impact of AT on RFS and OS. The probability of RFS and OS were calculated in the method of Kaplan and Meier and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression analysis.A total of 249 patients underwent curative resection for HC. Patients who received AT and those who did not had similar demographic and preoperative features. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, AT conferred a significant protective effect on OS (HR 0.58, P = 0.013), and this was maintained in a propensity matched analysis (HR 0.66, P = 0.033). The protective effect of AT remained significant when node negative patients were excluded (HR 0.28, P = 0.001), while it disappeared (HR 0.76, P = 0.260) when node positive patients were excluded.AT should be strongly considered after curative-intent resection for HC, particularly in patients with node positive disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24836

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427584100004

    View details for PubMedID 29284072

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5924689

  • The Limitations of Standard Clinicopathologic Features to Accurately Risk-Stratify Prognosis after Resection of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Bagante, F., Merath, K., Squires, M. H., Weiss, M., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 22 (3): 477–85

    Abstract

    The ability to provide accurate prognostic data after hepatectomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains poor. We sought to develop and validate a nomogram to predict survival, as well as investigate the clinical implications of underestimating patients' risk of recurrence.Patients undergoing curative-intent resection of ICC between 1990 and 2015 at 14 major hepatobiliary centers were included. Variables significant on multivariable analysis were used to construct a nomogram to predict disease-free survival (DFS). The nomogram assigned a score to each variable included in the model and calculated the risk of recurrence.Eight hundred ninety-seven patients are included in the analytic cohort. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, tumor size > 5 cm (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.13; p < 0.001), multifocal ICC (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32-2.03; p < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25-2.11; p < 0.001), poorly differentiated tumor grade (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.21-1.89; p < 0.001), and periductal infiltrating type (PI) morphology (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.83; p = 0.008) were independent adverse risk factors associated with decreased DFS. The Harrell's c-index for the nomogram was 0.633 (with n = 5000 bootstrapping resamples) and the plot comparing predicted and actuarial DFS demonstrated a good calibration of the model. A subset of patients (n = 282) had a DFS worse than predicted (ΔPredicted DFS - Actuarial DFS > 6 months). Moreover, underestimation of a recurrence risk was more common among patients with clinicopathologic features traditionally considered "favorable."A nomogram based on standard clinicopathologic characteristics was suboptimal in its ability to predict accurately risk of recurrence among patients with ICC after curative-intent liver resection. Particularly, the risk of underestimating patient risk of recurrence was highest among patients with historically favorable characteristics. Over one third of patients recurred > 6 months earlier than the DFS predicted by the nomogram.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-018-3682-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000426795800012

    View details for PubMedID 29352440

  • A Novel T-Stage Classification System for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Proposal from the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Study Group Poorman, C. E., Ethun, C. G., Postlewait, L. M., Tran, T. B., Prescott, J. D., Pawlik, T. M., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Staley, C. A., Poultsides, G. A., Maithel, S. K. SPRINGER. 2018: 520–27

    Abstract

    The 7th AJCC T-stage system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), based on size and extra-adrenal invasion, does not adequately stratify patients by survival. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a known poor prognostic factor. We propose a novel T-stage system that incorporates LVI to better risk-stratify patients undergoing resection for ACC.Patients undergoing curative-intent resections for ACC from 1993 to 2014 at 13 institutions comprising the US ACC Group were included. Primary outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS).Of the 265 patients with ACC, 149 were included for analysis. The current T-stage system failed to differentiate patients with T2 versus T3 disease (p = 0.10). Presence of LVI was associated with worse DSS versus no LVI (36 mo vs. 168 mo; p = 0.001). After accounting for the individual components of the current T-stage system (size, extra-adrenal invasion), LVI remained a poor prognostic factor on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.05-4.38, p = 0.04). LVI positivity further stratified patients with T2 and T3 disease (T2: 37 mo vs. median not reached; T3: 36 mo vs. 96 mo; p = 0.03) but did not influence survival in patients with T1 or T4 disease. By incorporating LVI, a new T-stage classification system was created: [T1: ≤ 5 cm, (-)local invasion, (+/-)LVI; T2: > 5 cm, (-)local invasion, (-)LVI OR any size, (+)local invasion, (-)LVI; T3: > 5 cm, (-)local invasion, (+)LVI OR any size, (+)local invasion, (+)LVI; T4: any size, (+)adjacent organ invasion, (+/-)LVI]. Each progressive new T-stage group was associated with worse median DSS (T1: 167 mo; T2: 96 mo; T3: 37 mo; T4: 15 mo; p < 0.001).Compared with the current T-stage system, the proposed T-stage system, which incorporates LVI, better differentiates T2 and T3 disease and accurately stratifies patients by disease-specific survival. If externally validated, this T-stage classification should be considered for future AJCC staging systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-017-6236-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000419658200022

    View details for PubMedID 29164414

  • Timing of disease occurrence and hepatic resection on long-term outcome of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastasis JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Zhang, X., Beal, E. W., Weiss, M., Aldrighetti, L., Poultsides, G. A., Bauer, T. W., Fields, R. C., Maithel, S. K., Marques, H. P., Pawlik, T. M. 2018; 117 (2): 171–81

    Abstract

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of timing of disease occurrence and hepatic resection on long-term outcome of neuroendocrine liver metastasis (NELM).A total of 420 patients undergoing curative-intent resection for NELM were identified from a multi-institutional database. Date of primary resection, NELM detection and resection, intraoperative details, disease-specific (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were obtained.A total of 243 (57.9%) patients had synchronous NELM, while 177 (42.1%) developed metachronous NELM. On propensity score matching (PSM), patients with synchronous versus metachronous NELM had comparable DSS (10-year DSS, 76.2% vs 85.9%, P = 0.105), yet a worse RFS (10-year RFS, 34.1% vs 59.8%, P = 0.008). DSS and RFS were comparable regardless of operative approach (simultaneous vs staged, both P > 0.1). Among patients who developed metachronous NELM, no difference in long-term outcomes were identified between early (≤2 years, n = 102, 57.6%) and late (>2 years, n = 68, 42.4%) disease on PSM (both P > 0.1).Patients with synchronous NELM had a higher risk of tumor recurrence after hepatic resection versus patients with metachronous disease. The time to development of metachronous NELM did not affect long-term outcome. Curative-intent hepatic resection should be considered for patients who develop NELM regardless of the timing of disease presentation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24832

    View details for Web of Science ID 000426165700009

    View details for PubMedID 28940257

  • Management of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Toesca, D. A., Koong, A. J., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Haraldsdottir, S., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2018; 100 (5): 1155–74

    Abstract

    With the rapid development of imaging modalities and surgical techniques, the clinical entity representing tumors that are intermediate between resectable and unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been identified has been termed "borderline resectable" (BR). These tumors are generally amenable for resection but portend an increased risk for positive margins after surgery and commonly necessitate vascular resection and reconstruction. Although there is a lack of consensus regarding the appropriate definition of what constitutes a BR pancreatic tumor, it has been demonstrated that this intermediate category carries a particular prognosis that is in between resectable and unresectable disease. In order to downstage the tumor and increase the probability of clear surgical margins, neoadjuvant therapy is being increasingly utilized and studied. There is a lack of high-level evidence to establish the optimal treatment regimen for BR tumors. When resection with negative margins is achieved after neoadjuvant therapy, the prognosis for BR tumors approaches and even exceeds that for resectable disease. This review presents the current definitions, different treatment approaches, and the clinical outcomes of BR pancreatic cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.12.287

    View details for PubMedID 29722658

  • Performance of prognostic scores and staging systems in predicting long-term survival outcomes after surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Buettner, S., Galjart, B., van Vugt, J. A., Bagante, F., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Lamelas, J., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Margonis, G. A., Weiss, M., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J., IJzermans, J. M., Koerkamp, B., Pawlik, T. M. 2017; 116 (8): 1085–95

    Abstract

    We sought to validate the commonly used prognostic models and staging systems for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in a large multi-center patient cohort.The overall (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) prognostic discriminatory ability of various commonly used models were assessed in a large retrospective cohort. Harrell's concordance index (c-index) was used to determine accuracy of model prediction.Among 1054 ICC patients, median OS was 37.7 months and 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival, were 78.8%, 51.5%, and 39.3%, respectively. Recurrence of disease occurred in 454 (43.0%) patients with a median DFS of 29.6 months. One-, 3- and 5- year DFS were 64.6%, 46.5 % and 44.4%, respectively. The prognostic models associated with the best OS prediction were the Wang nomogram (c-index 0.668) and the Nathan staging system (c-index 0.639). No model was proficient in predicting DFS. Only the Wang nomogram exceeded a c-index of 0.6 for DFS (c-index 0.602). The c-index for the AJCC staging system was 0.637 for OS and 0.582 for DFS.While the Wang nomogram had the best discriminatory ability relative to OS and DFS, no ICC staging system or nomogram demonstrated excellent prognostic discrimination. The AJCC staging for ICC performed reasonably, although its overall discrimination was only modest-to-good.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24759

    View details for Web of Science ID 000419651200017

    View details for PubMedID 28703880

  • Neuroendocrine Liver Metastasis: Prognostic Implications of Primary Tumor Site on Patients Undergoing Curative Intent Liver Surgery Spolverato, G., Bagante, F., Aldrighetti, L., Poultsides, G., Bauer, T. W., Field, R. C., Marques, H. P., Weiss, M., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. SPRINGER. 2017: 2039–47

    Abstract

    Neuroendocrine tumors typically arise from pancreatic (PNET) vs. gastrointestinal or thoracic origins (non-PNET). The impact of primary tumor site on long-term prognosis following resection of neuroendocrine liver metastasis (NELM) remains poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to define the association of primary tumor location on prognosis of patients undergoing curative intent liver resection for NELM.Between 1990 and 2014, 421 patients who underwent resection of NELM were identified from a multi-institutional database. Clinicopathological characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were stratified and analyzed by location of the primary tumor (PNET vs. non-PNET). A propensity score-matched analysis was utilized to assess the impact of primary tumor location on long-term survival.Among the 421 patients, 197 (46.8%) patients had NELM from a PNET primary while 224 (53.2%) had a non-PNET primary (small bowel, n = 145; rectal, n = 10; bronchial, n = 22; other, n = 47). There were no differences in tumor burden and tumor site, while presence of extrahepatic disease was more common among patients with non-PNET NELM (extrahepatic disease, PNET NELM, n = 11 27.5% vs. non-PNET NELM, n = 29 72.5%; p = 0.010). Patients with PNET NELM were more likely to have non-functional disease compared with patients who had non-PNET NELM (non-functional, PNET NELM, n = 117 54.9% vs. non-PNET NELM, n = 96 45.1%; p = 0.011). On the final pathological specimen of the resected NELM, patients with PNET NELM were more likely to have a moderately differentiated tumor (59.3%), while patients with non-PNET NELM were more likely to have a poorly differentiated tumor (67.8%) (p = 0.005). Patients with PNET NELM had a worse 5-year DFS and 5-year OS compared with patients who had non-PNET NELM (DFS, PNET 36.2% vs. non-PNET 55.2%; p = 0.001 and OS, PNET 79.5% vs. non-PNET 83.4%; p = 0.008). After propensity score matching, both 5-year DFS and 5-year OS of the PNET and non-PNET groups were comparable (DFS, PNET 46.2% vs. non-PNET 55.9%; p = 0.22 and OS, PNET 81.5% vs. non-PNET 84.3%; p = 0.19).PNET patients more often present with non-functional NELM and moderately differentiated tumors. On propensity-matched analysis, factors such as extrahepatic disease and tumor grade, but not primary tumor location, were associated with prognosis of patients undergoing curative intent liver surgery for NELM.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3491-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416150600009

    View details for PubMedID 28744737

  • Predictors and Prognostic Implications of Perioperative Chemotherapy Completion in Gastric Cancer Karagkounis, G., Squires, M., Melis, M., Poultsides, G. A., Worhunsky, D., Jin, L. X., Fields, R. C., Spolverato, G., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Schmidt, C., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Weber, S., Masi, A., Berman, R., Pachter, H., Staley, C. A., Newman, E., Maithel, S. K., Hatzaras, I. SPRINGER. 2017: 1984–92

    Abstract

    Perioperative chemotherapy in gastric cancer is increasingly used since the "MAGIC" trial, while clinical practice data outside of trials remain limited. We sought to evaluate the predictors and prognostic implications of perioperative chemotherapy completion in patients undergoing curative-intent gastrectomy across multiple US institutions.Patients who underwent curative-intent resection of gastric adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2012 in eight institutions of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative were identified. Patients who received preoperative chemotherapy were included, while those who died within 90 days or with unknown adjuvant chemotherapy status were excluded. Predictors of chemotherapy completion and survival were identified using multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards.One hundred sixty three patients were included (median age 63.3, 36.8% female). The postoperative component of perioperative chemotherapy was administered in 112 (68.7%) patients. Factors independently associated with receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy were younger age (odds ratio (OR) 2.73, P = 0.03), T3 tumors (OR 14.3, P = 0.04), lymph node metastasis (OR 5.82, P = 0.03), and D2 lymphadenectomy (OR 4.12, P = 0.007), and, inversely, postoperative complications (OR 0.25, P = 0.008). Median overall survival (OS) was 25.1 months and 5-year OS was 36.5%. Predictors of OS were preexisting cardiac disease (hazard ratio (HR) 2.7, 95% CI 1.13-6.46), concurrent splenectomy (HR 4.11, 95% CI 1.68-10.0), tumor stage (reference stage I; stage II HR 2.62; 95% CI 0.99-6.94; stage III HR 4.86, 95% CI 1.81-13.02), and D2 lymphadenectomy (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.95). After accounting for these factors, adjuvant chemotherapy administration was associated with improved OS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.82).Completion of perioperative chemotherapy was successful in two thirds of patients with gastric cancer and was independently associated with improved survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3594-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416150600002

    View details for PubMedID 28963709

  • The Effects of Travel Burden on Outcomes After Resection of Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancies: Results from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Consortium O'Connor, S. C., Mogal, H., Russell, G., Ethun, C., Fields, R. C., Jin, L., Hatzaras, I., Vitiello, G., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Martin, R., Scoggins, C., Pawlik, T. M., Schmidt, C., Poultsides, G., Tran, T. B., Weber, S., Salem, A., Maithel, S., Shen, P. SPRINGER. 2017: 2016–24

    Abstract

    Surgical resection of extrahepatic biliary malignancies has been increasingly centralized at high-volume tertiary care centers. While this has improved outcomes overall, increased travel burden has been associated with worse survival for many other malignancies. We hypothesized that longer travel distances are associated with worse outcomes for these patients as well.Data was analyzed from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Consortium database, which retrospectively reviewed patients who received resection of extrahepatic biliary malignancies at 10 high-volume centers. Driving distance to the patient's treatment center was measured for 1025 patients. These were divided into four quartiles for analysis: < 24.5, 24.5-57.2, 57.2-117, and < 117 mi. Cox proportional hazard models were then used to measure differences in overall survival.No difference was found between the groups in severity of disease or post-operative complications. The median overall survival in each quartile was as follows: 1st = 1.91, 2nd = 1.60, 3rd = 1.30, and 4th = 1.39 years. Patients in the 3rd and 4th quartile had a significantly lower median household income (p = 0.0001) and a greater proportion Caucasian race (p = 0.0001). However, neither of these was independently associated with overall survival. The two furthest quartiles were found to have decreased overall survival (HR = 1.39, CI = 1.12-1.73 and HR = 1.3, CI = 1.04-1.62), with quartile 3 remaining significant after multivariate analysis (HR = 1.45, CI = 1.04-2.0, p = 0.028).Longer travel distances were associated with decreased overall survival, especially in the 3rd quartile of our study. Patients traveling longer distances also had a lower household income, suggesting that these patients have significant barriers to care.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3537-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416150600006

    View details for PubMedID 28986752

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5909109

  • Evaluating the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement project risk calculator: results from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium Beal, E. W., Lyon, E., Kearney, J., Wei, L., Ethun, C. G., Black, S. M., Dillhoff, M., Salem, A., Weber, S. M., Tran, T. B., Poultsides, G., Shenoy, R., Hatzaras, I., Krasnick, B., Fields, R. C., Buttner, S., Scoggins, C. R., Martin, R. G., Isom, C. A., Idrees, K., Mogal, H. D., Shen, P., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M., Schmidt, C. R. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2017: 1104–11

    Abstract

    The objective of this study is to evaluate use of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) online risk calculator for estimating common outcomes after operations for gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.Subjects from the United States Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium (USE-BMC) who underwent operation between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 at 10 academic medical centers were included in this study. Calculator estimates of risk were compared to actual outcomes.The majority of patients underwent partial or major hepatectomy, Whipple procedures or extrahepatic bile duct resection. For the entire cohort, c-statistics for surgical site infection (0.635), reoperation (0.680) and readmission (0.565) were less than 0.7. The c-statistic for death was 0.740. For all outcomes the actual proportion of patients experiencing an event was much higher than the median predicted risk of that event. Similarly, the group of patients who experienced an outcome did have higher median predicted risk than those who did not.The ACS NSQIP risk calculator is easy to use but requires further modifications to more accurately estimate outcomes for some patient populations and operations for which validation studies show suboptimal performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2017.08.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416442700008

    View details for PubMedID 28890310

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5915623

  • The impact of extrahepatic disease among patients undergoing liver-directed therapy for neuroendocrine liver metastasis JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Ejaz, A., Reames, B. N., Maithel, S., Poultsides, G. A., Bauer, T. W., Fields, R. C., Weiss, M., Marques, H., Aldrighetti, L., Pawlik, T. M. 2017; 116 (7): 841–47

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24727

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416926600007

  • Transgastric pancreatic necrosectomy-expedited return to prepancreatitis health JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Malhotra, L., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2017; 219: 11–17

    Abstract

    The best operative strategy for necrotizing pancreatitis remains controversial. Traditional surgical necrosectomy is associated with significant morbidity; endoscopic and percutaneous strategies require repeated interventions with prolonged hospitalizations. We have developed a transgastric approach to pancreatic necrosectomy to overcome the shortcomings of the other techniques described.Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis treated from 2009 to 2016 at an academic center were retrospectively reviewed. Open or laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy was performed if the area of necrosis was walled-off and in a retrogastric position on cross-sectional imaging. Study endpoints included postoperative complications and mortality.Forty-six patients underwent transgastric necrosectomy (nine open and 37 laparoscopic). Median (interquartile range) preoperative Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6 (3-12). Seventy percent of patients had >30% necrosis on preoperative imaging; infected necrosis was present in 35%. Median total length of stay (LOS) was 6 (3-12) d. No patient required a second operative debridement; four patients (9%) had short-term postoperative percutaneous drainage for residual fluid collections. Median follow-up was 1 y; there were no fistula or wound complications. Six patients (13%) had postoperative bleeding; five patients received treatment by image-guided embolization. There was one death in the cohort.Transgastric pancreatic necrosectomy allows for effective debridement with a single definitive operation. When anatomically suitable, this operative strategy offers expedited recovery and avoids long-term morbidity associated with fistulas and prolonged drainage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2017.05.089

    View details for Web of Science ID 000413775200004

    View details for PubMedID 29078869

  • Surgical Site Infection Is Associated with Tumor Recurrence in Patients with Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancies JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Buettner, S., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Thuy Tran, Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Weiss, M., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. G., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Koerkamp, B., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2017; 21 (11): 1813–20

    Abstract

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most common complications after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. Infectious complications may lead to an associated immune-modulatory effect that inhibits the body's response to cancer surveillance. We sought to define the impact of SSI on long-term prognosis of patients undergoing surgical resection of extrahepatic biliary malignancies (EHBM).Patients undergoing surgery for EHBM between 2000 and 2014 were identified using a large, multi-center, national cohort dataset. Recurrence free survival (RFS) was calculated and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was utilized to identify potential risk factors for RFS including SSI.Seven hundred twenty-eight patients included in the analytic cohort; 236 (32.4%) patients had perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, 241 (33.1%) gallbladder cancer, and 251 (34.5%) distal cholangiocarcinoma. A major resection, liver resection, was performed in 205 (28.3%) patients, while 110 (15.2%) patients had a pancreaticoduodenectomy. The overall incidence of morbidity was 55.8%; among the 397 patients who experienced a complication, 161 patients specifically had an SSI. The SSI occurred as an infection of the surgical site (n = 70, 9.6%) or formation of an abscess in the operative bed (n = 91, 12.5%). SSI was associated with long-term survival as patients who experienced an SSI had a median RFS of 19.5 months compared with 30.5 months for those patients who did not have an SSI (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.08-1.80; p = 0.01). Among 279 patients who had EHBM that had no associated lymph node metastases, well-to-moderate tumor differentiation, as well as an R0 resection margin, SSI remained associated with worse RFS (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.03-3.29; p = 0.038), as well as overall survival (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.18-2.97; p = 0.008).SSI was a relatively common occurrence following surgery for EHBM as 1 in 10 patients experienced an SSI. In addition to standard tumor-specific factors, the occurrence of postoperative SSI was adversely associated with long-term survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3571-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000414373600007

    View details for PubMedID 28913712

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5905431

  • Impact of lymph node ratio in selecting patients with resected gastric cancer for adjuvant therapy. Surgery Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G. A., Fields, R. C., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Kooby, D. A., Worhunsky, D. J., Jin, L. X., Hawkins, W. G., Acher, A. W., Cho, C. S., Saunders, N., Levine, E. A., Schmidt, C. R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    The impact of adjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiation therapy in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer remains varied. We sought to define the clinical impact of lymph node ratio on the relative benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy among patients having undergone curative-intent resection for gastric cancer.Using the multi-institutional US Gastric Cancer Collaborative database, 719 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative-intent resection between 2000 and 2013 were identified. Patients with metastasis or an R2 margin were excluded. The impact of lymph node ratio on overall survival among patients who received chemotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy was evaluated.Median patient age was 65 years, and the majority of patients were male (56.2%). The majority of patients underwent either subtotal (40.6%) or total gastrectomy (41.0%), with the remainder undergoing distal gastrectomy or wedge resection (18.4%). On pathology, median tumor size was 4 cm; most patients had a T3 (33.0%) or T4 (27.9%) lesion with lymph node metastasis (59.7%). Margin status was R0 in 92.5% of patients. A total of 325 (45.2%) patients underwent resection alone, 253 (35.2%) patients received 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemo-radiation therapy, whereas the remaining 141 (19.6%) received chemotherapy. Median overall survival was 40.9 months, and 5-year overall survival was 40.3%. According to lymph node ratio categories, 5-year overall survival for patients with a lymph node ratio of 0, 0.01-0.10, >0.10-0.25, >0.25 were 54.1%, 53.1 %, 49.1 % and 19.8 %, respectively. Factors associated with worse overall survival included involvement of the gastroesophageal junction (hazard ratio 1.8), T-stage (3-4: hazard ratio 2.1), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio 1.4), and lymph node ratio (>0.25: hazard ratio 2.3; all P < .05). In contrast, receipt of adjuvant chemo-radiation therapy was associated with an improved overall survival in the multivariable model (versus resection alone: hazard ratio 0.40; versus chemotherapy: hazard ratio 0.45, both P < .001). The benefit of chemo-radiation therapy for resected gastric cancer was noted only among patients with lymph node ratio >0.25 (versus resection alone: hazard ratio R 0.34; versus chemotherapy: hazard ratio 0.45, both P < .001). In contrast, there was no noted overall survival benefit of chemotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy among patients with lymph node ratio ≤0.25 (all P > .05).Adjuvant chemotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy was utilized in more than one-half of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for gastric cancer. Lymph node ratio may be a useful tool to select patients for adjuvant chemo-radiation therapy, because the benefit of chemo-radiation therapy was isolated to patients with greater degrees of lymphatic spread (ie, lymph node ratio >0.25).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2017.03.023

    View details for PubMedID 28578142

  • Survival after resection of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma in patients with lymph node metastases. HPB Buettner, S., van Vugt, J. L., Gaspersz, M. P., Coelen, R. J., Roos, E., Labeur, T. A., Margonis, G. A., Ethun, C. G., Maithel, S. K., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B. A., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., IJzermans, J. N., van Gulik, T. M., Pawlik, T. M., Groot Koerkamp, B. 2017

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to compare patients with PHC with lymph node metastases (LN+) who underwent a resection with patients who did not undergo resection because of locally advanced disease at exploratory laparotomy.Consecutive LN+ patients who underwent a resection for PHC in 12 centers were compared with patients who did not undergo resection because of locally advanced disease at exploratory laparotomy in 2 centers.In the resected cohort of 119 patients, the median overall survival (OS) was 19 months and the estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year OS was 69%, 27% and 13%, respectively. In the non-resected cohort of 113 patients, median OS was 12 months and the estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year OS was 49%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. OS was better in the resected LN+ cohort (p < 0.001). Positive resection margin (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.54; 95%CI: 0.97-2.45) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (HR: 1.71; 95%CI: 1.09-2.69) were independent poor prognostic factors in the resected cohort.Patients with PHC who underwent a resection for LN+ disease had better OS than patients who did not undergo resection because of locally advanced disease at exploratory laparotomy. LN+ PHC does not preclude 5-year survival after resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2017.04.014

    View details for PubMedID 28549744

  • Management and outcomes of patients with recurrent neuroendocrine liver metastasis after curative surgery: An international multi-institutional analysis. Journal of surgical oncology Spolverato, G., Bagante, F., Aldrighetti, L., Poultsides, G. A., Bauer, T. W., Fields, R. C., Maithel, S. K., Marques, H. P., Weiss, M., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    We sought to characterize the treatment, as well as define the long-term outcomes, of patients with recurrent neuroendocrine liver metastasis (NELM).Between 1990 and 2014, 322 patients undergoing curative intent liver surgery for NELM were identified from a multi-institutional database. Recurrences were classified as intrahepatic, extrahepatic, and both intra- and extra-hepatic.Overall, median, 1-, 5-, 10-year DFS were 3.1 years, 75.5%, 40.4%, and 32.1%, respectively. After curative intent liver surgery, 209 patients (64.9%) recurred within a median follow-up of 4.5 years, while 113 (35.1%) patients were alive without disease with a follow-up time ≥3 years. The site of recurrence was intrahepatic only (n = 111, 65.7%), extrahepatic only (n = 19, 11.2%), or intra- and extra-hepatic (n = 39, 23.1%). Compared with intrahepatic only recurrence, extrahepatic only, and combined intra- and extra-hepatic recurrence were associated with a worse long-term outcome (10-year OS: intrahepatic only, 42.5%, 95%CI, 24.9-59.0 vs extrahepatic only, 0% and combined intra- and extra-hepatic, 21.5%, 95%CI, 5.3-44.0) (P < 0.001). Most patients were treated with repeat surgery (n = 49, 36.6%), while 34 (23.5%) patients received a somatostatin analogue, 27 (18.6%) systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy, and 27 (21.4%) patients had intra-arterial therapy. Ten-year OS among patients who underwent repeat surgery or intra-arterial treatments was 60.3% (95%CI, 34.1-78.8) and 52.0% (95%CI, 30.6-69.9), respectively. Patients who received somatostatin analogues (45.9% 95%CI, 22.3-66.9) or systemic chemotherapy (0%) had a shorter long-term survival (P = 0.001).Recurrence after surgery for NELM occurred among half of patients. Repeat liver resection for recurrence may offer a reasonable 5-year survival benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24670

    View details for PubMedID 28513896

  • Gallbladder Cancer Presenting with Jaundice: Uniformly Fatal or Still Potentially Curable? Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Tran, T. B., Norton, J. A., Ethun, C. G., Pawlik, T. M., Buettner, S., Schmidt, C., Beal, E. W., Hawkins, W. G., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B. A., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Poultsides, G. A. 2017

    Abstract

    Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent.Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients.Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014).Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3440-z

    View details for PubMedID 28497252

  • Impact of Morphological Status on Long-Term Outcome Among Patients Undergoing Liver Surgery for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. Annals of surgical oncology Bagante, F., Spolverato, G., Weiss, M., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Groot Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    The influence of morphological status on the long-term outcome of patients undergoing liver resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is poorly defined. We sought to study the impact of morphological status on overall survival (OS) of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for ICC.A total of 1083 patients who underwent liver resection for ICC between 1990 and 2015 were identified. Data on clinicopathological characteristics, operative details, and morphological status were recorded and analyzed. A propensity score-matched analysis was performed to reduce confounding biases.Among 1083 patients, 941(86.9%) had a mass-forming (MF) or intraductal-growth (IG) type, while 142 (13.1%) had a periductal-infiltrating (PI) or MF with PI components (MF + PI) ICC. Patients with an MF/IG ICC had a 5-year OS of 41.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.7-45.9) compared with 25.5% (95% CI 17.3-34.4) for patients with a PI/MF + PI (p < 0.001). Morphological type was found to be an independent predictor of OS as patients with a PI/MF + PI ICC had a higher hazard of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.11-1.82; p = 0.006) compared with patients who had an MF/IG ICC. Compared with T1a-T1b-T2 MF/IG tumors, T1a-T1b-T2 PI/MF + PI and T3-T4 PI/MF + PI tumors were associated with an increased risk of death (HR 1.47 vs. 3.59). Conversely, patients with T3-T4 MF/IG tumors had a similar risk of death compared with T1a-T1b-T2 MF/IG patients (p = 0.95).Among patients undergoing curative-intent resection of ICC, morphological status was a predictor of long-term outcome. Patients with PI or MF + PI ICC had an approximately 45% increased risk of death long-term compared with patients who had an MF or IG ICC.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-017-5870-y

    View details for PubMedID 28466403

  • A Novel Pathology-Based Preoperative Risk Score to Predict Locoregional Residual and Distant Disease and Survival for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer: A 10-Institution Study from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Ethun, C. G., Postlewait, L. M., Le, N., Pawlik, T. M., Buettner, S., Poultsides, G., Thuy Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Merchant, N., Cardona, K., Maithel, S. K. 2017; 24 (5): 1343-1350
  • Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Combined Hepatocellular-Cholangiocarcinoma. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology Chan, L. S., Sze, D. Y., Poultsides, G. A., Louie, J. D., Abdelrazek Mohammed, M. A., Wang, D. S. 2017

    Abstract

    Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) is a rare mixed cell type primary liver cancer with limited data to guide management. Transarterial radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres (RE) is an emerging treatment option for both hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This study explored the safety and efficacy of RE for unresectable cHCC-CC.Patients with histopathologically confirmed cHCC-CC treated with RE were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were assessed using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Radiological response was analyzed using the Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 and modified RECIST criteria. Survival times were calculated and prognostic variables identified.Ten patients (median age 59 years; six men, four women) with unresectable cHCC-CC underwent 14 RE treatments with resin (n = 6 patients) or glass (n = 4 patients) microspheres. Clinical toxicities were limited to grade 1-2 fatigue, anorexia, nausea, or abdominal pain. No significant biochemical toxicities were observed. Median overall survivals from the first RE treatment and from initial diagnosis were 10.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. Six of seven patients with elevated tumor biomarker levels before RE showed decreased levels after treatment (median decrease of 72%, range 13-80%). Best hepatic radiological response was 60% partial response and 40% stable disease by modified RECIST, and 100% stable disease by RECIST v1.1. Poor performance status and the presence of macrovascular invasion were identified as predictors of reduced survival after RE.RE appears to be a safe and promising treatment option for patients with unresectable cHCC-CC.Level 4.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00270-017-1648-7

    View details for PubMedID 28432387

  • Assessment of the Lymph Node Status in Patients Undergoing Liver Resection for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: the New Eighth Edition AJCC Staging System. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Bagante, F., Spolverato, G., Weiss, M., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Groot Koerkamp, B., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    The role of routine lymphadenectomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is still controversial. The AJCC eighth edition recommends a minimum of six harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) for adequate nodal staging. We sought to define outcome and risk of death among patients who were staged with ≥6 HLNs versus <6 HLNs.Patients undergoing hepatectomy for ICC between 1990 and 2015 at 1 of the 14 major hepatobiliary centers were identified.Among 1154 patients undergoing hepatectomy for ICC, 515 (44.6%) had lymphadenectomy. On final pathology, 200 (17.3%) patients had metastatic lymph node (MLN), while 315 (27.3%) had negative lymph node (NLN). Among NLN patients, HLN was associated with 5-year OS (p = 0.098). While HLN did not impact 5-year OS among MLN patients (p = 0.71), the number of MLN was associated with 5-year OS (p = 0.02). Among the 317 (27.5%) patients staged according the AJCC eighth edition staging system, N1 patients had a 3-fold increased risk of death compared with N0 patients (hazard ratio 3.03; p < 0.001).Only one fourth of patients undergoing hepatectomy for ICC had adequate nodal staging according to the AJCC eighth edition. While the six HLN cutoff value impacted prognosis of N0 patients, the number of MLN rather than HLN was associated with long-term survival of N1 patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3426-x

    View details for PubMedID 28424987

  • Surgical Management of Pancreatic Cysts: A Shifting Paradigm Toward Selective Resection. Digestive diseases and sciences Gerry, J. M., Poultsides, G. A. 2017

    Abstract

    Due to the widespread use of high-quality cross-sectional imaging, pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Clinicians are therefore asked to counsel a growing number of patients with pancreatic cysts diagnosed incidentally at an early, asymptomatic stage. Over the last two decades, accumulating knowledge on the biologic behavior of these neoplasms along with improved diagnostics through imaging and endoscopic cyst fluid analysis have allowed for a selective therapeutic approach toward these neoplasms. On one end of the management spectrum, observation is recommended for typically benign lesions (serous cystadenoma), and on the other end, upfront resection is recommended for likely malignant lesions (main duct IPMN, mucinous cystadenoma, solid pseudopapillary tumor, and cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors). In between, management of premalignant lesions (branch duct IPMN) is dictated by the presence of high-risk features. In general, resection should be considered whenever the risk of malignancy is higher than the risk of the operation. This review aims to describe the evolution and current status of evidence guiding the selection of patients with pancreatic cystic neoplasms for surgical resection, along with a specific discussion on the type of resection required and expected outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-017-4570-6

    View details for PubMedID 28421458

  • Impact of major vascular resection on outcomes and survival in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A multi-institutional analysis. Journal of surgical oncology Reames, B. N., Ejaz, A., Koerkamp, B. G., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Martel, G., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    Major vascular involvement (IVC or portal vein) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has traditionally been considered a contraindication to resection. We sought to define perioperative outcomes and survival of ICC patients undergoing hepatectomy with major vascular resection in a large international multi-institutional database.A total of 1087 ICC patients who underwent curative-intent hepatectomy between 1990 and 2016 were identified from 13 institutions. Multivariable logistic and cox regressions were used to determine the impact of major vascular resection on perioperative and survival outcomes.Of 1087 patients who underwent resection, 128 (11.8%) also underwent major vascular resection (21 [16.4%] IVC resections, 98 [76.6%] PV resections, 9 [7.0%] combined resections). Despite more advanced disease, major vascular resection was not associated with the risk of any complication (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.32-1.45) or major complications (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.49-2.00). Post-operative mortality was also comparable between groups (OR = 1.05, 95%CI 0.32-3.47). In addition, median recurrence-free (14.0 vs 14.7 months, HR = 0.737, 95%CI 0.49-1.10) and overall (33.4 vs 40.2 months, HR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.359-1.40) survival were similar among patients who did and did not undergo major vascular resection (both P > 0.05).Among patients with ICC, major vascular resection was not associated with worse perioperative or oncologic outcomes. Concurrent major vascular resection should be considered in appropriately selected patients with ICC undergoing hepatectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24633

    View details for PubMedID 28411373

  • Surrogate End Points for Overall Survival in Metastatic, Locally Advanced, or Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 24 Randomized Controlled Trials. Annals of surgical oncology Makris, E. A., MacBarb, R., Harvey, D. J., Poultsides, G. A. 2017

    Abstract

    Overall survival (OS) has traditionally been the primary end point in studies evaluating the clinical benefit of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic, locally advanced, or unresectable pancreatic cancer (MLAUPC). Given the prolonged follow-up assessment required to obtain OS and its potential to be confounded by second-line treatments, this study sought to determine whether progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), or disease control rate (DCR) can serve as a reliable surrogate for OS.A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed including all phase 3 clinical trials for MLAUPC, with gemcitabine as the control arm of the trial. The hazard ratios (HRs) for OS and PFS and odds ratios (ORs) for RR and DCR were recorded. A weighted Pearson correlation coefficient was estimated for the association between OS and the other outcomes. The primary analysis used a random effects weighting model, whereas the secondary analyses used a fixed effects- or sample size-weighted approach.For the study, 24 randomized controlled trials were identified. The Pearson correlation coefficient between OS and PFS was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.94; p < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis of the studies with little to no crossover further showed a correlation coefficient of 0.91 (95% CI 0.76-0.97; p < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between OS and RR was 0.45 (95% CI 0.07-0.72; p = 0.02) and between OS and DCR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.38-0.90; p < 0.001).First-line chemotherapy trials for MLAUPC show a robust correlation between OS and PFS, affirming its role as a surrogate of OS.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-017-5826-2

    View details for PubMedID 28397190

  • Surgical Considerations in the Management of Gastric Adenocarcinoma SURGICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Makris, E. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2017; 97 (2): 295-?

    Abstract

    Since Theodor Billroth and César Roux perfected the methods of postgastrectomy reconstruction in as early as the late nineteenth century, surgical management of gastric cancer has made incremental progress. The longstanding and contentious debate on the optimal extent of lymph node dissection for gastric cancer seems to have settled in favor of D2 dissection. Pylorus-preserving distal (central) gastrectomy has emerged as a less invasive, function-preserving option for T1N0 middle-third gastric cancers. Frozen section analysis of margins seems partially helpful in this direction. Last, the role of palliative gastrectomy in patients with metastatic seems less important than initially thought.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.suc.2016.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000399266300006

    View details for PubMedID 28325188

  • Fukuoka and AGA Criteria Have Superior Diagnostic Accuracy for Advanced Cystic Neoplasms than Sendai Criteria. Digestive diseases and sciences Sighinolfi, M., Quan, S. Y., Lee, Y., Ibaseta, A., Pham, K., Dua, M. M., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Park, W. G. 2017; 62 (3): 626-632

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to compare the American Gastroenterological Association guidelines (AGA criteria), the 2012 (Fukuoka criteria), and 2006 (Sendai criteria) International Consensus Guidelines for the diagnosis of advanced pancreatic cystic neoplasms.All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pancreatic cyst from August 2007 through January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed at a single tertiary academic center. Relevant clinical and imaging variables along with pathology results were collected to determine appropriate classification for each guideline. Advanced pancreatic cystic neoplasms were defined by the presence of either high-grade dysplasia or cystic adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by ROC analysis.A total of 209 patients were included. Both the AGA and Fukuoka criteria had a higher diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplastic cysts than the Sendai criteria: AGA ROC 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.81), Fukuoka ROC 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82), and Sendai ROC 0.65 (95% CI 0.61-0.69) (p < 0.0001). There was no difference between the Fukuoka and the AGA criteria. While the sensitivity was higher in the Fukuoka criteria compared to the AGA criteria (97.7 vs. 88.6%), the specificity was higher in the AGA criteria compared to the Fukuoka criteria (62.4 vs. 58.2%).In a surgical series of patients with pancreatic cysts, the AGA and Fukuoka criteria had superior diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplastic cysts compared to the original Sendai criteria.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-017-4460-y

    View details for PubMedID 28116593

  • Routine port-site excision in incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer is not associated with improved survival: A multi-institution analysis from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. Journal of surgical oncology Ethun, C. G., Postlewait, L. M., Le, N., Pawlik, T. M., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B. A., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Cardona, K., Maithel, S. K. 2017

    Abstract

    Current data on the utility of port-site excision (PSE) during re-resection for incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer (IGBC) in the US are conflicting and limited to single-institution series.All patients with IGBC who underwent curative re-resection at 10 institutions from 2000 to 2015 were included. Patients with and without PSE were compared. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS).Of 449 pts with GBC, 266 were incidentally discovered, of which 193(73%) underwent curative re-resection and had port-site data; 47 pts(24%) underwent PSE, 146(76%) did not. The PSE rate remained similar over time (2000-2004: 33%; 2005-2009: 22%; 2010-2015:22%; P = 0.36). Both groups had similar demographics, operative procedures, and post-operative complications. There was no difference in T-stage (T1: 9 vs. 11%; T2: 52 vs. 52%; T3: 39 vs. 38%; P = 0.96) or LN involvement (36 vs. 41%; P = 0.7) between groups. A 3-year OS was similar between PSE and no PSE groups (65 vs. 43%; P = 0.07). On univariable analysis, residual disease at re-resection (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3; P = 0.001), high tumor grade, and advanced T-stage were associated with decreased OS. Only grade and T-stage, but not PSE, persisted on multivariable analysis. Distant disease recurrence-rate was identical between PSE and no PSE groups (80 vs. 81%; P = 1.0).Port-site excision during re-resection for IGBC is not associated with improved overall survival and has the same distant disease recurrence compared to no port-site excision. Routine port-site excision is not recommended.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24591

    View details for PubMedID 28230242

  • Comparative performances of the 7th and the 8th editions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Journal of surgical oncology Spolverato, G., Bagante, F., Weiss, M., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Soubrane, O., Martel, G., Koerkamp, B. G., Guglielmi, A., Itaru, E., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    We sought to evaluate and validate the 8th edition of the AJCC classification using a multi-institutional cohort of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Patients undergoing curative-intent hepatic resection for ICC between 1990 and 2015 at 14 major hepatobiliary centers were included and were staged according to 7th and 8th editions AJCC criteria.A total of 1154 patients underwent liver resection for ICC. When patients were staged using the AJCC 7th edition, T2a, T2b, and T4 patients had a higher hazard ratio (HR) of death compared with T1 (T2a, HR 1.43, P = 0.004; T2b, HR 1.99, P < 0.001; T4, HR 2.20, P < 0.001). T3 patients had a higher HR of death compared with T1 patients (HR 1.30, P = 0.029) but lower than T2a and T2b. According to AJCC 8th edition, T1b, T2, and T4 patients were at higher risk of death compared with T1a patients (T1b, HR 1.91, P < 0.001; T2, HR 2.29, P < 0.001; T4, HR 4.16, P < 0.001). As in the AJCC 7th edition, AJCC 8th edition T3 patients had a higher HR of death compared with T1 patients (HR 1.65, P  = 0.001) but lower than T1b and T2. AJCC 8th edition. T-category performed slightly better than AJCC 7th edition with a C-index of 0.609 versus 0.590.A staging system that perfectly discriminates between stages has not yet been developed, but the AJCC 8th edition was able to better stratify the risk of death of Stage III and T3 patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24569

    View details for PubMedID 28194791

  • Association of Optimal Time Interval to Re-resection for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer With Overall Survival A Multi-Institution Analysis From the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium JAMA SURGERY Ethun, C. G., Postlewait, L. M., Le, N., Pawlik, T., Buettner, S., Poultsides, G., Thuy Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Kooby, D. A., Maithel, S. K. 2017; 152 (2): 143-148
  • Neuroendocrine liver metastasis: The chance to be cured after liver surgery. Journal of surgical oncology Bagante, F., Spolverato, G., Merath, K., Postlewait, L. M., Poultsides, G. A., Mullen, M. G., Bauer, T. W., Fields, R. C., Lamelas, J., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Tran, T., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    Neuroendocrine liver metastasis tumors (NELM) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied histologic features and a wide range of clinical behaviors. We aimed to identify the fraction of patients cured after liver surgery for NELM.Cure fraction models were used to analyze 376 patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for NELM.The median and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) were 4.5 years and 46%, respectively. The probability of being cured from NELM by liver surgery was 44%; the time to cure was 5.1 years. In a multivariable cure model, type of neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade of tumor differentiation, and rate of liver involvement resulted as independent predictors of cure. The cure fraction for patients with well differentiated NELM from gastrointestinal NET or a functional pancreatic NET, and with <50% of liver-involvement was 95%. Patients who had moderately/poorly differentiated NELM from a non-functional pancreatic NET, and with <50% of liver-involvement was 43%. In the presence of all the three unfavorable prognostic factors (nonfunctional PNET, liver involvement >50%, moderately/poorly differentiation), the cure fraction was 8%.Statistical cure after surgery for NELM is possible, and allow for a more accurate prediction of long-term outcome among patients with NELM undergoing liver resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24563

    View details for PubMedID 28146608

  • Minimally Invasive Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: a Multi-Institutional Study of 201 Patients JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Lee, C. W., Salem, A. I., Schneider, D. F., Leverson, G. E., Tran, T. B., Poultsides, G. A., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Shirley, L., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Pawlik, T. M., Prescott, J. D., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Weber, S. M. 2017; 21 (2): 352-362

    Abstract

    Minimally invasive surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial. We sought to evaluate the perioperative and long-term outcomes following minimally invasive (MIS) and open resection (OA) of ACC in patients treated with curative intent surgery.Retrospective data from patients who underwent adrenalectomy for primary ACC at 13 tertiary care cancer centers were analyzed, including demographics, clinicopathological, and operative outcomes. Outcomes following MIS were compared to OA.A total of 201 patients were evaluated including 47 MIS and 154 OA. There was no difference in utilization of MIS approach among institutions (p = 0.24) or 30-day morbidity (29.3 %, MIS, vs. 30.9 %, OA; p = 0.839). The only preoperatively determined predictor for MIS was smaller tumor size (p < 0.001). There was no difference in rates of intraoperative tumor rupture (p = 0.612) or R0 resection (p = 0.953). Only EBL (p = 0.038) and T stage (p = 0.045) were independent prognostic indicators of overall survival after adjusting for significant factors. The surgical approach was not associated with overall or disease-free survival.MIS adrenalectomy may be utilized for preoperatively determined ACC ≤ 10.0 cm; however, OA should be utilized for adrenal masses with either preoperative or intraoperative evidence of local invasion or enlarged lymph nodes, regardless of size.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-016-3262-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393825300019

  • The effect of preoperative chemotherapy treatment in surgically treated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients-A multi-institutional analysis. Journal of surgical oncology Buettner, S., Koerkamp, B. G., Ejaz, A., Buisman, F. E., Kim, Y., Margonis, G. A., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Lamelas, J., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., IJzermans, J. N., Pawlik, T. M. 2017

    Abstract

    While preoperative chemotherapy (pCT) is utilized in many intra-abdominal cancers, the use of pCT among patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains ill defined. As such, the objective of the current study was to examine the impact of pCT among patients undergoing curative-intent resection for ICC.Patients who underwent hepatectomy for ICC were identified from a multi-institutional international cohort. The association between pCT with peri-operative and long-term clinical outcomes was assessed.Of the 1 057 patients who were identified and met the inclusion criteria, 62 patients (5.9%) received pCT. These patients were noticed to have more advanced disease. Median OS (pCT:46.9 months vs no pCT:37.4 months; P = 0.900) and DFS (pCT: 34.1 months vs no pCT: 29.1 months; P = 0.909) were similar between the two groups. In a subgroup analysis of propensity-score matched patients, there was longer OS (pCT:46.9 months vs no pCT:29.4 months) and DFS (pCT:34.1 months vs no pCT:14.0 months); however this did not reach statistical significance (both P > 0.05).In conclusion, pCT utilization among patients with ICC was higher among patients with more advanced disease. Short-term post-operative outcomes were not affected by pCT use and receipt of pCT resulted in equivalent OS and DFS following curative-intent resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24524

    View details for PubMedID 28105651

  • Gastric Staging System for Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer in a Western Population. American surgeon Adeshuko, F. A., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Pawlik, T. M., Weber, S. M., Schmidt, C., Votanopoulos, K., Fields, R. C., Maithel, S. K., Cardona, K. 2017; 83 (1): 82-89

    Abstract

    Controversy exists over the staging of gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas. The aim of our study was to assess the adequacy of the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition esophageal (E7) and gastric (G7) staging systems for GEJ tumors in a western population. All patients with GEJ adenocarcinoma who underwent curative resection from 2000 to 2012 were identified from the United States Gastric Cancer Collaborative database and assessed according to the E7 and G7 systems. Fifty-one patients were identified. Neither the E7 nor G7 system adequately stratified patients by T or N stage with a loss of distinctiveness between T1 to 4 and N0 to 3 tumors. On final stage analysis, the outcomes were similar between both systems; however, neither system, with the exception of the G7 stage I versus II, adequately stratified patients by stage (E7: I vs II, P = 0.07; II vs III, P = 0.23; G7: I vs II, P = 0.02; II vs III, P = 0.13). Histologic grade was not associated with survival (P = 0.27) and did not improve the ability to stratify patients in the E7 system. Our study identifies limitations in the proper stratification of patients with GEJ adenocarcinoma using either the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th esophageal or gastric systems. The classification of GEJ adenocarcinoma within either system needs to be further studied in a larger patient population.

    View details for PubMedID 28234131

  • Diagnostic staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer treatment: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of surgical oncology Li, K., Cannon, J. G., Jiang, S. Y., Sambare, T. D., Owens, D. K., Bendavid, E., Poultsides, G. A. 2017

    Abstract

    Accurate preoperative staging helps avert morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with non-therapeutic laparotomy in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy (DSL) can detect metastases with high sensitivity, but its cost-effectiveness has not been previously studied. We developed a decision analysis model to assess the cost-effectiveness of preoperative DSL in GC workup.Analysis was based on a hypothetical cohort of GC patients in the U.S. for whom initial imaging shows no metastases. The cost-effectiveness of DSL was measured as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Drivers of cost-effectiveness were assessed in sensitivity analysis.Preoperative DSL required an investment of $107 012 per QALY. In sensitivity analysis, DSL became cost-effective at a threshold of $100 000/QALY when the probability of occult metastases exceeded 31.5% or when test sensitivity for metastases exceeded 86.3%. The likelihood of cost-effectiveness increased from 46% to 93% when both parameters were set at maximum reported values.The cost-effectiveness of DSL for GC patients is highly dependent on patient and test characteristics, and is more likely when DSL is used selectively where procedure yield is high, such as for locally advanced disease or in detecting peritoneal and superficial versus deep liver lesions.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24942

    View details for PubMedID 29205366

  • Defining the Chance of Statistical Cure Among Patients with Extrahepatic Biliary Tract Cancer. World journal of surgery Spolverato, G., Bagante, F., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Winslow, E., Cho, C., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2017; 41 (1): 224-231

    Abstract

    While surgery offers the best curative-intent treatment, many patients with biliary tract malignancies have poor long-term outcomes. We sought to apply a non-mixture cure model to calculate the cure fraction and the time to cure after surgery of patients with peri-hilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC) or gallbladder cancer (GBC).Using the Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium, 576 patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for gallbladder carcinoma or peri-hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1998 and 2014 at 10 major hepatobiliary institutions were identified and included in the analysis. A non-mixture cure model was adopted to compare mortality after surgery to the mortality expected for the general population matched by sex and age.The median and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 1.9 years (IQR, 0.9-4.9) and 23.9 % (95 % CI, 19.6-28.6). Among all patients with PHCC or GBC, the probability of being cured after surgery was 14.5 % (95 % CI, 8.7-23.2); the time to cure was 9.7 years and the median survival of uncured patients was 1.8 years. Determinants of cure probabilities included lymph node metastasis and CA 19.9 level (p ≤ 0.05). The cure fraction for patients with a CA 19.9 < 50 U/ml and no lymph nodes metastases were 39.0 % versus only 5.1 % among patients with a CA 19.9 ≥ 50 who also had lymph node metastasis.Examining an "all comer" cohort, <15 % of patients with PHCC or GBC could be considered cured after surgery. Factors such CA 19.9 level and lymph node metastasis independently predicted long-term outcome. Estimating the odds of statistical cure following surgery for biliary tract cancer can assist in decision-making as well as inform discussions around survivorship.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-016-3691-y

    View details for PubMedID 27549595

  • A Multi-Institutional Study Comparing the Use of the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th Edition Esophageal versus Gastric Staging System for Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer in a Western Population AMERICAN SURGEON Adeshuko, F. A., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Pawlik, T. M., Weber, S. M., Schmidt, C., Votanopoulos, K., Fields, R. C., Maithel, S. K., Cardona, K. 2017; 83 (1): 82-89
  • Curative Surgical Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Determining Long-term Outcome Based on Conditional Disease-free Probability ANNALS OF SURGERY Kim, Y., Margonis, G. A., Prescott, J. D., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2017; 265 (1): 197-204

    Abstract

    To evaluate conditional disease-free survival (CDFS) for patients who underwent curative intent surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).ACC is a rare but aggressive tumor. Survival estimates are usually reported as survival from the time of surgery. CDFS estimates may be more clinically relevant by accounting for the changing likelihood of disease-free survival (DFS) according to time elapsed after surgery.CDFS was assessed using a multi-institutional cohort of patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate factors associated with DFS. Three-year CDFS (CDFS3) estimates at "x" year after surgery were calculated as follows: CDFS3 = DFS(x+3)/DFS(x).One hundred ninety-two patients were included in the study cohort; median patient age was 52 years. On presentation, 36% of patients had a functional tumor and median size was 11.5 cm. Most patients underwent R0 resection (75%) and 9% had N1 disease. Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS was 59%, 34%, and 22%, respectively. Using CDFS estimates, the probability of remaining disease free for an additional 3 years given that the patient had survived without disease at 1, 3, and 5 years, was 43%, 53%, and 70%, respectively. Patients with less favorable prognosis at baseline demonstrated the greatest increase in CDFS3 over time (eg, capsular invasion: 28%-88%, Δ60% vs no capsular invasion: 51%-87%, Δ36%).DFS estimates for patients with ACC improved dramatically over time, in particular among patients with initial worse prognoses. CDFS estimates may provide more clinically relevant information about the changing likelihood of DFS over time.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392106500037

    View details for PubMedID 28009746

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4974140

  • An Untapped Resource: Left Renal Vein Interposition Graft for Portal Vein Reconstruction During Pancreaticoduodenectomy DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Tran, T. B., Mell, M. W., Poultsides, G. A. 2017; 62 (1): 68-71

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-016-4050-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392312200012

    View details for PubMedID 26825845

  • Oncologic Procedures Amenable to Fluorescence-guided Surgery. Annals of surgery Tipirneni, K. E., Warram, J. M., Moore, L. S., Prince, A. C., de Boer, E., Jani, A. H., Wapnir, I. L., Liao, J. C., Bouvet, M., Behnke, N. K., Hawn, M. T., Poultsides, G. A., Vahrmeijer, A. L., Carroll, W. R., Zinn, K. R., Rosenthal, E. 2016

    Abstract

    Although fluorescence imaging is being applied to a wide range of cancers, it remains unclear which disease populations will benefit greatest. Therefore, we review the potential of this technology to improve outcomes in surgical oncology with attention to the various surgical procedures while exploring trial endpoints that may be optimal for each tumor type.For many tumors, primary treatment is surgical resection with negative margins, which corresponds to improved survival and a reduction in subsequent adjuvant therapies. Despite unfavorable effect on patient outcomes, margin positivity rate has not changed significantly over the years. Thus, patients often experience high rates of re-excision, radical resections, and overtreatment. However, fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) has brought forth new light by allowing detection of subclinical disease not readily visible with the naked eye.We performed a systematic review of clinicatrials.gov using search terms "fluorescence," "image-guided surgery," and "near-infrared imaging" to identify trials utilizing FGS for those received on or before May 2016.fluorescence surgery for tumor debulking, wide local excision, whole-organ resection, and peritoneal metastases.fluorescence in situ hybridization, fluorescence imaging for lymph node mapping, nonmalignant lesions, nonsurgical purposes, or image guidance without fluorescence.Initial search produced 844 entries, which was narrowed down to 68 trials. Review of literature and clinical trials identified 3 primary resection methods for utilizing FGS: (1) debulking, (2) wide local excision, and (3) whole organ excision.The use of FGS as a surgical guide enhancement has the potential to improve survival and quality of life outcomes for patients. And, as the number of clinical trials rise each year, it is apparent that FGS has great potential for a broad range of clinical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002127

    View details for PubMedID 28045715

  • Distal Cholangiocarcinoma and Pancreas Adenocarcinoma: Are They Really the Same Disease? A 13-Institution Study from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium and the Central Pancreas Consortium. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Ethun, C. G., Lopez-Aguiar, A. G., Pawlik, T. M., Poultsides, G., Idrees, K., Fields, R. C., Weber, S. M., Cho, C., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Schmidt, C., Hatzaras, I., Bentrem, D., Ahmad, S., Abbott, D., Kim, H. J., Merchant, N., Staley, C. A., Kooby, D. A., Maithel, S. K. 2016

    Abstract

    Distal cholangiocarcinoma (DC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are often managed as 1 entity, yet direct comparisons are lacking. Our aim was to use 2 large multi-institutional databases to assess treatment, pathologic, and survival differences between these diseases.This study included patients with DC and PDAC who underwent curative-intent pancreaticoduodenectomy from 2000 to 2015 at 13 institutions comprising the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy and Central Pancreas Consortiums. Primary endpoint was disease-specific survival (DSS).Of 1,463 patients, 224 (15%) had DC and 1,239 (85%) had PDAC. Compared with PDAC, DC patients were less likely to be margin-positive (19% vs 25%; p = 0.005), lymph node (LN)-positive (55% vs 69%; p < 0.001), and receive adjuvant therapy (57% vs 71%; p < 0.001). Of DC patients treated with adjuvant therapy, 62% got gemcitabine alone and 16% got gemcitabine/cisplatin. Distal cholangiocarcinoma was associated with improved median DSS (40 months) compared with PDAC (22 months; p < 0.001), which persisted on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 0.65; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.84; p = 0.001). Lymph node involvement was the only factor independently associated with decreased DSS for both DC and PDAC. The DC/LN-positive patients had similar DSS as PDAC/LN-negative patients (p = 0.74). Adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy ± radiation) was associated with improved median DSS for PDAC/LN-positive patients (21 vs 13 months; p = 0.001), but not for DC patients (38 vs 40 months; p = 0.62), regardless of LN status.Distal cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are distinct entities. Distal cholangiocarcinoma has a favorable prognosis compared with PDAC, yet current adjuvant therapy regimens are only associated with improved survival in PDAC, not DC. Therefore, treatment paradigms used for PDAC should not be extrapolated to DC, despite similar operative approaches, and novel therapies for DC should be explored.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2016.12.006

    View details for PubMedID 28017812

  • Enumeration and targeted analysis of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in CTCs captured by a label-free platform: Comparison to ctDNA and tissue in metastatic colorectal cancer ONCOTARGET Kidess-Sigal, E., Liu, H. E., Triboulet, M. M., Che, J., Ramani, V. C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Longacre, T. A., Marziali, A., Vysotskaia, V., Wiggin, M., Heirich, K., Hanft, V., Keilholz, U., Tinhofer, I., Norton, J. A., Lee, M., Sollier-Christen, E., Jeffrey, S. S. 2016; 7 (51): 85349-85364

    Abstract

    Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) requires multimodal therapeutic approaches and need for monitoring tumor plasticity. Liquid biopsy biomarkers, including CTCs and ctDNA, hold promise for evaluating treatment response in real-time and guiding therapeutic modifications. From 15 patients with advanced CRC undergoing liver metastasectomy with curative intent, we collected 41 blood samples at different time points before and after surgery for CTC isolation and quantification using label-free Vortex technology. For mutational profiling, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA hotspot mutations were analyzed in CTCs and ctDNA from 23 samples, nine matched liver metastases and three primary tumor samples. Mutational patterns were compared. 80% of patient blood samples were positive for CTCs, using a healthy baseline value as threshold (0.4 CTCs/mL), and 81.4% of captured cells were EpCAM+ CTCs. At least one mutation was detected in 78% of our blood samples. Among 23 matched CTC and ctDNA samples, we found a concordance of 78.2% for KRAS, 73.9% for BRAF and 91.3% for PIK3CA mutations. In several cases, CTCs exhibited a mutation that was not detected in ctDNA, and vice versa. Complementary assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA appears advantageous to assess dynamic tumor profiles.

    View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.13350

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391353200125

    View details for PubMedID 27863403

  • Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Prescott, J. D., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Pawlik, T. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 114 (8): 971-976

    Abstract

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported.Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2-5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded.Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence.Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:971-976. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24439

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392939700012

    View details for PubMedID 27633419

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5278771

  • Development and Validation of Biopsy-Free Genotyping for Molecular Subtyping of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma 58th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology Scherer, F., Kurtz, D. M., Newman, A. M., Esfahani, M. S., Craig, A., Stehr, H., Lovejoy, A. F., Chabon, J. J., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L., Glover, C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G., Advani, R. H., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Levy, R., Ohgami, R. S., Davis, E. R., Gaidano, G., Kunder, C. A., Rossi, D., Westin, J. R., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2016
  • Lymphadenectomy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Is There a Therapeutic Benefit? ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Gerry, J. M., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Prescott, J. D., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J. A., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Pawlik, T. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 23: S708-S713
  • Lymphadenectomy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Is There a Therapeutic Benefit? Annals of surgical oncology Gerry, J. M., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Prescott, J. D., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J. A., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Pawlik, T. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 23: 708-713

    Abstract

    Lymph node metastasis is an established predictor of poor outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC); however, routine lymphadenectomy during surgical resection of ACC is not widely performed and its therapeutic role remains unclear.Patients undergoing margin-negative resection for localized ACC were identified from a multi-institutional database. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the surgeon's effort or not to perform a lymphadenectomy as documented in the operative note. Clinical, pathologic, and outcome data were compared between the 2 groups.Of 120 patients who met inclusion criteria from 1993 to 2014, 32 (27 %) underwent lymphadenectomy. Factors associated with lymphadenectomy were tumor size (12 vs. 9.5 cm; p = .007), palpable mass at presentation (26 vs. 12 %; p = .07), suspicious lymph nodes on preoperative imaging (44 vs. 7 %; p < .001), and need for multivisceral resection (78 vs. 36 %; p < .001). Median number of lymph nodes harvested was higher in the lymphadenectomy group (5.5 vs. 0; p < .001). In-hospital mortality (0 vs. 1.3 %; p = .72) and grade 3/4 complication rates (0 vs. 12 %; p = .061) were not significantly different. Patients who underwent lymphadenectomy had improved overall survival (5-year 76 vs. 59 %; p = .041). The benefit of lymphadenectomy on overall survival persisted on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.17; p = .006) controlling for adverse preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with lymphadenectomy, such as tumor size, palpable mass, irregular tumor edges, suspicious nodes on imaging, and multivisceral resection.In this multicenter study of adrenocortical carcinoma patients undergoing R0 resection, the surgeon's effort to dissect peritumoral lymph nodes was independently associated with improved overall survival.

    View details for PubMedID 27590329

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5257294

  • Changing Odds of Survival Over Time among Patients Undergoing Surgical Resection of Gallbladder Carcinoma. Annals of surgical oncology Buettner, S., Margonis, G. A., Kim, Y., Gani, F., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G. A., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 23 (13): 4401-4409

    Abstract

    While survival after malignancies is traditionally reported as actuarial survival, conditional survival (CS) may be more clinically relevant by accounting for "accrued" survival time as time progresses. We sought to compare actuarial and CS among patients with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) .A total of 312 patients who underwent curative intent surgery for GBC between 2000 and 2014 were identified using a multi-institutional database. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. CS was calculated as the probability of surviving an additional 3 years at year "x" after surgery using the formula CS3 = S(x+3)/Sx.Among all patients, the median actuarial OS was 24.8 months (IQR 13.3-88.9). While actuarial survival decreased over time, 3-year CS (CS3) increased, with CS3 at 2 years after surgery noted to be 61.8 % compared with the 5-year actuarial OS of 31.6 %. Factors associated with reduced actuarial OS were positive margin status (HR 3.61, 95 % CI 2.47-5.26), increasing tumor size (HR = 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.02), higher tumor grade (HR 2.98, 95 % CI 1.47-6.04), residual disease at repeat resection (HR = 2.78, 95 % CI 1.49-3.49, p < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (HR = 1.95, 95 % CI 1.39-2.75, all p < 0.001). The calculated CS3 exceeded the actuarial survival within each high-risk patient subgroup. For example, patients with residual disease at repeat resection had an actuarial survival 23.1 % at 5 years versus a CS3 of 56.3 % in patients alive at 2 years (Δ = 33.2 %).CS provides a more accurate, dynamic estimate for survival, especially among high-risk patients. CS estimates can be used to accurately predict survival and guide clinical decision making.

    View details for PubMedID 27495279

  • Distinct biological subtypes and patterns of genome evolution in lymphoma revealed by circulating tumor DNA SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Scherer, F., Kurtz, D. M., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., Craig, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Lovejoy, A. F., Chabon, J. J., Klass, D. M., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L., Glover, C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Advani, R. H., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Levy, R., Ohgami, R. S., Kunder, C. A., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2016; 8 (364)

    Abstract

    Patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) exhibit marked diversity in tumor behavior and outcomes, yet the identification of poor-risk groups remains challenging. In addition, the biology underlying these differences is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that characterization of mutational heterogeneity and genomic evolution using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling could reveal molecular determinants of adverse outcomes. To address this hypothesis, we applied cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq) analysis to tumor biopsies and cell-free DNA samples from 92 lymphoma patients and 24 healthy subjects. At diagnosis, the amount of ctDNA was found to strongly correlate with clinical indices and was independently predictive of patient outcomes. We demonstrate that ctDNA genotyping can classify transcriptionally defined tumor subtypes, including DLBCL cell of origin, directly from plasma. By simultaneously tracking multiple somatic mutations in ctDNA, our approach outperformed immunoglobulin sequencing and radiographic imaging for the detection of minimal residual disease and facilitated noninvasive identification of emergent resistance mutations to targeted therapies. In addition, we identified distinct patterns of clonal evolution distinguishing indolent follicular lymphomas from those that transformed into DLBCL, allowing for potential noninvasive prediction of histological transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ctDNA analysis reveals biological factors that underlie lymphoma clinical outcomes and could facilitate individualized therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai8545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389448100006

    View details for PubMedID 27831904

  • A Novel Pathology-Based Preoperative Risk Score to Predict Locoregional Residual and Distant Disease and Survival for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer: A 10-Institution Study from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. Annals of surgical oncology Ethun, C. G., Postlewait, L. M., Le, N., Pawlik, T. M., Buettner, S., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Merchant, N., Cardona, K., Maithel, S. K. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    This study was designed to develop a more robust predictive model, beyond T-stage alone, for incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) for discovering locoregional residual (LRD) and distant disease (DD) at reoperation, and estimating overall survival (OS). T-stage alone is currently used to guide treatment for incidental gallbladder cancer. Residual disease at re-resection is the most important factor in predicting outcomes.All patients with IGBC who underwent reoperation at 10 institutions from 2000 to 2015 were included. Routine pathology data from initial cholecystectomy was utilized to create the gallbladder cancer predictive risk score (GBRS).Of 449 patients with gallbladder cancer, 262 (58 %) were incidentally discovered and underwent reoperation. Advanced T-stage, grade, and presence of lymphovascular (LVI) and perineural (PNI) invasion were all associated with increased rates of DD and LRD and decreased OS. Each pathologic characteristic was assigned a value (T1a: 0, T1b: 1, T2: 2, T3/4: 3; well-diff: 1, mod-diff: 2, poor-diff: 3; LVI-neg: 1, LVI-pos: 2; PNI-neg: 1, PNI-pos: 2), which added to a total GBRS score from 3 to 10. The scores were separated into three risk-groups (low: 3-4, intermediate: 5-7, high: 8-10). Each progressive GBRS group was associated with an increased incidence LRD and DD at the time of re-resection and reduced OS.By accounting for subtle pathologic variations within each T-stage, this novel predictive risk-score better stratifies patients with incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer. Compared with T-stage alone, it more accurately identifies patients at risk for locoregional-residual and distant disease and predicts long-term survival as it redistributes T1b, T2, and T3 disease across separate risk-groups based on additional biologic features. This score may help to optimize treatment strategy for patients with incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer.

    View details for PubMedID 27812827

  • Association of Optimal Time Interval to Re-resection for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer With Overall Survival: A Multi-Institution Analysis From the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. JAMA surgery Ethun, C. G., Postlewait, L. M., Le, N., Pawlik, T. M., Buettner, S., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Kooby, D. A., Maithel, S. K. 2016

    Abstract

    The current recommendation is to perform re-resection for select patients with incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer. The optimal time interval for re-resection for both patient selection and long-term survival is not known.To assess the association of time interval from the initial cholecystectomy to reoperation with overall survival.This cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014 at 10 US academic institutions. A total of 207 patients with incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer who underwent reoperation and had available data on the date of their initial cholecystectomy were included.Time interval from the initial cholecystectomy to reoperation: group A: less than 4 weeks; group B: 4 to 8 weeks; and group C: greater than 8 weeks.Primary outcome was overall survival.Of 449 patients with gallbladder cancer, 207 cases (46%) were discovered incidentally and underwent reoperation at 3 different time intervals from the date of the original cholecystectomy: group A: less than 4 weeks (25 patients, 12%); B: 4 to 8 weeks (91 patients, 44%); C: more than 8 weeks (91 patients, 44%). The mean (SD) ages of patients in groups A, B, and C were 65 (9), 64 (11), and 66 (12) years, respectively. All groups were similar for baseline demographics, extent of resection, presence of residual disease, T stage, resection margin status, lymph node involvement, and postoperative complications. Patients who underwent reoperation between 4 and 8 weeks had the longest median overall survival (group B: 40.4 months) compared with those who underwent early (group A: 17.4 months) or late (group C: 22.4 months) reoperation (log-rank P = .03). Group A and C time intervals (vs group B), presence of residual disease, an R2 resection, advanced T stage, and lymph node involvement were associated with decreased overall survival on univariable Cox regression. Only group A (hazard ratio, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.25-5.54) and group C (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.17-3.66) time intervals (vs group B), R2 resection (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.27-5.69), and advanced Tstage (hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.08) persisted on multivariable Cox regression analysis.The optimal time interval for re-resection for incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer appears to be between 4 and 8 weeks after the initial cholecystectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3642

    View details for PubMedID 27784058

  • Minimally Invasive Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: a Multi-Institutional Study of 201 Patients. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Lee, C. W., Md, A. I., Schneider, D. F., Leverson, G. E., Tran, T. B., Poultsides, G. A., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Shirley, L., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Pawlik, T. M., Prescott, J. D., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Weber, S. M. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    Minimally invasive surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial. We sought to evaluate the perioperative and long-term outcomes following minimally invasive (MIS) and open resection (OA) of ACC in patients treated with curative intent surgery.Retrospective data from patients who underwent adrenalectomy for primary ACC at 13 tertiary care cancer centers were analyzed, including demographics, clinicopathological, and operative outcomes. Outcomes following MIS were compared to OA.A total of 201 patients were evaluated including 47 MIS and 154 OA. There was no difference in utilization of MIS approach among institutions (p = 0.24) or 30-day morbidity (29.3 %, MIS, vs. 30.9 %, OA; p = 0.839). The only preoperatively determined predictor for MIS was smaller tumor size (p < 0.001). There was no difference in rates of intraoperative tumor rupture (p = 0.612) or R0 resection (p = 0.953). Only EBL (p = 0.038) and T stage (p = 0.045) were independent prognostic indicators of overall survival after adjusting for significant factors. The surgical approach was not associated with overall or disease-free survival.MIS adrenalectomy may be utilized for preoperatively determined ACC ≤ 10.0 cm; however, OA should be utilized for adrenal masses with either preoperative or intraoperative evidence of local invasion or enlarged lymph nodes, regardless of size.

    View details for PubMedID 27770290

  • Laparoscopic hepatectomy in cirrhotics: safe if you adjust technique. Surgical endoscopy Worhunsky, D. J., Dua, M. M., Tran, T. B., Siu, B., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2016; 30 (10): 4307-4314

    Abstract

    Minimally invasive liver surgery is a growing field, and a small number of recent reports have suggested that laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is feasible even in patients with cirrhosis. However, parenchymal transection of the cirrhotic liver is challenging due to fibrosis and portal hypertension. There is a paucity of data regarding the technical modifications necessary to safely transect the diseased parenchyma.Patients undergoing LLR by a single surgeon between 2008 and 2015 were reviewed. Patients with cirrhosis were compared to those without cirrhosis to examine differences in surgical technique, intraoperative characteristics, and outcomes (including liver-related morbidity and general postoperative complication rates).A total of 167 patients underwent LLR during the study period. Forty-eight (29 %) had cirrhosis, of which 43 (90 %) had hepatitis C. Most had Child-Pugh class A disease (85 %). Compared to noncirrhotics, patients with cirrhosis were older, had more comorbidities, and were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma. Precoagulation before parenchymal transection was used more frequently in cirrhotics (65 vs. 15 %, P < 0.001), and mean portal triad clamping time was longer (32 vs. 22 min, P = 0.002). There were few conversions to open surgery, though hand-assisted laparoscopy was used as an alternative to converting to open in three patients with cirrhosis. Blood loss was relatively low for both groups. Although there were more postoperative complications among cirrhotics (38 vs. 13 %, P = 0.001), this was almost entirely due to a higher rate of minor (Clavien-Dindo I or II) complications. Liver-related morbidity, major complications, and mortality rates were similar.LLR is safe for selected patients with cirrhosis. The added complexity associated with the division of diseased liver parenchyma may be overcome with some form of technique modification, including more liberal use of precoagulation, portal triad clamping, or a hand-assist port.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-016-4748-6

    View details for PubMedID 26895906

  • Gastric Cancer, Version 3.2016 JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Ajani, J. A., D'Amico, T. A., Almhanna, K., Bentrem, D. J., Chao, J., Das, P., Denlinger, C. S., Fanta, P., Farjah, F., Fuchs, C. S., Gerdes, H., Gibson, M., Glasgow, R. E., Hayman, J. A., Hochwald, S., Hofstetter, W. L., Ilson, D. H., Jaroszewski, D., Johung, K. L., Keswani, R. N., Kleinberg, L. R., Korn, W. M., Leong, S., Linn, C., Lockhart, A. C., Ly, Q. P., Mulcahy, M. F., Orringer, M. B., Perry, K. A., Poultsides, G. A., Scott, W. J., Strong, V. E., Washington, M. K., Weksler, B., Willett, C. G., Wright, C. D., Zelman, D., McMillian, N., Sundar, H. 2016; 14 (10): 1286-1312
  • Gastric Cancer, Version 3.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Ajani, J. A., D'Amico, T. A., Almhanna, K., Bentrem, D. J., Chao, J., Das, P., Denlinger, C. S., Fanta, P., Farjah, F., Fuchs, C. S., Gerdes, H., Gibson, M., Glasgow, R. E., Hayman, J. A., Hochwald, S., Hofstetter, W. L., Ilson, D. H., Jaroszewski, D., Johung, K. L., Keswani, R. N., Kleinberg, L. R., Korn, W. M., Leong, S., Linn, C., Lockhart, A. C., Ly, Q. P., Mulcahy, M. F., Orringer, M. B., Perry, K. A., Poultsides, G. A., Scott, W. J., Strong, V. E., Washington, M. K., Weksler, B., Willett, C. G., Wright, C. D., Zelman, D., McMillian, N., Sundar, H. 2016; 14 (10): 1286-1312

    Abstract

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in the world. Several advances have been made in the staging procedures, imaging techniques, and treatment approaches. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Gastric Cancer provide an evidence- and consensus-based treatment approach for the management of patients with gastric cancer. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for staging, assessment of HER2 overexpression, systemic therapy for locally advanced or metastatic disease, and best supportive care for the prevention and management of symptoms due to advanced disease.

    View details for PubMedID 27697982

  • A Comparison of Prognostic Schemes for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Buettner, S., van Vugt, J. L., Gani, F., Koerkamp, B. G., Margonis, G. A., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Thuy Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Guglielmi, A., IJzermans, J. N., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 20 (10): 1716-1724
  • A Comparison of Prognostic Schemes for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Buettner, S., van Vugt, J. L., Gani, F., Groot Koerkamp, B., Margonis, G. A., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Guglielmi, A., IJzermans, J. N., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 20 (10): 1716-1724

    Abstract

    Although widely used, the 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) may be limited. Disease-specific nomograms have been proposed as a better means to predict long-term survival for individual patients. We sought to externally validate a recently proposed nomogram by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for PHC, as well as identify factors to improve the prediction of prognosis for patients with PHC.Four hundred seven patients who underwent surgery for PHC between 1988 and 2014 were identified using an international, multi-center database. Standard clinicopathologic and outcome data were collected. The predictive power of the AJCC staging system and nomogram were assessed.Median survival was 24.4 months; 3- and 5-year survival was 37.2 and 20.8 %, respectively. The AJCC 7th edition staging system (C-index 0.570) and the recently proposed PHC nomogram (C-index 0.587) both performed poorly. A revised nomogram based on age, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastases performed better (C-index 0.682). The calibration plot of the revised PHC nomogram demonstrated good calibration.The 7th edition AJCC staging system and the MSKCC nomogram had a poor ability to predict long-term survival for individual patients with PHC. A revised nomogram provided more accurate prediction of survival, but will need to be externally validated.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-016-3203-2

    View details for PubMedID 27412318

  • Proposal for a new T-stage classification system for distal cholangiocarcinoma: a 10-institution study from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. HPB Postlewait, L. M., Ethun, C. G., Le, N., Pawlik, T. M., Buettner, S., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Vitiello, G., Cardona, K., Maithel, S. K. 2016; 18 (10): 793-799

    Abstract

    Seventh AJCC distal cholangiocarcinoma T-stage classification inadequately separates patients by survival. This retrospective study aimed to define a novel T-stage system to better stratify patients after resection.Curative-intent pancreaticoduodenectomies for distal cholangiocarcinoma (1/2000-5/2015) at 10 US institutions were included. Relationships between tumor characteristics and overall survival (OS) were assessed and incorporated into a novel T-stage classification.176 patients (median follow-up: 24mo) were included. Current AJCC T-stage was not associated with OS (T1: 23mo, T2: 20mo, T3: 25mo, T4: 12mo; p = 0.355). Tumor size ≥3 cm and presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were associated with decreased OS on univariate and multivariable analyses. Patients were stratified into 3 groups [T1: size <3 cm and (-)LVI (n = 69; 39.2%); T2: size ≥3 cm and (-)LVI or size <3 cm and (+)LVI (n = 82; 46.6%); and T3: size ≥3 cm and (+)LVI (n = 25; 14.2%)]. Each progressive proposed T-stage was associated with decreased median OS (T1: 35mo; T2: 20mo; T3: 8mo; p = 0.002).Current AJCC distal cholangiocarcinoma T-stage does not adequately stratify patients by survival. This proposed T-stage classification, based on tumor size and LVI, better differentiates patient outcomes after resection and could be considered for incorporation into the next AJCC distal cholangiocarcinoma staging system.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.07.009

    View details for PubMedID 27506989

  • Elevated NLR in gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma - making bad cancers even worse: results from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. HPB Beal, E. W., Wei, L., Ethun, C. G., Black, S. M., Dillhoff, M., Salem, A., Weber, S. M., Tran, T., Poultsides, G., Son, A. Y., Hatzaras, I., Jin, L., Fields, R. C., Buettner, S., Pawlik, T. M., Scoggins, C., Martin, R. C., Isom, C. A., Idrees, K., Mogal, H. D., Shen, P., Maithel, S. K., Schmidt, C. R. 2016

    Abstract

    Gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary malignancies are aggressive tumors with high risk of recurrence and death. We hypothesize that elevated preoperative Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratios (NLR) are associated with poor prognosis among patients undergoing resection of gallbladder or extrahepatic biliary cancers.Patients who underwent complete surgical resection between 2000-2014 were identified from 10 academic centers (n=525). Overall (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by stratifying patients with normal (<5) versus elevated (>5) NLR.Overall, 375 patients had NLR <5 while 150 patients had NLR >5. Median OS was 24.5 months among patients with NLR<5 versus 17.0 months among patients with NLR>5 (p<0.001). NLR was also associated with OS in subgroup analysis of patients with gallbladder cancer. In fact, on multivariable analysis, NLR>5, dyspnea and preoperative peak bilirubin were independently associated with OS in patients with gallbladder cancer. Median RFS was 26.8 months in patients with NLR<5 versus 22.7 months among patients with NLR>5 (p=0.030). NLR>5 was independently associated with worse RFS for patients with gallbladder cancer.Elevated NLR was associated with worse outcomes in patients with gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary cancers after curative-intent resection. NLR is easily measured and may provide important prognostic information.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.08.006

    View details for PubMedID 27683047

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5094484

  • Clinical Score Predicting Long-Term Survival after Repeat Resection for Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Tran, T. B., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M., Wang, T. S., Hatzaras, I., Phay, J. E., Fields, R. C., Weber, S. M., Sicklick, J. K., Yopp, A. C., Duh, Q., Solorzano, C. C., Votanopoulos, K. I., Poultsides, G. A. 2016

    Abstract

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy typically resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. Surgery, even in the setting of locally recurrent or metastatic disease, remains the only potentially curative option. However, the subset of patients who will benefit from repeat resection in this setting remains ill defined. The objective of this study was to propose a prognostic clinical score that facilitates selection of patients for repeat resection of recurrent ACC.Patients who underwent curative-intent repeat resection for recurrent ACC at 1 of 13 academic medical centers participating in the US ACC Study Group were identified. End points included morbidity, mortality, and overall survival.Fifty-six patients underwent repeat curative-intent resection for recurrent ACC (representing 21% of 265 patients who underwent resection for primary ACC) from 1997 to 2014. Median age was 52 years. Sites of resected recurrence included locoregional only (54%), lung only (14%), liver only (12%), combined locoregional and lung (4%), combined liver and lung (4%), and other distant sites (12%). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality rates were 40% and 5.4%, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that the presence of multifocal recurrence, disease-free interval <12 months, and extrapulmonary distant metastases were independent predictors of poor survival. A clinical score consisting of 1-point each for the 3 variables demonstrated good discrimination in predicting survival after repeat resection (5-year: 72% for 0 points, 32% for 1 point, 0% for 2 or 3 points; p = 0.0006, area under the curve = 0.78).Long-term survival after repeat resection for recurrent ACC is feasible when 2 of the following factors are present: solitary tumor, disease-free interval >12 months, and locoregional or pulmonary recurrence.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2016.08.568

    View details for PubMedID 27618748

  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: Degree of cystic component predicts prognosis. Surgery Cloyd, J. M., Kopecky, K. E., Norton, J. A., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Visser, B. C., Dua, M. M., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 160 (3): 708-713

    Abstract

    Although most pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are solid, approximately 10% are cystic. Some studies have suggested that cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are associated with a more favorable prognosis.A retrospective review of all patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who underwent operative resection between 1999 and 2014 at a single academic medical center was performed. Based on cross-sectional imaging performed before operation, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were classified according to the size of the cystic component relative to the total tumor size: purely cystic (100%), mostly cystic (≥50%), mostly solid (<50%), and purely solid (0%). Clinicopathologic characteristics and recurrence-free survival were assessed between groups.In the study, 214 patients met inclusion criteria: 8 with purely cystic tumors, 7 with mostly cystic tumors, 15 with mostly solid tumors, and 184 with purely solid tumors. The groups differed in terms of tumor size (1.5 ± 0.5, 3.0 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 2.6, and 4.0 ± 3.5 cm), lymph node positivity (0%, 0%, 26.7%, and 34.2%), intermediate or high grade (0%, 16.7%, 20.0%, and 31.0%), synchronous liver metastases (0%, 14.3%, 20.0%, and 26.6%) and need for pancreaticoduodenectomy (0%, 0%, 6.7%, and 25.0%), respectively. No cases of purely cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were associated with synchronous liver or lymph node metastasis, intermediate/high grade, recurrence, or death due to disease. Among patients presenting without metastatic disease, 10-year recurrence-free survival was 100% in patients with purely and mostly cystic tumors versus 53.0% in patients with purely and mostly solid tumors; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance.Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors demonstrate a spectrum of biologic behavior with an increasing cystic component being associated with more favorable clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Purely cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors may represent 1 subset that can be safely observed without immediate resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2016.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 27216830

  • Impact of Chemotherapy and External-Beam Radiation Therapy on Outcomes among Patients with Resected Gallbladder Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis. Annals of surgical oncology Kim, Y., Amini, N., Wilson, A., Margonis, G. A., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Cardona, K., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 23 (9): 2998-3008

    Abstract

    Use of adjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) and chemoradiation therapy (cXRT) for the treatment of gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains varied. We sought to define the utilization and effect of adjuvant therapy for patients with GBC.Using a multi-institutional national database, 291 patients with GBC who underwent curative-intent resection between 2000 and 2015 were included. Patients with metastasis or an R2 margin were excluded.Median patient age was 66.6 years. Most patients had a T2 (46.2 %) or T3 (38.6 %) lesion, and 37.8 % of patients had lymph node (LN) metastasis. A total of 186 (63.9 %) patients underwent surgery alone, 61 (21.0 %) received CTx, and 44 (15.1 %) patients received cXRT. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with worse overall survival (OS) included T3/T4 stage [hazard ratio (HR) 1.82], LN-metastasis (HR 1.84), lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.02), perineural invasion (HR 1.42), and R1 surgical margin status (HR 2.06); all P < 0.05). In contrast, receipt of CTx/cXRT was associated with improved OS (CTx, HR 0.38; cXRT, HR 0.26; P < 0.001) compared with surgery alone. Similar results were observed for disease-free survival (DFS) (CTx, HR 0.61; cXRT, HR 0.43; P < 0.05). Of note, only patients with high-risk features, such as AJCC T3/T4 stage (HR 0.41), LN metastasis (HR 0.45), and R1 disease (HR 0.21) (all P < 0.05) derived an OS benefit from CTx/cXRT.Adjuvant CTx/cXRT was utilized in 36 % of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for GBC. After adjusted analyses, CTx/cXRT were independently associated with improved long-term outcomes, but the benefit was isolated to only patients with high-risk characteristics.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5262-8

    View details for PubMedID 27169772

  • Prognostic Implications of Lymph Node Status for Patients With Gallbladder Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study. Annals of surgical oncology Amini, N., Kim, Y., Wilson, A., Margonis, G. A., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 23 (9): 3016-3023

    Abstract

    Although the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification is the most accepted lymph node (LN) staging system for gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBA), other LN prognostic schemes have been proposed. This study sought to define the performance of the AJCC LN staging system relative to the number of metastatic LNs (NMLN), the log odds of metastatic LN (LODDS), and the LN ratio (LNR).Patients who underwent curative-intent resection for GBA between 2000 and 2015 were identified from a multi-institutional database. The prognostic performance of various LN staging systems was compared by Harrell's C and the Akaike information criterion (AIC).Altogether, 214 patients with a median age of 66.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 56.5-73.1) were identified. A total of 1334 LNs were retrieved, with a median of 4 (IQR 2-8) LNs per patient. Patients with LN metastasis had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.87; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.24-2.82; P = 0.003) and recurrence (HR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.37-3.80; P = 0.002). In the entire cohort, LNR, analyzed as either a continuous scale (C-index, 0.603; AIC, 803.5) or a discrete scale (C-index, 0.609; AIC, 802.2), provided better prognostic discrimination. Among the patients with four or more LNs examined, LODDS (C-index, 0.621; AIC, 363.8) had the best performance versus LNR (C-index, 0.615; AIC, 368.7), AJCC LN staging system (C-index, 0.601; AIC, 373.4), and NMLN (C-index, 0.613; AIC, 369.5).Both LODDS and LNR performed better than the AJCC LN staging system. Among the patients who had four or more LNs examined, LODDS performed better than LNR. Both LODDS and LNR should be incorporated into the AJCC LN staging system for GBA.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5243-y

    View details for PubMedID 27150440

  • The significance of underlying cardiac comorbidity on major adverse cardiac events after major liver resection. HPB Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Spain, D. A., Dua, M. M., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 18 (9): 742-747

    Abstract

    The risk of postoperative adverse events in patients with underlying cardiac disease undergoing major hepatectomy remains poorly characterized.The NSQIP database was used to identify patients undergoing hemihepatectomy and trisectionectomy. Patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes were evaluated.From 2005 to 2012, 5227 patients underwent major hepatectomy. Of those, 289 (5.5%) had prior major cardiac disease: 5.6% angina, 3.1% congestive heart failure, 1% myocardial infarction, 54% percutaneous coronary intervention, and 46% cardiac surgery. Thirty-day mortality was higher in patients with cardiac comorbidity (6.9% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.008), including the incidence of postoperative cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (3.8% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.001) and myocardial infarction (1.7% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis revealed that functional impairment, older age, and malnutrition, but not cardiac comorbidity, were significant predictors of 30-day mortality. However, prior percutaneous coronary intervention was independently associated with postoperative cardiac arrest (OR 2.999, P = 0.008).While cardiac comorbidity is not a predictor of mortality after major hepatectomy, prior percutaneous coronary intervention is independently associated with postoperative cardiac arrest. Careful patient selection and preoperative optimization is fundamental in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention being considered for major hepatectomy as restrictive fluid management and low central venous pressure anesthesia may not be tolerated well by all patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.06.012

    View details for PubMedID 27593591

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5011082

  • Rates and patterns of recurrence after curative intent resection for gallbladder cancer: a multi-institution analysis from the US Extra-hepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. HPB Margonis, G. A., Gani, F., Buettner, S., Amini, N., Sasaki, K., Andreatos, N., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016

    Abstract

    Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare malignancy. The current study aimed to define the incidence and patterns of recurrence following gallbladder cancer resection.Using a multi-institutional cohort we identified 217 patient undergoing curative intent surgery for gallbladder cancer. Patterns of recurrence were classified as locoregional and distant recurrence.At last follow-up, 76 patients (35.0%) had experienced a recurrence (locoregional only, n = 12, 15.8%; distant only, n = 50, 65.8%; locoregional and distant, n = 14, 18.4%). Median time to recurrence was 9.5 months (IQR 4.7-17.6) and was not associated with recurrence site (all p > 0.05). On multivariable analysis, T3 disease (HR = 8.44, p = 0.014), lymphovascular invasion (HR = 4.24, p < 0.001) and residual disease (HR = 2.04, p = 0.042) were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Patients who recurred demonstrated a worse 1-, 3- and 5-year OS (1-year OS: 91.3% vs. 68.6%, p = 0.001, 3-year OS: 79.3% vs. 28.7%, p < 0.001, and 5-year OS: 75.9% vs. 16.0%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for other risk factors, recurrence was independently associated with a decreased OS (HR = 3.71, p = 0.006). Of note, receipt of adjuvant therapy was associated with improved OS (HR = 0.56, p = 0.027) among those patients who developed a tumor recurrence.Over one-third of patients experienced a recurrence after gallbladder cancer surgery. While chemotherapy did not decrease the rate of recurrence, patients who experienced recurrence after administration of adjuvant treatment faired better than patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.05.016

    View details for PubMedID 27527802

  • Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Resection Margins: Molecular Assessment by Mass Spectrometry Imaging. PLoS medicine Eberlin, L. S., Margulis, K., Planell-Mendez, I., Zare, R. N., Tibshirani, R., Longacre, T. A., Jalali, M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 13 (8)

    Abstract

    Surgical resection with microscopically negative margins remains the main curative option for pancreatic cancer; however, in practice intraoperative delineation of resection margins is challenging. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has emerged as a powerful technique for chemical imaging and real-time diagnosis of tissue samples. We applied an approach combining desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) statistical method to diagnose pancreatic tissue sections and prospectively evaluate surgical resection margins from pancreatic cancer surgery.Our methodology was developed and tested using 63 banked pancreatic cancer samples and 65 samples (tumor and specimen margins) collected prospectively during 32 pancreatectomies from February 27, 2013, to January 16, 2015. In total, mass spectra for 254,235 individual pixels were evaluated. When cross-validation was employed in the training set of samples, 98.1% agreement with histopathology was obtained. Using an independent set of samples, 98.6% agreement was achieved. We used a statistical approach to evaluate 177,727 mass spectra from samples with complex, mixed histology, achieving an agreement of 81%. The developed method showed agreement with frozen section evaluation of specimen margins in 24 of 32 surgical cases prospectively evaluated. In the remaining eight patients, margins were found to be positive by DESI-MSI/Lasso, but negative by frozen section analysis. The median overall survival after resection was only 10 mo for these eight patients as opposed to 26 mo for patients with negative margins by both techniques. This observation suggests that our method (as opposed to the standard method to date) was able to detect tumor involvement at the margin in patients who developed early recurrence. Nonetheless, a larger cohort of samples is needed to validate the findings described in this study. Careful evaluation of the long-term benefits to patients of the use of DESI-MSI for surgical margin evaluation is also needed to determine its value in clinical practice.Our findings provide evidence that the molecular information obtained by DESI-MSI/Lasso from pancreatic tissue samples has the potential to transform the evaluation of surgical specimens. With further development, we believe the described methodology could be routinely used for intraoperative surgical margin assessment of pancreatic cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002108

    View details for PubMedID 27575375

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5019340

  • The role of liver-directed surgery in patients with hepatic metastasis from primary breast cancer: a multi-institutional analysis. HPB Margonis, G. A., Buettner, S., Sasaki, K., Kim, Y., Ratti, F., Russolillo, N., Ferrero, A., Berger, N., Gamblin, T. C., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S., Michaels, A. D., Bauer, T. W., Marques, H., Barroso, E., Aldrighetti, L., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 18 (8): 700-705

    Abstract

    Data on surgical management of breast liver metastasis are limited. We sought to determine the safety and long-term outcome of patients undergoing hepatic resection of breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM).Using a multi-institutional, international database, 131 patients who underwent surgery for BCLM between 1980 and 2014 were identified. Clinicopathologic and outcome data were collected and analyzed.Median tumor size of the primary breast cancer was 2.5 cm (IQR: 2.0-3.2); 58 (59.8%) patients had primary tumor nodal metastasis. The median time from diagnosis of breast cancer to metastasectomy was 34 months (IQR: 16.8-61.3). The mean size of the largest liver lesion was 3.0 cm (2.0-5.0); half of patients (52.0%) had a solitary metastasis. An R0 resection was achieved in most cases (90.8%). Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 22.8% and 0%, respectively. Median and 3-year overall-survival was 53.4 months and 75.2%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, positive surgical margin (HR 3.57, 95% CI 1.40-9.16; p = 0.008) and diameter of the BCLM (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06; p = 0.002) remained associated with worse OS.In selected patients, resection of breast cancer liver metastases can be done safely and a subset of patients may derive a relatively long survival, especially from a margin negative resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.05.014

    View details for PubMedID 27485066

  • Assessing Trends in Palliative Surgery for Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancies: A 15-Year Multicenter Study JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Buettner, S., Wilson, A., Margonis, G. A., Gani, F., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G. A., Thuy Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 20 (8): 1444-1452

    Abstract

    Extrahepatic biliary malignancies are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. We compared patients with unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC) and gallbladder cancer (GBC) who underwent a palliative procedure versus an aborted laparotomy.Seven hundred seventy-seven patients who underwent surgery for PHCC or GBC between 2000 and 2014 were identified. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with outcome.Utilization of preoperative imaging increased over time (CT use, 80.1 % pre-2009 vs. 90 % post-2009) (p < 0.001). The proportion of the patients undergoing curative-intent resection also increased (2000-2004, 67.0 % vs. 2005-2009, 74.5 % vs. 2010-2014, 78.8 %; p = 0.001). The planned surgery was aborted in 106 (13.7 %) patients and 94 (12.1 %) had a palliative procedure. A higher incidence of postoperative complications (19.2 vs. 3.8 %, p = 0.001) including deep surgical site infections (8.3 vs. 1.1 %), bleeding (4.8 vs. 0 %), bile leak (6.0 vs. 0 %) and longer length of stay (7 vs. 4.5 days) were observed among the patients who underwent a palliative surgical procedure versus an aborted non-therapeutic, non-palliative laparotomy (all p < 0.05). OS was comparable among the patients who underwent a palliative procedure (8.7 months) versus an aborted laparotomy (7.8 months) (p = 0.23).Increased use of advanced imaging modalities was accompanied by increased curative-intent surgery. Compared with patients in whom surgery was aborted, patients who underwent surgical palliation demonstrated an increased incidence of postoperative morbidity with comparable survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-016-3155-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379528800005

    View details for PubMedID 27121233

  • Assessing the impact of common bile duct resection in the surgical management of gallbladder cancer. Journal of surgical oncology Gani, F., Buettner, S., Margonis, G. A., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 114 (2): 176-180

    Abstract

    Although radical re-resection for gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been advocated, the optimal extent of re-resection remains unknown. The current study aimed to assess the impact of common bile duct (CBD) resection on survival among patients undergoing surgery for GBC.Patients undergoing curative-intent surgery for GBC were identified using a multi-institutional cohort of patients. Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression was performed to identify risk factors for a poor overall survival (OS).Among the 449 patients identified, 26.9% underwent a concomitant CBD resection. The median number of lymph nodes harvested did not differ based on CBD resection (CBD, 4 [IQR: 2-9] vs. no CBD, 3 [IQR: 1-7], P = 0.108). While patients who underwent a CBD resection had a worse OS, after adjusting for potential confounders, CBD resection did not impact OS (HR = 1.40, 95%CI 0.87-2.27, P = 0.170). Rather, the presence of advanced disease (T3: HR = 3.11, 95%CI 1.22-7.96, P = 0.018; T4: HR = 7.24, 95%CI 1.70-30.85, P = 0.007) and the presence of disease at the surgical margin (HR = 2.58, 95%CI 1.26-5.31, P = 0.010) were predictive of a worse OS.CBD resection did not yield a higher lymph node count and was not associated with an improved survival. Routine CBD excision in the re-resection of GBC is unwarranted and should only be performed selectively. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:176-180. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24283

    View details for PubMedID 27198742

  • Interaction of Postoperative Morbidity and Receipt of Adjuvant Therapy on Long-Term Survival After Resection for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Results From the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Jin, L. X., Sanford, D. E., Squires, M. H., Moses, L. E., Yan, Y., Poultsides, G. A., Votanopoulos, K. I., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Pawlik, T. M., Hawkins, W. G., Linehan, D. C., Schmidt, C., Worhunsky, D. J., Acher, A. W., Cardona, K., Cho, C. S., Kooby, D. A., Levine, E. A., Winslow, E., Saunders, N., Spolverato, G., Colditz, G. A., Maithel, S. K., Fields, R. C. 2016; 23 (8): 2398-2408

    Abstract

    Postoperative complications (POCs) can negatively impact survival after oncologic resection. POCs may also decrease the rate of adjuvant therapy completion. We evaluated the impact of complications on gastric cancer survival and analyzed the combined effect of complications and adjuvant therapy on survival.We analyzed 824 patients from 7 institutions of the U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative who underwent curative resection for gastric adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2012. POC were graded using the modified Clavien-Dindo system. Survival probabilities were estimated using the method of Kaplan and Meier and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression.Median follow-up was 35 months. The overall complication rate was 41 %. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients who experienced complications were 27 and 23 %, respectively, compared with 43 and 40 % in patients who did not have complications (p < 0.0001 for OS and RFS). On multivariate analysis, POC remained an independent predictor for decreased OS and RFS (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.03 for OS; HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.01-1.6, p = 0.03 for RFS). Patients who experienced POC were less likely to receive adjuvant therapy (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.3-0.7, p < 0.001). The interaction of complications and failure to receive adjuvant therapy significantly increased the hazard of death compared with patients who had neither complications nor adjuvant therapy (HR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.6-3.2, p < 0.001).Postoperative complications adversely affect long-term outcomes after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Not receiving adjuvant therapy in the face of POC portends an especially poor prognosis following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5121-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379189900008

    View details for PubMedID 27006126

  • Readmission Following Gastric Cancer Resection: Risk Factors and Survival JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Acher, A. W., Squires, M. H., Fields, R. C., Poultsides, G. A., Schmidt, C., Votanopoulos, K. I., Pawlik, T. M., Jin, L. X., Ejaz, A., Kooby, D. A., Bloomston, M., Worhunsky, D., Levine, E. A., Saunders, N., Winslow, E., Cho, C. S., Leverson, G., Maithel, S. K., Weber, S. M. 2016; 20 (7): 1284-1294

    Abstract

    This study utilized a multi-institutional database to evaluate risk factors for readmission in patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma with the intent of describing both perioperative risk factors and the relationship of readmission to survival.Patients who underwent curative resection of gastric adenocarcinoma from 2000 to 2012 from seven academic institutions of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative were analyzed. In-hospital deaths and palliative surgeries were excluded, and readmission was defined as within 30 days of discharge. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed and survival analysis conducted.Of the 855 patients, 121 patients (14.2 %) were readmitted. Univariate analysis identified advanced age (p < 0.0128), American Society of Anesthesiology status ≥3 (p = 0.0045), preexisting cardiac disease (p < 0.0001), hypertension (p = 0.0142), history of smoking (p = 0.0254), increased preoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN; p = 0.0426), concomitant pancreatectomy (p = 0.0056), increased operation time (p = 0.0384), estimated blood loss (p = 0.0196), 25th percentile length of stay (<7 days, p = 0.0166), 75th percentile length of stay (>12 days, p = 0.0256), postoperative complication (p < 0.0001), and total gastrectomy (p = 0.0167) as risk factors for readmission. Multivariable analysis identified cardiac disease (odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.6-3.3, p < 0.0001), postoperative complication (OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.6-5.4, p < 0.0001), and pancreatectomy (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.1-4.1, p = 0.0202) as independent risk factors for readmission. There was an association of decreased overall median survival in readmitted patients (39 months for readmitted vs. 103 months for non-readmitted). This was due to decreased survival in readmitted stage 1 (p = 0.0039), while there was no difference in survival for other stages. Stage I readmitted patients had a higher incidence of cardiac disease than stage I non-readmitted patients (58 vs. 24 %, respectively, p = 0.0002).Within this multi-institutional study investigating readmission in patients undergoing curative resection for gastric cancer, cardiac disease, postoperative complication, and concomitant pancreatectomy were identified as significant risk factors for readmission. Readmission was associated with decreased overall median survival, but on further analysis, this was driven by differences in survival for stage I disease only.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-015-3070-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378866200002

    View details for PubMedID 27102802

  • Defining when to offer operative treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A regret-based decision curves analysis SURGERY Bagante, F., Spolverato, G., Cucchetti, A., Gani, F., Popescu, I., Ruzzenente, A., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Sandroussi, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Gugliehni, A., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 160 (1): 106-117

    Abstract

    Regret-based decision curve analysis (DCA) is a framework that assesses the medical decision process according to physician attitudes (expected regret) relative to disease-based factors. We sought to apply this methodology to decisions around the operative management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Utilizing a multicentric database of 799 patients who underwent liver resection for ICC, we developed a prognostic nomogram. DCA tested 3 strategies: (1) perform an operation on all patients, (2) never perform an operation, and (3) use the nomogram to select patients for an operation.Four preoperative variables were included in the nomogram: major vascular invasion (HR = 1.36), tumor number (multifocal, HR = 1.18), tumor size (>5 cm, HR = 1.45), and suspicious lymph nodes on imaging (HR = 1.47; all P < .05). The regret-DCA was assessed using an online survey of 50 physicians, expert in the treatment of ICC. For a patient with a multifocal ICC, largest lesion measuring >5 cm, one suspicious malignant lymph node, and vascular invasion on imaging, the 1-year predicted survival was 52% according to the nomogram. Based on the therapeutic decision of the regret-DCA, 60% of physicians would advise against an operation for this scenario. Conversely, all physicians recommended an operation to a patient with an early ICC (single nodule measuring 3 cm, no suspicious lymph nodes, and no vascular invasion at imaging).By integrating a nomogram based on preoperative variables and a regret-based DCA, we were able to define the elements of how decisions rely on medical knowledge (postoperative survival predicted by a nomogram, severity disease assessment) and physician attitudes (regret of commission and omission).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2016.01.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378022500016

    View details for PubMedID 27046702

  • To Roux or not to Roux: a comparison between Roux-en-Y and Billroth II reconstruction following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer GASTRIC CANCER Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Cho, C. S., Weber, S. M., Schmidt, C., Levine, E. A., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 19 (3): 994-1001

    Abstract

    Although the extent of resection frequently dictates the method of reconstruction following distal subtotal gastrectomy, it is unclear whether Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy compared with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy is associated with superior perioperative outcomes.Patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer with Roux-en-Y or Billroth II reconstruction between 2000 and 2012 in seven academic institutions (US Gastric Cancer Collaborative) were identified. Patients who underwent total gastrectomy, gastric wedge, or palliative resections (metastatic disease or R2 resections) were excluded.Of a total of 965 patients, 447 met the inclusion criteria. A comparison between the Roux-en-Y (n = 257) and Billroth II (n = 190) groups demonstrated no differences in patient and tumor characteristics, except for Billroth II patients having a higher proportion of antral tumors (71 % vs. 50 %, p < 0.001). Roux-en-Y operations were slightly longer (244 min vs. 212 min, p < 0.001) and associated with somewhat higher blood loss (243 ml vs. 205 ml, p = 0.033). However, there were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay (8 days vs. 7 days), readmission rate (17 % vs. 18 %), 90-day mortality (5.1 % vs. 4.7 %), incidence (39 % vs. 41 %) and severity of complications, dependency on jejunostomy tube feeding at discharge (13 % vs. 12 %), same-patient decrease in serum albumin level from the preoperative to the postoperative value at 30, 60, and 90 days, receipt of adjuvant therapy (50 % vs. 53 %), or 5-year survival (44 % vs. 41 %).Although long-term quality-of-life parameters were not compared, this study did not show an advantage of Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy over Billroth II gastrojejunostomy in short-term perioperative outcomes. Both techniques should be regarded as equally acceptable reconstructive options following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10120-015-0547-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378005400033

    View details for PubMedID 26400843

  • A functional microRNA library screen reveals miR-410 as a novel anti-apoptotic regulator of cholangiocarcinoma BMC CANCER Palumbo, T., Poultsides, G. A., Kouraklis, G., Liakakos, T., Drakaki, A., Peros, G., Hatziapostolou, M., Iliopoulos, D. 2016; 16

    Abstract

    Cholangiocarcinoma is characterized by late diagnosis and a poor survival rate. MicroRNAs have been involved in the pathogenesis of different cancer types, including cholangiocarcinoma. Our aim was to identify novel microRNAs regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.A functional microRNA library screen was performed in human cholangiocarcinoma cells to identify microRNAs that regulate cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Real-time PCR analysis evaluated miR-9 and XIAP mRNA levels in cholangiocarcinoma cells and tumors.The screen identified 21 microRNAs that regulated >50 % cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. MiR-410 was identified as the top suppressor of growth, while its overexpression significantly inhibited the invasion and colony formation ability of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that microRNA-410 exerts its effects through the direct regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Furthermore, overexpression of miR-410 significantly reduced cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model through induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified an inverse relationship between miR-410 and XIAP mRNA levels in human cholangiocarcinomas.Taken together, our study revealed a novel microRNA signaling pathway involved in cholangiocarcinoma and suggests that manipulation of the miR-410/XIAP pathway could have a therapeutic potential for cholangiocarcinoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12885-016-2384-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376965700001

    View details for PubMedID 27259577

  • Transcriptomic and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies reveal FOXA2 as a tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY Vorvis, C., Hatziapostolou, M., Mahurkar-Joshi, S., Koutsioumpa, M., Williams, J., Donahue, T. R., Poultsides, G. A., Eibl, G., Iliopoulos, D. 2016; 310 (11): G1124-G1137

    Abstract

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with low survival rates and limited therapeutic options. Thus elucidation of signaling pathways involved in PDAC pathogenesis is essential for identifying novel potential therapeutic gene targets. Here, we used a systems approach to elucidate those pathways by integrating gene and microRNA profiling analyses together with CRISPR/Cas9 technology to identify novel transcription factors involved in PDAC pathogenesis. FOXA2 transcription factor was found to be significantly downregulated in PDAC relative to control pancreatic tissues. Functional experiments revealed that FOXA2 has a tumor suppressor function through inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, and colony formation. In situ hybridization analysis revealed miR-199a to be significantly upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Bioinformatics and luciferase analyses showed that miR-199a negatively but directly regulates FOXA2 expression through binding in its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Evaluation of the functional importance of miR-199a on pancreatic cancer revealed that miR-199a acts as an inhibitor of FOXA2 expression, inducing an increase in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, gene ontology and network analyses in PANC-1 cells treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against FOXA2 revealed an enrichment for cell invasion mechanisms through PLAUR and ERK activation. FOXA2 deletion (FOXA2Δ) by using two CRISPR/Cas9 vectors in PANC-1 cells induced tumor growth in vivo resulting in upregulation of PLAUR and ERK pathways in FOXA2Δ xenograft tumors. We have identified FOXA2 as a novel tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer and it is regulated directly by miR-199a, thereby enhancing our understanding of how microRNAs interplay with the transcription factors to affect pancreatic oncogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpgi.00035.2016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377433200025

    View details for PubMedID 27151939

  • An economic analysis of pancreaticoduodenectomy: should costs drive consumer decisions? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2016; 211 (6): 991-?

    Abstract

    Consumer groups campaign for cost transparency believing that patients will select hospitals accordingly. We sought to determine whether the cost of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) should be considered in choosing a hospital.Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we analyzed charges for patients who underwent PD from 2000 to 2010. Outcomes were stratified by hospital volume.A total of 15,599 PDs were performed in 1,186 hospitals. The median cost was $87,444 (interquartile range $16,015 to $144,869). High volume hospitals (HVH) had shorter hospital stay (11 vs 15 days, P < .001) and mortality (3% vs 7.6%, P < .001). PD performed at low volume hospitals had higher charges compared with HVH ($97,923 vs $81,581, P < .001). On multivariate analysis, HVH was associated with a lower risk of mortality, while extremes in hospital costs, cardiac comorbidity, and any complication were significant predictors of mortality.Although PDs performed at HVH are associated with better outcomes and lower hospital charges, costs should not be the primary determinant when selecting a hospital.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.10.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375795200004

    View details for PubMedID 26902956

  • Outcomes after resection of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY Margonis, G. A., Kim, Y., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 211 (6): 1106-1113

    Abstract

    We sought to define the impact of cortisol-secreting status on outcomes after surgical resection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).The U.S ACC group database was queried to identify patients who underwent ACC resection between 1993 and 2014. The short-term and long-term outcomes were assessed.The incidence of all functional and cortisol-secreting tumors was 40.6% and 22.6%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, cortisol secretion remained associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications (odds ratio = 2.25, 95 % confidence interval = 1.04 to 4.88; P = .04). At a median follow-up of 17.6 months, 118 patients (50.4%) had developed a recurrence. On multivariable analysis, after adjusting for patient and disease-related factors cortisol secretion independently predicted shorter recurrence-free survival (Hazard ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.16 to 3.60; P = .01).Cortisol secretion was associated with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity. Recurrence remains high among patients with ACC after surgery; cortisol secretion was independently associated with a shorter recurrence-free survival. Tailoring postoperative surveillance of ACC patients based on their cortisol secreting status may be important.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.09.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375795200021

    View details for PubMedID 26810939

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4957943

  • Conditional probability of long-term survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma HPB Buettner, S., Margonis, G. A., Kim, Y., Gani, F., Ethun, C. G., Poultsides, G., Thuy Tran, T., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C. R., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, L., Shenoy, R., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 18 (6): 510-517

    Abstract

    While traditional survival analyses focus on factors determined at the time of surgery, conditional survival (CS) estimates prognosis relative to time following treatment. We sought to compare actuarial and CS among patients undergoing curative intent surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.242 patients undergoing surgery between 2000 and 2014 were identified using a multi-institutional database. CS was calculated as the probability of surviving an additional 3 years, given that the patient had already survived "x" years from surgery.Median patient age was 67 years (IQR: 57-73) and most patients were male (n = 140, 57.9%). Lymph node metastases were noted in 79 (32.6%) patients while an R0 margin was obtained in 66.1% (n = 160). Median OS was 22.3 months. Actuarial survival decreased over time from 46.3% at 2 years following surgery to 18.2% at 5 years; in contrast, the 3-year CS (CS3) increased with time (CS3 at 2 years was 39.3% versus 54.4% at 5 years). CS3 exceeded actuarial survival for high-risk patients with patients with perineural invasion demonstrating an actuarial survival of 15.4% at 5 years versus CS3 of 37.6% at 2 years following surgery (Δ = 22.2%).CS provides a more accurate, dynamic estimate for survival, especially among high-risk patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.04.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379638400004

    View details for PubMedID 27317955

  • Optimal Extent of Lymphadenectomy for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A 7-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Randle, R. W., Swords, D. S., Levine, E. A., Fino, N. F., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Pawlik, T. M., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Schmidt, C., Worhunsky, D., Cho, C. S., Maithel, S. K., Votanopoulos, K. I. 2016; 113 (7): 750-755

    Abstract

    The optimal extent of lymphadenectomy in the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma is debated. We compared gastrectomy outcomes following limited (D1) or extended (D2) lymphadenectomy.Using the multi-institutional US Gastric Cancer Collaborative database, we reviewed the morbidity, mortality, recurrence, and overall survival (OS) of patients receiving D1 or D2 lymphadenectomies.Between 2000 and 2012, 266 and 461 patients received a D1 and D2 lymphadenectomy, respectively. ASA class, mean number of comorbidities, grade, and stage were similar between groups. While major morbidity was similar (P = 0.85), mortality was worse for those receiving a D1 lymphadenectomy (4.9% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.004). D2 lymphadenectomy was associated with improved median OS in stage I (4.7 years for D1 vs. not reached for D2, P = 0.003), stage II (3.6 years for D1 vs. 6.3 for D2, P = 0.42), and stage III patients (1.3 years for D1 vs. 2.1 for D2, P = 0.01). After adjusting for predictors of OS, D2 lymphadenectomy remained a significant predictor of improved survival (HR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0, P = 0.008).D2 lymphadenectomy can be performed without increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Additionally, D2 lymphadenectomy is associated with improved survival especially in early stages, and should be considered for gastric adenocarcinoma patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:750-755. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24227

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377392600006

    View details for PubMedID 26996496

  • The First Decade of Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy in the United States: Costs and Outcomes Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2016; 30 (5): 1778-1783

    Abstract

    Minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains an uncommon procedure, and the safety and efficacy remain uncertain beyond single institution case series. The aim of this study is to compare outcomes and costs between laparoscopic (LPD) and open PD (OPD) using a large population-based database.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (a sample of approximately 20 % of all hospital discharges) was analyzed to identify patients who underwent PD from 2000 to 2010. Patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, inflation-adjusted total charges, and complications were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Hospitals were categorized as high-volume hospitals (HVH) if more than 20 PD (open and laparoscopic) were performed annually, while those performing fewer than 20 PD were classified as low-volume hospitals.Of the 15,574 PD identified, 681 cases were LPD (4.4 %). Compared to OPD, patients who underwent LPD were slightly older (65 vs. 67 years; p = 0.001) and were more commonly treated at HVH (56.6 vs. 66.1 %; p < 0.001). Higher rates of complications were observed in OPD than LPD (46 vs. 39.4 %; p = 0.001), though mortality rates were comparable (5 vs. 3.8 %, p = 0.27). Inflation-adjusted median hospital charges were similar between OPD and LPD ($87,577 vs. $81,833, p = 0.199). However, hospital stay was slightly longer in the OPD group compared to LPD group (12 vs. 11 days, p < 0.001). Stratifying outcomes by hospital volume, LPD at HVH resulted in shorter hospital stays (9 vs. 13 days, p < 0.001), which translated into significantly lower median hospital charges ($76,572 vs. $106,367, p < 0.001).Contrary to fears regarding the potential for compromised outcomes early in the learning curve, LPD morbidity in its first decade is modestly reduced, while hospital costs are comparable to OPD. In high-volume pancreatic hospitals, LPD is associated with a reduction in length of stay and hospital costs.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-015-4444-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375087100010

    View details for PubMedID 26275542

  • Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Number of Nodes Examined and Optimal Lymph Node Prognostic Scheme JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Bagante, F., Thuy Tran, T., Spolverato, G., Ruzzenente, A., Buttner, S., Ethun, C. G., Koerkamp, B. G., Conci, S., Idrees, K., Isom, C. A., Fields, R. C., Krasnick, B., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Martin, R. C., Scoggins, C., Shen, P., Mogal, H. D., Schmidt, C., Beal, E., Hatzaras, I., Vitiello, G., IJzermans, J. N., Maithel, S. K., Poultsides, G., Guglielmi, A., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 222 (5): 750-?

    Abstract

    The role of routine lymphadenectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is still controversial and no study has defined the minimum number of lymph nodes examined (TNLE). We sought to assess the prognostic performance of American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (7(th) edition) N stage, lymph node ratio, and log odds (LODDS; logarithm of the ratio between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes) in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and identify the optimal TNLE to accurately stage patients.A multi-institutional database was queried to identify 437 patients who underwent hepatectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995 and 2014. The prognostic abilities of the lymph node staging systems were assessed using the Harrell's c-index. A Bayesian model was developed to identify the minimum TNLE.One hundred and fifty-eight (36.2%) patients had lymph node metastasis. Median TNLE was 3 (interquartile range, 1 to 7). The LODDS had a slightly better prognostic performance than lymph node ratio and American Joint Committee on Cancer, in particular among patients with <4 TNLE (c-index = 0.568). For 2 TNLE, the Bayesian model showed a poor discriminatory ability to distinguish patients with favorable and poor prognosis. When TNLE was >2, the hazard ratio for N1 patients was statistically significant and the hazard ratio for N1 patients increased from 1.51 with 4 TNLE to 2.10 with 10 TNLE. Although the 5-year overall survival of N1 patients was only slightly affected by TNLE, the 5-year overall survival of N0 patients increased significantly with TNLE.Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients undergoing radical resection should ideally have at least 4 lymph nodes harvested to be accurately staged. In addition, although LODDS performed better at determining prognosis among patients with <4 TNLE, both lymph node ratio and LODDS outperformed compared with American Joint Committee on Cancer N stage among patients with ≥4 TNLE.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2016.02.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375130300008

    View details for PubMedID 27113512

  • Identification of tumorigenic cells and therapeutic targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Krampitz, G. W., George, B. M., Willingham, S. B., Volkmer, J., Weiskopf, K., Jahchan, N., Newman, A. M., Sahoo, D., Zemek, A. J., Yanovsky, R. L., Nguyen, J. K., Schnorr, P. J., Mazur, P. K., Sage, J., Longacre, T. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 113 (16): 4464-4469

    Abstract

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a type of pancreatic cancer with limited therapeutic options. Consequently, most patients with advanced disease die from tumor progression. Current evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence, and targeting these tumor-initiating cells is necessary to eradicate tumors. However, tumor-initiating cells and the biological processes that promote pathogenesis remain largely uncharacterized in PanNETs. Here we profile primary and metastatic tumors from an index patient and demonstrate that MET proto-oncogene activation is important for tumor growth in PanNET xenograft models. We identify a highly tumorigenic cell population within several independent surgically acquired PanNETs characterized by increased cell-surface protein CD90 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDHA1) activity, and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for their stem-like properties. We performed proteomic profiling of 332 antigens in two cell lines and four primary tumors, and showed that CD47, a cell-surface protein that acts as a "don't eat me" signal co-opted by cancers to evade innate immune surveillance, is ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, CD47 coexpresses with MET and is enriched in CD90(hi)cells. Furthermore, blocking CD47 signaling promotes engulfment of tumor cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibits xenograft tumor growth, prevents metastases, and prolongs survival in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1600007113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374393800063

    View details for PubMedID 27035983

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4843455

  • Nomograms to Predict Recurrence-Free and Overall Survival After Curative Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma JAMA SURGERY Kim, Y., Margonis, G. A., Prescott, J. D., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Evans, D. B., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A. I., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. 2016; 151 (4): 365-373

    Abstract

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but aggressive endocrine tumor, and the prognostic factors associated with long-term outcomes after surgical resection remain poorly defined.To define clinicopathological variables associated with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after curative surgical resection of ACC and to propose nomograms for individual risk prediction.Nomograms to predict RFS and OS after surgical resection of ACC were proposed using a multi-institutional cohort of patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for ACC at 13 major institutions in the United States between March 17, 1994, and December 22, 2014. The dates of our study analysis were April 15, 2015, to May 12, 2015.The discriminative ability and calibration of the nomograms to predict RFS and OS were tested using C statistics, calibration plots, and Kaplan-Meier curves.In total, 148 patients who underwent surgery for ACC were included in the study. The median patient age was 53 years, and 65.5% (97 of 148) of the patients were female. One-third of the patients (35.1% [52 of 148]) had a functional tumor, and the median tumor size was 11.2 cm. Most patients (77.7% [115 of 148]) underwent R0 resection, and 8.8% (13 of 148) of the patients had N1 disease. Using backward stepwise selection of clinically important variables with the Akaike information criterion, the following variables were incorporated in the prediction of RFS: tumor size of at least 12 cm (hazard ratio [HR], 3.00; 95% CI, 1.63-5.70; P < .001), positive nodal status (HR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.47-15.50; P = .01), stage III/IV (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.95-3.39; P = .07), cortisol-secreting tumor (HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.27-4.48; P = .01), and capsular invasion (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.02-3.74; P = .04). Factors selected as predicting OS were tumor size of at least 12 cm (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.00-3.17; P = .05), positive nodal status (HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.05-16.87; P = .001), and R1 margin (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.51-5.30; P = .001). The discriminative ability and calibration of the nomograms revealed good predictive ability as indicated by the C statistics (0.74 for RFS and 0.70 for OS).Independent predictors of survival and recurrence risk after curative-intent surgery for ACC were selected to create nomograms predicting RFS and OS. The nomograms were able to stratify patients into prognostic groups and performed well on internal validation.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2015.4516

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374411000015

    View details for PubMedID 26676603

  • Stage-Specific Prognostic Effect of Race in Patients with Resectable Gastric Adenocarcinoma: An 8-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Wang, A., Squires, M. H., Melis, M., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Jin, L. X., Fields, R. C., Spolverato, G., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Schmidt, C., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Weber, S., Berman, R., Pachter, H. L., Newman, E., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K., Hatzaras, I. 2016; 222 (4): 633-643

    Abstract

    Gastric cancer constitutes a major public health problem. This study sought to evaluate the relevance of race in gastric cancer and its prognostic effect in the overall outcomes of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.Patients who underwent curative intent resection of gastric adenocarcinoma in 8 institutions of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative were included, from 2000 to 2012. Nonparametric descriptive statistics were used to evaluate characteristics of standard demographic data. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors associated with recurrence-free survival and overall survival.There were 1,077 patients included in the study, the majority of whom were of Caucasian race (n = 698, 68%), followed by African-American (n = 164, 15%), Asian (n = 132, 12%), Hispanic (n = 34, 3.2%), and other (n = 49, 4.5%). Clinicopathologic data were similarly distributed among the 5 groups. Mean follow-up was 27.1 months. By multivariate, stage-specific analysis, Asian race was a significant predictor of recurrence (all stages hazard ratio [HR] 0.45 95% CI [0.23, 0.97], p = 0.041) and of overall survival (all stages HR 0.35 95% CI [0.18, 0.68], p = 0.002). Recurrence-free survival was significantly increased in the Asian population compared with the non-Asian population (25th percentile: 38.6 vs 17.7 months, p = 0.0096), as was overall median survival (141 vs 38.8 months, p < 0.001).Patients of Asian race undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma appear to have a better prognosis stage for stage. Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying etiology of this phenomenon.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.12.043

    View details for PubMedID 26905187

  • Outcomes of Adjuvant Mitotane after Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A 13-Institution Study by the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Postlewait, L. M., Ethun, C. G., Tran, T. B., Prescott, J. D., Pawlik, T. M., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Staley, C. A., Poultsides, G. A., Maithel, S. K. 2016; 222 (4): 480-490

    Abstract

    Current treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant mitotane after resection of adrenocortical carcinoma with high-risk features (eg, tumor rupture, positive margins, positive lymph nodes, high grade, elevated mitotic index, and advanced stage). Limited data exist on the outcomes associated with these practice guidelines.Patients who underwent resection of adrenocortical carcinoma from 1993 to 2014 at the 13 academic institutions of the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group were included. Factors associated with mitotane administration were determined. Primary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).Of 207 patients, 88 (43%) received adjuvant mitotane. Receipt of mitotane was associated with hormonal secretion (58% vs 32%; p = 0.001), advanced TNM stage (stage IV: 42% vs 23%; p = 0.021), adjuvant chemotherapy (37% vs 5%; p < 0.001), and adjuvant radiation (17% vs 5%; p = 0.01), but was not associated with tumor rupture, margin status, or N-stage. Median follow-up was 44 months. Adjuvant mitotane was associated with decreased RFS (10.0 vs 27.9 months; p = 0.007) and OS (31.7 vs 58.9 months; p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, mitotane was not independently associated with RFS or OS, and margin status, advanced TNM stage, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with survival. After excluding all patients who received chemotherapy, adjuvant mitotane remained associated with decreased RFS and similar OS; multivariable analyses again showed no association with recurrence or survival. Stage-specific analyses in both cohorts revealed no association between adjuvant mitotane and improved RFS or OS.When accounting for stage and adverse tumor and treatment-related factors, adjuvant mitotane after resection of adrenocortical carcinoma is not associated with improved RFS or OS. Current guidelines should be revisited and prospective trials are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.12.013

    View details for PubMedID 26775162

  • Preoperative Helicobacter pylori Infection is Associated with Increased Survival After Resection of Gastric Adenocarcinoma ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Postlewait, L. M., Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Swords, D., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2016; 23 (4): 1225-1233

    Abstract

    Limited data exist on the prognosis of preoperative Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC).Patients who underwent curative-intent resection for GAC from 2000 to 2012 at seven academic institutions comprising the United States Gastric Cancer Collaborative were included in the study. The primary end points of the study were overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS).Of 559 patients, 104 (18.6 %) who tested positive for H. pylori were younger (62.1 vs 65.1 years; p = 0.041), had a higher frequency of distal tumors (82.7 vs 71.9 %; p = 0.033), and had higher rates of adjuvant radiation therapy (47.0 vs 34.9 %; p = 0.032). There were no differences in American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, margin status, grade, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, nodal metastases, or tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. H. pylori positivity was associated with longer OS (84.3 vs 44.2 months; p = 0.008) for all patients. This relationship with OS persisted in the multivariable analysis (HR 0.54; 95 % CI 0.30-0.99; p = 0.046). H. pylori was not associated with RFS or DSS in all patients. In the stage 3 patients, H. pylori was associated with longer OS (44.5 vs 24.7 months; p = 0.018), a trend of longer RFS (31.4 vs 21.6 months; p = 0.232), and longer DSS (44.8 vs 27.2 months; p = 0.034).Patients with and without preoperative H. pylori infection had few differences in adverse pathologic features at the time of gastric adenocarcinoma resection. Despite similar disease presentations, preoperative H. pylori infection was independently associated with improved OS. Further studies examining the interaction between H. pylori and tumor immunology and genetics are merited.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4953-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371333200025

    View details for PubMedID 26553442

  • Is Linitis Plastica a Contraindication for Surgical Resection: A Multi-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Blackham, A. U., Swords, D. S., Levine, E. A., Fino, N. F., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Pawlik, T. M., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Schmidt, C., Worhunsky, D., Cho, C. S., Maithel, S. K., Votanopoulos, K. I. 2016; 23 (4): 1203-1211

    Abstract

    Current staging and treatment guidelines for gastric adenocarcinoma do not differentiate between linitis plastic (LP) and non-LP cancers. Significant controversy exists regarding the surgical management of LP patients.Using the multi-institutional U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative database, 869 gastric cancer patients who underwent resection between 2000 and 2012 were identified. Clinicopathologic and outcomes data of 58 LP patients were compared to 811 non-LP patients.Stage III/IV disease was more common at presentation in LP patients compared with non-LP patients (90 vs. 44 %, p < 0.01). Despite the fact that most LP patients underwent total gastrectomy (88 vs. 39 %, p < 0.01), final positive margins were more common in LP patients (33 vs. 7 %, p < 0.01). The use of frozen section allowed 15 intraoperative positive margins in 38 patients to be converted to negative final margins. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly worse in patients with LP (11.6 vs. 37.8 months, p < 0.01). There was no difference in median OS of LP patients based on stage (I/II, 17.3 mo; III, 10.6 mo; IV, 12.0 mo; p = 0.46). LP and non-LP patients who underwent optimal resection (negative margin and D2/3 lymphadenectomy) had better survival compared with those with nonoptimal resections. The median OS for optimally resected stage III LP (n = 22) and stage III non-LP (n = 185) patients was nearly identical (26.7 vs. 25.3 mo; p = 0.69).Future staging systems and treatment guidelines should differentiate between LP and non-LP gastric cancers. Long-term survival in select LP patients who undergo optimal resections is comparable to optimally resected non-LP patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4947-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371333200022

    View details for PubMedID 26530447

  • A multi-institutional analysis of elderly patients undergoing a liver resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Vitale, A., Spolverato, G., Bagante, F., Gani, F., Popescu, I., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Sandroussi, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 113 (4): 420-426

    Abstract

    Little is known regarding postoperative outcomes of elderly patients undergoing liver surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Five hundred and eighty-four patients undergoing liver resection for ICC between 1990 and 2015 were identified. Perioperative morbidity, mortality, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between elderly (>70 year, n = 129) and non-elderly (≤70 years, n = 455) patients.Older patients had a higher incidence of complications (elderly vs. non-elderly; 52.7% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.03), as well as major complications (elderly vs. non-elderly; 24.0% vs. 14.9%; P = 0.01); 30-day (0.1% vs. 3.3%; P > 0.05), and 90-day mortality (2.3% vs. 5.5%; P > 0.05) were comparable. Five-year OS and DFS were comparable between the elderly and non-elderly patients (OS, 13.3% vs. 24.4%; and DFS; 7.3% vs. 12.0%; P > 0.05). On propensity score matching, DFS and OS were also comparable among non-elderly versus elderly patients. Poor tumor grade was associated with worse DFS among elderly patients (HR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.0-2.6; P = 0.04), whereas periductal invasion (HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5; P = 0.03) and nodal disease (HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.9; P = 0.003) were predictive of shorter DFS among non-elderly patients.Elderly patients undergoing liver surgery for ICC demonstrated an increased risk of perioperative complications, but comparable long-term DFS and OS compared with younger patients. Rather, tumor characteristics were more predictive of worse long-term outcomes. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:420-426. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24148

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374711400012

    View details for PubMedID 27100027

  • Incidence of Perioperative Complications Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma and Its Association with Long-Term Survival WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY Margonis, G. A., Amini, N., Kim, Y., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Evans, D. B., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Moses, L. E., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 40 (3): 706-714

    Abstract

    The association of postoperative complications with long-term oncologic outcomes remains unclear. We sought to determine the incidence of complications among patients who underwent surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and define the relationship of morbidity with long-term survival.Patients who underwent surgery for ACC between 1993 and 2014 were identified from 13 academic institutions participating in the US ACC group study. The incidence and type of the postoperative complications, the factors associated with them as well their association with long-term survival were analyzed.A total of 265 patients with median age of 52 years (IQR 44-63) were identified; at surgery, the majority of patients underwent an open abdominal procedure (n = 169, 66.8 %). A postoperative complication occurred in 99 patients for a morbidity of 37.4 %; five patients (1.9 %) died in hospital. Factors associated with morbidity included a thoraco-abdominal operative approach (reference: open abdominal; OR 2.85, 95 % CI 1.00-8.18), and a hormonally functional tumor (OR 3.56, 95 % CI 1.65-7.69) (all P < 0.05). Presence of any complication was associated with a worse long-term outcome (median survival: no complication, 58.9 months vs. any complication, 25.1 months; P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for patient- and disease-related factors postoperative infectious complications independently predicted shorter overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 5.56, 95 % CI 2.24-13.80; P < 0.001).Postoperative complications were independently associated with decreased long-term survival after resection for ACC. The prevention of complications may be important from an oncologic perspective.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-015-3307-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371305500033

    View details for PubMedID 26546184

  • Albumin and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) Predict Survival in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Treated With SBRT. American journal of clinical oncology Alagappan, M., Pollom, E. L., von Eyben, R., Kozak, M. M., Aggarwal, S., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    To determine if pretreatment nutritional status and inflammatory markers correlate with survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).We retrospectively reviewed 208 patients with newly diagnosed, locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with SBRT at our institution from 2002 to 2014. Laboratory values were collected before SBRT, including hemoglobin, platelets, albumin, red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio, and tumor markers CA 19-9 and CEA. Patients were followed every 3 months with computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography-CT imaging to monitor for local recurrence and overall survival (OS).Median follow-up after SBRT was 7.5 months (interquartile range, 4.6 to 12.0 mo) for all patients. Median OS for patients with NLR>5 compared with NLR≤5 was 6.9 and 8.5 months, respectively (P=0.0057). On univariate analysis, receipt of chemotherapy (P=0.05, hazard ratio [HR]=0.69), increased albumin (P=0.002, HR=0.64), increased red blood cell (P=0.05, HR=0.75), increased lymphocyte count (P=0.002, HR=0.66), decreased CEA (P=0.01, HR=0.96), and NLR≤5 (P=0.01, HR=0.65) correlated with improved OS. On multivariate analysis, higher albumin (P=0.03, HR=0.70), receipt of chemotherapy (P=0.007, HR=0.56), and NLR≤5 (P=0.02, HR=0.66) correlated with better survival.Preradiotherapy low albumin levels and NLR>5 correlate with decreased survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with SBRT, indicating the prognostic value of systemic inflammatory markers (such as NLR) and a role of nutritional supplementation to improve outcomes in these patients. Further investigation is warranted.

    View details for PubMedID 26757436

  • Statin and Metformin Use Prolongs Survival in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer. Pancreas Kozak, M. M., Anderson, E. M., von Eyben, R., Pai, J. S., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2016; 45 (1): 64-70

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of statin and metformin therapy on disease outcome for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).This retrospective study included 171 PDAC patients who underwent surgical resection at the Stanford Cancer Institute between 1998 and 2013. No patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Statin and metformin use was defined as use during initial consult and continuing upon discharge from the hospital after surgery. Dose of each medication was recorded, as was the type of statin taken.The median follow-up for all patients was 11.23 months (range, 0.2-105.0 months). Among the 171 patients included in our analysis, 18 patients (10.5%) took metformin and 34 patients (19.9%) took statins. Statin use was associated with better overall survival (OS) in patients with PDAC (P = 0.011). Metformin use was also associated with better OS (P = 0.035). The use of statins remained significant on multivariate analysis for OS (P = 0.014; hazards ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.139-0.799), but metformin use did not (P = 0.33; hazards ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval, 0.211-1.675).Statin and metformin use is associated with improved OS in patients with resectable PDAC. These medications should be further investigated for possible long-term use in the general population.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000470

    View details for PubMedID 26474429

  • Management and Outcomes of Patients with Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Following Previous Curative-Intent Surgical Resection ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Lamelas, J., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Tran, T. B., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 23 (1): 235-243
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Impact of Surgical Margin Status on Long-Term Outcomes ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Margonis, G. A., Kim, Y., Prescott, J. D., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Evans, D. B., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 23 (1): 134-141
  • Curative Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Rates and Patterns of Postoperative Recurrence ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Amini, N., Margonis, G. A., Kim, Y., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Evans, D. B., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2016; 23 (1): 126-133
  • Gastric Remnant Cancer: A Distinct Entity or Simply Another Proximal Gastric Cancer? JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Tran, T. B., Hatzaras, I., Worhunsky, D. J., Vitiello, G. A., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C., Weber, S., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 112 (8): 877-882

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367671700015

  • The Prognostic Value of Signet-Ring Cell Histology in Resected Gastric Adenocarcinoma. Annals of surgical oncology Postlewait, L. M., Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Swords, D., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 22: 832-839

    Abstract

    Conflicting data exist on the prognostic implication of signet-ring cell (SRC) histology in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC).All patients who underwent curative-intent resection of GAC from the seven institutions of the U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative between 2000 and 2012 were included. Primary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Stage-specific analyses were performed.A total of 768 patients met the inclusion criteria. SRC was present in 40.6 % of patients and was associated with female sex (52.9 vs. 38.6 %; p < 0.001), younger age (61 vs. 67 years; p < 0.001), poor differentiation (94.8 vs. 50.3 %; p < 0.001), perineural invasion (PNI) (41.4 vs. 23 %; p < 0.001), microscopically positive resection margins (R1, 24.7 vs. 8.6 %; p < 0.001), distal location (82.2 vs. 70.1 %; p < 0.001), receipt of adjuvant therapy (63 vs. 51.2 %; p = 0.002), and more advanced stage (stage 3: 55.2 vs. 36.5 %; p < 0.001). SRC was associated with earlier recurrence (56.7 months vs. median not reached; p = 0.009) and decreased OS (33.7 vs. 46.6 months; p = 0.011). When accounting for other adverse pathologic features, PNI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.57; p = 0.016) and higher stage (HR 2.64; p < 0.001) were associated with decreased RFS, but SRC was not. Although PNI (HR 1.52; p = 0.007), higher stage (HR 2.11; p < 0.001), greater size (HR 1.05; p = 0.016), and adjuvant therapy (HR 0.50; p < 0.001) were associated with OS, SRC was not. Similarly, when accounting for adverse pathologic factors on multivariate analysis, stage-specific analyses showed no association between SRC and RFS or OS.SRC histology is associated with adverse pathologic features including poor differentiation, higher stage, and microscopically positive resection margins but is not independently associated with reduced RFS or OS. Identification of signet-ring histology during preoperative evaluation should not, in isolation, dictate treatment strategy.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4724-8

    View details for PubMedID 26156656

  • Gastric remnant cancer: A distinct entity or simply another proximal gastric cancer? Journal of surgical oncology Tran, T. B., Hatzaras, I., Worhunsky, D. J., Vitiello, G. A., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C., Weber, S., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 112 (8): 877-882

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes following resection of gastric remnant (GRC) and conventional gastric cancer.Patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer in 8 academic institutions from 2000-2012 were evaluated to compare morbidity, mortality, and survival based on history of prior gastrectomy.Of the 979 patients who underwent gastrectomy with curative-intent during the 12-year study period, 55 patients (5.8%) presented with GRC and 924 patients (94.4%) presented with conventional gastric cancer. Patients with GRC were slightly older (median 69 vs. 66 years). GRC was associated with higher rates of complication (56% vs. 41%, P = 0.028), longer operative times (301 vs. 237 min, P < 0.001), higher intraoperative blood loss (300 vs. 200 ml, P = 0.012), and greater need for blood transfusion (43% vs. 23%, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in 30-day (3.6% vs. 4%) or 90-day mortality (9% vs. 8%) between the two groups. Overall survival rates were similar between GRC and conventional gastric cancer (5-year 20.3% vs. 38.6%, P = 0.446). Multivariate analysis revealed that history of gastrectomy was not predictive of survival while established predictors (older age, advanced T-stage, nodal involvement, blood transfusion, multivisceral resection, and any complication) were associated with poor survival.Despite higher morbidity, prognosis after resection of gastric remnant cancer is similar to conventional gastric cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015;112:877-882. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.24080

    View details for PubMedID 26511335

  • Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Prognosis of Patients Who Did Not Undergo Lymphadenectomy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Bagante, F., Gani, F., Spolverato, G., Xu, L., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Lamelas, J., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 221 (6): 1031-?

    Abstract

    The role of routine lymphadenectomy (LD) among patients undergoing surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains poorly defined. This study aimed to evaluate the role of routine LD as well as to quantify the impact of not assessing nodal station on disease-specific survival (DSS) among patients undergoing liver surgery for ICC.Using data from 12 major hepatobiliary centers, 561 patients undergoing liver surgery for ICC between 1990 and 2012 were identified. The association between nodal status and DSS was assessed using Cox proportional and Aalen's linear hazards models.Among the 272 (48.5%) patients who underwent LD, 123 (45.2%) had lymph node metastasis (N1). Although differences in DSS were noted between N0 and Nx patients within the first 18 months after surgery (DSS at 18 months: N0 vs Nx, 70.2% vs 60.6%, respectively, p = 0.019) among patients who had survived to 18 months, the DSS at 60 months of Nx patients was comparable to that of N0 patients (p = 0.48). Conversely, although the DSS of N1 and Nx patients was comparable in the short-term (DSS at 18 months: p = 0.13), among patients who had survived to 18 months, N1 patients had a lower DSS compared with Nx patients (DSS at 60 months among patients who had survived to 18 months: N1 vs Nx, 15.2% vs 45.8%, respectively, p < 0.001; all p values were based on the log-rank test comparing 2 survival curves).Although Nx patients and N1 patients had comparable DSS in the short-term, Nx patients who survived past 18 months had a survival comparable to that of N0 patients. Lack of nodal staging may lead to heterogeneous and potentially incorrect prognostic classification of patients with ICC.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.09.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365346600007

    View details for PubMedID 26474514

  • Value of Peritoneal Drain Placement After Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multi-institutional Analysis from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Dann, G. C., Squires, M. H., Postlewait, L. M., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Swords, D. S., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Russell, M. C., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K., Cardona, K. 2015; 22: S888-S897
  • Prognostic Performance of Different Lymph Node Staging Systems After Curative Intent Resection for Gastric Adenocarcinoma ANNALS OF SURGERY Spolverato, G., Ejaz, A., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Acher, A. W., Jin, L. X., Hawkins, W. G., Schmidt, C., Kooby, D. A., Worhunsky, D., Saunders, N., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 262 (6): 991-998
  • Factors Associated With Recurrence and Survival in Lymph Node-negative Gastric Adenocarcinoma A 7-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGERY Jin, L. X., Moses, L. E., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G. A., Votanopoulos, K., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Pawlik, T. M., Hawkins, W. G., Linehan, D. C., Strasberg, S. M., Schmidt, C., Worhunsky, D. J., Acher, A. W., Cardona, K., Cho, C. S., Kooby, D. A., Levine, E., Winslow, E. R., Saunders, N. D., Spolverato, G., Maithel, S. K., Fields, R. C. 2015; 262 (6): 999-1005
  • The Prognostic Value of Signet-Ring Cell Histology in Resected Gastric Adenocarcinoma ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Postlewait, L. M., Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Swords, D., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 22: S832-S839
  • Value of Peritoneal Drain Placement After Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multi-institutional Analysis from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Annals of surgical oncology Dann, G. C., Squires, M. H., Postlewait, L. M., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Swords, D. S., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Russell, M. C., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K., Cardona, K. 2015; 22: 888-897

    Abstract

    The effect of routine drainage after abdominal surgery with enteric anastomoses is controversial. In particular, the role of peritoneal drain (PD) placement after total gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma is not well established.Patients who underwent total gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) at seven institutions from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative, from 2000 to 2012, were identified. The association of PD placement with postoperative outcomes was analyzed.Overall, 344 patients were identified and 253 (74 %) patients received a PD. The anastomotic leak rate was 9 %. Those with PD placement had similar American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor size, TNM stage, and the need for additional organ resection when compared with their counterparts. No difference was observed in the rate of any complication (54 vs. 48 %; p = 0.45), major complication (25 vs. 24 %; p = 0.90), or 30-day mortality (7 vs. 4 %; p = 0.51) between the two groups. In addition, no difference in anastomotic leak (9 vs. 10 %; p = 0.90), the need for secondary drainage (10 vs. 9 %; p = 0.92), or reoperation (13 vs. 8 %; p = 0.28) was identified. On multivariate analysis, PD placement was not associated with decreased postoperative complications. Subset analysis, stratified by patients who did not undergo concomitant pancreatectomy (n = 319) or those who experienced anastomotic leak (n = 31), similarly demonstrated no association of PD placement with reduced complications or mortality.PD placement after total gastrectomy for GAC is associated with neither a decrease in the frequency and severity of adverse postoperative outcomes, including anastomotic leak and mortality, nor a decrease in the need for secondary drainage procedures or reoperation. Routine use of PDs is not warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4636-7

    View details for PubMedID 26023037

  • Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Readmission After Surgical Treatment for Adrenocortical Carcinoma JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Valero-Elizondo, J., Kim, Y., Prescott, J. D., Margonis, G. A., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Glenn, J. A., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 19 (12): 2154-2161

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-015-2917-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364932400009

    View details for PubMedID 26286367

  • Multivisceral Resection for Gastric Cancer: Results from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Annals of surgical oncology Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Norton, J. A., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C., Weber, S., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 22: 840-847

    Abstract

    Resection of an adjacent organ during gastrectomy for gastric cancer is occasionally necessary to achieve margin clearance. The short- and long-term outcomes of this approach remain unclear.Patients who underwent gastric cancer resection in seven U.S. academic institutions from 2000 to 2012 were evaluated to compare perioperative morbidity, mortality, and survival outcomes, stratified by the need for and type of multivisceral resection (MVR).Of 835 patients undergoing curative-intent gastrectomy, 159 (19 %) had MVR. The most common adjacent organs resected were the spleen (48 %), pancreas (27 %), liver segments 2/3 (14 %), and colon (13 %). As extent of resection increased (gastrectomy only, n = 676; MVR without pancreatectomy, n = 116; and MVR with pancreatectomy, n = 43), perioperative morbidity was higher: any complication (45, 60, 59 %, p = 0.012), major complication (17, 31, 33 %, p = 0.001), anastomotic leak (5, 11, 19 %, p < 0.001), and respiratory failure (9, 15, 22 %, p = 0.012). However, perioperative mortality did not significantly increase (30-day: 3, 4, 2 %, p = 0.74; 90-day: 6, 8, 9 %, p = 0.61). Overall survival after resection decreased as extent of resection increased (5-year: 42, 28, 6 %). After controlling for age, race, T stage, N stage, grade, margin status, perineural invasion, adjuvant therapy, and blood transfusion, MVR with pancreatectomy (HR 1.67, p = 0.044), but not MVR without pancreatectomy (HR 0.97, p = 0.759), remained an independent predictor of poor survival.In this modern, multi-institutional cohort of gastric cancer patients, multivisceral resection was associated with higher perioperative morbidity but not significantly higher perioperative mortality. If concomitant pancreatectomy is anticipated, patients should be selected with extreme caution because long-term survival remains poor.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4694-x

    View details for PubMedID 26148757

  • Multivisceral Resection for Gastric Cancer: Results from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Norton, J. A., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C., Weber, S., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 22: S840-S847
  • Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Resection in Octogenarians: A Multi-institutional Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C., Weber, S., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 22 (13): 4371-4379

    Abstract

    As the U.S. population ages, an increasing number of elderly patients with gastric adenocarcinoma are being evaluated for surgical resection. This study aimed to describe the short- and long-term outcomes after gastric cancer resection for patients 80 years of age or older.Patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma from 2000 to 2012 at seven U.S. academic institutions were analyzed. The main outcome measures included postoperative morbidity, mortality, survival, and failure to rescue (defined as death after any complication).Of 953 patients who underwent distal or total gastrectomy during the 12-year study period, 127 (13 %) were 80 years of age or older. Although the type of postoperative complications did not differ between the two groups, octogenarians had a higher incidence of any (54 vs 41 %; p = 0.006) and of major (28 vs 17 %; p = 0.006) postoperative complications. This translated into higher 30-day (10.2 vs 3.6 %; p = 0.001) and 90-day mortality (19.7 vs 7.9 %; p = 0.001) rates, with correspondingly higher failure-to-rescue rates (17.4 vs 8 %; p = 0.015). However, disease-specific survival after resection was equivalent between the two groups (5-year survival: 46 vs 53 %; p = 0.676). In the multivariate analysis, age of 80 years or older, blood transfusion, and albumin and creatinine levels all were independent predictors of 90-day mortality. Stage, tumor grade, race, blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy, but not age, were independently associated with disease-specific survival.Perioperative mortality and failure-to-rescue from complications is substantial for octogenarians undergoing gastric cancer resection. However, if the operation can be performed safely, the long-term cancer-specific outcome appears similar to that for younger patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4530-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364958200037

    View details for PubMedID 25822782

  • Can hepatic resection provide a long-term cure for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma? CANCER Spolverato, G., Vitale, A., Cucchetti, A., Popescu, I., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Sandroussi, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 121 (22): 3998-4006

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.29619

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364627600013

    View details for PubMedID 26264223

  • Severe acute pancreatitis in the community: confusion reigns JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Tran, T. B., Rumma, R. T., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Park, W. G., Visser, B. C. 2015; 199 (1): 44-50

    Abstract

    The management of acute pancreatitis (AP) has evolved through enhanced understanding of the disease. Despite several evidence-based practice guidelines for AP, our hypothesis is that many hospitals still use historical treatments rather than adhere to the current guidelines, which have demonstrated shorter hospital stays, decreased infectious complications, decreased morbidity, and decreased mortality.Seventy-eight patients transferred to our institution with AP from 2010-2014 were retrospectively studied to compare pretransfer versus posttransfer adherence to current practice guidelines. Primary measures included use of antibiotics (abx), enteral nutrition, drainage of asymptomatic pseudocysts, and interventions for necrosis in the early phase (<4 wk).Pretransfer, abx were given to 51 patients; however, posttransfer, abx were discontinued in 33 patients and started in 6 patients within 24 h of admission (pretransfer versus posttransfer abx, 51 versus 24, P < 0.001). Empiric abx for AP were used in 36 patients pretransfer versus 9 patients posttransfer (P < 0.001). Patients were initially nil per os or on total parenteral nutrition in 89%; this was reduced to 17% within 72 h by starting a diet or enteric feeds (pretransfer versus posttransfer feeding, 9 versus 65 patients, P < 0.001). Fifteen transfer patients had pseudocysts that were believed to "require drainage"; five patients received intervention but >4 wk from initial episode of AP. Pretransfer, five patients had pancreatic debridement in the early phase, which resulted in prolonged postoperative length of stay compared with eight patients requiring debridement, which were delayed (early versus late, 56 versus 16 d, P < 0.05).There is still great confusion in the treatment of AP in community hospitals. Primary principles in the care of these patients are not routinely followed despite established guidelines. Increased dissemination is required to prevent lengthy hospitalizations and long-term morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362879900008

    View details for PubMedID 25972313

  • The Impact of Surgical Margin Status on Long-Term Outcome After Resection for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Spolverato, G., Yakoob, M. Y., Kim, Y., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Lamelas, J., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 22 (12): 4020-4028

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-015-4472-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362513100041

    View details for PubMedID 25762481

  • Locally Advanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Complete Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Left Hepatic Trisectionectomy and Caudate Lobectomy DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Tran, T. B., Bal, C. K., Schaberg, K., Longacre, T. A., Chatrath, B. S., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 60 (11): 3226-3229

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-015-3640-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363542700012

    View details for PubMedID 25824976

  • Sarcoma Resection With and Without Vascular Reconstruction: A Matched Case-control Study ANNALS OF SURGERY Poultsides, G. A., Tran, T. B., Zambrano, E., Janson, L., Mohler, D. G., Mell, M. W., Avedian, R. S., Visser, B. C., Lee, J. T., Ganjoo, K., Harris, E. J., Norton, J. A. 2015; 262 (4): 632-640

    Abstract

    To examine the impact of major vascular resection on sarcoma resection outcomes.En bloc resection and reconstruction of involved vessels is being increasingly performed during sarcoma surgery; however, the perioperative and oncologic outcomes of this strategy are not well described.Patients undergoing sarcoma resection with (VASC) and without (NO-VASC) vascular reconstruction were 1:2 matched on anatomic site, histology, grade, size, synchronous metastasis, and primary (vs. repeat) resection. R2 resections were excluded. Endpoints included perioperative morbidity, mortality, local recurrence, and survival.From 2000 to 2014, 50 sarcoma patients underwent VASC resection. These were matched with 100 NO-VASC patients having similar clinicopathologic characteristics. The rates of any complication (74% vs. 44%, P = 0.002), grade 3 or higher complication (38% vs. 18%, P = 0.024), and transfusion (66% vs. 33%, P < 0.001) were all more common in the VASC group. Thirty-day (2% vs. 0%, P = 0.30) or 90-day mortality (6% vs. 2%, P = 0.24) were not significantly higher. Local recurrence (5-year, 51% vs. 54%, P = 0.11) and overall survival after resection (5-year, 59% vs. 53%, P = 0.67) were similar between the 2 groups. Within the VASC group, overall survival was not affected by the type of vessel involved (artery vs. vein) or the presence of histology-proven vessel wall invasion.Vascular resection and reconstruction during sarcoma resection significantly increases perioperative morbidity and requires meticulous preoperative multidisciplinary planning. However, the oncologic outcome appears equivalent to cases without major vascular involvement. The anticipated need for vascular resection and reconstruction should not be a contraindication to sarcoma resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001455

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367999800009

  • Hepato-pancreatectomy: how morbid? Results from the national surgical quality improvement project HPB Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Spain, D. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 17 (9): 763-769

    Abstract

    Simultaneous resection of both the liver and the pancreas carries significant complexity. The objective of this study was to investigate peri-operative outcomes after a synchronous hepatectomy and pancreatectomy (SHP).The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried to identify patients who underwent SHP. Resections were categorized as '< hemihepatectomy', '≥ hemihepatectomy' (hemihepatectomy and trisectionectomy), 'PD' (pancreaticoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy) and 'distal' (distal pancreatectomy and enucleation).From 2005 to 2013, 480 patients underwent SHP. Patients were stratified based on the extent of resection: '< hemihepatectomy + distal (n = 224)', '≥ hemihepatectomy + distal' (n = 49), '< hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 83) and '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 24). Although the first three groups had a reasonable and comparable safety profile (morbidity 33-51% and mortality 0-6.6%), the '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' group was associated with an 87.5% morbidity (organ space infection 58.3%, re-intubation 12.5%, reoperation 25% and septic shock 25%), 8.3% 30-day mortality and 18.2% in-hospital mortality.A synchronous hemihepatectomy (or trisectionectomy) with PD remains a highly morbid combination and should be reserved for patients who have undergone extremely cautious selection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12426

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359853800004

  • Hepato-pancreatectomy: how morbid? Results from the national surgical quality improvement project. HPB Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Spain, D. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 17 (9): 763-769

    Abstract

    Simultaneous resection of both the liver and the pancreas carries significant complexity. The objective of this study was to investigate peri-operative outcomes after a synchronous hepatectomy and pancreatectomy (SHP).The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried to identify patients who underwent SHP. Resections were categorized as '< hemihepatectomy', '≥ hemihepatectomy' (hemihepatectomy and trisectionectomy), 'PD' (pancreaticoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy) and 'distal' (distal pancreatectomy and enucleation).From 2005 to 2013, 480 patients underwent SHP. Patients were stratified based on the extent of resection: '< hemihepatectomy + distal (n = 224)', '≥ hemihepatectomy + distal' (n = 49), '< hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 83) and '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 24). Although the first three groups had a reasonable and comparable safety profile (morbidity 33-51% and mortality 0-6.6%), the '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' group was associated with an 87.5% morbidity (organ space infection 58.3%, re-intubation 12.5%, reoperation 25% and septic shock 25%), 8.3% 30-day mortality and 18.2% in-hospital mortality.A synchronous hemihepatectomy (or trisectionectomy) with PD remains a highly morbid combination and should be reserved for patients who have undergone extremely cautious selection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12426

    View details for PubMedID 26058463

  • Effect of Perioperative Transfusion on Recurrence and Survival after Gastric Cancer Resection: A 7-Institution Analysis of 765 Patients from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Levine, E. A., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Russell, M. C., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 221 (3): 767-777
  • Effect of Perioperative Transfusion on Recurrence and Survival after Gastric Cancer Resection: A 7-Institution Analysis of 765 Patients from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Levine, E. A., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Russell, M. C., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 221 (3): 767-777

    Abstract

    The prognostic effect of perioperative blood transfusion on recurrence and survival in patients undergoing resection of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) remains controversial.All patients who underwent resection for GAC from 2000 to 2012 at the 7 institutions of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative were identified. The effect of transfusion on recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in the context of adverse clinicopathologic variables was examined by univariate and multivariate regression analyses.Of 965 patients, 765 underwent curative intent R0 resection. Median follow-up was 44 months; 30-day mortalities were excluded. Median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 200 mL, and 168 patients (22%) received perioperative allogeneic blood transfusions. Transfused patients were less likely to receive adjuvant therapy (44% vs 56%; p = 0.01). Transfusion was associated with significantly decreased median RFS (13.5 vs 37.2 months, p < 0.001). Median OS was similarly decreased in patients receiving transfusions (18.6 vs 49.8 months, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, transfusion remained an independent risk factor for decreased RFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.63; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.37; p = 0.010) and decreased OS (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.67; p = 0.004), regardless of EBL or need for splenectomy. Timing (intraoperative vs postoperative) and volume of transfusion did not alter the negative prognostic effect of transfusion on survival.Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with decreased RFS and OS after resection of gastric cancer, independent of adverse clinicopathologic factors. This supports the judicious use of perioperative transfusion during resection of gastric cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.06.012

    View details for PubMedID 26228017

  • Pancreatectomy with vein reconstruction: technique matters HPB Dua, M. M., Tran, T. B., Klausner, J., Hwa, K. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 17 (9): 824-831

    Abstract

    A variety of techniques have been described for portal vein (PV) and/or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy. The ideal strategy remains unclear.Patients who underwent PV/SMV resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2014 were identified. Medical records and imaging were retrospectively reviewed for operative details and outcomes, with particular emphasis on patency.Ninety patients underwent vein resection/reconstruction with one of five techniques: (i) longitudinal venorrhaphy (LV, n = 17); (ii) transverse venorrhaphy (TV, n = 9); (iii) primary end-to-end (n = 28); (iv) patch venoplasty (PV, n = 17); and (v) interposition graft (IG, n = 19). With a median follow-up of 316 days, thrombosis was observed in 16/90 (18%). The rate of thrombosis varied according to technique. All patients with primary end-to-end or TV remained patent. LV, PV and IG were all associated with significant rates of thrombosis (P = 0.001 versus no thrombosis). Comparing thrombosed to patent, there were no differences with respect to pancreatectomy type, pre-operative knowledge of vein involvement and neoadjuvant therapy. Prophylactic aspirin was used in 69% of the total cohort (66% of patent, 81% of thrombosed) and showed no protective benefit.Primary end-to-end and TV have superior patency than the alternatives after PV/SMV resection and should be the preferred techniques for short (<3 cm) reconstructions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12463

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359853800013

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4557658

  • Pancreatectomy with vein reconstruction: technique matters. HPB Dua, M. M., Tran, T. B., Klausner, J., Hwa, K. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 17 (9): 824-831

    Abstract

    A variety of techniques have been described for portal vein (PV) and/or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy. The ideal strategy remains unclear.Patients who underwent PV/SMV resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2014 were identified. Medical records and imaging were retrospectively reviewed for operative details and outcomes, with particular emphasis on patency.Ninety patients underwent vein resection/reconstruction with one of five techniques: (i) longitudinal venorrhaphy (LV, n = 17); (ii) transverse venorrhaphy (TV, n = 9); (iii) primary end-to-end (n = 28); (iv) patch venoplasty (PV, n = 17); and (v) interposition graft (IG, n = 19). With a median follow-up of 316 days, thrombosis was observed in 16/90 (18%). The rate of thrombosis varied according to technique. All patients with primary end-to-end or TV remained patent. LV, PV and IG were all associated with significant rates of thrombosis (P = 0.001 versus no thrombosis). Comparing thrombosed to patent, there were no differences with respect to pancreatectomy type, pre-operative knowledge of vein involvement and neoadjuvant therapy. Prophylactic aspirin was used in 69% of the total cohort (66% of patent, 81% of thrombosed) and showed no protective benefit.Primary end-to-end and TV have superior patency than the alternatives after PV/SMV resection and should be the preferred techniques for short (<3 cm) reconstructions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12463

    View details for PubMedID 26223388

  • Non-functional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: Advances in diagnosis and management. World journal of gastroenterology Cloyd, J. M., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 21 (32): 9512-9525

    Abstract

    Nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Although rare, the incidence of NF-PNETs is increasing significantly. The classification of PNETs has evolved over the past decades and is now based on a proliferation grading system. While most NF-PNETs are slow growing, tumors with more aggressive biology may become incurable once they progress to unresectable metastatic disease. Tumors of higher grade can be suspected preoperatively based on the presence of calcifications, hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography, positron emission technology avidity and lack of octreotide scan uptake. Surgery is the only curative treatment and is recommended for most patients for whom complete resection is possible. Liver-directed therapies (thermal ablation, transarterial embolization) can be useful in controlling unresectable hepatic metastatic disease. In the presence of unresectable progressive disease, somatostatin analogues, everolimus and sunitinib can prolong progression-free survival. This article provides a comprehensive review of NF-PNETs with special emphasis on recent advances in diagnosis and management.

    View details for DOI 10.3748/wjg.v21.i32.9512

    View details for PubMedID 26327759

  • Impact of Complications on Long-Term Survival After Resection of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma CANCER Spolverato, G., Yakoob, M. Y., Kim, Y., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Lamelas, J., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Maithel, S. K., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 121 (16): 2730-2739

    Abstract

    The impact of postoperative complications on the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for cancer is unclear. The objective of the current study was to define the incidence of complications among patients undergoing surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and identify the association between morbidity and long-term outcomes.A total of 583 patients undergoing surgery with curative intent for ICC between 1990 and 2013 at 1 of 12 participating institutions were identified. The association between the occurrence and severity of postoperative complications on long-term survival was analyzed.The median age of the patients was 59.9 years and the majority of patients were male (52.3%). A total of 91 patients (15.6%) and 153 patients (26.2%) developed a major and minor postoperative complication, respectively; 18 patients (3.5%) died within 90 days of surgery. Median, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year recurrence-free survival were 10.0 months, 43.3%, 16.7%, and 11.1%, respectively. Postoperative complications (hazard ratio [HR], 1.37, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08-1.73 [P = .01]) and severity of complications (major vs none: HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.14-2.11 [P = .01]; minor vs none: HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.99-1.70 [P = .06]) independently predicted shorter recurrence-free survival. Median, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival was 27.8 months, 76.8%, 39.0%, and 23.4%, respectively. Postoperative complications (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.30-2.08 [P<.001]) and severity of complications (major vs none: HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.44 [P<.001]; minor vs none: HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.15-1.95 [P<.01]) independently predicted shorter overall survival.Postoperative complications were found to be independent predictors of worse long-term outcomes. The prevention and management of postoperative complications is crucial to increase both short-term and long-term survival. Cancer 2015;121:2730-2739. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.29419

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359190400013

    View details for PubMedID 25903409

  • An assessment of feeding jejunostomy tube placement at the time of resection for gastric adenocarcinoma: A seven-institution analysis of 837 patients from the US gastric cancer collaborative JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Dann, G. C., Squires, M. H., Postlewait, L. M., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Levine, E. A., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Russell, M. C., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 112 (2): 195-202

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23983

    View details for Web of Science ID 000360094300013

  • The importance of the proximal resection margin distance for proximal gastric adenocarcinoma: A multi-institutional study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Postlewait, L. M., Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C. R., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Swords, D., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Winslow, E. R., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 112 (2): 203-207

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23971

    View details for Web of Science ID 000360094300014

  • Number of Lymph Nodes Removed and Survival after Gastric Cancer Resection: An Analysis from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Gholami, S., Janson, L., Worhunsky, D. J., Tran, T. B., Squires, M. H., Jin, L. X., Spolverato, G., Votanopoulos, K. I., Schmidt, C., Weber, S. M., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Fields, R. C., Pawlik, T. M., Maithel, S. K., Efron, B., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 221 (2): 291-299

    Abstract

    Examination of at least 16 lymph nodes (LNs) has been traditionally recommended during gastric adenocarcinoma resection to optimize staging, but the impact of this strategy on survival is uncertain. Because recent randomized trials have demonstrated a therapeutic benefit from extended lymphadenectomy, we sought to investigate the impact of the number of LNs removed on prognosis after gastric adenocarcinoma resection.We analyzed patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma from 2000 to 2012, at 7 US academic institutions. Patients with M1 disease or R2 resections were excluded. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank and Cox regression analyses.Of 742 patients, 257 (35%) had 7 to 15 LNs removed and 485 (65%) had ≥16 LNs removed. Disease-specific survival was not significantly longer after removal of ≥16 vs 7 to 15 LNs (10-year survival, 55% vs 47%, respectively; p = 0.53) for the entire cohort, but was significantly improved in the subset of patients with stage IA to IIIA (10-year survival, 74% vs 57%, respectively; p = 0.018) or N0-2 disease (72% vs 55%, respectively; p = 0.023). Similarly, for patients who were classified to more likely be "true N0-2," based on frequentist analysis incorporating both the number of positive and of total LNs removed, the hazard ratio for disease-related death (adjusted for T stage, R status, grade, receipt of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, and institution) significantly decreased as the number of LNs removed increased.The number of LNs removed during gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma appears itself to have prognostic implications for long-term survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.04.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358384400013

  • Prognostic relevance of lymph node ratio and total lymph node count for small bowel adenocarcinoma SURGERY Tran, T. B., Qadan, M., Dua, M. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 158 (2): 486-493

    Abstract

    Nodal metastasis is a known prognostic factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma. The goals of this study were to evaluate the number of lymph nodes (LNs) that should be retrieved and the impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival.Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was queried to identify patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1988 to 2010. Survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of survival.A total of 2,772 patients underwent resection with at least one node retrieved, and this sample included equal numbers of duodenal (n = 1,387) and jejunoileal (n = 1,386) adenocarcinomas. There were 1,371 patients with no nodal metastasis (N0, 49.4%), 928 N1 (33.5%), and 474 N2 (17.1%). The median numbers of LNs examined for duodenal and jejunoileal cancers were 9 and 8, respectively. Cut-point analysis demonstrated that harvesting at least 9 for jejunoileal and 5 LN for duodenal cancers resulted in the greatest survival difference. Increasing LNR at both sites was associated with decreased overall median survival (LNR = 0, 71 months; LNR 0-0.02, 35 months; LNR 0.21-0.4, 25 months; and LNR >0.4, 16 months; P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed number of LNs examined, T-stage, LN positivity, and LNR were independent predictors of survival.LNR has a profound impact on survival in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. To achieve adequate staging, we recommend retrieving a minimum of 5 LN for duodenal and 9 LN for jejunoileal adenocarcinomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358108500023

  • Neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as predictors of disease specific survival after resection of adrenocortical carcinoma JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Bagante, F., Tran, T. B., Postlewait, L. M., Maithel, S. K., Wang, T. S., Evans, D. B., Hatzaras, I., Shenoy, R., Phay, J. E., Keplinger, K., Fields, R. C., Jin, L. X., Weber, S. M., Salem, A., Sicklick, J. K., Gad, S., Yopp, A. C., Mansour, J. C., Duh, Q., Seiser, N., Solorzano, C. C., Kiernan, C. M., Votanopoulos, K. I., Levine, E. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 112 (2): 164-172

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23982

    View details for Web of Science ID 000360094300008

  • Functional microRNA high throughput screening reveals miR-9 as a central regulator of liver oncogenesis by affecting the PPARA-CDH1 pathway BMC CANCER Drakaki, A., Hatziapostolou, M., Polytarchou, C., Vorvis, C., Poultsides, G. A., Souglakos, J., Georgoulias, V., Iliopoulos, D. 2015; 15
  • Is Hepatic Resection for Large or Multifocal Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Justified? Results from a Multi-Institutional Collaboration ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Alexandrescu, S., Popescu, I., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Miura, J., Maithel, S. K., Squires, M. H., Pulitano, C., Sandroussi, C., Mentha, G., Bauer, T. W., Newhook, T., Shen, F., Poultsides, G. A., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 22 (7): 2218-2225

    Abstract

    The role of surgical resection for patients with large or multifocal intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains unclear. This study evaluated the long-term outcome of patients who underwent hepatic resection for large (≥7 cm) or multifocal (≥2) ICC.Between 1990 and 2013, 557 patients who underwent liver resection for ICC were identified from a multi-institutional database. Clinicopathologic characteristics, operative details, and long-term survival data were evaluated.Of the 557 patients, 215 (38.6 %) had a small, solitary ICC (group A) and 342 (61.4 %) had a large or multifocal ICC (group B). The patients in group B underwent an extended hepatectomy more frequently (16.9 vs. 30.4 %; P < 0.001). At the final pathology exam, the patients in group B were more likely to show evidence of vascular invasion (22.5 vs. 38.5 %), direct invasion of contiguous organs (6.5 vs. 12.9 %), and nodal metastasis (13.3 vs. 21.0 %) (all P < 0.05). Interestingly, the incidences of postoperative complications (39.3 vs. 46.8 %) and hospital mortality (1.1 vs. 3.7 %) were similar between the two groups (both P > 0.05). The group A patients had better rates for 5-year overall survival (OS) (30.5 vs. 18.7 %; P < 0.05) and disease-free survival (DFS) (22.6 vs. 8.2 %; P < 0.05) than the group B patients. For the patients in group B, the factors associated with a worse OS included more than three tumor nodules [hazard ratio (HR), 1.56], nodal metastasis (HR, 1.47), and poor differentiation (HR, 1.48).Liver resection can be performed safely for patients with large or multifocal ICC. The long-term outcome for these patients can be stratified on the basis of a prognostic score that includes tumor number, nodal metastasis, and poor differentiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4223-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355748300017

    View details for PubMedID 25354576

  • Readmission After Liver Resection for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: a Multi-Institutional Analysis JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Spolverato, G., Maqsood, H., Vitale, A., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H. P., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, T. C., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Poultsides, G., Maithel, S., Marsh, J. W., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 19 (7): 1334-1341

    Abstract

    The objective of the current study was to define the incidence of 30-day readmission after hepatic resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). In particular, we sought to identify risk factors associated with a higher risk of readmission among patients undergoing resection for ICC.Patients who underwent hepatic resection for ICC at 12 major hepatobiliary centers in the USA, Europe, Australia, and Asia between 1990 and 2013 were identified. Thirty-day readmission and clinicopathologic characteristics associated with higher risk of readmission were examined.Among 602 patients, 401 (68.3 %) patients underwent a major hepatectomy and 256 (43.3 %) experienced at least one post-operative complication. Overall 30-day readmission was 7.8 % (n = 47). Risk factors associated with readmission included pre-operative jaundice (odds ratio (OR) 2.45) and the presence of a major complication (OR 3.38). In fact, 95.7 % of readmitted patients had experienced a post-operative complication versus only 38.8 % of non-readmitted patients (P < 0.001). Among patients who were readmitted, repeat hospitalization was associated with a median LOS of 6.5 days (interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-11.5) and one patient died during readmission.Readmission after hepatic resection for ICC occurred in 1 in 13 patients. Patients with pre-operative jaundice and those who experienced a complication had over a threefold higher risk of being readmitted.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-015-2826-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356458900016

    View details for PubMedID 25903853

  • Cyst Fluid Glucose is Rapidly Feasible and Accurate in Diagnosing Mucinous Pancreatic Cysts. American journal of gastroenterology Zikos, T., Pham, K., Bowen, R., Chen, A. M., Banerjee, S., Friedland, S., Dua, M. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Park, W. G. 2015; 110 (6): 909-914

    Abstract

    Better diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate pancreatic cyst subtypes. A previous metabolomic study showed cyst fluid glucose as a potential marker to differentiate mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic cysts. This study seeks to validate these earlier findings using a standard laboratory glucose assay, a glucometer, and a glucose reagent strip.Using an IRB-approved prospectively collected bio-repository, 65 pancreatic cyst fluid samples (42 mucinous and 23 non-mucinous) with histological correlation were analyzed.Median laboratory glucose, glucometer glucose, and percent reagent strip positive were lower in mucinous vs. non-mucinous cysts (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Laboratory glucose<50 mg/dl had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 57% (LR+ 2.19, LR- 0.08). Glucometer glucose<50 mg/dl had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 78% (LR+ 4.05, LR- 0.15). Reagent strip glucose had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 74% (LR+ 3.10, LR- 0.26). CEA had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 83% (LR+ 4.67, LR- 0.27). The combination of having either a glucometer glucose<50 mg/dl or a CEA level>192 had a sensitivity of 100% but a low specificity of 33% (LR+ 1.50, LR- 0.00).Glucose, whether measured by a laboratory assay, a glucometer, or a reagent strip, is significantly lower in mucinous cysts compared with non-mucinous pancreatic cysts.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ajg.2015.148

    View details for PubMedID 25986360

  • A Nomogram to Predict Overall Survival and Disease-Free Survival After Curative Resection of Gastric Adenocarcinoma ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Kim, Y., Spolverato, G., Ejaz, A., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Acher, A. W., Jin, L. X., Hawkins, W. G., Schmidt, C., Kooby, D., Worhunsky, D., Saunders, N., Levine, E. A., Cho, C. S., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 22 (6): 1828-1835

    Abstract

    The American Cancer Society projects there will be over 22,000 new cases, resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths, related to gastric adenocarcinoma in the US in 2014. The aim of the current study was to find clinicopathologic variables associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) following curative resection of gastric adenocarcinoma, and create a nomogram for individual risk prediction.A nomogram to predict DFS and OS following surgical resection of gastric adenocarcinoma was constructed using a multi-institutional cohort of patients who underwent surgery for primary gastric adenocarcinoma at seven major institutions in the US between January 2000 and August 2013. Discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were tested by C-statistic, Kaplan-Meier curves, and calibration plots.A total of 719 patients who underwent surgery for primary gastric adenocarcinoma were included in the study. Using the backward selection of clinically relevant variables with Akaike information criteria, age, sex, tumor site, depth of invasion, and lymph node ratio (LNR) were selected as factors predictive of OS, while age, tumor site, depth of invasion, and LNR were incorporated in the prediction of DFS. A nomogram was constructed to predict OS and DFS using these variables. Discrimination and calibration of the nomogram revealed good predictive abilities (C-index, DFS 0.711; OS 0.702).Independent predictors of recurrence and death following surgery for primary gastric adenocarcinoma were used to create a nomogram to predict DFS and OS. The nomogram was able to stratify patients into prognostic groups, and performed well on internal validation.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4230-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354226600014

    View details for PubMedID 25388061

  • Conditional Probability of Long-term Survival After Liver Resection for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma A Multi-institutional Analysis of 535 Patients JAMA SURGERY Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Ejaz, A., Alexandrescu, S., Marques, H., Aldrighetti, L., Gamblin, C., Pulitano, C., Bauer, T. W., Shen, F., Sandroussi, C., Poultsides, G., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 150 (6): 538-545

    Abstract

    Whereas conventional actuarial overall survival (OS) estimates rely exclusively on static factors determined around the time of surgery, conditional survival (CS) estimates take into account the years that a patient has already survived.To define the CS of patients following liver resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2013, a total of 535 patients who underwent resection of ICC were identified from an international multi-institutional database. In this retrospective international study conducted from January to June 2014, clinicopathological characteristics, operative details, and long-term survival data were analyzed. Conditional survival estimates were calculated as the probability of survival for an additional 3 years.Resection of ICC.Overall survival and CS.While actuarial OS decreased over time from 39% at 3 years to 16% at 8 years (P = .002), the 3-year CS (CS3) increased over time among those patients who survived. The CS3 at 5 years-the probability of surviving to postoperative year 8 after having already survived to postoperative year 5-was 65% compared with 8-year OS of 16% (P = .002). Factors that were associated with worse OS included larger tumor size (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05; P = .05), multifocal disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.86; P = .01), lymph node metastasis (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P < .01), and vascular invasion (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75; P = .006). The calculated CS3 exceeded the actuarial survival for all high-risk subgroups. For example, patients with lymph node metastasis had an actuarial OS of 11% at 6 years vs a CS3 of 49% at 3 years (Δ38%). Similarly, patients with vascular invasion had an actuarial OS of 15% at 6 years compared with a CS3 of 50% at 3 years (Δ35%).Conditional survival estimates may provide critical quantitative information about the changing probability of survival over time among patients undergoing liver resection for ICC. Therefore, such estimates can be of significant value to patients and health care professionals.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2015.0219

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356615400011

    View details for PubMedID 25831462

  • Presentation and Clinical Outcomes of Choledochal Cysts in Children and Adults A Multi-institutional Analysis JAMA SURGERY Soares, K. C., Kim, Y., Spolverato, G., Maithel, S., Bauer, T. W., Marques, H., Sobral, M., Knoblich, M., Tran, T., Aldrighetti, L., Jabbour, N., Poultsides, G. A., Gamblin, T. C., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 150 (6): 577-584

    Abstract

    Choledochal cysts (CCs) are rare, with risk of infection and cancer.To characterize the natural history, management, and long-term implications of CC disease.A total of 394 patients who underwent resection of a CC between January 1, 1972, and April 11, 2014, were identified from an international multi-institutional database. Patients were followed up through September 27, 2014. Clinicopathologic characteristics, operative details, and outcome data were analyzed from May 1, 2014, to October 14, 2014.Resection of CC.Management, morbidity, and overall survival.Among 394 patients, there were 135 children (34.3%) and 318 women (80.7%). Adults were more likely to present with abdominal pain (71.8% vs 40.7%; P < .001) and children were more likely to have jaundice (31.9% vs 11.6%; P < .001). Preoperative interventions were more commonly performed in adults (64.5% vs 31.1%; P < .001), including endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (55.6% vs 27.4%; P < .001), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (17.4% vs 5.9%; P < .001), and endobiliary stenting (18.1% vs 4.4%; P < .001)). Type I CCs were more often seen in children vs adults (79.7% vs 64.9%; P = .003); type IV CCs predominated in the adult population (23.9% vs 12.0%; P = .006). Extrahepatic bile duct resection with hepaticoenterostomy was the most frequently performed procedure in both age groups (80.3%). Perioperative morbidity was higher in adults (35.1% vs 16.3%; P < .001). On pathologic examination, 10 patients (2.5%) had cholangiocarcinoma. After a median follow-up of 28 months, 5-year overall survival was 95.5%. On follow-up, 13 patients (3.3%), presented with biliary cancer.Presentation of CC varied between children and adults, and resection was associated with a degree of morbidity. Although concomitant cancer was uncommon, it occurred in 3.0% of the patients. Long-term surveillance is indicated given the possibility of future development of biliary cancer after CC resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2015.0226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356615400021

    View details for PubMedID 25923827

  • Extracorporeal Pringle for laparoscopic liver resection SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Hwa, K., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 29 (6): 1348-1355

    Abstract

    A primary concern during laparoscopic liver resection (lapLR) is hemorrhage during parenchymal transection. Intermittent pedicle clamping is an effective method to minimize blood loss during open liver surgery; however, inflow occlusion techniques are challenging to reproduce during laparoscopy. The purpose of this study is to describe the safety and efficacy of a facile method for Pringle maneuver during lapLR.154 patients who underwent lapLR from 2007 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. For Pringle, the hepatoduodenal ligament is encircled with an umbilical tape which is externalized through a flexible Rumel tourniquet running alongside a port used for the operation. The internal end of the catheter is close to the pedicle and the external end is extracorporeal, allowing for easy external occlusion. Patients who underwent Pringle Maneuver (PM, n = 88) were compared to patients who had "No Occlusion" (NO, n = 66) with respect to patient characteristics, operative outcomes, changes in postoperative liver function, and complications.Annual placement of the tourniquet and vascular occlusion increased from 35.7 to 82.8 % (p = 0.004) and 21.4 to 62.1 % (p = 0.02), respectively. Median occlusion time was 24 min (IQR 15-34.3, min 5, max 70). Peak transaminase levels were comparable between groups (AST 298 ± 32 vs 405 ± 47 U/L, p = 0.15; ALT 272 ± 27 vs 372 ± 34 U/L, p = 0.14, NO and PM, respectively). Postoperative transaminase and bilirubin levels for both groups were not significantly different with similar recovery to baseline. Subgroup analysis of cirrhotic patients who underwent Pringle demonstrated similar transaminase profiles compared to non-cirrhotic patients. There were two conversions (1.3 %) and postoperative 30-day mortality was 0.65 %.Extracorporeal tourniquet placement in lapLR is a quick and safe method of gaining control for inflow occlusion. Routine adoption of laparoscopic Pringle maneuver facilitates low conversion rates without liver injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-014-3801-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354130200013

    View details for PubMedID 25159645

  • Predictive Factors for Surgery Among Patients with Pancreatic Cysts in the Absence of High-Risk Features for Malignancy JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Quan, S. Y., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Chen, A. M., Banerjee, S., Friedland, S., Park, W. G. 2015; 19 (6): 1101-1105

    Abstract

    Without a reliable biopsy technique for pancreatic cysts, consensus-based guidelines are used to guide surgical utilization. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the proportion of operations performed outside of these guidelines.A 5-year retrospective review between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2012, was performed of consecutive patients seen at a single tertiary medical center for a pancreatic cyst. Manual chart review for relevant clinical variables and cyst characteristics was performed.During this period, 148 patients underwent surgery, and of these, 23 (16 %) patients had no high-risk criteria by the 2006 Sendai criteria. None of these harbored high-grade dysplastic or cancerous lesions. A high cyst carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (35 %), patient anxiety (26 %), and physician concern (22 %) were explicit reasons to proceed to surgery. An elevated cyst CEA level >192 ng/ml was the most significant predictor (OR 5.14 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.47-18.0) for surgery without high-risk criteria.A high cyst CEA level was significantly associated with the decision to operate outside of consensus-based guidelines. The misuse of cyst CEA in the management of pancreatic cysts negatively impacts patient anxiety, increases physician uncertainty, and leads to surgery with minimal benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-015-2786-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355344300016

    View details for PubMedID 25749855

  • Leiomyosarcoma: One Disease or Distinct Biologic Entities Based on Site of Origin? JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Worhunsky, D. J., Gupta, M., Gholami, S., Tran, T. B., Ganjoo, K. N., van de Rijn, M., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 111 (7): 808-812

    Abstract

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) can originate from the retroperitoneum, uterus, extremity, and trunk. It is unclear whether tumors of different origin represent discrete entities. We compared clinicopathologic features and outcomes following surgical resection of LMS stratified by site of origin.Patients with LMS undergoing resection at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathologic variables were compared across sites. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank and Cox regression analyses.From 1983 to 2011, 138 patients underwent surgical resection for LMS. Retroperitoneal and uterine LMS were larger, higher grade, and more commonly associated with synchronous metastases. However, disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival, and recurrence patterns were not significantly different across the four sites. Synchronous metastases (HR 3.20, P < 0.001), but not site of origin, size, grade, or margin status, were independently associated with worse DSS. A significant number of recurrences and disease-related deaths were noted beyond 5 years.Although larger and higher grade, retroperitoneal and uterine LMS share similar survival and recurrence patterns with their trunk and extremity counterparts. LMS of various anatomic sites may not represent distinct disease processes based on clinical outcomes. The presence of metastatic disease remains the most important prognostic factor for LMS.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23904

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353996400003

    View details for PubMedID 25920434

  • Impact of body mass index on perioperative outcomes and survival after resection for gastric cancer JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Ejaz, A., Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Poultsides, G. A., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Cho, C. S., Votanopoulos, K., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 195 (1): 74-82

    Abstract

    Among patients undergoing resection for gastric cancer, the impact of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes is not well understood. We sought to define the impact of non-normal BMI on short- and long-term outcomes after gastric cancer resection.We identified 775 patients who underwent gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2012 from the multi-institutional US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Clinicopathologic characteristics, operative details, and oncologic outcomes were collected, and patients were stratified according to BMI.Most patients in the cohort were classified as having normal BMI (n = 338, 43.6%), followed by overweight (n = 229, 29.6%), obese (n = 153, 19.7%), and underweight (n = 55, 7.1%). After stratifying by BMI, there were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative blood transfusions, perioperative morbidity, postoperative infectious complications, length of stay, perioperative 30-d in-hospital death, or readmission across groups (all P > 0.05). BMI did not impact overall or recurrence-free survival after stratifying by stage (all P > 0.05). However, underweight patients with low preoperative albumin levels had worse overall survival (OS) compared with that of patients of normal BMI.BMI did not impact perioperative morbidity, recurrence-free, or OS in patients undergoing gastric resection for adenocarcinoma. Underweight patients with BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) and low preoperative albumin levels, however, had a significantly decreased OS after gastrectomy for cancer. These high-risk patients should have their nutritional status optimized both before and after gastrectomy in an attempt to modify this risk factor and, in turn, achieve better outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2014.12.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352139900011

    View details for PubMedID 25619462

  • Minimally Invasive Resection of Choledochal Cyst: a Feasible and Safe Surgical Option JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Margonis, G. A., Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Marques, H., Poultsides, G., Maithel, S., Aldrighetti, L., Bauer, T. W., Jabbour, N., Gamblin, T. C., Soares, K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 19 (5): 858-865

    Abstract

    The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for choledochal cyst (CC) has not been well documented. We sought to define the overall utilization and outcomes associated with the use of the open versus MIS approach for CC. We examined the factors associated with receipt of MIS for CC, as well as characterized perioperative and long-term outcomes following open versus MIS for CC.Between 1972 and 2014, a total of 368 patients who underwent resection for CC were identified from an international, multicenter database. A 2:1 propensity score matching was used to create comparable cohorts of patients to assess the effect of MIS on short-term outcomes.Three hundred thirty-two patients had an open procedure, whereas 36 patients underwent an MIS approach. Children were more likely to be treated with a MIS approach (children, 24.0 % vs. adults, 2.1 %; P<0.001). Conversely, patients who had any medical comorbidity were less likely to undergo MIS surgery (open, 26.2 % vs. MIS, 2.8 %; P=0.002). In the propensity-matched cohort, MIS resection was associated with decreased length of stay (open, 7 days vs. MIS, 5 days), lower estimated blood loss (open, 50 mL vs. MIS, 17.5 mL), and longer operative time (open, 237 min vs. MIS, 301 min) compared with open surgery (all P<0.05). The overall and degree of complication did not differ between the open (grades I-II, n=13; grades III-IV, n=15) versus MIS (grades I-II, n=5; grades III-IV, n=5) cohorts (P=0.85). Five-year overall survival was 98.6 % (open, 98.0 % vs. MIS, 100.0 %; P=0.45); no patient who underwent MIS developed a subsequent cholangiocarcinoma.MIS resection of CC was demonstrated to be a feasible and safe approach with acceptable short-term outcomes in the pediatric population. MIS for benign CC disease was associated with similar perioperative morbidity but a shorter length of stay and a lower blood loss when compared with open resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-014-2722-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353198400009

    View details for PubMedID 25519084

  • Is It Time to Abandon the 5-cm Margin Rule During Resection of Distal Gastric Adenocarcinoma? A Multi-Institution Study of the U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Annals of surgical oncology Squires Iii, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Poultsides, G. A., Pawlik, T. M., Weber, S. M., Schmidt, C. R., Votanopoulos, K. I., Fields, R. C., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Levine, E. A., Jin, L. X., Cho, C. S., Bloomston, M., Winslow, E. R., Russell, M. C., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2015; 22 (4): 1243-1251

    Abstract

    A proximal margin distance of 5 cm is advocated for resection of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). We assessed the prognostic value of proximal margin (PM) distance on survival outcomes after resection of distal GAC.All patients who underwent resection of distal GAC (antrum/body) from 2000 to 2012 at seven institutions of the U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative were included. Patients with positive distal margins or macroscopic residual disease were excluded. The prognostic value of PM distance (assessed in 0.5-cm increments) on overall (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate regression analysis.A total of 465 patients underwent resection of distal GAC. Of these, 435 had R0 resections; 30 patients had a positive PM. 143 patients had stage I, and 322 had stage II-III tumors. Median follow-up was 44 months. Average PM distance was 4.8 cm. Median OS for patients with PM of 3.1-5.0 cm (n = 110) was superior to patients with PM ≤ 3.0 cm (n = 176) (48.1 vs. 29.3 months; p = 0.01), while a margin >5.0 cm (n = 179) offered equivalent survival to PM 3.1-5.0 cm (50.6 months, p = 0.72). The prognostic value of margin distance was stage specific. On multivariate analysis of stage I patients, PM 3.1-5.0 cm remained associated with improved OS [hazard ratio (HR), 0.16; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), 0.04-0.60; p = 0.01]. In stage II-III, neither PM 3.1-5.0 cm nor PM > 5.0 cm was significantly associated with OS; OS was dictated by T stage and nodal involvement.The prognostic value of proximal margin distance after resection of distal gastric cancer appears stage specific. In stage I, a 3.1- to 5.0-cm proximal margin is associated with the same improved OS as a > 5.0-cm margin. In stage II-III disease, other adverse pathologic factors more strongly impact survival than proximal margin distance.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4138-z

    View details for PubMedID 25316491

  • Compliance With Gastric Cancer Guidelines is Associated With Improved Outcomes. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Worhunsky, D. J., Ma, Y., Zak, Y., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Rhoads, K. F., Visser, B. C. 2015; 13 (3): 319-325

    Abstract

    Limited data are available on the implementation and effectiveness of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Gastric Cancer.We sought to assess rates of compliance with NCCN Guidelines, specifically stage-specific therapy during the initial episode of care, and to determine its impact on outcomes.The California Cancer Registry was used to identify cases of gastric cancer from 2001 to 2006. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict guideline compliance and the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality. Patients with TNM staging or summary stage (SS) were also analyzed separately.Compliance with NCCN Guidelines occurred in just 45.5% of patients overall. Patients older than 55 years were less likely to receive guideline-compliant care, and compliance was associated with a median survival of 20 versus 7 months for noncompliant care (P<.001). Compliant care was also associated with a 55% decreased hazard of mortality (P<.001). Further analysis revealed that 50% of patients had complete TNM staging versus an SS, and TNM-staged patients were more likely to receive compliant care (odds ratio, 1.59; P<.001). TNM-staged patients receiving compliant care had a median survival of 25.3 months compared with 15.1 months for compliant SS patients.Compliance with NCCN Guidelines and stage-specific therapy at presentation for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer was poor, which was a significant finding given that compliant care was associated with a 55% reduction in the hazard of death. Additionally, patients with TNM-staged cancer were more likely to receive compliant care, perhaps a result of having received more intensive therapy. Combined with the improved survival among compliant TNM-staged patients, these differences have meaningful implications for health services research.

    View details for PubMedID 25736009

  • Clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: A multi-institutional U.S. study. Journal of surgical oncology Amini, N., Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G. A., Fields, R., Schmidt, C., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 111 (3): 285-292

    Abstract

    Potential differences in presentation and outcome of patients with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and non-cardia adenocarcinoma may exist. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of GCA versus non-cardia adenocarcinoma.Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent gastric resection between 2000-2012 were identified. Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes were analyzed based on tumor site using a 1:2 matched-control, as well as a multivariable Cox model.Among 743 patients, 80 (10.7%) patients were diagnosed with GCA. Patients with GCA were more likely to have intestinal tumor type (GCA: 80.4% versus non-cardia: 64.2%, P = 0.04) or advanced AJCC T stage tumors (GCA 71.8% versus non-cardia 59.2%, P = 0.03). GCA patients more likely underwent a total gastrectomy (GCA: 85.7% vs. non-cardia: 39.8%) and had a longer length-of-stay (GCA: 10 days vs. non-cardia: 8 days) (both P < 0.05). Outcomes in early stage I patients were worse among GCA (disease-free survival, 44.2%; overall survival, 42.3%) versus non-GCA (disease-free survival, 60.8%; overall survival, 63.0%) patients(both P < 0.05).In general, disease-free survival and overall survival were similar between patients with GCA versus non-cardia adenocarcinoma. However, long-term outcome was worse among patients with GCA and early stage disease. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015 111:285-292. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23799

    View details for PubMedID 25308915

  • Mutation profiling of tumor DNA from plasma and tumor tissue of colorectal cancer patients with a novel, high-sensitivity multiplexed mutation detection platform ONCOTARGET Kidess, E., Heirich, K., Wiggin, M., Vysotskaia, V., Visser, B. C., Marziali, A., Wiedenmann, B., Norton, J. A., Lee, M., Jeffrey, S. S., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 6 (4): 2549-2561

    Abstract

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) holds promise as a non-invasive means for tumor monitoring in solid malignancies. Assays with high sensitivity and multiplexed analysis of mutations are needed to enable broad application.We developed a new assay based on sequence-specific synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) technology, which enriches for mutant DNA to achieve high sensitivity and specificity. This assay was applied to plasma and tumor tissue from non-metastatic and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, including patients undergoing surgical resection for CRC liver metastases.Across multiple characterization experiments, the assay demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.001% (1 molecule in 100,000) for the majority of the 46 mutations in the panel. In CRC patient samples (n=38), detected mutations were concordant in tissue and plasma for 93% of metastatic patients versus 54% of non-metastatic patients. For three patients, ctDNA identified additional mutations not detected in tumor tissue. In patients undergoing liver metastatectomy, ctDNA anticipated tumor recurrence earlier than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) value or imaging.The multiplexed SCODA mutation enrichment and detection method can be applied to mutation profiling and quantitation of ctDNA, and is likely to have particular utility in the metastatic setting, including patients undergoing metastatectomy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352691800047

    View details for PubMedID 25575824

  • Does the extent of resection impact survival for duodenal adenocarcinoma? Analysis of 1,611 cases. Annals of surgical oncology Cloyd, J. M., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 22 (2): 573-580

    Abstract

    Because duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA) is relatively rare, few studies have investigated the impact of resection type on long-term outcomes.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify all patients between 1988 and 2010 with DA. Patients were divided into two groups based on the type of surgery received: simple resection (SR), defined as a simple removal of the primary site, and radical resection (RR), defined as removal of the primary site with a resection in continuity with other organs. Differences in disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared.Of the 1,611 patients included, 746 (46.3 %) underwent SR and 865 (53.7 %) underwent RR. As expected, patients undergoing RR were more likely to present with poorly differentiated and large tumors, as well as advanced stage disease. Despite greater lymph node (LN) retrieval (11.0 vs. 6.8; p < 0.0001), RR was not associated with improved survival (5-year DSS and OS rates of 52.8 and 41.3 % for SR vs. 48.8 and 37.6 % for RR; p > 0.05). On univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the type of surgery was not associated with OS (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.11). Increasing TNM stages, tumor grade, fewer LNs removed, LN ratio, and absence of radiation were associated with worse survival. After controlling for confounding factors, type of surgery still did not influence OS (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 0.97-1.27).Radical resection (e.g., in the form of pancreaticoduodenectomy) does not appear to impact survival compared with simple segmental resection for DA.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4020-z

    View details for PubMedID 25160736

  • Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Cancers, Version 1.2015 JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Ajani, J. A., D'Amico, T. A., Almhanna, K., Bentrem, D. J., Besh, S., Chao, J., Das, P., Denlinger, C., Fanta, P., Fuchs, C. S., Gerdes, H., Glasgow, R. E., Hayman, J. A., Hochwald, S., Hofstetter, W. L., Ilson, D. H., Jaroszewski, D., Jasperson, K., Keswani, R. N., Kleinberg, L. R., Korn, W. M., Leong, S., Lockhart, A. C., Mulcahy, M. F., Orringer, M. B., Posey, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Sasson, A. R., Scott, W. J., Strong, V. E., Varghese, T. K., Washington, M. K., Willett, C. G., Wright, C. D., Zelman, D., McMillian, N., Sundar, H. 2015; 13 (2): 194-227

    Abstract

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is more common in North America and Western European countries, originating mostly in the lower third of the esophagus, which often involves the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Recent randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival in patients with resectable cancer. Targeted therapies with trastuzumab and ramucirumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of advanced or metastatic EGJ adenocarcinomas. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and EGJ Cancers discusses management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349834400011

    View details for PubMedID 25691612

  • Can the Risk of Non-home Discharge After Resection of Gastric Adenocarcinoma Be Predicted: a Seven-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Acher, A. W., Squires, M. H., Fields, R. C., Poultsides, G. A., Schmidt, C., Votanopoulos, K. I., Pawlik, T. M., Jin, L. X., Ejaz, A., Kooby, D. A., Bloomston, M., Worhunsky, D., Levine, E. A., Saunders, N., Winslow, E., Cho, C. S., Meredith, K., Leverson, G., Maithel, S. K., Weber, S. M. 2015; 19 (2): 207-216

    Abstract

    There are no validated methods to preoperatively identify patients with increased risk of discharge to skilled nursing facilities following resection of gastric cancer. We sought to identify preoperative predictors of non-home discharge to optimize transition of care to skilled nursing facility.Patients who underwent resection of gastric cancer from 2000 to 2012 from seven participating institutions of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative were analyzed. Fisher's exact tests, Student t tests, and logistic regression analyses identified preoperative variables associated with non-home discharge. A prediction tool was created and validated through c-indices. Survival analysis was conducted according to the methods of Kaplan and Meier.Out of the 918 patients identified, 93 (10 %) were discharged to nonhome location. Univariate analysis identified advancing age, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, hypertension, decreasing preoperative albumin, and lack of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as risk factors for non-home discharge (NHD). Multivariable analysis identified advanced age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, p < 0.0001), depressed preoperative albumin (OR = 2.17, 95 % CI = 1.47-3.19, p = 0.0001), and total gastrectomy (OR = 2.56, 95 % CI = 1.53-4.3, p = 0.0003) as risk factors for NHD. The c-index of the model and the validation population were 0.76 and 0.8, respectively. Additionally, there was an association of decreased overall survival in patients discharged to nonhome location (35.5 months, home discharge, vs 12 months, NHD, p < 0.0001).Older patients with compromised nutritional status have greater risk of NHD following resection of gastric cancer. The prediction tool can augment preoperative planning to optimize transition of care to skilled nursing facility.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-014-2690-2

    View details for PubMedID 25373704

  • Conditional Survival after Surgical Resection of Gastric Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Analysis of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Annals of surgical oncology Kim, Y., Ejaz, A., Spolverato, G., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Acher, A. W., Jin, L. X., Hawkins, W. G., Schmidt, C., Kooby, D., Worhunsky, D., Saunders, N., Cho, C. S., Levine, E. A., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 22 (2): 557-564

    Abstract

    Survival estimates following surgical resection of gastric adenocarcinoma are traditionally reported as survival from the date of surgery. Conditional survival (CS) estimates, however, may be more clinically relevant by accounting for time already survived. We assessed CS following surgical resection for gastric adenocarcinoma.We analyzed 807 patients who underwent resection for gastric adenocarcinoma from 2000 to 2012 at seven participating institutions in the U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate factors associated with overall survival. Three-year CS estimates at "x" year after surgery were calculated as follows: CS3 = S(x+3)/S(x).Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after gastric resection were 42, 34, and 30 %, respectively. Using CS estimates, the probability of surviving an additional 3 years given that the patient had survived at 1, 3, and 5 years were 56, 71, and 82 %, respectively. Patients with higher risk at baseline (i.e., stage III or IV disease, lymphovascular invasion) demonstrated the greatest increase in CS over time.Survival estimates following surgical resection of gastric adenocarcinoma is dynamic; the probability of survival increases with time already survived. Patients with worse prognostic features at the time of surgery had the greatest increases in CS over time. Conditional survival estimates provide important information about the changing probability of survival over time and should be used among patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma to guide subsequent follow-up strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4116-5

    View details for PubMedID 25287440

  • Use of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Preoperative Staging of Gastric Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Spolverato, G., Ejaz, A., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G. A., Fields, R. C., Schmidt, C., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2015; 220 (1): 48-56

    Abstract

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be used to guide the therapeutic plan for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), but data on its use and accuracy remain poorly defined. We sought to define the use of EUS, as well as characterize the diagnostic accuracy of EUS among patients with GAC.We identified 960 patients who underwent resection of GAC between 2000 and 2012 from 7 major academic institutions participating in the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Clinicopathologic and EUS data were collected and analyzed using chi and kappa statistics.Of 960 patients, 223 (23.2%) underwent evaluation with preoperative EUS. Among patients who underwent EUS, 74 (33.2%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy; 149 (66.8%) proceeded directly to resection. Among patients who did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and received curative intent gastric resection, the EUS T classifications were T1 (33.3%), T2 (35.6%), T3 (18.9%), T4 (12.1%) and the N classifications were N0 (68.1%) and N ≥ 1 (31.9%). In contrast, when tumor stage was based on the final surgical specimen, there was a higher proportion of cases with more advanced T stage (T1, 36.4%; T2, 14.4%; T3, 23.5%; T4, 25.7%) and N stage (N0, 51.3%; N ≥ 1, 48.7%). The agreement of preoperative EUS compared with surgical staging for T (kappa = 0.28, p < 0.001) and N (kappa = 0.33, p < 0.001) classification was only fair.Less than one-quarter of patients with GAC underwent preoperative EUS staging. In patients who did not receive preoperative chemotherapy, tumor stage on EUS often did not correlate with T stage and N stage on final pathologic analysis. Endoscopic ultrasound should be combined with other staging modalities to optimize staging of patients with GAC.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.06.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346362800007

    View details for PubMedID 25283742

  • Functional microRNA high throughput screening reveals miR-9 as a central regulator of liver oncogenesis by affecting the PPARA-CDH1 pathway. BMC cancer Drakaki, A., Hatziapostolou, M., Polytarchou, C., Vorvis, C., Poultsides, G. A., Souglakos, J., Georgoulias, V., Iliopoulos, D. 2015; 15: 542-?

    Abstract

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, reflecting the aggressiveness of this type of cancer and the absence of effective therapeutic regimens. MicroRNAs have been involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancers, including liver cancer. Our aim was to identify microRNAs that have both functional and clinical relevance in HCC and examine their downstream signaling effectors.MicroRNA and gene expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in HCC tumors and controls. A TargetScan algorithm was used to identify miR-9 downstream direct targets.A high-throughput screen of the human microRNAome revealed 28 microRNAs as regulators of liver cancer cell invasiveness. MiR-9, miR-21 and miR-224 were the top inducers of HCC invasiveness and also their expression was increased in HCC relative to control liver tissues. Integration of the microRNA screen and expression data revealed miR-9 as the top microRNA, having both functional and clinical significance. MiR-9 levels correlated with HCC tumor stage and miR-9 overexpression induced SNU-449 and HepG2 cell growth, invasiveness and their ability to form colonies in soft agar. Bioinformatics and 3'UTR luciferase analyses identified E-cadherin (CDH1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) as direct downstream effectors of miR-9 activity. Inhibition of PPARA suppressed CDH1 mRNA levels, suggesting that miR-9 regulates CDH1 expression directly through binding in its 3'UTR and indirectly through PPARA. On the other hand, miR-9 inhibition of overexpression suppressed HCC tumorigenicity and invasiveness. PPARA and CDH1 mRNA levels were decreased in HCC relative to controls and were inversely correlated with miR-9 levels.Taken together, this study revealed the involvement of the miR-9/PPARA/CDH1 signaling pathway in HCC oncogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12885-015-1562-9

    View details for PubMedID 26206264

  • Utility of the Proximal Margin Frozen Section for Resection of Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A 7-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Pawlik, T. M., Weber, S. M., Poultsides, G., Schmidt, C., Votanopoulos, K., Fields, R. C., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Jin, L. X., Levine, E., Cho, C. S., Bloomston, M., Winslow, E., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2014; 21 (13): 4202-4210
  • Utility of the proximal margin frozen section for resection of gastric adenocarcinoma: a 7-Institution Study of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. Annals of surgical oncology Squires, M. H., Kooby, D. A., Pawlik, T. M., Weber, S. M., Poultsides, G., Schmidt, C., Votanopoulos, K., Fields, R. C., Ejaz, A., Acher, A. W., Worhunsky, D. J., Saunders, N., Jin, L. X., Levine, E., Cho, C. S., Bloomston, M., Winslow, E., Cardona, K., Staley, C. A., Maithel, S. K. 2014; 21 (13): 4202-4210

    Abstract

    The proximal gastric margin dictates the extent of resection for gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The value of achieving negative margins via additional gastric resection after a positive proximal margin frozen section (FS) is unknown.The US Gastric Cancer Collaborative includes all patients who underwent resection of GAC at seven institutions from 2000-2012. Intraoperative proximal margin FS data and final permanent section (PS) data were classified as R0 or R1, respectively; positive distal margins were excluded. The primary aim was to evaluate the impact on local recurrence of converting a positive proximal FS-R1 margin to a PS-R0 final margin by additional resection. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).Of 860 patients, 520 had a proximal margin FS and 67 were positive. Of these, 48 were converted to R0 on PS by additional resection. R0 proximal margin was achieved in 447 patients (86 %), PS-R1 in 25 (5 %), and converted FS-R1-to-PS-R0 in 48 (9 %). The median follow-up was 44 months. Local recurrence was significantly decreased in the converted FS-R1-to-PS-R0 group compared to the PS-R1 group (10 vs. 32 %; p = 0.01). Median RFS was similar between the FS-R1-to-PS-R0 and PS-R1 cohorts (25 vs. 20 months; p = 0.49), compared to 37 months for the PS-R0 group. Median OS was similar between the FS-R1-to-PS-R0 conversion and PS-R1 groups (36 vs. 26 months; p = 0.14) compared to 50 months for the PS-R0 group. On multivariate analysis, increasing T-stage and N-stage were associated with worse OS; the FS-R1-to-PS-R0 proximal margin conversion was not significantly associated with improved RFS (p = 0.68) or OS (p = 0.44).Conversion of a positive intraoperative proximal margin frozen section during gastric cancer resection may decrease local recurrence, but it is not associated with improved RFS or OS. This may guide decisions regarding the extent of resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-3834-z

    View details for PubMedID 25047464

  • Single-versus Multifraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Outcomes and Toxicity INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Pollom, E. L., Alagappan, M., von Eyben, R., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Kamaya, A., Cox, V. L., Columbo, L. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 90 (4): 918-925

    Abstract

    We report updated outcomes of single- versus multifraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.We included 167 patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated at our institution from 2002 to 2013, with 1-fraction (45.5% of patient) or 5-fraction (54.5% of patients) SBRT. The majority of patients (87.5%) received chemotherapy.Median follow-up was 7.9 months (range: 0.1-63.6). The 6- and 12-month cumulative incidence rates (CIR) of local recurrence for patients treated with single-fraction SBRT were 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2%-10.4%) and 9.5% (95% CI, 2.7%-16.2%), respectively. The 6- and 12-month CIR with multifraction SBRT were 3.4% (95% CI, 0.0-7.2%) and 11.7% (95% CI, 4.8%-18.6%), respectively. Median survival from diagnosis for all patients was 13.6 months (95% CI, 12.2-15.0 months). The 6- and 12- month survival rates from SBRT for the single-fraction group were 67.0% (95% CI, 57.2%-78.5%) and 30.8% (95% CI, 21.9%-43.6%), respectively. The 6- and 12- month survival rates for the multifraction group were 75.7% (95% CI, 67.2%-85.3%) and 34.9% (95% CI, 26.1%-46.8%), respectively. There were no differences in CIR or survival rates between the single- and multifraction groups. The 6- and 12-month cumulative incidence rates of gastrointestinal toxicity grade ≥3 were 8.1% (95% CI, 1.8%-14.4%) and 12.3% (95% CI, 4.7%-20.0%), respectively, in the single-fraction group, and both were 5.6% (95% CI, 0.8%-10.5%) in the multifraction group. There were significantly fewer instances of toxicity grade ≥2 with multifraction SBRT (P=.005). Local recurrence and toxicity grade ≥2 were independent predictors of worse survival.Multifraction SBRT for pancreatic cancer significantly reduces gastrointestinal toxicity without compromising local control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.06.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344734300029

  • Laparoscopic Transgastric Necrosectomy for the Management of Pancreatic Necrosis JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Worhunsky, D. J., Qadan, M., Dua, M. M., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 219 (4): 735-743

    Abstract

    Traditional open necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although minimally invasive techniques have been described and offer some promise, each has considerable limitations. This study assesses the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy (LTN), a novel technique for the management of necrotizing pancreatitis.Between 2009 and 2013, patients with retrogastric pancreatic necrosis requiring debridement were evaluated for LTN. Debridement was performed via a laparoscopic transgastric approach using 2 to 3 ports and the wide cystgastrostomy left open. Patient demographics, disease severity, operative characteristics, and outcomes were collected and analyzed.Twenty-one patients (13 men, median age 54 years; interquartile range [IQR] 46 to 62 years) underwent LTN during the study period. The duration between pancreatitis onset and debridement was 65 days (IQR 53 to 124 years). Indications for operation included infection (7 patients) and persistent unwellness (14 patients). Median duration of LTN was 170 minutes (IQR 136 to 199 minutes); there were no conversions. Control of the necrosis was achieved via the single procedure in 19 of 21 patients. Median postoperative hospital stay was 5 days (IQR 3 to 14 days) and the majority (71%) of patients experienced no (n = 9) or only minor postoperative complications (n = 6) by Clavien-Dindo grade. Complications of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher developed in 6 patients, including 1 death (5%). With a median follow-up of 11 months (IQR 7 to 22 months), none of the patients required additional operative debridement or had pancreatic/enteric fistulae or wound complications develop.Laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy is a novel, minimally invasive technique for the management of pancreatic necrosis that allows for debridement in a single operation. When feasible, LTN can reduce the morbidity associated with traditional open necrosectomy and avoid the limitations of other minimally invasive approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.04.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342422500018

  • Rates and patterns of recurrence after curative intent resection for gastric cancer: a United States multi-institutional analysis. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Spolverato, G., Ejaz, A., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G. A., Fields, R. C., Schmidt, C., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2014; 219 (4): 664-675

    Abstract

    Reports on recurrence and outcomes of US patients with gastric cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine incidence and pattern of recurrence after curative intent surgery for gastric cancer.Using the multi-institutional US Gastric Cancer Collaborative database, we identified 817 patients undergoing curative intent resection for gastric cancer between 2000 and 2012. Patterns and rates of recurrence along with associated risk factors were identified using adjusted regression analysis. Recurrences were classified as locoregional, peritoneal, or hematogenous.Median patient age was 65.8 years (interquartile range [IQR] 56.4, 74.7); the majority of patients were male (n = 462, 56.6%) and white (n = 511, 62.5%). At the time of surgery, the majority of patients underwent a partial gastrectomy (n = 481, 59.2%) with a complete R0 resection achieved in 91.6% (n = 748) of patients. At the time of last follow-up, 244 (29.9%) of 817 patients developed a recurrence; 163 (66.8%) patients had recurrence at only a single site; the remaining 81 (33.2%) had multiple sites of initial recurrence. Among patients who recurred at a single site, recurrence was most common at a distant location and included hematogenous (n = 57, 23.4%) or peritoneal (n = 47, 19.3%) only metastasis. Tumors at the gastroesophageal junction (odds ratio [OR] 3.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 9.40; p = 0.04) were associated with higher risk of locoregional recurrence, while the presence of multiple lesions (OR 10.82, 95% CI 3.56 to 32.85; p < 0.001) remained associated with an increased risk of distant hematogenous recurrence after adjusted analysis. Recurrence was associated with worse survival, with a median recurrence-free survival of 10.8 months (IQR 8.9, 12.8) among those who experienced a recurrence.Nearly one-third of patients experienced recurrence after gastric cancer surgery. The most common site of recurrence was distant.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.03.062

    View details for PubMedID 25154671

  • Impact of external-beam radiation therapy on outcomes among patients with resected gastric cancer: a multi-institutional analysis. Annals of surgical oncology Ejaz, A., Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Worhunsky, D. J., Swords, D., Jin, L. X., Schmidt, C., Acher, A. W., Saunders, N., Cho, C. S., Herman, J. M., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2014; 21 (11): 3412-3421

    Abstract

    Use of perioperative chemotherapy (CTx) alone versus chemoradiation therapy (cXRT) in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer remains varied. We sought to define the utilization and effect of CTx alone versus cXRT on patients having undergone curative-intent resection for gastric cancer.Using the multi-institutional US Gastric Cancer Collaborative database, we identified 505 gastric cancer patients between 2000 and 2012 who received perioperative therapy in addition to curative-intent resection. The impact of perioperative therapy on survival was analyzed by the use of propensity-score matching of clinicopathologic factors among patients who received CTx alone versus cXRT.Median patient age was 62 years, and most patients were male (58.2 %). Most patients had a T3 (38.7 %) or T4 (36.8 %) lesion and lymph node metastasis (73.4 %). A total of 211 (42.8 %) patients received perioperative CTx alone, whereas the remaining 294 (58.2 %) patients received cXRT. Factors associated with receipt of cXRT were younger age (odds ratio, 1.93) and lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 4.02; both P < 0.05). At a median follow-up of 28 months, the median overall survival (OS) was 33.4 months, and the 5-year OS was 36.7 %. Factors associated with worse overall survival included large tumor size [hazard ratio (HR), 1.83], T3 (HR 2.96) or T4 (HR 4.02) tumors, and lymph node metastasis (HR 1.57; all P < 0.05). In contrast, receipt of cXRT was associated with improved long-term OS (CTx alone, 20.9 months; cXRT, 46.7 months; HR 0.51; P < 0.001).cXRT was utilized in 58 % of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for gastric cancer. With propensity score-matched analysis, cXRT was an independent factor associated with improved recurrence-free survival and OS.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-3776-5

    View details for PubMedID 24845728

  • Impact of External-Beam Radiation Therapy on Outcomes Among Patients with Resected Gastric Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Ejaz, A., Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Worhunsky, D. J., Swords, D., Jin, L. X., Schmidt, C., Acher, A. W., Saunders, N., Cho, C. S., Herman, J. M., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2014; 21 (11): 3412-3421
  • Rates and Patterns of Recurrence after Curative Intent Resection for Gastric Cancer: A United States Multi-Institutional Analysis JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Spolverato, G., Ejaz, A., Kim, Y., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G. A., Fields, R. C., Schmidt, C., Weber, S. M., Votanopoulos, K., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2014; 219 (4): 664-675
  • Laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy for the management of pancreatic necrosis. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Worhunsky, D. J., Qadan, M., Dua, M. M., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 219 (4): 735-743

    Abstract

    Traditional open necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although minimally invasive techniques have been described and offer some promise, each has considerable limitations. This study assesses the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy (LTN), a novel technique for the management of necrotizing pancreatitis.Between 2009 and 2013, patients with retrogastric pancreatic necrosis requiring debridement were evaluated for LTN. Debridement was performed via a laparoscopic transgastric approach using 2 to 3 ports and the wide cystgastrostomy left open. Patient demographics, disease severity, operative characteristics, and outcomes were collected and analyzed.Twenty-one patients (13 men, median age 54 years; interquartile range [IQR] 46 to 62 years) underwent LTN during the study period. The duration between pancreatitis onset and debridement was 65 days (IQR 53 to 124 years). Indications for operation included infection (7 patients) and persistent unwellness (14 patients). Median duration of LTN was 170 minutes (IQR 136 to 199 minutes); there were no conversions. Control of the necrosis was achieved via the single procedure in 19 of 21 patients. Median postoperative hospital stay was 5 days (IQR 3 to 14 days) and the majority (71%) of patients experienced no (n = 9) or only minor postoperative complications (n = 6) by Clavien-Dindo grade. Complications of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher developed in 6 patients, including 1 death (5%). With a median follow-up of 11 months (IQR 7 to 22 months), none of the patients required additional operative debridement or had pancreatic/enteric fistulae or wound complications develop.Laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy is a novel, minimally invasive technique for the management of pancreatic necrosis that allows for debridement in a single operation. When feasible, LTN can reduce the morbidity associated with traditional open necrosectomy and avoid the limitations of other minimally invasive approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.04.012

    View details for PubMedID 25158913

  • A Multi-institutional Analysis of Open Versus Minimally-Invasive Surgery for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Results of the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Spolverato, G., Kim, Y., Ejaz, A., Valero, V., Squires, M. H., Poultsides, G., Fields, R. C., Bloomston, M., Weber, S. M., Acher, A. W., Votanopoulos, K., Schmidt, C., Cho, C. S., Maithel, S. K., Pawlik, T. M. 2014; 18 (9): 1563-1574

    Abstract

    Surgical experience with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has increased; however, published reports on MIS resection of gastric adenocarcinoma are limited.Between 2000 and 2012, 880 patients who underwent surgical resection of gastric adenocarcinoma were identified from a multi-institutional database. Clinicopathological characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were stratified by operative approach (open vs. MIS) and analyzed.Overall, 70 (8 %) patients had a MIS approach. Patients who underwent a MIS resection were more likely to have a smaller tumor (open 4.5 cm vs. MIS 3.0 cm, p < 0.001). MIS resections were associated with lower estimated blood loss (open 250 cc vs. MIS 150 cc) and longer operative time (open 232 min vs. MIS 271 min) compared with open surgery (both p < 0.05). An R0 resection was achieved in most patients (open 90.9 % vs. MIS 98.6 %, p = 0.03) and median lymph node yield was good in both groups (open 17 vs. MIS 14, p = 0.10). MIS had a similar incidence of complications (open 33.1 % vs. MIS 20 %, p = 0.07) and a similar length of stay (open 9 days vs. MIS 7 days, p = 0.13) compared with open surgery. In the propensity-matched analysis, median recurrence-free and overall were not impacted by operative approach.An MIS approach to gastric cancer was associated with adequate lymph node retrieval, a high incidence of R0 resection, and comparable long-term oncological outcomes versus open gastrectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-014-2562-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340936300003

    View details for PubMedID 24912915

  • Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy: the technique must suit the lesion. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Worhunsky, D. J., Zak, Y., Dua, M. M., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 18 (8): 1445-1451

    Abstract

    Splenic preservation is currently recommended during minimally invasive surgery for benign tumors of the distal pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, with particular attention paid to the technique used for spleen preservation (splenic vessel ligation vs preservation). A review of consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with the intention of splenic preservation was conducted. Patient demographics, operative data, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with the intention of splenic preservation; 5 required splenectomy (9 %). Of the remaining 50 patients, 31 (62 %) had splenic vessel ligation, and 19 (38 %) had vessel preservation. Patient demographics and tumor size were similar. The vessel ligation group had significantly more pancreas removed (95 vs 52 mm, P < 0.001) and longer operative times (256 vs 201 min, P = 0.008). Postoperative outcomes, complication rates, and splenic viability were similar between groups. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy is a safe operation with a high rate of success (91 %). Vessel ligation was the chosen technical strategy for lesions that required resection of a greater length of pancreas. We found no advantage to either technique with respect to outcomes and splenic preservation. Operative approach should reflect technical considerations including location in the pancreas.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-014-2561-x

    View details for PubMedID 24939598

  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography predicts biological aggressiveness. HPB Worhunsky, D. J., Krampitz, G. W., Poullos, P. D., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 16 (4): 304-311

    Abstract

    Contrary to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) are commonly hyperenhancing on arterial phase computed tomography (APCT). However, a subset of these tumours can be hypoenhancing. The prognostic significance of the CT appearance of these tumors remains unclear.From 2001 to 2012, 146 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection. The degree of tumour enhancement on APCT was recorded and correlated with clinicopathological variables and overall survival.APCT images were available for re-review in 118 patients (81%). The majority had hyperenhancing tumours (n = 80, 68%), 12 (10%) were isoenhancing (including cases where no mass was visualized) and 26 (22%) were hypoenhancing. Hypoenhancing PNET were larger, more commonly intermediate grade, and had higher rates of lymph node and synchronous liver metastases. Hypoenhancing PNET were also associated with significantly worse overall survival after a resection as opposed to isoenhancing and hyperenhancing tumours (5-year, 54% versus 89% versus 93%). On multivariate analysis of factors available pre-operatively, only hypoenhancement (HR 2.32, P = 0.02) was independently associated with survival.Hypoenhancement on APCT was noted in 22% of well-differentiated PNET and was an independent predictor of poor outcome. This information can inform pre-operative decisions in the multidisciplinary treatment of these neoplasms.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12139

    View details for PubMedID 23991643

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3967881

  • Does chronic kidney disease affect outcomes after major abdominal surgery? Results from the national surgical quality improvement program. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Cloyd, J. M., Ma, Y., Morton, J. M., Kurella Tamura, M., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 18 (3): 605-612

    Abstract

    The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease on outcomes following major abdominal surgery is not well defined.The 2008 NSQIP database was queried to identify adult patients undergoing complex abdominal surgery (major colorectal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, gastric, and esophageal operations). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis (HD) versus patients not on HD were compared. The impact of preoperative renal insufficiency, measured by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), on morbidity and mortality was then assessed in non-dialysis patients.Of 24,572 patients who underwent major abdominal operations, excluding emergency cases, only 149 (0.6 %) were on HD preoperatively. Thirty-day mortality in the HD group was 12.8 % compared to 1.8 % for those not on HD (p < 0.0001). Overall complication rate was 23.5 versus 12.3 % (p < 0.0001). In particular, rates of pneumonia (6.7 vs 3.0 %, p < 0.05) and sepsis (12.8 vs 5.3 %, p < 0.001) were higher in patients on HD. In patients not on HD, GFR was significantly predictive of postoperative mortality after controlling for age, gender, race, emergency status, and comorbidities. Compared to patients with normal preoperative kidney function (GFR, 75-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), even modest CKD (GFR, 45-60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was associated with increased postoperative mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.62). With greater impairment in kidney function, postoperative mortality was even more marked (GFR, 30-45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and OR, 2.84; GFR, 15-30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and OR, 5.56). In addition, CKD was independently associated with increased postoperative complications.Any degree of preoperative kidney impairment, even mild asymptomatic disease, is associated with clinically significant increases in 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-013-2390-3

    View details for PubMedID 24241964

  • Molecular assessment of surgical-resection margins of gastric cancer by mass-spectrometric imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Eberlin, L. S., Tibshirani, R. J., Zhang, J., Longacre, T. A., Berry, G. J., Bingham, D. B., Norton, J. A., Zare, R. N., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 111 (7): 2436-2441

    Abstract

    Surgical resection is the main curative option for gastrointestinal cancers. The extent of cancer resection is commonly assessed during surgery by pathologic evaluation of (frozen sections of) the tissue at the resected specimen margin(s) to verify whether cancer is present. We compare this method to an alternative procedure, desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric imaging (DESI-MSI), for 62 banked human cancerous and normal gastric-tissue samples. In DESI-MSI, microdroplets strike the tissue sample, the resulting splash enters a mass spectrometer, and a statistical analysis, here, the Lasso method (which stands for least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and which is a multiclass logistic regression with L1 penalty), is applied to classify tissues based on the molecular information obtained directly from DESI-MSI. The methodology developed with 28 frozen training samples of clear histopathologic diagnosis showed an overall accuracy value of 98% for the 12,480 pixels evaluated in cross-validation (CV), and 97% when a completely independent set of samples was tested. By applying an additional spatial smoothing technique, the accuracy for both CV and the independent set of samples was 99% compared with histological diagnoses. To test our method for clinical use, we applied it to a total of 21 tissue-margin samples prospectively obtained from nine gastric-cancer patients. The results obtained suggest that DESI-MSI/Lasso may be valuable for routine intraoperative assessment of the specimen margins during gastric-cancer surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1400274111

    View details for PubMedID 24550265

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3932851

  • Reassessment of the Current American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Qadan, M., Ma, Y., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 218 (2): 188-195

    Abstract

    Adopting a unified staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has been challenging. Currently, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recommends use of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs. We sought to explore the prognostic usefulness of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data were used to identify patients with PNETs who underwent curative-intent surgical resection from 1983 to 2008. The discriminatory ability of the AJCC system was examined and a new TNM system was devised using extent of disease variables.In 1,202 patients identified, lymph node metastasis was associated with worse 10-year overall survival after resection (51% vs 63%; p < 0.0001), as was the presence of distant metastatic disease (35% vs 62%; p < 0.0001). The current AJCC system (recorded by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program in 412 patients since 2004) distinguished 5-year overall survival only between stages I and II (p = 0.01), but not between stages II and III (p = 0.97), or stages III and IV (p = 0.36). By modifying the T stage to be based on size alone (0.1 to 1.0 cm, 1.1 to 2.0 cm, 2.1 to 4.0 cm, and >4.0 cm) and revising the TNM subgroups, we propose a novel TNM system with improved discriminatory ability between disease stages (stages I vs II; p = 0.16; II vs III; p < 0.0001; and III vs IV; p = 0.008).In this study evaluating the current AJCC staging system for PNETs, there were no significant differences detected between stages II and III or stages III and IV. We propose a novel TNM system that might better discriminate between outcomes after surgical resection of PNETs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.11.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329763900008

    View details for PubMedID 24321190

  • Postoperative serum amylase predicts pancreatic fistula formation following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Cloyd, J. M., Kastenberg, Z. J., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A. 2014; 18 (2): 348-353

    Abstract

    Early identification of patients at risk for developing pancreatic fistula (PF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) may facilitate prevention or treatment strategies aimed at reducing its associated morbidity.A retrospective review of 176 consecutive PD performed between 2006 and 2011 was conducted in order to analyze the association between the serum amylase on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and the development of PF.Serum amylase was recorded on POD1 in 146 of 176 PD cases (83.0 %). Twenty-seven patients (18.5 %) developed a postoperative PF: 6 type A, 19 type B, and 2 type C. Patients with a PF had a mean serum amylase on POD1 of 659 ± 581 compared to 246 ± 368 in those without a fistula (p < 0.001). On logistic regression, a serum amylase >140 U/L on POD1 was strongly associated with developing a PF (OR, 5.48; 95 % CI, 1.94-15.44). Sensitivity and specificity of a postoperative serum amylase >140 U/L was 81.5 and 55.5 %, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 29.3 and 93.0 %, respectively.An elevated serum amylase on POD1 may be used, in addition to other prognostic factors, to help stratify risk for developing PF following PD.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-013-2293-3

    View details for PubMedID 23903930

  • False positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography liver lesion mimicking metastasis in 2 patients with gastroesophageal cancer. Practical radiation oncology Paudel, N., Kunz, P. L., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 4 (6): 368-371

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2013.11.005

    View details for PubMedID 25407856

  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: an unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Digestive diseases and sciences Wong, R. J., Longacre, T. A., Poultsides, G., Park, W., Rothenberg, M. E. 2013; 58 (11): 3112-3116

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-013-2678-x

    View details for PubMedID 23633157

  • Metabolomic-derived novel cyst fluid biomarkers for pancreatic cysts: glucose and kynurenine. Gastrointestinal endoscopy Park, W. G., Wu, M., Bowen, R., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Pai, R. K., Wodziak, D., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Banerjee, S., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Scott, B. A., Pasricha, P. J., Lowe, A. W., Peltz, G. 2013; 78 (2): 295-302 e2

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Better pancreatic cyst fluid biomarkers are needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolomic profiling of pancreatic cyst fluid would yield clinically useful cyst fluid biomarkers. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS: Two independent cohorts of patients (n = 26 and n = 19) with histologically defined pancreatic cysts. INTERVENTION: Exploratory analysis for differentially expressed metabolites between (1) nonmucinous and mucinous cysts and (2) malignant and premalignant cysts was performed in the first cohort. With the second cohort, a validation analysis of promising identified metabolites was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Identification of differentially expressed metabolites between clinically relevant cyst categories and their diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). RESULTS: Two metabolites had diagnostic significance-glucose and kynurenine. Metabolomic abundances for both were significantly lower in mucinous cysts compared with nonmucinous cysts in both cohorts (glucose first cohort P = .002, validation P = .006; and kynurenine first cohort P = .002, validation P = .002). The ROC curve for glucose was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.00) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.72-1.00) in the first and validation cohorts, respectively. The ROC for kynurenine was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76-1.00) in the first and validation cohorts, respectively. Neither could differentiate premalignant from malignant cysts. Glucose and kynurenine levels were significantly elevated for serous cystadenomas in both cohorts. LIMITATIONS: Small sample sizes. CONCLUSION: Metabolomic profiling identified glucose and kynurenine to have potential clinical utility for differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. These markers also may diagnose serous cystadenomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gie.2013.02.037

    View details for PubMedID 23566642

  • Metabolomic-derived novel cyst fluid biomarkers for pancreatic cysts: glucose and kynurenine GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY Park, W. G., Wu, M., Bowen, R., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Pai, R. K., Wodziak, D., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Banerjee, S., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Scott, B. A., Pasricha, P. J., Lowe, A. W., Peltz, G. 2013; 78 (2): 295-?

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Better pancreatic cyst fluid biomarkers are needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolomic profiling of pancreatic cyst fluid would yield clinically useful cyst fluid biomarkers. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS: Two independent cohorts of patients (n = 26 and n = 19) with histologically defined pancreatic cysts. INTERVENTION: Exploratory analysis for differentially expressed metabolites between (1) nonmucinous and mucinous cysts and (2) malignant and premalignant cysts was performed in the first cohort. With the second cohort, a validation analysis of promising identified metabolites was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Identification of differentially expressed metabolites between clinically relevant cyst categories and their diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). RESULTS: Two metabolites had diagnostic significance-glucose and kynurenine. Metabolomic abundances for both were significantly lower in mucinous cysts compared with nonmucinous cysts in both cohorts (glucose first cohort P = .002, validation P = .006; and kynurenine first cohort P = .002, validation P = .002). The ROC curve for glucose was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.00) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.72-1.00) in the first and validation cohorts, respectively. The ROC for kynurenine was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76-1.00) in the first and validation cohorts, respectively. Neither could differentiate premalignant from malignant cysts. Glucose and kynurenine levels were significantly elevated for serous cystadenomas in both cohorts. LIMITATIONS: Small sample sizes. CONCLUSION: Metabolomic profiling identified glucose and kynurenine to have potential clinical utility for differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. These markers also may diagnose serous cystadenomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gie.2013.02.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321825200015

    View details for PubMedID 23566642

  • Colorectal cancer diagnostics: biomarkers, cell-free DNA, circulating tumor cells and defining heterogeneous populations by single-cell analysis. Expert review of molecular diagnostics Kin, C., Kidess, E., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Jeffrey, S. S. 2013; 13 (6): 581-599

    Abstract

    Reliable biomarkers are needed to guide treatment of colorectal cancer, as well as for surveillance to detect recurrence and monitor therapeutic response. In this review, the authors discuss the use of various biomarkers in addition to serum carcinoembryonic antigen, the current surveillance method for metastatic recurrence after resection. The clinical relevance of mutations including microsatellite instability, KRAS, BRAF and SMAD4 is addressed. The role of circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA with regards to their implementation into clinical use is discussed, as well as how single-cell analysis may fit into a monitoring program. The detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA in colorectal cancer patients will not only improve the understanding of the development of metastasis, but may also supplant the use of other biomarkers.

    View details for DOI 10.1586/14737159.2013.811896

    View details for PubMedID 23895128

  • Seventh Edition (2010) of the AJCC/UICC Staging System for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Is there Room for Improvement? ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Patel, M. I., Rhoads, K. F., Ma, Y., Ford, J. M., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Chang, D. T., Koong, A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2013; 20 (5): 1631-1638

    Abstract

    The gastric cancer AJCC/UICC staging system recently underwent significant revisions, but studies on Asian patients have reported a lack of adequate discrimination between various consecutive stages. We sought to validate the new system on a U.S. population database.California Cancer Registry data linked to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge abstracts were used to identify patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (esophagogastric junction and gastric cardia tumors excluded) who underwent curative-intent surgical resection in California from 2002 to 2006. AJCC/UICC stage was recalculated based on the latest seventh edition. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Of 1905 patients analyzed, 54 % were males with a median age of 70 years. Median number of pathologically examined lymph nodes was 12 (range, 1-90); 40 % of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 31 % received adjuvant radiotherapy. The seventh edition AJCC/UICC system did not distinguish outcome adequately between stages IB and IIA (P = 0.40), or IIB and IIIA (P = 0.34). By merging stage II into 1 category and moving T2N1 to stage IB and T2N2, T1N3 to stage IIIA, we propose a new grouping system with improved discriminatory abilityIn this first study validating the new seventh edition AJCC/UICC staging system for gastric cancer on a U.S. population with a relatively limited number of lymph nodes examined, we found stages IB and IIA, as well as IIB and IIIA to perform similarly. We propose a revised stage grouping for the AJCC/UICC staging system that better discriminates between outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2724-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317308200032

    View details for PubMedID 23149854

  • Iliocaval and aortoiliac reconstruction following en bloc retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma resection. Journal of vascular surgery Ohman, J. W., Chandra, V., Poultsides, G., Harris, E. J. 2013; 57 (3): 850-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2012.01.048

    View details for PubMedID 23446129

  • Hospital readmission after a pancreaticoduodenectomy: an emerging quality metric? HPB Kastenberg, Z. J., Morton, J. M., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2013; 15 (2): 142-148

    Abstract

    Hospital readmission has attracted attention from policymakers as a measure of quality and a target for cost reduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and patterns of rehospitalization after a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).The records of all patients undergoing a PD at an academic medical centre for malignant or benign diagnoses between January 2006 and September 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, aetiology and predictors of subsequent readmission(s) were analysed.Of 257 consecutive patients who underwent a PD, 50 (19.7%) were readmitted within 30 days from discharge. Both the presence of any post-operative complication (P = 0.049) and discharge to a nursing/rehabilitation facility or to home with health care services (P = 0.018) were associated with readmission. The most common reasons for readmission were diet intolerance (36.0%), pancreatic fistula/abscess (26.0%) and superficial wound infection (8.0%). Nine (18.0%) readmissions had lengths of stay of 2 days or less and in four of those (8.0%) diagnostic evaluation was eventually negative.Approximately one-fifth of patients require hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge after a PD. A small fraction of these readmissions are short (2 days or less) and may be preventable or manageable in the outpatient setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00563.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313548400009

    View details for PubMedID 23297725

  • Diagnostic Utility of Metabolomic-Derived Biomarkers for Pancreatic Cysts Park, W. G., Wu, M., Bowen, R., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Pai, R. K., Wodziak, D., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., NORTON, J. A., Banerjee, S., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Pasricha, P. J., Lowe, A. W., Peltz, G. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012: 1394–94
  • Lymph Nodes and Survival in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Krampitz, G. W., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Sun, L., Jensen, R. T. 2012; 147 (9): 820-827

    Abstract

    Lymph node metastases decrease survival in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs).Prospective database searches.National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Stanford University Hospital (SUH).A total of 326 patients underwent surgical exploration for pNETs at the NIH (n = 216) and SUH (n = 110).Overall survival, disease-related survival, and time to development of liver metastases.Forty patients (12.3%) underwent enucleation and 305 (93.6%) underwent resection. Of the patients who underwent resection, 117 (35.9%) had partial pancreatectomy and 30 (9.2%) had a Whipple procedure. Forty-one patients also had liver resections, 21 had wedge resections, and 20 had lobectomies. Mean follow-up was 8.1 years (range, 0.3-28.6 years). The 10-year overall survival for patients with no metastases or lymph node metastases only was similar at 80%. As expected, patients with liver metastases had a significantly decreased 10-year survival of 30% (P < .001). The time to development of liver metastases was significantly reduced for patients with lymph node metastases alone compared with those with none (P < .001). For the NIH cohort with longer follow-up, disease-related survival was significantly different for those patients with no metastases, lymph node metastases alone, and liver metastases (P < .001). Extent of lymph node involvement in this subgroup showed that disease-related survival decreased as a function of the number of lymph nodes involved (P = .004).As expected, liver metastases decrease survival of patients with pNETs. Patients with lymph node metastases alone have a shorter time to the development of liver metastases that is dependent on the number of lymph nodes involved. With sufficient long-term follow-up, lymph node metastases decrease disease-related survival. Careful evaluation of number and extent of lymph node involvement is warranted in all surgical procedures for pNETs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308883700011

    View details for PubMedID 22987171

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3448121

  • Pathologic Response to Preoperative Chemotherapy in Colorectal Liver Metastases: Fibrosis, not Necrosis, Predicts Outcome ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Poultsides, G. A., Bao, F., Servais, E. L., Hernandez-Boussard, T., DeMatteo, R. P., Allen, P. J., Fong, Y., Kemeny, N. E., Saltz, L. B., Klimstra, D. S., Jarnagin, W. R., Shia, J., D'Angelica, M. I. 2012; 19 (9): 2797-2804

    Abstract

    Pathologic response to preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is associated with survival after hepatectomy. Histologically, dominant response patterns include fibrosis, necrosis and/or acellular mucin, but some of these changes can appear without previous chemotherapy and their individual correlation with outcome is unknown.Pathology slides from patients who underwent CLM resection (irrespective of preoperative chemotherapy status) were rereviewed by a blinded pathologist. Pathologic response was recorded as the summation of percentage necrosis, fibrosis and acellular mucin. Associations between pathologic response, its components, preoperative chemotherapy, and survival were analyzed.Pathology slides were rereviewed in 366 patients undergoing CLM resection from 2003 to 2007. Preoperative chemotherapy was administered in 249 (68 %) patients, who, when compared to no preoperative chemotherapy patients, had higher rates of overall pathologic response (57 vs. 46 %, P < .01), fibrosis (21 vs. 12 %, P < .01) and acellular mucin (6 vs. 3 %, P = .05) but similar rates of necrosis (30 vs. 31 %, P = .30). In patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy, overall pathologic response ≥ 75 % (5 year, 83 vs. 47 %, P < .01) and fibrosis ≥ 40 % (5 year, 87 vs. 51 %, P < .01) independently correlated with disease-specific survival after hepatectomy. Preoperative hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (P = .04) and bevacizumab (P = .05) were marginally associated with overall pathologic response and fibrosis, respectively.Fibrosis is the predominant chemotherapy-related pathologic alteration driving the association of treatment response with survival after CLM resection. Necrosis in CLM is not related to chemotherapy or outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2335-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308357100005

    View details for PubMedID 22476753

  • Failure to comply with NCCN guidelines for the management of pancreatic cancer compromises outcomes HPB Visser, B. C., Ma, Y., Zak, Y., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Rhoads, K. F. 2012; 14 (8): 539-547

    Abstract

    There are little data available regarding compliance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. We investigated variation in the management of pancreatic cancer (PC) among large hospitals in California, USA, specifically to evaluate whether compliance with NCCN guidelines correlates with patient outcomes.The California Cancer Registry was used to identify patients treated for PC from 2001 to 2006. Only hospitals with ≥ 400 beds were included to limit evaluation to centres possessing resources to provide multimodality care (n= 50). Risk-adjusted multivariable models evaluated predictors of adherence to stage-specific NCCN guidelines for PC and mortality.In all, 3706 patients were treated for PC in large hospitals during the study period. Compliance with NCCN guidelines was only 34.5%. Patients were less likely to get recommended therapy with advanced age and low socioeconomic status (SES). Using multilevel analysis, controlling for patient factors (including demographics and comorbidities), hospital factors (e.g. size, academic affiliation and case volume), compliance with NCCN guidelines was associated with a reduced risk of mortality [odds ratio (OR) for death 0.64 (0.53-0.77, P < 0.0001)].There is relatively poor overall compliance with the NCCN PC guidelines in California's large hospitals. Higher compliance rates are correlated with improved survival. Compliance is an important potential measure of the quality of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00496.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305993800007

    View details for PubMedID 22762402

  • Hybrid Treatment of Celiac Artery Compression (Median Arcuate Ligament) Syndrome DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Palmer, O. P., Tedesco, M., Casey, K., Lee, J. T., Poultsides, G. A. 2012; 57 (7): 1782-1785

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-2019-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305746100009

    View details for PubMedID 22212729

  • Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Radiographic Calcifications Correlate with Grade and Metastasis ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Poultsides, G. A., Huang, L. C., Chen, Y., Visser, B. C., Pai, R. K., Jeffrey, R. B., Park, W. G., Chen, A. M., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A. 2012; 19 (7): 2295-2303

    Abstract

    Studies to identify preoperative prognostic variables for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) have been inconclusive. Specifically, the prevalence and prognostic significance of radiographic calcifications in these tumors remains unclear.From 1998 to 2009, a total of 110 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection at our institution. Synchronous liver metastases present in 31 patients (28%) were addressed surgically with curative intent. Patients with high-grade PNET were excluded. The presence of calcifications in the primary tumor on preoperative computed tomography was recorded and correlated with clinicopathologic variables and overall survival.Calcifications were present in 16% of patients and were more common in gastrinomas and glucagonomas (50%), but never encountered in insulinomas. Calcified tumors were larger (median size 4.5 vs. 2.3 cm, P=0.04) and more commonly associated with lymph node metastasis (75 vs. 35%, P=0.01), synchronous liver metastasis (62 vs. 21%, P<0.01), and intermediate tumor grade (80 vs. 31%, P<0.01). On multivariate analysis of factors available preoperatively, calcifications (P=0.01) and size (P<0.01) remained independent predictors of lymph node metastasis. Overall survival after resection was significantly worse in the presence of synchronous liver metastasis (5-year, 64 vs. 86%, P=0.04), but not in the presence of radiographic calcifications.Calcifications on preoperative computed tomography correlate with intermediate grade and lymph node metastasis in well-differentiated PNET. This information is available preoperatively and supports the routine dissection of regional lymph nodes through formal pancreatectomy rather than enucleation in calcified PNET.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2305-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305558000030

    View details for PubMedID 22396008

  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma 51st Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Radiation-Oncology (ASTRO) Abelson, J. A., Murphy, J. D., Minn, A. Y., Chung, M., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: E595–E601

    Abstract

    To report the outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Forty-seven patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with IMRT between 2003 and 2008. Of these 47 patients, 29 were treated adjuvantly and 18 definitively. All received concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The treatment plans were optimized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescription dose. The median delivered dose for the adjuvant and definitive patients was 50.4 and 54.0 Gy, respectively.The median age at diagnosis was 63.9 years. For adjuvant patients, the 1- and 2-year overall survival rate was 79% and 40%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 58% and 17%, respectively. The local-regional control rate at 1 and 2 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. For definitive patients, the 1-year overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and local-regional control rate was 24%, 16%, and 64%, respectively. Four patients developed Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (9%) and four developed Grade 3 late toxicity (9%).Survival for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. A small percentage of adjuvant patients have durable disease control, and with improved therapies, this proportion will increase. Systemic therapy offers the greatest opportunity. The present results have demonstrated that IMRT is well tolerated. Compared with those who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in previously reported prospective clinical trials, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with IMRT in our series had improved acute toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.09.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300980300003

    View details for PubMedID 22197234

  • Diagnostic accuracy of cyst fluid amphiregulin in pancreatic cysts BMC GASTROENTEROLOGY Tun, M. T., Pai, R. K., Kwok, S., Dong, A., Gupta, A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Banerjee, S., Van Dam, J., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Scott, B. A., Verma, R., Lowe, A. W., Park, W. G. 2012; 12

    Abstract

    Accurate tests to diagnose adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among mucinous pancreatic cysts are clinically needed. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of amphiregulin (AREG) as a pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker to differentiate non-mucinous, benign mucinous, and malignant mucinous cysts.A single-center retrospective study to evaluate AREG levels in pancreatic cyst fluid by ELISA from 33 patients with a histological gold standard was performed.Among the cyst fluid samples, the median (IQR) AREG levels for non-mucinous (n = 6), benign mucinous (n = 15), and cancerous cysts (n = 15) were 85 pg/ml (47-168), 63 pg/ml (30-847), and 986 pg/ml (417-3160), respectively. A significant difference between benign mucinous and malignant mucinous cysts was observed (p = 0.025). AREG levels greater than 300 pg/ml possessed a diagnostic accuracy for cancer or high-grade dysplasia of 78% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%).Cyst fluid AREG levels are significantly higher in cancerous and high-grade dysplastic cysts compared to benign mucinous cysts. Thus AREG exhibits potential clinical utility in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-230X-12-15

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301923400002

    View details for PubMedID 22333441

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3305641

  • An HNF4 alpha-miRNA Inflammatory Feedback Circuit Regulates Hepatocellular Oncogenesis CELL Hatziapostolou, M., Polytarchou, C., Aggelidou, E., Drakaki, A., Poultsides, G. A., Jaeger, S. A., Ogata, H., Karin, M., Struhl, K., Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, M., Iliopoulos, D. 2011; 147 (6): 1233-1247

    Abstract

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is essential for liver development and hepatocyte function. Here, we show that transient inhibition of HNF4α initiates hepatocellular transformation through a microRNA-inflammatory feedback loop circuit consisting of miR-124, IL6R, STAT3, miR-24, and miR-629. Moreover, we show that, once this circuit is activated, it maintains suppression of HNF4α and sustains oncogenesis. Systemic administration of miR-124, which modulates inflammatory signaling, prevents and suppresses hepatocellular carcinogenesis by inducing tumor-specific apoptosis without toxic side effects. As we also show that this HNF4α circuit is perturbed in human hepatocellular carcinomas, our data raise the possibility that manipulation of this microRNA feedback-inflammatory loop has therapeutic potential for treating liver cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298148100014

    View details for PubMedID 22153071

  • Laparoscopic Duodenojejunostomy for Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Magee, G., Slater, B. J., Lee, J. T., Poultsides, G. A. 2011; 56 (9): 2528-2531

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-1757-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294800100005

    View details for PubMedID 21643740

  • Hybrid Resection of Duodenal Tumors JOURNAL OF LAPAROENDOSCOPIC & ADVANCED SURGICAL TECHNIQUES Poultsides, G. A., Pappou, E. P., Bloom, G. P., Orlando, R. 2011; 21 (7): 603-608

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to review our experience with the hand-assisted laparoscopic management of duodenal tumors with no or low malignant potential and to compare this approach with published case reports of purely laparoscopic local duodenal resection.Eight cases of hand-assisted laparoscopic local duodenal resection performed from 2000 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Hand-assistance was utilized for complete duodenal mobilization, and local duodenal resection was accomplished extracorporeally through the hand-access incision. Patient and tumor characteristics, operative time, length of stay, and complications were compared with 18 cases of totally laparoscopic local excision of duodenal tumors published since 1997. Patients with ampullary tumors were excluded.Compared with the purely laparoscopic approach, the hand-assisted technique was associated with shorter operative time (179 versus 131 minutes, P=.03) and was more commonly used for lesions located in the third portion of the duodenum (0% versus 37.5%, P=.02). Tumor size (2.9 cm versus 3.2 cm, P=.61) and length of hospital stay (5.9 versus 5.9 days, P=.96) were similar between the two groups. The rate of complications was also comparable (0% versus 12.5%, P=.31); 1 of 8 patients in the hand-assisted group developed an incisional hernia at the hand-access site.Hand-assisted laparoscopic local duodenal resection is a feasible, safe, and effective alternative to the totally laparoscopic approach. In addition to being associated with comparable length of hospital stay, hand-assistance can shorten operative time by facilitating duodenal mobilization as well as extracorporeal duodenal resection and closure.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/lap.2010.0387

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294059200006

    View details for PubMedID 21774700

  • Surgical Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract ONCOLOGY-NEW YORK Huang, L. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A. 2011; 25 (9): 794-803

    Abstract

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (islet cell tumors) and of the luminal gastrointestinal tract (carcinoids) are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms that share certain common characteristics. First, they are similar histologically and are difficult to distinguish under light microscopy. Second, they can be associated with hypersecretory syndromes. Third, they are generally slow-growing and have a better prognosis than adenocarcinomas at the same site; however, they do become incurable when they progress to unresectable metastatic disease. Surgery is the only curative treatment and is recommended for most patients for whom cross-sectional imaging suggests that complete resection is possible. This article reviews the surgical management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, including the preoperative control of hormonal symptoms, extent of resection required, postoperative outcomes, and differing management strategies as determined by whether the tumor has arisen sporadically or as part of a familial disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293651000002

    View details for PubMedID 21936439

  • Ruptured Biliary Cystadenoma Managed by Angiographic Embolization and Interval Partial Hepatectomy DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Ghole, S. A., Bakhtary, S., Staudenmayer, K., Sze, D. Y., Pai, R. K., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2011; 56 (7): 1949-1953

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-1677-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291481800006

    View details for PubMedID 21445579

  • Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors With Major Vascular Abutment, Involvement, or Encasement and Indication for Resection ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Norton, J. A., Harris, E. J., Chen, Y., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Kunz, P. C., Fisher, G. A., Jensen, R. T. 2011; 146 (6): 724-732

    Abstract

    Surgery for pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) with blood vessel involvement is controversial.Resection of PETs with major blood vessel involvement can be beneficial.The combined databases of the National Institutes of Health and Stanford University hospitals were queried.Operation, pathologic condition, complications, and disease-free and overall survival.Of 273 patients with PETs, 46 (17%) had preoperative computed tomography evidence of major vascular involvement. The mean size for the primary PET was 5.0 cm. The involved major vessel was as follows: portal vein (n = 20), superior mesenteric vein or superior mesenteric artery (n = 16), inferior vena cava (n = 4), splenic vein (n = 4), and heart (n = 2). Forty-two of 46 patients had a PET removed: 12 (27%) primary only, 30 (68%) with lymph nodes, and 18 (41%) with liver metastases. PETs were removed by either enucleation (n = 7) or resection (n = 35). Resections included distal or subtotal pancreatectomy in 23, Whipple in 10, and total in 2. Eighteen patients had concomitant liver resection: 10 wedge resection and 8 anatomic resections. Nine patients had vascular reconstruction: each had reconstruction of the superior mesenteric vein and portal vein, and 1 had concomitant reconstruction of the superior mesenteric artery. There were no deaths, but 12 patients had complications. Eighteen patients (41%) were immediately disease free, and 5 recurred with follow-up, leaving 13 (30%) disease-free long term. The 10-year overall survival was 60%. Functional tumors were associated with a better overall survival (P < .001), and liver metastases decreased overall survival (P < .001).These findings suggest that surgical resection of PETs with vascular abutment/invasion and nodal or distant metastases is indicated.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291851500018

    View details for PubMedID 21690450

  • Colloid Carcinoma of the Pancreas DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Plerhoples, T. A., Ahdoot, M., DiMaio, M. A., Pai, R. K., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A. 2011; 56 (5): 1295-1298

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-1573-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289899200008

    View details for PubMedID 21253833

  • Reassessing the need for primary tumor surgery in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer: overview and perspective. Therapeutic advances in medical oncology Poultsides, G. A., Paty, P. B. 2011; 3 (1): 35-42

    Abstract

    In the absence of symptoms, primary tumor resection in patients who present with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer is of uncertain benefit. Prophylactic surgery has been traditionally considered in this setting in order to prevent subsequent complications of perforation, obstruction, or bleeding later during the treatment course, which may require urgent surgery associated with higher mortality. However, recent data have called into question the efficacy of this upfront surgical strategy. We provide a brief overview of how current combinations of systemic chemotherapy including fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and targeted biologic agents have allowed improved local (in addition to distant) tumor control, significantly decreasing the incidence of late primary-related complications requiring surgery from roughly 20% in the era of single-agent fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy to almost 7% in the era of modern triple-drug chemotherapy. In addition, we attempt to highlight those factors most associated with subsequent primary tumor-related complications in an effort to identify the subset of patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer who might benefit from a surgery-first approach. Finally, we discuss modern nonsurgical options available for palliation of the primary colorectal tumor and review the outcome of patients for which emergent surgery is eventually required to address primary-related symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1758834010386283

    View details for PubMedID 21789154

  • Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma SURGICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Poultsides, G. A., Zhu, A. X., Choti, M. A., Pawlik, T. M. 2010; 90 (4): 817-?

    Abstract

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a primary cancer of the bile ducts, arising from malignant transformation of the epithelial cells that line the biliary apparatus. ICC is relatively uncommon, but its incidence is on the increase. ICC is frequently discovered as an incidental, indeterminate liver mass. Surgical resection of ICC represents the only potentially curative therapeutic option. The role of routine hilar lymphadenectomy is controversial, but should be considered to optimize staging. Although adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is probably not supported by current data, each should strongly be considered in patients with lymph node metastasis or an R1 resection. For those patients with inoperable disease, locoregional therapy with transarterial chemoembolization can be considered.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.suc.2010.04.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280985500015

    View details for PubMedID 20637950

  • Histopathologic Basis for the Favorable Survival after Resection of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm-Associated Invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas ANNALS OF SURGERY Poultsides, G. A., Reddy, S., Cameron, J. L., Hruban, R. H., Pawlik, T. M., Ahuja, N., Jain, A., Edil, B. H., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C. A., Schulick, R. D., Wolfgang, C. L. 2010; 251 (3): 470-476

    Abstract

    To identify pathologic features that may account for the favorable survival after resection of invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) compared with standard pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) in the absence of IPMN.The 5-year survival after resection of IPMN-associated invasive adenocarcinoma is reported to be between 40% and 60%, which is superior to the 10-25%, typically cited after resection of standard PDA. It remains unclear whether this represents distinct biology or simply a tendency for earlier presentation of IPMN-associated invasive adenocarcinoma.A single institution's prospective pancreatic resection database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatectomy with curative intent. Log rank and Cox regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with survival.From 1995 to 2006, 1260 consecutive patients were identified, 132 (10%) with IPMN-associated invasive adenocarcinoma and 1128 (90%) with standard PDA. Actuarial 5-year survival was 42% after resection for IPMN-associated versus 19% for standard PDA (P < 0.001). However, compared with standard PDA, invasive adenocarcinoma arising within an IPMN was associated with a lower incidence of (1) advanced T stage (T2-T4, 96% vs. 73%, P < 0.001); (2) regional lymph node metastasis (78% vs. 51%, P < 0.001); (3) poor tumor differentiation (44% vs. 26%, P < 0.001); (4) vascular invasion (54% vs. 33%, P < 0.001); (5) perineural invasion (92% vs. 63%, P < 0.001); and (6) microscopic margin involvement (28% vs. 14%, P < 0.001). Specifically, in the presence of any one of the aforementioned adverse pathologic characteristics, outcomes after resection for IPMN-associated and standard PDA were not significantly different.The favorable biologic behavior of IPMN-associated compared with standard PDA is based on its lower rate of advanced T stage, lymph node metastasis, high tumor grade, positive resection margin, perineural, and vascular invasion. In the presence of any one of the aforementioned adverse pathologic characteristics, however, survival outcomes after resection of IPMN-associated and after resection of standard pancreatic adenocarcinoma are similar.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181cf8a19

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275060800014

    View details for PubMedID 20142731

  • Hepatic resection for colorectal metastases: the impact of surgical margin status on outcome HPB Poultsides, G. A., Schulick, R. D., Pawlik, T. M. 2010; 12 (1): 43-49

    Abstract

    An R0 margin width of 1 cm has traditionally been considered a prerequisite to minimize local recurrence and optimize survival following hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer. However, recent data have called into question the prognostic importance of the '1-cm rule'. Specifically, several studies have noted that, although an R0 resection is important, the actual margin width may not be as critical. We provide a brief overview of the impact of an R1 vs. an R0 resection on local recurrence and overall survival. In addition, we specifically review the impact of margin width in patients who have undergone an R0 resection. Finally, we highlight those factors most associated with an increased likelihood of an R1 resection and provide recommendations for avoiding and dealing with microscopic carcinoma discovered intraoperatively at the cut parenchymal transection margin.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2009.00121.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286434900007

    View details for PubMedID 20495644

  • Outcome of Primary Tumor in Patients With Synchronous Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Receiving Combination Chemotherapy Without Surgery As Initial Treatment JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Poultsides, G. A., Servais, E. L., Saltz, L. B., Patil, S., Kemeny, N. E., Guillem, J. G., Weiser, M., Temple, L. K., Wong, W. D., Paty, P. B. 2009; 27 (20): 3379-3384

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of interventions necessary to palliate the intact primary tumor in patients who present with synchronous, stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) and who receive up-front modern combination chemotherapy without prophylactic surgery.By using a prospective institutional database, we identified 233 consecutive patients from 2000 through 2006 with synchronous metastatic CRC and an unresected primary tumor who received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based, triple-drug chemotherapy (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin; bolus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan; or fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan) with or without bevacizumab as their initial treatment. The incidence of subsequent use of surgery, radiotherapy, and/or endoluminal stenting to manage primary tumor complications was recorded.Of 233 patients, 217 (93%) never required surgical palliation of their primary tumor. Sixteen patients (7%) required emergent surgery for primary tumor obstruction or perforation, 10 patients (4%) required nonoperative intervention (ie, stent or radiotherapy), and 213 (89%) never required any direct symptomatic management for their intact primary tumor. Of those 213 patients, 47 patients (20%) ultimately underwent elective colon resection at the time of metastasectomy, and eight patients (3%) underwent this resection during laparotomy for hepatic artery infusion pump placement. Use of bevacizumab, location of the primary tumor in the rectum, and metastatic disease burden were not associated with increased intervention rate.Most patients with synchronous, stage IV CRC who receive up-front modern combination chemotherapy never require palliative surgery for their intact primary tumor. These data support the use of chemotherapy, without routine prophylactic resection, as the appropriate standard practice for patients with neither obstructed nor hemorrhaging primary colorectal tumors in the setting of metastatic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2008.20.9817

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267821400019

    View details for PubMedID 19487380

  • Image of the Month Left Paraduodenal Hernia ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Poultsides, G. A., Zani, S., Bloom, P., Tishler, D. S. 2009; 144 (3): 287-288

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264218700021

    View details for PubMedID 19289672

  • Epigenetic regulation of hTERT promoter in hepatocellular carcinomas INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY Iliopoulos, D., Satra, M., Drakaki, A., Poultsides, G. A., Tsezou, A. 2009; 34 (2): 391-399

    Abstract

    Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, the molecular pathogenesis of the disease has not been elucidated. Several studies have shown that telomerase activity and hTERT expression are increased in HCCs. In the present study we tried to elucidate hTERT transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in HCC. hTERT expression was tested by real-time PCR and DNA methylation status was assessed by MethyLight and DNA bisulfite sequencing analyses in 106 tissues (64 with HCC and 42 without liver disorders) and also in 7 hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2, HepG3B2, C3A, SNU-182, SNU-398, SBU-449 and SNU-475). hTERT expression levels were inversely correlated with DNA methylation levels in HCC and normal tissues (r=-0.859). hTERT expression was found to be regulated by DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 modifications, affecting the ability of c-myc binding in E-box 1 site in hTERT promoter. Additionally, c-myc siRNA liposomal down-regulation inhibited significantly hTERT expression (p<0.05). Thus, we propose that hTERT is regulated by a combination of epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and histone modifications) and by the transcription factor c-myc in HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.3892/ijo_00000162

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262619500012

    View details for PubMedID 19148473

  • Angiographic embolization for gastroduodenal hemorrhage 88th Annual Meeting of the New-England-Surgical-Society Poultsides, G. A., Kim, C. J., Orlando, R., Peros, G., Halliscy, M. J., Vignati, P. V. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2008: 457–61

    Abstract

    To examine the safety, efficacy, and predictors of outcome of angiographic embolization in the management of gastroduodenal hemorrhage.Retrospective record review.University-affiliated tertiary care center.All of the patients were referred after endoscopic treatment failure. Surgery was not immediately considered because of poor surgical risk, refusal to consent, or endoscopist's decision. Patients with coagulopathy, hemobilia, and variceal or traumatic upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding were excluded from review.Between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2006, 70 embolization procedures were performed in 57 patients.Technical success rate (target vessel devascularization), clinical success rate (in-hospital cessation of bleeding without further endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical intervention), and complications.The technical success rate was 94% (66 of 70 angiographies). The primary clinical success rate was 51% (29 of 57 patients), and the clinical success rate after repeat embolization was 56% (32 of 57 patients). Two factors were found to be independent predictors of poor outcome by multivariate analysis: recent duodenal ulcer suture ligation (P = .03) and blood transfusion of more than 6 units prior to the procedure (P = .04). There was no predictive value for angiographic failure based on age, sex, prior coagulopathy, renal failure at presentation, immunocompromised status, multiple organ system failure, empirical (blind) embolization, and use of permanent vs temporary embolic agents. Repeat embolizations were helpful for postsphincterotomy bleeding. Major ischemic complications (4 patients [7%]) were associated with previous foregut surgery.Angiographic embolization for gastroduodenal hemorrhage was associated with in-hospital rebleeding in almost half of the patients. Angiographic failure can be predicted if embolization is performed late, following blood transfusion of more than 6 units, or for rehemorrhage from a previously suture-ligated duodenal ulcer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255691800004

    View details for PubMedID 18490553

  • Hand-assisted laparoscopic management of liver tumors SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES Poultsides, G., Brown, M., Orlando, R. 2007; 21 (8): 1275-1279

    Abstract

    Laparoscopy has clearly advanced the treatment of many diseases related to the liver and biliary tree. The addition of hand assistance can further facilitate minimally invasive liver surgery by providing tactile feedback, atraumatic and versatile retraction, finger-fracture parenchyma dissection, and more precise placement of probes and staplers.Over a 7-year period, 28 patients with liver tumors underwent 31 hand-assisted laparoscopic operations at a tertiary care center. The candidates for hand-assisted laparoscopic resection were patients with lesions involving two hepatic segments or fewer located at the inferior edge of the liver (segments 5 and 6), or confined to the left lateral segment (segments 2 and 3). Ablation was reserved for patients with poor functional status or limited hepatic reserve, and hand-assistance was added for laparoscopic ablation of centrally located tumors (segments 7, 8, and 4a).The selection criteria were met by 52 patients, 6 of whom had benign lesions. The remaining 46 patients had malignant disease, and 15 of these patients (33%) were found to have extrahepatic disease: 11 at initial laparoscopy and 4 at hand-assisted abdominal exploration. Manual exploration also detected additional intrahepatic treatable lesions in two cases. A total of 19 patients (68%) had metastatic disease, and 3 (11%) had primary liver cancer. The most extensive resections were five left lateral segmentectomies. All margins were negative. The mean operative time was 2.75 h, and the mean blood loss was 230 ml. Two diaphragmatic injuries occurred during ablation of segment 8 lesions. Three cases were converted to open surgery because of adhesions. The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days. A group of 15 patients who had metastatic colorectal cancer treated with resection and/or ablation had a mean follow-up period of 24 months (range, 2-61 months) and a mean survival time of 36 months.For selected patients, the hand-assisted technique can be applied safely and effectively to laparoscopic liver surgery and may identify the presence of previously undetectable intrahepatic or extrahepatic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-006-9174-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248737700003

    View details for PubMedID 17479339

  • Carcinoid of the ampulla of Vater: Morpholdgic features and clinical implications WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY Poultsides, G. A., Frederick, W. A. 2006; 12 (43): 7058-7060

    Abstract

    Carcinoids involving the ampulla of Vater are rare lesions that may produce painless jaundice. The published data indicate that these tumors, in contrast to their midgut counterparts, metastasize in approximately half of cases irrespective of primary tumor size. Therefore, radical excision in the form of pancreaticoduodenectomy is recommended regardless of tumor size. As with other gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, biological treatment with octreotide analogues can be applied to symptomatic patients. Tumor-targeted radioactive therapy is a newly emerging treatment option. We here report case of a carcinoid tumor of the ampulla of Vater presenting as painless jaundice in a 65-year old man and review the relevant literature, giving special attention to the morphologic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment modalities associated with this disease process.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242299300026

    View details for PubMedID 17109507

  • Range of movement in the wrist as a diagnostic tool in radial-sided wrist pain SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY AND HAND SURGERY Wollstein, R., Watson, H. K., Poultsides, G., Wear-Maggitti, K., Carlson, L. 2006; 40 (4): 230-233

    Abstract

    Kienböck disease is diagnosed by imaging studies, and is often difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Our clinical impression is that wrist movement is more limited in Kienböck disease than when radial-sided wrist pain is caused by other conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the use of wrist movement in differentiating between early Kienböck disease and radial-sided sprained wrist. We retrospectively reviewed 62 cases of Kienböck disease and 49 patients with radial-sided wrist sprain. Wrist movement at presentation was recorded. The two groups differed significantly in flexion and extension (p<0.001). The ability of movement of the affected wrist relative to the normal side to distinguish between the groups was excellent (AUC = 0.96, 0.97, respectively). The ability of wrist movement measurements to differentiate between early Kienböck disease and radial-sided wrist sprain emphasises that wrist movement should be measured prior to invasive or expensive testing.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/02844310600679590

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239816700007

    View details for PubMedID 16911997

  • Portal vein thrombosis after laparoscopic colectomy: Thrombolytic therapy via the superior mesenteric vein AMERICAN SURGEON Poultsides, G. A., Lewis, W. C., Feld, R., Walters, D. L., Cherry, D. A., Ruby, S. T. 2005; 71 (10): 856-860

    Abstract

    Portal vein thrombosis is a rare but well-reported complication after laparoscopic surgery. We present a case of portomesenteric venous thrombosis that occurred 8 days after a laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy. Systemic anticoagulation failed to improve symptoms. The early postoperative state precluded the use of transarterial thrombolytic therapy. Transjugular intrahepatic catheter-directed infusion of urokinase into the superior mesenteric vein resulted in clearance of thrombus and resolution of symptoms. The published data on laparoscopy-induced splanchnic venous thrombosis and transjugular intrahepatic intramesenteric thrombolysis are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232812000013

    View details for PubMedID 16468535

  • Common origins of carotid and subclavian arterial systems: Report of a rare aortic arch variant ANNALS OF VASCULAR SURGERY Poultsides, G. A., Lolis, E. D., VASQUEZ, J., Drezner, A. D., Venieratos, D. 2004; 18 (5): 597-600

    Abstract

    An aberrant right subclavian artery (aSA) arising from the proximal descending aorta is one of the most common anomalies of the aortic arch. We present our experience with an asymptomatic atypical aSA variant found during routine anatomic dissection. This aortic arch variant had two branches, the first being a bicarotid trunk and the second being a common trunk for both subclavian arteries. The right subclavian artery traveled behind the esophagus to reach the right upper extremity, thus forming an incomplete vascular ring around the trachea and the esophagus. The literature has been silent about the existence of this exact aSA variation. A plausible embryologic explanation is provided. An aSA is rarely symptomatic, but when symptoms do occur and intervention is warranted, it is important for surgeons and radiologists alike to be aware of the vascular anomalies that may potentially coexist with this entity. The surgical and endovascular options associated with this unique vascular anomaly are also discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10016-004-0060-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223785100014

    View details for PubMedID 15534741

  • Double trisomy (48,XXY,+21) in monozygotic twins: case report and review of the literature ANNALES DE GENETIQUE Iliopoulos, D., Poultsides, G., Peristeri, V., KOURI, G., Andreou, A., Voyiatzis, N. 2004; 47 (1): 95-98

    Abstract

    The occurrence of double aneuploidy in the same individual is a relatively rare phenomenon. We describe twin newborns with typical clinical features of Down's syndrome, of which one revealed 48,XXY,+21 GTG-band karyotype. The second newborn died 2 days after its birth, and was clinically diagnosed having Down syndrome. Due to the same clinical features of the twins, the common placenta and amniotic sac, we speculate that they were monozygotics and as a result the second newborn should also be a Klinefelter. The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of possible coincidence of double aneuploidy in newborn twins. A review of the literature showed that double trisomy (48,XXY,+21) in a twin newborn infant has never occurred.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.anngen.2003.08.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221069400010

    View details for PubMedID 15050879

  • Endovascular stent-graft placement for nonaneurysmal infrarenal aortic rupture: A case report and review of the literature JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY VASQUEZ, J., Poultsides, G. A., Lorenzo, A. C., Foster, J. E., Drezner, A. D., Gallagher, J. 2003; 38 (4): 836-839

    Abstract

    Penetrating atheromatous ulceration of the infrarenal aorta is a rare entity. There are few reported cases of this lesion, and most of the published data is in regards to the thoracic aorta. Spontaneous rupture of a nonaneurysmal noninfected atherosclerotic infrarenal aorta is a rare event. We report the eleventh case of this occurrence and present the first reported case of endovascular stent-graft placement in treating this entity. We review the literature regarding ulcerative disease of the aorta and specifically discuss the published data on spontaneous rupture of the nondilated, noninfected infrarenal aorta secondary to penetrating atheromatous ulceration.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0741-5214(03)00557-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185858700035

    View details for PubMedID 14560239

  • Distal trapezius musculocutaneous flap for upper thoracic back wounds associated with spinal instrumentation and radiation ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Chun, J. K., Lynch, M. J., Poultsides, G. A. 2003; 51 (1): 17-22

    Abstract

    Upper thoracic wounds with exposed hardware from spinal instrumentation and previous radiation presents a subset of back wound coverage problems that lend themselves to a unique opportunity to use the distal trapezius musculocutaneous flap. The unradiated, healthy skin paddle can be transposed between the radiated skin edges to seal and cover the exposed hardware and achieve early primary healing of the back wound without the need for a skin graft. The authors review their series of the upper back radiated wounds reconstructed with the trapezius musculocutaneous flaps, immediately at the time of the spinal surgery and secondarily after the incisional wound breakdown, to cover the exposed hardware. Their contiguous skin flap design strategy, results, and complications are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184132000004

    View details for PubMedID 12838120