Single Cell Multiplex Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction After Patch-clamp
JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS
Depdc5 knockdown causes mTOR-dependent motor hyperactivity in zebrafish
ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL NEUROLOGY
2018; 5 (5): 510–23
The cerebral cortex is composed of numerous cell types exhibiting various morphological, physiological, and molecular features. This diversity hampers easy identification and characterization of these cell types, prerequisites to study their specific functions. This article describes the multiplex single cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol, which allows, after patch-clamp recording in slices, to detect simultaneously the expression of tens of genes in a single cell. This simple method can be implemented with morphological characterization and is widely applicable to determine the phenotypic traits of various cell types and their particular cellular environment, such as in the vicinity of blood vessels. The principle of this protocol is to record a cell with the patch-clamp technique, to harvest and reverse transcribe its cytoplasmic content, and to detect qualitatively the expression of a predefined set of genes by multiplex PCR. It requires a careful design of PCR primers and intracellular patch-clamp solution compatible with RT-PCR. To ensure a selective and reliable transcript detection, this technique also requires appropriate controls from cytoplasm harvesting to amplification steps. Although precautions discussed here must be strictly followed, virtually any electrophysiological laboratory can use the multiplex single cell RT-PCR technique.
View details for DOI 10.3791/57627
View details for Web of Science ID 000444752100075
View details for PubMedID 29985318
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6101963
DEPDC5 was identified as a major genetic cause of focal epilepsy with deleterious mutations found in a wide range of inherited forms of focal epilepsy, associated with malformation of cortical development in certain cases. Identification of frameshift, truncation, and deletion mutations implicates haploinsufficiency of DEPDC5 in the etiology of focal epilepsy. DEPDC5 is a component of the GATOR1 complex, acting as a negative regulator of mTOR signaling.Zebrafish represents a vertebrate model suitable for genetic analysis and drug screening in epilepsy-related disorders. In this study, we defined the expression of depdc5 during development and established an epilepsy model with reduced Depdc5 expression.Here we report a zebrafish model of Depdc5 loss-of-function that displays a measurable behavioral phenotype, including hyperkinesia, circular swimming, and increased neuronal activity. These phenotypic features persisted throughout embryonic development and were significantly reduced upon treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, as well as overexpression of human WT DEPDC5 transcript. No phenotypic rescue was obtained upon expression of epilepsy-associated DEPDC5 mutations (p.Arg487* and p.Arg485Gln), indicating that these mutations cause a loss of function of the protein.This study demonstrates that Depdc5 knockdown leads to early-onset phenotypic features related to motor and neuronal hyperactivity. Restoration of phenotypic features by WT but not epilepsy-associated Depdc5 mutants, as well as by mTORC1 inhibition confirm the role of Depdc5 in the mTORC1-dependent molecular cascades, defining this pathway as a potential therapeutic target for DEPDC5-inherited forms of focal epilepsy.
View details for DOI 10.1002/acn3.542
View details for Web of Science ID 000431968300001
View details for PubMedID 29761115
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5945968