How GPCR Phosphorylation Patterns Orchestrate Arrestin-Mediated Signaling.
High-throughput Site-directed Scanning Mutagenesis Using a Two-fragment PCR Approach
2020; 10 (1)
A new inhibitor of the β-arrestin/AP2 endocytic complex reveals interplay between GPCR internalization and signalling.
2017; 8: 15054
Binding of arrestin to phosphorylated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls many aspects of cell signaling. The number and arrangement of phosphates may vary substantially for a given GPCR, and different phosphorylation patterns trigger different arrestin-mediated effects. Here, we determine how GPCR phosphorylation influences arrestin behavior by using atomic-level simulations and site-directed spectroscopy to reveal the effects of phosphorylation patterns on arrestin binding and conformation. We find that patterns favoring binding differ from those favoring activation-associated conformational change. Both binding and conformation depend more on arrangement of phosphates than on their total number, with phosphorylation at different positions sometimes exerting opposite effects. Phosphorylation patterns selectively favor a wide variety of arrestin conformations, differently affecting arrestin sites implicated in scaffolding distinct signaling proteins. We also reveal molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Our work reveals the structural basis for the long-standing "barcode" hypothesis and has important implications for design of functionally selective GPCR-targeted drugs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.014
View details for PubMedID 33296703
GlnK Facilitates the Dynamic Regulation of Bacterial Nitrogen Assimilation.
2017; 112 (10): 2219–30
In addition to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and endocytosis, β-arrestin recruitment to ligand-stimulated GPCRs promotes non-canonical signalling cascades. Distinguishing the respective contributions of β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor and β-arrestin-promoted endocytosis in propagating receptor signalling has been limited by the lack of selective analytical tools. Here, using a combination of virtual screening and cell-based assays, we have identified a small molecule that selectively inhibits the interaction between β-arrestin and the β2-adaptin subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 without interfering with the formation of receptor/β-arrestin complexes. This selective β-arrestin/β2-adaptin inhibitor (Barbadin) blocks agonist-promoted endocytosis of the prototypical β2-adrenergic (β2AR), V2-vasopressin (V2R) and angiotensin-II type-1 (AT1R) receptors, but does not affect β-arrestin-independent (transferrin) or AP2-independent (endothelin-A) receptor internalization. Interestingly, Barbadin fully blocks V2R-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and blunts cAMP accumulation promoted by both V2R and β2AR, supporting the concept of β-arrestin/AP2-dependent signalling for both G protein-dependent and -independent pathways.
View details for PubMedID 28416805
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5399295
High-throughput mutagenesis using a two-fragment PCR approach.
2017; 7 (1): 6787
Ammonium assimilation in Escherichia coli is regulated by two paralogous proteins (GlnB and GlnK), which orchestrate interactions with regulators of gene expression, transport proteins, and metabolic pathways. Yet how they conjointly modulate the activity of glutamine synthetase, the key enzyme for nitrogen assimilation, is poorly understood. We combine experiments and theory to study the dynamic roles of GlnB and GlnK during nitrogen starvation and upshift. We measure time-resolved in vivo concentrations of metabolites, total and posttranslationally modified proteins, and develop a concise biochemical model of GlnB and GlnK that incorporates competition for active and allosteric sites, as well as functional sequestration of GlnK. The model predicts the responses of glutamine synthetase, GlnB, and GlnK under time-varying external ammonium level in the wild-type and two genetic knock-outs. Our results show that GlnK is tightly regulated under nitrogen-rich conditions, yet it is expressed during ammonium run-out and starvation. This suggests a role for GlnK as a buffer of nitrogen shock after starvation, and provides a further functional link between nitrogen and carbon metabolisms.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2017.04.012
View details for PubMedID 28538158
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5448240
Diverse activation pathways in class A GPCRs converge near the G-protein-coupling region.
2016; 536 (7617): 484-487
Site-directed scanning mutagenesis is a powerful protein engineering technique which allows studies of protein functionality at single amino acid resolution and design of stabilized proteins for structural and biophysical work. However, creating libraries of hundreds of mutants remains a challenging, expensive and time-consuming process. The efficiency of the mutagenesis step is the key for fast and economical generation of such libraries. PCR artefacts such as misannealing and tandem primer repeats are often observed in mutagenesis cloning and reduce the efficiency of mutagenesis. Here we present a high-throughput mutagenesis pipeline based on established methods that significantly reduces PCR artefacts. We combined a two-fragment PCR approach, in which mutagenesis primers are used in two separate PCR reactions, with an in vitro assembly of resulting fragments. We show that this approach, despite being more laborious, is a very efficient pipeline for the creation of large libraries of mutants.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-07010-4
View details for PubMedID 28754896
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5533798
GPCR-G Protein-ß-Arrestin Super-Complex Mediates Sustained G Protein Signaling.
2016; 166 (4): 907-919
Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that mediate a wide variety of physiological functions, including vision, neurotransmission and immune responses. They are the targets of nearly one-third of all prescribed medicinal drugs such as beta blockers and antipsychotics. GPCR activation is facilitated by extracellular ligands and leads to the recruitment of intracellular G proteins. Structural rearrangements of residue contacts in the transmembrane domain serve as 'activation pathways' that connect the ligand-binding pocket to the G-protein-coupling region within the receptor. In order to investigate the similarities in activation pathways across class A GPCRs, we analysed 27 GPCRs from diverse subgroups for which structures of active, inactive or both states were available. Here we show that, despite the diversity in activation pathways between receptors, the pathways converge near the G-protein-coupling region. This convergence is mediated by a highly conserved structural rearrangement of residue contacts between transmembrane helices 3, 6 and 7 that releases G-protein-contacting residues. The convergence of activation pathways may explain how the activation steps initiated by diverse ligands enable GPCRs to bind a common repertoire of G proteins.
View details for PubMedID 27525504
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5008462
Backbone NMR reveals allosteric signal transduction networks in the β1-adrenergic receptor.
2016; 530 (7589): 237–41
Classically, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation promotes G protein signaling at the plasma membrane, followed by rapid β-arrestin-mediated desensitization and receptor internalization into endosomes. However, it has been demonstrated that some GPCRs activate G proteins from within internalized cellular compartments, resulting in sustained signaling. We have used a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and cell-based methods to demonstrate the existence, functionality, and architecture of internalized receptor complexes composed of a single GPCR, β-arrestin, and G protein. These super-complexes or "megaplexes" more readily form at receptors that interact strongly with β-arrestins via a C-terminal tail containing clusters of serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. Single-particle electron microscopy analysis of negative-stained purified megaplexes reveals that a single receptor simultaneously binds through its core region with G protein and through its phosphorylated C-terminal tail with β-arrestin. The formation of such megaplexes provides a potential physical basis for the newly appreciated sustained G protein signaling from internalized GPCRs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.004
View details for PubMedID 27499021
Stabilization of G protein-coupled receptors by point mutations
FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY
2015; 6: 82
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are physiologically important transmembrane signalling proteins that trigger intracellular responses upon binding of extracellular ligands. Despite recent breakthroughs in GPCR crystallography, the details of ligand-induced signal transduction are not well understood owing to missing dynamical information. In principle, such information can be provided by NMR, but so far only limited data of functional relevance on few side-chain sites of eukaryotic GPCRs have been obtained. Here we show that receptor motions can be followed at virtually any backbone site in a thermostabilized mutant of the turkey β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Labelling with [(15)N]valine in a eukaryotic expression system provides over twenty resolved resonances that report on structure and dynamics in six ligand complexes and the apo form. The response to the various ligands is heterogeneous in the vicinity of the binding pocket, but gets transformed into a homogeneous readout at the intracellular side of helix 5 (TM5), which correlates linearly with ligand efficacy for the G protein pathway. The effect of several pertinent, thermostabilizing point mutations was assessed by reverting them to the native sequence. Whereas the response to ligands remains largely unchanged, binding of the G protein mimetic nanobody NB80 and G protein activation are only observed when two conserved tyrosines (Y227 and Y343) are restored. Binding of NB80 leads to very strong spectral changes throughout the receptor, including the extracellular ligand entrance pocket. This indicates that even the fully thermostabilized receptor undergoes activating motions in TM5, but that the fully active state is only reached in presence of Y227 and Y343 by stabilization with a G protein-like partner. The combined analysis of chemical shift changes from the point mutations and ligand responses identifies crucial connections in the allosteric activation pathway, and presents a general experimental method to delineate signal transmission networks at high resolution in GPCRs.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature16577
View details for PubMedID 26840483
AAscan, PCRdesign and MutantChecker: A Suite of Programs for Primer Design and Sequence Analysis for High-Throughput Scanning Mutagenesis
2013; 8 (10): e78878
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are flexible integral membrane proteins involved in transmembrane signaling. Their involvement in many physiological processes makes them interesting targets for drug development. Determination of the structure of these receptors will help to design more specific drugs, however, their structural characterization has so far been hampered by the low expression and their inherent instability in detergents which made protein engineering indispensable for structural and biophysical characterization. Several approaches to stabilize the receptors in a particular conformation have led to breakthroughs in GPCR structure determination. These include truncations of the flexible regions, stabilization by antibodies and nanobodies, fusion partners, high affinity and covalently bound ligands as well as conformational stabilization by mutagenesis. In this review we focus on stabilization of GPCRs by insertion of point mutations, which lead to increased conformational and thermal stability as well as improved expression levels. We summarize existing mutagenesis strategies with different coverage of GPCR sequence space and depth of information, design and transferability of mutations and the molecular basis for stabilization. We also discuss whether mutations alter the structure and pharmacological properties of GPCRs.
View details for PubMedID 25941489
Nitrogen and carbon status are integrated at the transcriptional level by the nitrogen regulator NtrC in vivo.
2013; 4 (6): e00881–13
Scanning mutagenesis is a powerful protein engineering technique used to study protein structure-function relationship, map binding sites and design more stable proteins or proteins with altered properties. One of the time-consuming tasks encountered in application of this technique is the design of primers for site-directed mutagenesis. Here we present an open-source multi-platform software AAscan developed to design primers for this task according to a set of empirical rules such as melting temperature, overall length, length of overlap regions, and presence of GC clamps at the 3' end, for any desired substitution. We also describe additional software tools which are used to analyse a large number of sequencing results for the presence of desired mutations, as well as related software to design primers for ligation independent cloning. We have used AAscan software to design primers to make over 700 mutants, with a success rate of over 80%. We hope that the open-source nature of our software and ready availability of freeware tools used for its development will facilitate its adaptation and further development. The software is distributed under GPLv3 licence and is available at http://www.psi.ch/lbr/aascan.
View details for PubMedID 24205336
Activity of the mycobacterial proteasomal ATPase Mpa is reversibly regulated by pupylation.
The Journal of biological chemistry
2012; 287 (11): 7907–14
Nitrogen regulation in Escherichia coli is a model system for gene regulation in bacteria. Growth on glutamine as a sole nitrogen source is assumed to be nitrogen limiting, inferred from slow growth and strong NtrB/NtrC-dependent gene activation. However, we show that under these conditions, the intracellular glutamine concentration is not limiting but 5.6-fold higher than in ammonium-replete conditions; in addition, α-ketoglutarate concentrations are elevated. We address this glutamine paradox from a systems perspective. We show that the dominant role of NtrC is to regulate glnA transcription and its own expression, indicating that the glutamine paradox is not due to NtrC-independent gene regulation. The absolute intracellular NtrC and GS concentrations reveal molecular control parameters, where NtrC-specific activities were highest in nitrogen-starved cells, while under glutamine growth, NtrC showed intermediate specific activity. We propose an in vivo model in which α-ketoglutarate can derepress nitrogen regulation despite nitrogen sufficiency.Nitrogen is the most important nutrient for cell growth after carbon, and its metabolism is coordinated at the metabolic, transcriptional, and protein levels. We show that growth on glutamine as a sole nitrogen source, commonly assumed to be nitrogen limiting and used as such as a model system for nitrogen limitation, is in fact nitrogen replete. Our integrative quantitative analysis of key molecules involved in nitrogen assimilation and regulation reveal that glutamine is not necessarily the dominant molecule signaling nitrogen sufficiency and that α-ketoglutarate may play a more important role in signaling nitrogen status. NtrB/NtrC integrates α-ketoglutarate and glutamine signaling--sensed by the UTase (glnD) and PII (glnB), respectively--and regulates the nitrogen response through self-regulated expression and phosphorylation-dependent activation of the nitrogen (ntr) regulon. Our findings support α-ketoglutarate acting as a global regulatory metabolite.
View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.00881-13
View details for PubMedID 24255125
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3870243
Pupylation is a bacterial post-translational modification of target proteins on lysine residues with prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Pup-tagged substrates are recognized by a proteasome-interacting ATPase termed Mpa in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mpa unfolds pupylated substrates and threads them into the proteasome core particle for degradation. Interestingly, Mpa itself is also a pupylation target. Here, we show that the Pup ligase PafA predominantly produces monopupylated Mpa modified homogeneously on a single lysine residue within its C-terminal region. We demonstrate that this modification renders Mpa functionally inactive. Pupylated Mpa can no longer support Pup-mediated proteasomal degradation due to its inability to associate with the proteasome core. Mpa is further inactivated by rapid Pup- and ATPase-driven deoligomerization of the hexameric Mpa ring. We show that pupylation of Mpa is chemically and functionally reversible. Mpa regains its enzymatic activity upon depupylation by the depupylase Dop, affording a rapid and reversible activity control over Mpa function.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.331124
View details for PubMedID 22210775
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3318712