Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Cardiac Surgery
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery, Pediatric
  • Thoracic Surgery

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Lawrence Crowley, MD, Endowed Professorship in Child Health, Stanford (2004)
  • Excellence in Teaching Award in the Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco (1992-94)
  • Outstanding Surgical Chief Resident Award, University of California, San Francisco (1986)
  • Outstanding Resident Teaching Award, University of California, San Francisco (1986)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha medical society, University of California, San Francisco (1986)
  • Outstanding Graduating Student in Surgery (Martin J Loeb Award), Tufts Medical School (1978)

Professional Education


  • Medical Education:Tufts University (1978) MA
  • Fellowship:UCSF Medical Center (1988) CA
  • Residency:UCSF Medical Center (1986) CA
  • Board Certification: Thoracic Surgery, American Board of Thoracic Surgery (1990)
  • Internship:UCSF Medical Center (1979) CA

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Frank L. Hanley, MD, is a professor of cardiothoracic surgery and director of the Children’s Heart Center and also directs the pediatric cardiac surgery programs at three satellite surgical sites—Oakland Children’s Hospital of Central California in Madera and Sutter Memorial Hospital in Sacramento—making the expertise of Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital available to these communities.

His research and clinical work focuses on the development of interventional techniques for fetal and neonatal treatment of congenital heart disease, pulmonary, vascular physiology, and the neurologic impact of open-heart surgery. He developed and pioneered the “unifocalization” procedure, in which a single procedure is used to repair a complex and life-threatening congenital heart defect rather than several staged open-heart surgeries as performed by other surgeons. Currently, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital is a worldwide referral site for patients requiring these procedures.

Hanley earned his BA from Brown University and his MD from Tufts University School of Medicine. He completed a surgical internship at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he later became chief resident in both general surgery and cardiothoracic surgery and completed a research fellowship at UCSF’s Cardiovascular Research Institute. Hanley was a tenured professor and chief of the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at UCSF and received the Excellence in Teaching Award in the Department of Surgery in 1994. Prior to joining UCSF, he was on the faculty at Children’s Hospital Boston and served as associate professor at Harvard Medical School from 1989 to 1992. He joined the Stanford faculty in 2001 and was appointed the first holder of the Lawrence Crowley, MD, Endowed Professorship in Child Health in December 2004.

Hanley is actively involved in exploring new approaches for the surgical repair of pediatric heart disease and is developing evidence-based guidelines for clinical care. He is a member of many professional societies, including the American Heart Association, the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, the Howard C. Naffziger Surgical Society, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. He is a frequently invited guest lecturer, having given more than 75 presentations at regional, national, and international conferences and symposiums, and having published more than 100 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and authored or edited three major textbooks.

Clinical Trials


  • Measuring the Amount of Methadone or Morphine in the Blood of Neonates, Infants & Children After Cardiac Surgery. Not Recruiting

    Study Population: Neonates, infants and children from birth to 5 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. The use of methadone to provide analgesia may be increasing due to advantages compared to other commonly used opioid analgesic drugs. While efficacy of methadone has been reported in adults, there is a paucity of information in neonates and infants. In the latter population, fentanyl and morphine are most commonly used for opioid analgesia following major surgery, while methadone is frequently used for weaning of opioid dependent and tolerant patients, in spite of the paucity of knowledge of methadone pharmacology in this population. There are several clinical problems associated with fentanyl and morphine, and methadone may offer superior efficacy with fewer side effects than these agents. We propose to study the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone in neonates and infants in the intensive care unit following cardiac surgery.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Gregory Hammer, (650) 723 - 7835.

    View full details

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Home monitoring program reduces interstage mortality after the modified Norwood procedure JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Siehr, S. L., Norris, J. K., Bushnell, J. A., Ramamoorthy, C., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L., Wright, G. E. 2014; 147 (2): 718-?

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: From 2002 to 2005, the interstage mortality after a modified Norwood procedure was 7% in our program. An interstage home monitoring program (HMP) was established to identify Norwood procedure patients at increased risk of decompensation and to reduce interstage mortality. METHODS: Results of the first 5 years of the Norwood HMP were reviewed retrospectively. Interstage was defined as the time between Norwood hospital discharge and admission for second stage surgical palliation. In the HMP, families documented oxygen saturation, heart rate, weight, and feedings daily. Nurse practitioners called each family at least weekly, and when issues arose, action plans were determined based on symptom severity. RESULTS: Between October 2005 and October 2010 there were 46 Norwood procedure patients who survived to hospital discharge. All were enrolled in the HMP. Forty-five patients had a Norwood procedure with right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, and 1 patient had a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Interstage survival was 100%. Nineteen patients (41%) were admitted interstage; 5 patients were admitted twice, 1 patient was admitted 4 times. Seventeen patients (37%) required interstage interventions. Eight patients (17%) required major interventions: conduit stenting, aortic arch balloon angioplasty, emergent shunt, or early Glenn surgery. Minor interventions included supplemental oxygen, blood transfusion, intravenous hydration, diuresis, anti-arrhythmic therapy, or feeding adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 5 years of the HMP, all infants discharged after a modified Norwood procedure survived the interstage period. The HMP altered clinical management in 37% of patients. Home monitoring of oxygen saturation, heart rate, weight, and feedings, along with comprehensive care coordination, allowed timely interventions and reduced interstage mortality from 7% to 0%.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.04.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329724700031

    View details for PubMedID 23663957

  • Atherosclerosis causing recurrent catastrophic aortopulmonary shunt dehiscence in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Pediatric cardiology May, L., Hanley, F. L., Connolly, A. J., Reddy, S. 2013; 34 (8): 1945-1948

    Abstract

    Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with cholestatic liver disease, pulmonary valvar stenosis or atresia, vasculopathy, and renal disease. Although the liver and cardiac manifestations contribute to overall morbidity and mortality during their life span, these patients also carry a burden of important but often underappreciated vascular abnormalities. This report describes a 3 year-old girl with Alagille syndrome, hepatic cholestasis, systemic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (TOF/PA/MAPCAs). She presented for bilateral pulmonary artery plasty and central shunt upsizing. She then experienced three shunt dehiscence episodes, necessitating emergent intervention. Autopsy showed diffuse atherosclerosis and significant atherosclerotic plaque at the site of shunt dehiscence. This is the first reported case of ALGS with TOF/PA/MAPCAs and catastrophic shunt dehiscence due to significant generalized vasculopathy caused by dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Dyslipidemia, a known comorbidity in ALGS, is one of few modifiable risk factors that should be screened for and treated, particularly before cardiac surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-012-0484-4

    View details for PubMedID 22923029

  • Surgical management of neonatal atrioventricular septal defect with aortic arch obstruction. Annals of thoracic surgery Shuhaiber, J., Shin, A. Y., Gossett, J. G., Wypij, D., Backer, C. L., Hanley, F. L., Khan, M. S., Fraser, C. D., Jacques, F., Manning, P. B., Van Arsdell, G., Mayer, J. E., Costello, J. M. 2013; 95 (6): 2071-2077

    Abstract

    For neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction including coarctation of the aorta, we sought to determine whether a difference in outcomes exists after a primary neonatal versus staged surgical repair (neonatal arch repair with delayed intracardiac repair).This retrospective cohort study included consecutive neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction who underwent cardiac surgery before 28 days of age at six centers from 1990 to 2009. Characteristics and outcomes between patients undergoing neonatal versus staged repair were compared.Of 66 study patients, 31 (47%) underwent primary neonatal repair and 35 (53%) underwent staged repair. At baseline echocardiogram, a greater percentage of neonatal repair patients had relative unbalanced ventricular size (56% versus 35%, p = 0.02). There were no other differences in demographic characteristics, cardiac anatomical or functional details, or surgical technique. Those undergoing neonatal repair tended to be more likely to have at least moderate left atrioventricular valve regurgitation early after repair (42% versus 19%, p = 0.05) and to have at least one major in-hospital complication (42% versus 20%, p = 0.06). After the initial cardiac operation, compared with the neonatal repair group, patients undergoing staged repair had greater survival (87% versus 57% at 6 years, log-rank p = 0.02) and freedom from the first unplanned cardiac reoperation (69% versus 45% at 6 years, log-rank p = 0.005).For neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction, when compared with neonatal repair, a staged approach was associated with improved survival and lower morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.11.069

    View details for PubMedID 23415240

  • Aortic valve disease in pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collaterals. Annals of thoracic surgery Mainwaring, R. D., Dimeling, G., Punn, R., Hanley, F. L. 2013; 95 (6): 2122-2125

    Abstract

    Aortic valve disease in association with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (PA/VSD/MAPCAs) is an extremely rare combination of congenital heart defects. The presence of aortic stenosis or insufficiency or both imposes an additional physiologic burden that complicates the management of PA/VSD/MAPCAs. This report summarizes our experience with 7 patients who underwent surgical repair of this rare combination of defects.This was a retrospective review of patients who had both aortic valve disease and PA/VSD/MAPCAs. Four patients had predominantly aortic stenosis, 2 patients had aortic insufficiency, and 1 had mixed stenosis and insufficiency. Anatomically, this corresponded to a dysplastic trileaflet valve in 4, bicuspid valve in 2, and quadricuspid valve in 1.Four of the 7 patients underwent aortic valve surgery at the time of their first operation for PA/VSD/MAPCAs. The remaining 3 patients had aortic valve surgery at subsequent operations. All 7 patients are alive, with a median duration of follow-up of 3 years. One patient has required aortic valve replacement 2 years after repair of an insufficient bicuspid valve.This manuscript summarizes our experience with 7 patients who had the rare combination of aortic valve disease and PA/VSD/MAPCAs. Although aortic valve disease has been reported for other conotruncal defects, we believe this is the first report of its presence in association with PA/VSD/MAPCAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.03.070

    View details for PubMedID 23643545

  • Fetal cardiac intervention: Improved results of fetal cardiac bypass in immature fetuses using the TinyPump device. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Sebastian, V. A., Ferro, G., Kagawa, H., Nasirov, T., Maeda, K., Ferrier, W. T., Takatani, S., Riemer, R. K., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2013; 145 (6): 1460-1464

    Abstract

    Fetal cardiac surgery is a potential innovative treatment for certain congenital heart defects that have significant mortality and morbidity in utero or after birth, but it has been limited by placental dysfunction after fetal cardiac bypass. We have used the TinyPump device for fetal cardiac bypass in sheep fetuses at 90 to 110 days gestation.Ten mixed-breed pregnant ewes were used over a period of 6 months, and 10 fetuses were placed on bypass for 30 minutes. Five fetuses with a mean gestational age of 104 ± 4.5 days and mean weight of 1.4 ± 0.4 kg were placed on bypass using the TinyPump device, and 5 fetuses with a mean gestational age of 119 ± 4.5 days and mean weight of 3.4 ± 0.4 kg were placed on bypass using the roller head pump. The fetuses were monitored for up to 3 hours after bypass or until earlier demise.Progressive respiratory and metabolic acidosis developed in all fetuses. The TinyPump group had a lower gestational age and weight compared with the roller head pump group. However, the rate of postbypass deterioration in the TinyPump group, as measured with blood gases, was noted to be significantly slower compared with the roller head pump group.We demonstrate the feasibility of the TinyPump device for fetal cardiac bypass in a fetal sheep model. The TinyPump group showed improved results compared with the roller head group despite more immature fetuses. The TinyPump device seems to be a promising device for future studies of fetal cardiac bypass in immature fetal sheep and in primates.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.08.014

    View details for PubMedID 22944083

  • Postoperative respiratory failure in children with tetralogy of fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals: a pilot study. Pediatric critical care medicine Asija, R., Hanley, F. L., Roth, S. J. 2013; 14 (4): 384-389

    Abstract

    : Children with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (TOF/PA/MAPCAs), who undergo unifocalization surgery are at risk for prolonged postoperative respiratory failure. We sought to identify risk factors that are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation in this population.: We collected preoperative and operative data from medical records and postoperative data prospectively. Mechanical ventilation beyond postoperative day 5, which was greater than the 50th percentile for the subjects enrolled, was considered prolonged. Risk factors were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, independent samples t test, Fisher's exact test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Enrollment occurred over a 20-month period between May 2009 and January 2011.: Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (Palo Alto, CA).: All patients with TOF/PA/MAPCAs presenting for unifocalization or pulmonary artery revision procedures were eligible, including those with additional structural cardiac abnormalities requiring surgical intervention. We excluded patients with single-ventricle cardiac anatomy and preoperative respiratory failure or infection.: We enrolled 35 consecutive patients undergoing 37 procedures over the study period. One patient was excluded for single-ventricle anatomy. There were 12 cases (32%) of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Delayed sternal closure was the only risk factor associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (p = 0.01). Age, weight, cardiopulmonary bypass time, 22q11 microdeletion, postoperative fluid balance, bronchospasm, and nonrespiratory infection were not significantly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Respiratory complications occurred in both groups, and patients with pneumonia were more likely to have a prolonged course (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between the type of surgery performed and duration of mechanical ventilation.: Prolonged postoperative respiratory failure in children undergoing surgery for TOF/PA/MAPCAs was independently associated with delayed sternal closure. Respiratory complications occur after unifocalization surgery, and pneumonia is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Our pilot study suggests that clinical features common in this patient population, such as bronchospasm and 22q11 microdeletion, were not associated with more postoperative respiratory failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318272062b

    View details for PubMedID 23439458

  • Surgical Reconstruction of Pulmonary Stenosis With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Punn, R., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. 2013; 95 (4): 1417-1421

    Abstract

    Pulmonary stenosis with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collaterals (PS/VSD/MAPCAs) is an extremely rare form of congenital heart defect. Although it has been assumed that PS/VSD/MAPCAs would be similar to pulmonary atresia (PA) with VSD/MAPCA, there are currently no data to support this conjecture. This study reviewed our surgical experience with reconstruction of PS/VSD/MAPCA.This was a retrospective review of 25 patients (14 boys, 11 girls) who were born with PS/VSD/MAPCA and underwent surgical reconstruction. Preoperative pulmonary angiography was used to define the central branch pulmonary arteries and MAPCA. Patients were a median age of 4 months at the first operation.There was one operative death (4%) in this cohort of 25 patients, and complete repair was achieved in the 24 survivors (96%). There were two distinct subgroups of patients: 11 demonstrated cyanosis in the neonatal timeframe and underwent an initial procedure to augment pulmonary blood flow (+PBF). The remaining 14 patients formed the second group (-PBF). The median age at the first operation was 0.8 months in the +PBF group and 5.2 months in the -PBF group (p<0.005). Complete repair was achieved in 91% of patients in the +PBF group and in 100% in the -PBF group; however, the average number of procedures to achieve complete repair was 2.8 in the +PBF group vs 1.0 in the -PBF group (p<0.005).Outcomes for PS/VSD/MAPCAs as a whole were excellent, with a low surgical mortality and high rate of complete repair. There were two identifiable subgroups with distinctive differences required in their surgical management. These results provide a prognostic outlook for patients with PS/VSD/MAPCAs that can be compared and contrasted with PA/VSD/MAPCAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.01.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317150600039

    View details for PubMedID 23434256

  • Hemodynamic Assessment After Complete Repair of Pulmonary Atresia With Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Reddy, V. M., Peng, L., Kuan, C., Palmon, M., Hanley, F. L. 2013; 95 (4): 1397-1402

    Abstract

    Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collaterals (PA/VSD/MAPCAs) is a complex form of congenital heart defect. There are limited data regarding late hemodynamics of patients after repair of PA/VSD/MAPCAs. This study evaluated the hemodynamics of patients who underwent complete repair of PA/VSD/MAPCSs and subsequently returned for a conduit change.This was a retrospective review of 80 children undergoing a right ventricle (RV)-to-pulmonary artery conduit replacement after complete repair of PA/VSD/MAPCAs. All patients underwent preoperative cardiac catheterization to define the cardiac physiology. Patients were an average age of 6.5±1.2 years, and the average interval between complete repair and conduit change was 4.5±1.1 years.The preoperative cardiac catheterization demonstrated an average RV right peak systolic pressure of 70±22 mm Hg and pulmonary artery pressure of 38±14 mm Hg. This pressure gradient of 32 mm Hg reflects the presence of conduit obstruction. After conduit change, the intraoperative RV systolic pressure was 34±8 mm Hg, similar to 36±9 mm Hg at the conclusion of the previous complete repair. The corresponding RV/aortic pressure ratios were 0.36±0.07 and 0.39±0.09, respectively.The data demonstrate that patients who underwent complete repair of PA/VSD/MAPCAs had nearly identical pulmonary artery pressures when they returned for conduit change some 4.5 years later. This finding indicates that the growth and development of the unifocalized pulmonary vascular bed is commensurate with visceral growth. We would hypothesize that complete repair, along with low RV pressures, will confer a long-term survival advantage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.12.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317150600036

    View details for PubMedID 23453744

  • Surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in Williams and Alagille syndromes JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Monge, M. C., Mainwaring, R. D., Sheikh, A. Y., Punn, R., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. 2013; 145 (2): 476-481

    Abstract

    Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is a rare congenital heart defect frequently found in association with Williams and Alagille syndromes. Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, with most centers favoring catheter-based interventions. In contrast, we have preferentially used surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis.We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. A total of 16 patients were identified: 7 had Williams syndrome, 6 had Alagille syndrome, and 3 had no identifiable syndrome. Detailed pulmonary angiography was performed in all patients to define stenoses at the main, branch, lobar, and segmental arterial levels. The mean preoperative right ventricular/left ventricular pressure ratio was 0.88 ± 0.07. The surgical approach was a median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. All peripheral stenoses were augmented with pulmonary artery homograft tissue. The median age at surgery was 14 months, and concomitant procedures were performed in 9 of the 16 patients.There was 1 operative mortality (6%). The mean right ventricular/left ventricular pressure ratio decreased to 0.40 ± 0.04 postoperatively (P < .005), representing a 55% reduction compared with the preoperative values. The patients were followed up for a median of 5 years. No late mortality occurred and reoperation was not required.The data have demonstrate that this comprehensive surgical approach to the treatment of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis was associated with low early and no late mortality. Surgical reconstruction of the peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis resulted in a significant decrease in right ventricular pressure. We hypothesize that this reduction in right ventricular pressures will confer a long-term survival advantage for this cohort of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.09.102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313634700030

    View details for PubMedID 23228407

  • Computational fluid dynamic simulations for determination of ventricular workload in aortic arch obstructions JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Coogan, J. S., Chan, F. P., LaDisa, J. F., Taylor, C. A., Hanley, F. L., Feinstein, J. A. 2013; 145 (2): 489-U535

    Abstract

    The cardiac workload associated with various types of aortic obstruction was determined using computational fluid dynamic simulations.Computed tomography image data were collected from 4 patients with 4 distinct types of aortic arch obstructions and 4 controls. The categorization of arch hypoplasia corresponded to the "A, B, C" nomenclature of arch interruption; a type "D" was added to represent diffuse arch hypoplasia. Measurements of the vessel diameter were compared against the normal measurements to determine the degree of narrowing. Three-dimensional models were created for each patient, and additional models were created for type A and B hypoplasia to represent 25%, 50%, and 75% diameter narrowing. The boundary conditions for the computational simulations were chosen to achieve realistic flow and pressures in the control cases. The simulations were then repeated after changing the boundary conditions to represent a range of cardiac and vascular adaptations. The resulting cardiac workload was compared with the control cases.Of the 4 patients investigated, 1 had aortic coarctation and 3 had aortic hypoplasia. The cardiac workload of the patients with 25% narrowing type A and B hypoplasia was not appreciably different from that of the control. When comparing the different arch obstructions, 75% type A, 50% type B, and 50% type D hypoplasia required a greater workload increase than 75% coarctation.The present study has determined the hemodynamic significance of aortic arch obstruction using computational simulations to calculate the cardiac workload. These results suggest that all types of hypoplasia pose more of a workload challenge than coarctation with an equivalent degree of narrowing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.03.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313634700032

    View details for PubMedID 22516390

  • Incidence and Risk Factors of Complete Atrioventricular Block after Operative Ventricular Septal Defect Repair. Congenital heart disease Siehr, S. L., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M., Miyake, C. Y., Dubin, A. M. 2013

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Complete atrioventricular block (AVB) is a recognized complication of ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair. The objective of this study was to examine incidence and risk factors. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study. All pediatric patients (age <18 years) who underwent VSD repair between November 2001 and August 2009 with concordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections were included. Patients were classified as having no AVB or transient AVB, and outcomes of early pacemaker placement (before hospital discharge) or late pacemaker placement (after hospital discharge) were recorded. RESULTS: Eight hundred twenty-eight patients (48.6% female) underwent VSD repair during the study period. Mean age at repair was 14 ± 29.4 months. A total of 64 patients (7.7%) developed surgical AVB. Among those patients who developed AVB, 48 (75%) had transient AVB. Sixteen patients (1.9%) required a pacemaker, 14 early (88%) and 2 late (12%). Patients <4?kg (4.2% vs. 1%, P ? .01) and those with inlet VSDs (11.6% vs. 1.4%, P ? .01) were more likely to develop surgical AVB. Surgical AVB was not influenced by the presence of chromosomal abnormalities or other congenital heart disease. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of surgical AVB is consistent with previous reports. Weight <4?kg and presence of an inlet VSD were significant risk factors.

    View details for PubMedID 23764088

  • Prevalence of Anomalous Coronary Arteries in Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Muralidaran, A., Mainwaring, R. D., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. 2013

    View details for PubMedID 23871887

  • Coronary Sinus Obstruction after Atrioventricular Canal Defect Repair. Congenital heart disease Peng, D. M., Sun, H. Y., Hanley, F. L., Olson, I., Punn, R. 2013

    Abstract

    The coronary sinus can become obstructed with any instrumentation at or near the ostium such as in atrioventricular canal defect repairs. This complication may lead to a wide range of consequences including dyspnea, angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. The following report illustrates the importance of careful perioperative echocardiographic evaluation of the coronary sinus in procedures that may affect the sinus and its ostium.

    View details for PubMedID 23682752

  • Early Outcomes After Extracardiac Conduit Fontan Operation Without Cardiopulmonary Bypass PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY McCammond, A. N., Kuo, K., Parikh, V. N., Abdullah, K., Balise, R., Hanley, F. L., Roth, S. J. 2012; 33 (7): 1078-1085

    Abstract

    Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. The authors hypothesized that avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass would lead to improved postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan operation, the final stage in surgical palliation of univentricular congenital heart defects. A review of the Children's Heart Center Database showed a total of 73 patients who underwent an initial Fontan operation at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford between 1 November 2001 and 1 November 2006. These patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 26) and those who avoided cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 47). Preoperative demographics, hemodynamics, and early postoperative outcomes were analyzed. The two groups had comparable preoperative demographic characteristics and hemodynamics except that the average weight of the off-bypass group was greater (17.9 ± 9.1 vs 14.2 ± 2.7 kg; P = 0.01). Intraoperatively, the off-bypass group trended toward a lower rate of Fontan fenestration (4.3 vs 19.2%; P = 0.09), had lower common atrial pressures (4.6 ± 1.4 vs 5.5 ± 1.5 mmHg; P = 0.05), and Fontan pressures (11.9 ± 2.1 vs 14.2 ± 2.4 mmHg; P ? 0.01), and required less blood product (59.1 ± 37.6 vs 91.9 ± 49.4 ml/kg; P ? 0.01). Postoperatively, there were no significant differences in hemodynamic parameters, postoperative colloid requirements, duration of mechanical ventilation, volume or duration of pleural drainage, or duration of cardiovascular intensive care unit or hospital stay. Avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass influenced intraoperative hemodynamics and the incidence of fenestration but did not have a significant impact on the early postoperative outcomes of children undergoing the Fontan procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-012-0228-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308828200011

    View details for PubMedID 22349678

  • Predictors for use of temporary epicardial pacing wires after pediatric cardiac surgery JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Gupta, P., Jines, P., Gossett, J. M., Maurille, M., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M., Miyake, C. Y., Roth, S. J. 2012; 144 (3): 557-562

    Abstract

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the use of temporary epicardial pacing wires to diagnose and treat early postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric cardiac surgical patients and (2) to determine the predictive factors for the need of pacing wires for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.We collected preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data in a prospective, observational format from patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery between August 2010 and January 2011 at a single academic children's hospital.A total of 157 patients met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Of these 157 patients, pacing wires were placed in 127 (81%). Pacing wires were used in 25 patients (19.6%) for diagnostic purposes, 26 patients (20.4%) for therapeutic purposes, 15 patients (11.8%) for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and 36 patients (28.3%) for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Need for cardioversion in the operating room, presence of 2 or more intracardiac catheters, severely reduced ventricular ejection fraction, and elevated serum lactate level at the time of operating room discharge were found to be independent predictors for the use of pacing wires. The only complication noted in the cohort was a skin infection at a pacing wire insertion site in 1 patient. A permanent pacemaker was required in 8 (6.2%) of all patients with temporary pacing wires.Our data support the use of temporary epicardial pacing wires in approximately 30% of children after congenital heart surgery. We found the need for cardioversion in the operating room, presence of 2 or more intracardiac catheters, severely reduced ventricular ejection fraction, and high serum lactate level at the time of discharge from the operating room to be independent predictors of the use of pacing wires in the early postoperative period.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.12.060

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308064200037

    View details for PubMedID 22329984

  • Late Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Aortopulmonary Window for Pulmonary Atresia/Stenosis and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Reddy, V. M., Perry, S. B., Peng, L., Hanley, F. L. 2012; 94 (3): 842-849

    Abstract

    Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) is a complex form of congenital heart defect. One identifiable subset has small (<2.5 mm) intrapericardial branch pulmonary arteries that are (1) confluent, (2) have normal arborization, and (3) have dual-supplied collateral vessels. When this anatomy is associated with limited pulmonary blood flow, the patients are candidates for creation of an aortopulmonary window to stimulate growth of the pulmonary arteries. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with creation of an aortopulmonary window as the initial palliative procedure.This was a retrospective review of our surgical experience with 35 children undergoing aortopulmonary window creation from 2002 to 2011. Patients were identified by preoperative cardiac catheterization to define the cardiac and pulmonary artery anatomy.There was no mortality in 35 patients undergoing aortopulmonary window creation. These patients have subsequently undergone 78 cardiac procedures (with 2 operative mortalities). Eighteen of these patients have achieved complete repair, 4 patients in a second procedure, 6 patients in a third procedure, 5 patients in a fourth procedure, and 3 patients in a fifth procedure.The data demonstrate that patients can undergo creation of an aortopulmonary window with excellent early results. Few patients were amenable to complete repair at the second operation, and most required multiple reoperations to recruit sufficient arborization. We interpret these counterintuitive results to suggest that hypoplastic central pulmonary arteries and diminished pulmonary blood flow are markers for a less well developed pulmonary vascular bed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.03.061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308138900031

    View details for PubMedID 22857982

  • Pulmonary reperfusion injury after the unifocalization procedure for tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Maskatia, S. A., Feinstein, J. A., Newman, B., Hanley, F. L., Roth, S. J. 2012; 144 (1): 184-189

    Abstract

    The aims of our study are to describe the incidence, clinical profile, and risk factors for pulmonary reperfusion injury after the unifocalization procedure for tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. We hypothesized the following: (1) Pulmonary reperfusion injury is more likely to occur after unifocalization procedures in which a septated circulation is not achieved, (2) pulmonary reperfusion injury is directly related to the severity of stenosis in major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, and (3) pulmonary reperfusion injury leads to longer intubation time and longer hospitalization.Consecutive patients with tetralogy of Fallot/pulmonary atresia/major aortopulmonary collateral arteries who underwent unifocalization procedures over a 5-year period were identified in our institutional database. Chest radiographs before the unifocalization procedure, from postoperative days 0 to 4, and from 2 weeks after the unifocalization procedure or at discharge were evaluated by a pediatric radiologist for localized pulmonary edema. Determination of stenosis severity was based on review of preoperative angiograms. Statistical analyses using multivariate repeated-measures analyses were performed with generalized estimating equations.Pulmonary reperfusion injury was present after 42 of 65 (65%) unifocalization procedures. In 36 of 42 cases of reperfusion injury, unilateral injury was present. Risk factors for the development of reperfusion injury included bilateral unifocalization (P = .01) and degree of stenosis (P = .03). We did not identify an association between pulmonary reperfusion injury and time to tracheal extubation or hospital discharge.Pulmonary reperfusion injury is common after the unifocalization procedure for tetralogy of Fallot/pulmonary atresia/major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Severity of stenosis and bilateral unifocalization are associated with the development of reperfusion injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.12.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305412200031

    View details for PubMedID 22244564

  • Midterm Results of the Modified Ross/Konno Procedure in Neonates and Infants ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Maeda, K., Rizal, R. E., Lavrsen, M., Malhotra, S. P., Akram, S. A., Davies, R., Suleman, S., Reinhartz, O., Murphy, D. J., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2012; 94 (1): 156-163

    Abstract

    The management of congenital aortic stenosis in neonates and infants continues to be a surgical challenge. We have performed the modified Ross-Konno procedure for patients who have severe aortic insufficiency or significant residual stenosis after balloon aortic dilation. The midterm results of this procedure were evaluated in this subset of patients.Between 1994 and 2010, a total of 24 patients younger than 1 year of age underwent the modified Ross-Konno procedure. The diagnoses were aortic stenosis with or without subaortic stenosis (n = 16), Shone's complex (n = 7), and interrupted aortic arch with subaortic stenosis (n = 1). The aortic root was replaced with a pulmonary autograft, and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) was enlarged with a right ventricular infundibular free wall muscular extension harvested with the autograft.Age at operation ranged from 1 to 236 days (median 28 days). The median follow-up period was 81 months (range 1-173 months). There was 1 early death and no late mortality. Overall the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rate was 95% ± 4.5%. Freedom from aortic stenosis was 94.7% ± 5.1% at 1, 2, and 5 years. Less than mild aortic insufficiency was 93.3% ± 6.4% at 2 years, and 74.7% ± 12.9% at 5 years. In total, 23 reoperations and reinterventions were performed; 14 were allograft conduit replacements. Two patients required aortic valve plasty. None required valve replacement. The reintervention-free rate was 64.6% ± 10.8% at 2 years and 36.9% ± 11.3% at 5 years.Pulmonary autografts demonstrated good durability with low mortality and morbidity. This study shows that the modified Ross-Konno procedure can be a practical choice in selective cases for complex LVOT stenosis in neonates and infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.03.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305801600033

    View details for PubMedID 22626750

  • Reconstruction of Pulmonary Artery in a Newborn Using a Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosal Patch ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Chalajour, F., Barboza, L. A., Boni, L., Snyder, R., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M., Riemer, R. K. 2012; 93 (4): 1311-1315

    Abstract

    In this case report, we evaluated cellular structure and the growth potential of a porcine small intestinal submucosal patch used for pulmonary artery augmentation in a 20-day-old newborn with pulmonary atresia. The patch was resected 2 months postoperatively due to apparent abnormal wall thickening and evaluated by histologic and immunohistologic staining.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.08.055

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302120200064

    View details for PubMedID 22450088

  • Late Repair of the Native Pulmonary Valve in Patients With Pulmonary Insufficiency After Surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Pirolli, T., Punn, R., Hanley, F. L. 2012; 93 (2): 677-679

    Abstract

    Pulmonary regurgitation developing late after tetralogy of Fallot repair is now recognized as a serious threat to the long-term welfare of these patients. This article summarizes our experience with 5 patients who underwent reoperations for treatment of severe pulmonary regurgitation after transannular patch repair of tetralogy of Fallot. In each case, the intraoperative findings revealed anatomy favorable for valve repair and enabled preservation of the native pulmonary valves.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.09.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299540200069

    View details for PubMedID 22269747

  • Surgical Results in Patients With Pulmonary Atresia-Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals in Association With Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Reddy, M., Reinhartz, O., Punn, R., Tacy, T., Hanley, F. L. 2011; 92 (5): 1756-1760

    Abstract

    Pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collaterals (PA/MAPCAs) is a complex form of congenital heart disease. One to two percent of patients with PA/MAPCAs will also have total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). This study summarizes our surgical experience with this rare combination of life-threatening congenital heart defects.A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who had surgery for PA/MAPCAs in association with TAPVC. From November 2001 to March 2011, 9 patients presented with this combination of defects. Eight of the 9 patients had heterotaxy with an unbalanced atrioventricular canal and functional single ventricle. The ninth patient had double outlet right ventricle (two ventricles). Timing of surgical intervention was typically predicated on the degree of pulmonary venous obstruction. The median age at surgery was 14 days. All nine patients had surgical correction of TAPVC, unifocalization of MAPCA's into a central confluence, and placement of a shunt.There was one early mortality (< 30 days) and two late mortalities. For the 6 survivors, 5 have subsequently undergone a bidirectional Glenn procedure, and 3 had completion of their Fontan. Two patients are currently at the bidirectional Glenn stage; one is a good candidate for Fontan completion while the other is not suitable. The sixth patient is awaiting further assessment.The PA/MAPCAs, in association with TAPVC, is a challenging combination of defects. The data suggest that the combination of PA/MAPCAs and TAPVC can be undertaken with a reasonable midterm prognosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.06.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296925400045

    View details for PubMedID 21944736

  • Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery: Medium-Term Results After Surgical Repair in 50 Patients ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Reddy, V. M., Reinhartz, O., Petrossian, E., Macdonald, M., Nasirov, T., Miyake, C. Y., Hanley, F. L. 2011; 92 (2): 691-697

    Abstract

    Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a rare congenital heart defect that has been associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death. Controversies exist regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term recommendations for patients with AAOCA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the medium-term results of surgical repair for AAOCA.From January 1999 through August 2010, 50 patients underwent surgical repair of AAOCA. The median age at surgery was 14 years (range, 5 days to 47 years). Thirty-one patients had the right coronary originate from the left sinus of Valsalva, 17 had the left coronary originate from the right sinus, and 2 had an eccentric single coronary ostium. Twenty six of the 50 patients had symptoms of myocardial ischemia preoperatively, and 14 patients had associated congenital heart defects. Repair was accomplished by unroofing in 35, reimplantation in 6, and pulmonary artery translocation in 9.There was no operative mortality. The median time of follow-up has been 5.7 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 patient required heart transplantation 1 year after AAOCA repair. In the remaining 47 postoperative patients, all have remained free of cardiac symptoms and no one has experienced a sudden death event.The surgical treatment of AAOCA is safe and appears to be highly effective in eliminating ischemic symptoms. These medium-term results are encouraging and suggest that many patients may be able to resume normal activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.03.127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293221000050

    View details for PubMedID 21718962

  • Survival after extreme left atrial hypertension and pulmonary hemorrhage in an infant supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory atrial flutter PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Cisco, M. J., Asija, R., Dubin, A. M., Perry, S. B., Hanley, F. L., Roth, S. J. 2011; 12 (3): E149-E152

    Abstract

    We report here the survival of an infant who developed extreme left atrial hypertension and severe pulmonary hemorrhage while supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory atrial flutter. The patient recovered after decompression of the left heart and catheter ablation of the atrioventricular node.Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (Stanford, CA).Chart review.Recovery of lung function is possible despite systemic-level left atrial pressure resulting in pulmonary hemorrhage and complete solidification of lung parenchyma on gross inspection. Resolution of pulmonary hemorrhage despite anticoagulation while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can occur after relief of left atrial hypertension.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181e8b3e5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290248500008

    View details for PubMedID 20693934

  • The hybrid procedure for the borderline left ventricle CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG Davis, C. K., Pastuszko, P., Lamberti, J., Moore, J., Hanley, F., El Said, H. 2011; 21 (1): 26-30

    Abstract

    IntroductionIn patients with varying degrees of left heart hypoplasia, it is often difficult to determine whether the left heart structures are adequate in size to support biventricular circulation. Historically, the decision to pursue a single ventricle or biventricular repair needed to be made early and was often irreversible. The hybrid procedure may be a better initial approach for patients with borderline left ventricles.We describe a series of four patients with various congenital cardiac malformations, all of whom had borderline left ventricles. Based on pre-operative echocardiograms, several scoring systems and left ventricle volumes were used to predict the optimal type of repair. A left ventricular volume of 20 millilitres per square metre was used as the minimum cut-off value for adequacy of biventricular repair.The left ventricular volumes for the patients were 17.1, 23.7, 25.4, and 25.8 millilitres per square metre. In none of the four patients were the calculations unanimous in the recommendation to pursue either type of repair. All patients underwent the hybrid procedure and then eventual single ventricle palliation (two patients) or biventricular repair (two patients). All survived with a mean follow-up of 18 plus or minus 3.9 months.The hybrid procedure may be the best option in patients with a borderline left ventricle. It can serve as a bridge to a more definitive repair when patients are older, larger, and for whom the decision between single ventricle and biventricular repair can be more easily made.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1047951110001423

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285981400005

    View details for PubMedID 21070689

  • The hemi-Mustard/bidirectional Glenn atrial switch procedure in the double-switch operation for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries: Rationale and midterm results JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Malhotra, S. P., Reddy, V. M., Qiu, M., Pirolli, T. J., Barboza, L., Reinhartz, O., Hanley, F. L. 2011; 141 (1): 162-170

    Abstract

    This study was undertaken to assess the risks and benefits of the double-switch operation using a hemi-Mustard atrial switch procedure and the bidirectional Glenn operation for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. To avoid complications associated with the complete Senning and Mustard procedures and to assist right-heart hemodynamics, we favor a modified atrial switch procedure, consisting of a hemi-Mustard procedure to baffle inferior vena caval return to the tricuspid valve in conjunction with a bidirectional Glenn operation.Between January 1994 and September 2009, anatomic repair was achieved in 48 patients. The Rastelli-atrial switch procedure was performed in 25 patients with pulmonary atresia and the arterial-atrial switch procedure was performed in 23 patients. A hemi-Mustard procedure was the atrial switch procedure for 70% (33/48) of anatomic repairs.There was 1 in-hospital death after anatomic repair. There were no late deaths or transplantation. At a median follow-up of 59.2 months, 43 of 47 survivors are in New York Heart Association class I. Bidirectional Glenn operation complications were uncommon (2/33), limited to the perioperative period, and seen in patients less than 4 months of age. Atrial baffle-related reoperations or sinus node dysfunction have not been observed. Tricuspid regurgitation decreased from a mean grade of 2.3 to 1.2 after repair (P = .00002). Right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit longevity is significantly improved.We describe a 15-year experience with the double-switch operation using a modified atrial switch procedure with favorable midterm results. The risks of the hemi-mustard and bidirectional Glenn operation are minimal and are limited to a well-defined patient subset. The benefits include prolonged conduit life, reduced baffle- and sinus node-related complications, and technical simplicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285407500029

    View details for PubMedID 21055773

  • Anomalous coronary arteries from the opposite sinus of Valsalva in asymptomatic siblings treated with pulmonary arterial translocation JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Obayashi, D. Y., Yeh, J., Silverman, N. H., Hanley, F. L. 2010; 140 (6): 1430-1432

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.05.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284149200036

    View details for PubMedID 21078428

  • Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Total Body Flow and Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion at Deep and Moderate Hypothermia ARTIFICIAL ORGANS Sasaki, T., Boni, L., Riemer, R. K., Yeung, J. T., Ramamoorthy, C., Beckman, R., Gisner, C., Shuttleworth, P., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2010; 34 (11): 980-986

    Abstract

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of temperature on cerebral oxygen metabolism at total body flow bypass and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP). Neonatal piglets were put on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the initial flow rate of 200mL/kg/min. After cooling to 18°C (n=6) or 25°C (n=7), flow was reduced to 100mL/kg/min (half-flow, HF) for 15min and ACP was initiated at 40mL/kg/min for 45min. Following rewarming, animals were weaned from bypass and survived for 4h. At baseline, HF, ACP, and 4?h post-CPB, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using fluorescent microspheres. Cerebral oxygen extraction (CEO(2) ) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2) ) were monitored. Regional cranial oxygen saturation (rSO(2) ) was continuously recorded throughout the procedure using near-infrared spectroscopy. At 18°C, CBF trended lower at HF and ACP and matched baseline after CPB. CEO(2) trended lower at HF and ACP, and trended higher after CPB compared with baseline. CMRO(2) at ACP matched that at HF. Cranial rSO(2) was significantly greater at HF and ACP (P<0.001, P<0.001) and matched baseline after CPB. At 25°C, CBF trended lower at HF, rebounded and trended higher at ACP, and matched baseline after CPB. CEO(2) was equal at HF and ACP and trended higher after CPB compared with baseline. CMRO(2) at ACP was greater than that at HF (P=0.001). Cranial rSO(2) was significantly greater at HF (P=0.01), equal at ACP, and lower after CPB (P=0.03). Lactate was significantly higher at all time points (P=0.036, P<0.001, and P<0.001). ACP provided sufficient oxygen to the brain at a total body flow rate of 100mL/kg/min at deep hypothermia. Although ACP provided minimum oxygenation to the brain which met the oxygen requirement, oxygen metabolism was altered during ACP at moderate hypothermia. ACP strategy at moderate hypothermia needs further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2010.01131.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284588300019

    View details for PubMedID 21092040

  • Surgical management of life threatening events caused by intermittent aortic insufficiency in a native valve: case report JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC SURGERY Martin, M. H., Perry, S. B., Prochazka, J. V., Hanley, F. L., Silverman, N. H. 2010; 5

    Abstract

    We describe a case of a patient admitted with apparent life threatening events characterized by hypotension and bradycardia. The patient was ultimately found to have intermittent severe aortic insufficiency. Upon surgical exploration, abnormalities were discovered in the aortic valve, which had a small left coronary cusp with absence of the nodulus of Arantius. Following surgical repair of the valve, aimed at preventing the small cusp from becoming stuck in the open position, the patient has remained episode free for over one year.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1749-8090-5-94

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284471500001

    View details for PubMedID 21034457

  • Optimal flow rate for antegrade cerebral perfusion JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Sasaki, T., Tsuda, S., Riemer, R. K., Ramamoorthy, C., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. 2010; 139 (3): 530-535

    Abstract

    Antegrade cerebral perfusion is widely used in neonatal heart surgery, yet commonly used flow rates have never been standardized. The objective of this study was to determine the antegrade cerebral perfusion flow rate that most closely matches standard cardiopulmonary bypass conditions.Nine neonatal piglets underwent deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass at a total body flow of 100 mL/kg/min (baseline). Antegrade cerebral perfusion was conducted via innominate artery cannulation at perfusion rates of 10, 30, and 50 mL/kg/min in random order. Cerebral blood flow was measured using fluorescent microspheres. Regional oxygen saturation and cerebral oxygen extraction were monitored.Cerebral blood flow was as follows: baseline, 60 +/- 17 mL/100 g/min; antegrade cerebral perfusion at 50 mL/kg/min, 56 +/- 17 mL/100 g/min; antegrade cerebral perfusion at 30 mL/kg/min, 36 +/- 9 mL/100 g/min; and antegrade cerebral perfusion at 10 mL/kg/min, 13 +/- 6 mL/100 g/min. At an antegrade cerebral perfusion rate of 50 mL/kg/min, cerebral blood flow matched baseline (P = .87), as did regional oxygen saturation (P = .13). Antegrade cerebral perfusion at 30 mL/kg/min provided approximately 60% of baseline cerebral blood flow (P < .002); however, regional oxygen saturation was equal to baseline (P = .93). Antegrade cerebral perfusion at 10 mL/kg/min provided 20% of baseline cerebral blood flow (P < .001) and a lower regional oxygen saturation than baseline (P = .011). Cerebral oxygen extraction at antegrade cerebral perfusion rates of 30 and 50 mL/kg/min was equal to baseline (P = .53, .48) but greater than baseline (P < .0001) at an antegrade cerebral perfusion rate of 10 mL/kg/min. The distributions of cerebral blood flow and regional oxygen saturation were equal in each brain hemisphere at all antegrade cerebral perfusion rates.Cerebral blood flow increased with antegrade cerebral perfusion rate. At an antegrade cerebral perfusion rate of 50 mL/kg/min, cerebral blood flow was equal to baseline, but regional oxygen saturation and cerebral oxygen extraction trends suggested more oxygenation than baseline. An antegrade cerebral perfusion rate of 30 mL/kg/min provided only 60% of baseline cerebral blood flow, but cerebral oxygen extraction and regional oxygen saturation were equal to baseline. An antegrade cerebral perfusion rate that closely matches standard cardiopulmonary bypass conditions is between 30 and 50 mL/kg/min.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.12.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274735400002

    View details for PubMedID 20176202

  • Deep Brain Hyperthermia While Rewarming from Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY Amir, G., Ramamoorthy, C., Riemer, R. K., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2009; 24 (5): 606-610

    Abstract

    Neurologic injury is a feared and serious long-term complication of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Postoperative hyperthermia was found to enhance postischemic neurologic injury. The use of core temperature as the reference point through CPB assumes parallel changes in brain temperature. We tested the hypothesis that regional and deep brain temperature (DBT) differ during cooling, DHCA, and rewarming.Neonatal piglets (n = 9) were subject to CPB and cooled to rectal temperature (RT) of 18 degrees C, 30 minutes of DHCA were initiated, and subsequently the piglets were rewarmed to RT of 36.5 degrees C and weaned from CPB. Temperature probes were inserted into the DBT targeting the caudate and thalamic nuclei, their position confirmed by pathology. Superficial brain temperature was measured by a temperature probe inserted extradurally. RT, nasopharyngeal (NPT), and tympanic (TT) temperatures were recorded.During cooling the deep brain cooled faster and to lower temperatures compared to RT and TT; NPT reflected DBT accurately. During rewarming DBT was significantly higher than RT and TT. By the end of rewarming the difference between the deep brain and the RT reached statistical significance (30 minutes: 35.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 32.3 +/- 0.7 p < 0.05, respectively, 40 minutes: 37.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 34.7 +/- 0.8 p < 0.05, respectively).Deep brain hyperthermia routinely occurs during the last stages of rewarming following DHCA. DBT is accurately reflected by NPT and is directly correlated with inflow temperature. Therefore, during rewarming inflow temperatures should not exceed 36 degrees C and NPT should be closely monitored.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8191.2009.00883.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269540900034

    View details for PubMedID 19740304

  • Outcome Analysis for a Small, Start-up Congenital Heart Surgery Program JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY Mainwaring, R. D., Reddy, V. M., Reinhartz, O., Lamberti, J. J., Jacobson, J. G., Jimenez, D. L., Hanley, F. L. 2008; 23 (6): 622-626

    Abstract

    There will be a continuing need to start new congenital heart surgery programs to serve communities experiencing significant population growth. However, small congenital heart programs frequently underperform their larger counterparts. This study summarizes the clinical outcome data for the first 42 months of a small, start-up congenital heart surgery program. Clinical outcomes were summarized from the start of the program in September 2003 through March 2007. Risk adjustment analysis was performed using the risk adjustment in congenital heart surgery (Rachs-1) risk adjustment model and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) congenital database. Three hundred eighty-six operations have been performed during this time period, including 47 newborns, 96 infants, 217 children/adolescents, and 26 adults (greater than 18 years). There have been two operative mortalities (0.5%). Assigning these cases to the Rachs-1 categories, there were 64 level I, 188 level II, 90 level III, 12 level IV cases, with 32 "others." The predicted mortality for the 354 categorized cases calculates to be 17.4 (Rachs-1) and 10.2 (STS). The data demonstrate that a start-up program with a relatively modest surgical volume can achieve satisfactory clinical results. This model has relied upon careful case selection and direct, senior-level surgeon involvement through an affiliation with a university-based program. These results suggest that a small congenital heart surgery program can be successfully started if the circumstances are carefully controlled.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8191.2008.00675.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260499400007

    View details for PubMedID 19016985

  • Dynamics of human myocardial progenitor cell Populations in the neonatal period ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Amir, G., Ma, X., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L., Reinhartz, O., Ramamoorthy, C., Riemer, R. K. 2008; 86 (4): 1311-1320

    Abstract

    Pluripotent cardiac progenitor cells resident in myocardium offer a potentially promising role in promoting recovery from injury. In pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) patients, manipulation of resident progenitor cells may provide important new approaches to improving outcomes. Our study goals were to identify and quantitate populations of progenitor cells in human neonatal myocardium during the early postnatal period and determine the proliferative capacity of differentiated cardiac myocytes.Immunologic markers of cell lineage (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 [SSEA-4], islet cell antigen 1 [Isl1], c-kit, Nkx2.5, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-regulated ATPase type 2 [SERCA2]) and proliferation (Ki67) were localized in right ventricular biopsies from 32 CHD patients aged 2 to 93 days.Neonatal myocardium contains progenitor cells and transitional cells expressing progenitor and differentiated myocyte marker proteins. Some cells expressed the pluripotent cell marker c-kit and also coexpressed the myocyte marker SERCA2. Multipotent progenitor cells, identified by the expression of Isl1, were found. Ki67 was expressed in some myocytes and in nonmyocyte cells. A few cells expressing SSEA-4 and Isl1 were observed during the early postnatal period. Cells expressing c-kit, the premyocyte marker Nkx2.5, and Ki67 were found throughout the first postnatal month. A progressive decline in cell density during the first postnatal month was observed for c-kit+ cells (p = 0.0013) and Nkx2.5+ cells (p = 0.0001). The percentage of cells expressing Ki67 declined during the first 3 postnatal months (p = 0.0030).Cells in an incomplete state of cardiomyocyte differentiation continue to reside in the infant heart. However, the relative density of progenitor cells declines during the first postnatal month.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.06.058

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259848000036

    View details for PubMedID 18805183

  • Morphological studies of pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in a lamb model of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY McMullan, D. M., Reddy, V. M., Gottliebson, W. M., Silverman, N. H., Perry, S. B., Chan, F., Hanley, F. L., Riemer, R. K. 2008; 29 (4): 706-712

    Abstract

    We sought to identify and characterize the abnormal vascular structures responsible for pulmonary arteriovenous shunting following the Glenn cavopulmonary shunt. Superior cavopulmonary shunt is commonly performed as part of the staged pathway to total cavopulmonary shunt to treat univentricular forms of congenital heart disease, however, clinically significant pulmonary arteriovenous malformations develop in some patients after the procedure. The causes of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and other pulmonary vascular changes that occur after cavopulmonary shunt are not known. Using a juvenile lamb model of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis that reliably produces pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, we performed echocardiography and morphological analyses to determine the anatomic site of shunting and to identify the vascular structures involved. Pulmonary arteriovenous shunting was identified by contrast echocardiography in all surviving animals (n = 40) following superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. Pulmonary vascular corrosion casts revealed abnormal tortuous vessels joining pulmonary arteries and veins in cavopulmonary shunt animals but not control animals. In conclusion, unusual channels that bridged pulmonary arteries and veins were identified. These may represent the vascular structures responsible for arteriovenous shunting following the classic Glenn cavopulmonary shunt. Detailed analysis of these structures may elucidate factors responsible for their development.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-007-9152-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257393800003

    View details for PubMedID 18043856

  • Routine continuous perfusion for aortic arch reconstruction in the neonate. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Pediatric cardiac surgery annual Malhotra, S. P., Hanley, F. L. 2008: 57-60

    Abstract

    Continuous perfusion has evolved over the past 15 years as a viable cerebral protection strategy for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. It presents an attractive alternative to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. However, because of its relatively recent development, a standardized technique for its application is lacking. Here we describe our approach for continuous perfusion for repairs of the aortic arch based on experience with over 700 cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.pcsu.2007.12.004

    View details for PubMedID 18396226

  • Surgical management of coronary artery arising from the wrong coronary sinus, using standard and novel approaches JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Gulati, R., Reddy, V. M., Culbertson, C., Helton, G., Suleman, S., Reinhartz, O., Silverman, N., Hanley, F. L. 2007; 134 (5): 1171-U12

    Abstract

    Patients with a coronary artery arising from the wrong sinus are susceptible to ischemia and sudden death. Risk is higher when the artery courses interarterially--between the pulmonary artery and aorta--has an intramural course, or has an abnormal orifice. In single coronary ostium without intramural course, unroofing and coronary reimplantation are inappropriate, and coronary artery bypass grafting is suboptimal. For this variant, we have devised pulmonary artery translocation.A retrospective review of 18 patients undergoing repair between January 1999 and March 2005 was performed. Mean age was 8.1 years (range 6 weeks-16 years). All anomalous arteries coursed interarterially. Ten patients had a right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus; 8 had a left coronary artery from the right sinus. Eleven had an intramural course, and 4 had a single coronary ostium without an intramural course. Ten (56%) patients had symptoms: chest pain (9/10), syncope (3/10), or dyspnea (2/10). Repair was implemented by unroofing (n = 11), reimplantation (n = 3), or pulmonary artery translocation (1 lateral, 3 anterior). All patients were followed up clinically and echocardiographically.At a mean of 2.2 years (2 weeks-5 years), there was no mortality. Symptoms improved and function remained normal in all but 1 patient. He had sustained multiple infarcts in the anomalous artery's distribution and required transplantation despite repair.Repair is indicated in all patients with coronary insufficiency and in asymptomatic patients with high-risk morphologic abnormalities. We recommend unroofing when an intramural component (or slit-like orifice) is present, reimplantation for separate ostia without an intramural course, and pulmonary artery translocation for single ostium without an intramural course. Coronary artery bypass grafting is thus avoided.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.02.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250576200011

    View details for PubMedID 17976445

  • Visual light spectroscopy reflects flow-related changes in brain oxygenation during regional low-flow perfusion and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Amir, G., Ramamoorthy, C., Riemer, R. K., Davis, C. R., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2006; 132 (6): 1307-1313

    Abstract

    Regional low-flow perfusion has been used to minimize ischemic brain injury during complex heart surgery in children. However, optimal regional low-flow perfusion remains undetermined. Visible light spectroscopy is a reliable method for continuous determination of capillary oxygen saturation (SgvO2). We used visible light spectroscopy to follow deep and superficial brain SgvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass, regional low-flow perfusion, and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.Visible light spectroscopy probes were inserted into the superficial and deep brain of neonatal (3.9-4.5 kg) piglets, targeting the caudate and thalamic nuclei. The piglets were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass and cooled to a rectal temperature of 18 degrees C using pH stat. Regional low-flow perfusion was initiated through the innominate artery at 18 degrees C, and pump flows were adjusted to 40, 30, 20, and 10 mL/kg/min for 10-minute intervals followed by 30 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Regional low-flow perfusion was reestablished, and flows were increased in a stepwise manner from 10 to 40 mL/kg/min. SgvO2 was continuously monitored. Carotid flow was measured using a flow probe, and cerebral blood flow (milliliters per kilogram body weight per minute) was calculated.There were no significant differences between the deep and superficial brain tissue oxygenation during regional low flow brain perfusion before deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. However, after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, the superficial brain SgvO2 was lower than the deep brain SgvO2 (24 +/- 12 vs 55.3 +/- 8, P = .05, at flows of 30 mL/kg/min, and 34.2 +/- 17 vs 62.5 + 8, P = .06, at a flow rate of 40 mL/kg/min). During regional low-flow perfusion, SgvO2 was maintained at flows of 30 to 40 mL/kg/min (cerebral blood flows of 15 to 21 mL/kg/min and 19 to 24 mL/kg/min, respectively), but was significantly lower at pump flows of 20 mL/kg/min (cerebral blood flow of 10 to 14 mL/kg/min) and 10 mL/kg/min (cerebral blood flow of 5 to 9 mL/kg/min) compared with the values obtained just before regional low-flow perfusion (pre-deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, 37 +/- 6 vs 65.5 +/- 4.4, P < .05, and 21.6 +/- 3.7 vs 65.5 +/- 4.4, P < .01, respectively; and post-deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, 32 +/- 4.5 vs 65.5 +/- 4.4, P < .05, and 16.6 +/- 4.7 vs 65.5 +/- 4.4, P < .01, respectively).Regional low-flow perfusion at pump flows of 30 to 40 mL/kg/min with resulting cerebral blood flows of 14 to 24 mL/kg/min was adequate in maintaining both deep and superficial brain oxygenation. However, lower pump flows of 20 and 10 mL/kg/min, associated with cerebral blood flow of 9 to 14 mL/kg/min, resulted in significantly reduced SgvO2 values.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.04.056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242626200012

    View details for PubMedID 17140947

  • The extracardiac conduit Fontan operation using minimal approach extracorporeal circulation: Early and midterm outcomes JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Petrossian, E., Reddy, V. M., Collins, K. K., Culbertson, C. B., MacDonald, M. J., Lamberti, J. J., Reinhartz, O., Mainwaring, R. D., Francis, P. D., Malhotra, S. P., Gremmels, D. B., Suleman, S., Hanley, F. L. 2006; 132 (5): 1054-1063

    Abstract

    Our approach to the extracardiac conduit Fontan operation has evolved over time from full-pump, to partial-pump, to completely off-pump. This study is designed to report our overall experience with the extracardiac conduit Fontan operation and to evaluate the evolution in bypass technique on postoperative outcomes.From September 1992 to April 2005, 285 patients, median age 4.5 years (1.4-44 years), median weight 16 kg (9.4-94 kg), underwent a primary extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure. Early and late outcomes were analyzed for the entire cohort and for 2 patient groups depending on whether an oxygenator was used in the bypass circuit (166 patients; 58%) or not (119 patients; 42%).Early failure (including death and takedown) occurred in 7 patients (2.5%). Prevalence of new early postoperative sinus node dysfunction necessitating a permanent pacemaker was 0.4%, and that of new tachyarrhythmias necessitating discharge home on a regimen of antiarrhythmia medications was 2.5%. Ten-year actuarial freedom from Fontan failure, new sinus node dysfunction necessitating a permanent pacemaker, and reoperation for conduit thrombosis or stenosis was 90%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. Fenestration rate was lower (P = .001) in the no-oxygenator group (8%) than in the oxygenator group (25%). Patients in the no-oxygenator group had lower intraoperative Fontan pressure (12.0 +/- 2.3 vs 13.5 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, P < .001), common atrial pressure (4.6 +/- 1.8 vs 5.3 +/- 1.8 mm Hg, P = .003), and transpulmonary gradient (7.5 +/- 2.1 vs 8.3 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = .013) than did the oxygenator group.The extracardiac conduit Fontan operation coupled with minimal use of extracorporeal circulation is associated with favorable intraoperative hemodynamics, low fenestration rate, minimal risk of thrombosis or stenosis, and minimal early and late rhythm disturbance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241497500009

    View details for PubMedID 17059923

  • Esophageal saturation during antegrade cerebral perfusion: a preliminary report using visible light spectroscopy PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA Heninger, C., Ramamoorthy, C., Amir, G., Kamra, K., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L., Brock-Utne, J. G. 2006; 16 (11): 1133-1137

    Abstract

    Visible light spectroscopy (VLS) is newer technology that measures real-time tissue oxygenation. It has been validated in detecting mucosal ischemia in adults. During complex neonatal heart surgery, antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) maintains cerebral saturation. Whether ACP maintains peripheral tissue perfusion in humans is not known.Five patients undergoing neonatal open heart surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied using a VLS esophageal probe in addition to bilateral near infrared cerebral oximetry. Three of five patients required ACP for arch repair, while two patients did not. VLS and cerebral saturation data were collected and analyzed in 5 min intervals prior to CPB, during CPB, and during ACP.In the two patients undergoing heart surgery with routine hypothermic CPB, both cerebral and esophageal saturations were maintained. However in all three neonates requiring ACP, although cerebral saturations did not decrease, esophageal saturation fell below the ischemic threshold (35%). Following establishment of normal CPB, esophageal saturation returned to baseline.Antegrade cerebral perfusion maintains cerebral oxygen delivery, however, it does not adequately perfuse the esophagus in neonates. This could have clinical implications.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.01965.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241245400004

    View details for PubMedID 17040301

  • Aortopulmonary window with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: Two cases highlighting the importance of complete pre-operative echocardiographic evaluation of the coronary arteries in all conotruncal anomalies EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY Greenway, S. C., Bradley, T. J., Caldarone, C. A., Silverman, N. H., Hanley, F. L., Smallhorn, J. F. 2006; 7 (5): 379-382

    Abstract

    This report describes two infants with an aortopulmonary window in association with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. In both cases the diagnosis was made pre-operatively by transthoracic echocardiography, with the initial clue being extensive collateral flow within the myocardium. In each case there was surgical confirmation of the echocardiographic findings. These two cases demonstrate that coronary artery evaluation should be an integral part of every new echocardiographic evaluation, particularly in the setting of conotruncal anomalies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.euje.2005.10.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242966600007

    View details for PubMedID 16356774

  • Unifocalization of major aortopulmonary collaterals in single-ventricle patients ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Reinhartz, O., Reddy, V. M., Petrossian, E., Suleman, S., Mainwaring, R. D., Rosenthal, D. N., Feinstein, J. A., Gulati, R., Hanley, F. L. 2006; 82 (3): 934-939

    Abstract

    Unifocalization of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and intracardiac repair has become the standard of care. However, there are no reports addressing unifocalization of MAPCAs in single-ventricle patients. It is unknown whether their pulmonary vascular bed can be reconstructed and low enough pulmonary vascular resistance achieved to allow for superior or total cavopulmonary connections.We reviewed data on all patients with functional single ventricles and unifocalization procedures of MAPCAs. From 1997 to 2005, 14 consecutive children with various single-ventricle anatomies were operated on.Patients had a median of three surgical procedures (range, 1 to 5). Two patients had absent, all others diminutive central pulmonary arteries, with an average of 3.5 +/- 1.2 MAPCAs. Seven patients (50%) had bidirectional Glenn procedures, and 3 of these had Fontan procedures. Median postoperative pulmonary artery pressures measured 12.5 mm Hg (Glenn) and 14 mm Hg (Fontan), respectively. Six patients are alive today (46%), with 1 patient lost to follow-up. Three patients died early and 3 late after initial unifocalization to shunts. One other patient survived unifocalization, but was not considered a candidate for a Glenn procedure and died after high-risk two-ventricle repair. Another patient with right-ventricle-dependent coronary circulation died of sepsis late after Glenn.In selected patients with functional single ventricles and MAPCAs, the pulmonary vascular bed can be reconstructed sufficiently to allow for cavopulmonary connections. Venous flow to the pulmonary vasculature decreases cardiac volume load and is likely to increase life expectancy and quality of life for these patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.03.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239996300025

    View details for PubMedID 16928512

  • Homograft valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit as a modification of the Norwood procedure CIRCULATION Reinhartz, O., Reddy, V. M., Petrossian, E., Macdonald, M., Lamberti, J. J., Roth, S. J., Wright, G. E., Perry, S. B., Suleman, S., Hanley, F. L. 2006; 114: I594-I599

    Abstract

    The use of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit in the Norwood procedure has been proposed to increase postoperative hemodynamic stability. A valve within the conduit should further decrease RV volume load. We report our clinical experience with this modification.From February 2002 through August 2005, we performed 88 consecutive Norwood procedures using RV-PA conduits. We used composite valved conduits made from cryopreserved homograft and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in 66 cases (54 pulmonary, 12 aortic homografts), other valved conduits in 14, and unvalved PTFE in 8 cases. Hospital survival was 88.6% overall and increased to 93.1% after the initial year. Early interventions were required in 18 patients (16 for cyanosis). Prestage II cardiac catheterization was performed at a mean age of 126 days. Mean Qp/Qs was 1, with mean aortic saturation 71%, mean O2 extraction 24%, and mean right ventricular end-diastolic pressure 9 mm Hg. Patient weight, use of an aortic homograft valve in the conduit, stage I palliation within the first year of our experience, and low O2 extraction and high transpulmonary gradient prestage II were risk factors for overall death. Early interventions were more frequent in aortic valve conduits compared with all other conduits.The valved RV-PA conduit was associated with low early mortality after the Norwood procedure. The majority of these patients had normal cardiac output and well-maintained RV function. There may be a higher risk for early conduit interventions and death when aortic valve homografts are used in the RV-PA conduit.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.001438

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238688200097

    View details for PubMedID 16820644

  • MAPCAs, bronchials, monkeys, and men EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY Hanley, F. L. 2006; 29 (5): 643-644

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejcts.2006.02.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237923200001

    View details for PubMedID 16626963

  • Management of systemic venous anomalies in the pediatric cardiovascular surgical patient. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Pediatric cardiac surgery annual Gandy, K., Hanley, F. 2006: 63-74

    Abstract

    Systemic venous anomalies are rare and heterogeneous entities. Although these anomalies are rare in the general population, they occur more frequently in the subpopulation with congenital heart disease. In and of themselves, most of these lesions have no physiologic significance. However, in the setting of congenital heart disease these lesions may significantly alter surgical treatment. This review is dedicated to these lesions.

    View details for PubMedID 16638550

  • Neonatal brain protection and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: pathophysiology of ischemic neuronal injury and protective strategies ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Amir, G., Ramamoorthy, C., Riemer, K., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. 2005; 80 (5): 1955-1964

    Abstract

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been used for the past 50 years in the surgical repair of complex congenital cardiac malformations and operations involving the aortic arch; it enables the surgeon to achieve precise anatomical reconstructions by creating a bloodless operative field. Nevertheless, DHCA has been associated with immediate and late neurodevelopmental morbidities. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of neonatal hypoxic brain injury after DHCA, focusing on cellular mechanisms of necrosis, apoptosis, and glutamate excitotoxicity. Techniques and strategies in neonatal brain protection include hypothermia, acid base blood gas management during cooling, and pharmacologic interventions such as the use of volatile anesthetics. Surgical techniques consist of intermittent cerebral perfusion during periods of circulatory arrest and continuous regional brain perfusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.12.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232970500075

    View details for PubMedID 16242503

  • Religion, politics... deep hypothermic circulatory arrest JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Hanley, F. L. 2005; 130 (5): 1236-1241

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.itcvs.2005.07.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233120100001

    View details for PubMedID 16256773

  • Isolated unilateral absence of right proximal pulmonary artery: Surgical repair and follow-up ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Welch, K., Hanley, F., Johnston, T., Cailes, C., Shah, M. J. 2005; 79 (4): 1399-1402

    Abstract

    The isolated unilateral absence of a proximal pulmonary artery is a rare congenital lesion with a diverse clinical presentation. If the connecting ductus arteriosus closes after birth, the ipsilateral pulmonary artery will lose its source of blood supply, resulting in hypoplasia or obliteration of intrapulmonary vessels. Despite a seemingly benign early clinical course, a significant number of untreated patients will develop pulmonary hypertension, hemoptysis, and recurrent respiratory infections. Early detection and surgical repair provides restoration of physiologic pulmonary circulation, regression of pulmonary hypertension, and the potential for normal distal pulmonary vascular development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2003.10.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228091100052

    View details for PubMedID 15797092

  • Preliminary results of fetal cardiac bypass in nonhuman primates JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Ikai, A., Riemer, R. K., Ramamoorthy, C., Malhatra, S., Cassorla, L., Amir, G., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2005; 129 (1): 175-181

    Abstract

    Fetal cardiac surgery has potential benefits for treatment of some congenital heart defects. However, placental dysfunction as a result of fetal bypass, fetal stress, and fetal exposure to external milieu needs to be overcome to optimize the outcomes of fetal cardiac bypass. In this study we evaluated the technical feasibility of cardiac bypass in the nonhuman primate fetus and the efficacy of different anesthetic approaches.Twelve baboon fetuses, average gestation 146 +/- 8 days and weight 696 +/- 184 g, were used. Three fetuses were excluded from the study because of nuchal cord presentations. The animals were separated into two anesthesia groups: isoflurane (n = 6) and fentanyl and midazolam (n = 3). A miniature roller pump circuit without oxygenator was used for fetal bypass for 30 minutes. No blood transfusion was performed. Fetal blood gas samples were collected before bypass, during bypass, and at 15 and 60 minutes after bypass.All fetuses in the isoflurane group were successfully placed on the cardiac bypass circuit. However, 2 animals in the fentanyl and midazolam group were not placed on the bypass circuit because of sustained elevation in maternal uterine tone. All maternal baboons survived. Of the 6 fetuses in the isoflurane group, 5 survived for 60 minutes; however, placental function continued to deteriorate after bypass (Pa o 2 33 +/- 3 mm Hg before bypass, 23 +/- 6 mm Hg 15 minutes after, and 18 +/- 9 mm Hg 60 minutes after).The technical feasibility of cardiac bypass in nonhuman primate fetuses weighing less than 1000 g was confirmed. Isoflurane anesthesia appears to be superior to fentanyl and midazolam anesthesia for fetal cardiac surgery because of adequate uterine relaxation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2004.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226216600024

    View details for PubMedID 15632840

  • Pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in the normal fetal lung JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY McMullan, D. M., Hanley, F. L., Cohen, G. A., Portman, M. A., Riemer, R. K. 2004; 44 (7): 1497-1500

    Abstract

    We hypothesized that pulmonary arteriovenous shunting (PAVS) is normally present in fetal lungs and that cavopulmonary anastomosis-induced PAVS may represent a return to an earlier morphologic stage of development.The surgical superior cavopulmonary anastomosis is performed as part of the staged Fontan pathway to treat univentricular forms of congenital heart disease; PAVS is a known sequela after superior cavopulmonary anastomosis and may have important clinical consequences. Although the etiology and true morphology of the structures responsible for PAVS are unknown, a leading theory is that PAVS is caused by absence of normal hepatic venous drainage to the pulmonary circulation.To determine whether normal fetal lungs demonstrate PAVS, we performed contrast echocardiograms on 13 fetal lambs, 8 neonatal lambs, 4 juvenile lambs, and 4 adult sheep using a blended mixture of saline and blood injected directly into the proximal pulmonary artery.Pulmonary arteriovenous shunting was detected by direct epicardial echocardiography in all fetal lambs (n = 13) and neonatal animals studied at one and three days of life (n = 4) and in two of four animals studied at six to nine days of life. Pulmonary arteriovenous shunting was not present in animals studied at four weeks of life (n = 2) and in adult sheep (n = 5).These studies demonstrate that PAVS is normally present in late gestation fetal and early neonatal lambs but then disappears during the later neonatal period. Furthermore, these findings suggest that PAVS associated with cavopulmonary anastomosis or other processes affecting the developing pulmonary circulation may represent a return to an earlier morphologic stage of development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.06.064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224225600025

    View details for PubMedID 15464334

  • A method for selectively limiting lumen diameter in corrosion casting MICROVASCULAR RESEARCH McMullan, D. M., Hanley, F. L., Riemer, R. K. 2004; 67 (3): 215-217

    Abstract

    Corrosion casting is a technique frequently used to evaluate the form and spatial relationship of three dimensional biological structures, such as vascular networks, in vitro [Scann. Microsc. 5 (1991) 1097; Schraufnagel, D.E. The lung microstructure. In: Motta, P.M., Murakami, T. Fujita, H. eds. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Vascular Casts: Methods and Applications. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992:123-137]. However, because corrosion casts tend to reproduce the complexity of surrounding vascular structures as well as the structures of interest, the use of this technique in highly complex vascular systems may obscure important changes such as A-V shunts because they may get lost among the myriad of capillaries. We developed a novel modification for creating vascular corrosion casts by utilizing polystyrene microspheres to selectively embolize normal capillary networks and thereby reduce the overall complexity of the cast. his technique may aid investigators in the evaluation of a variety of vascular beds and is useful in demonstrating non-capillary arteriovenous communications.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221443700002

    View details for PubMedID 15121445

  • Pulmonary expression of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met shifts from medial to intimal layer after cavopulmonary anastomosis JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Ikai, A., Riemer, R. K., Ma, X. Y., Reinhartz, O., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2004; 127 (5): 1442-1449

    Abstract

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations occur in up to 60% of patients after cavopulmonary anastomosis. We compared the effects of cavopulmonary anastomosis and pulmonary artery banding on lung gene expression in an ovine model to study the abnormal pulmonary vascular remodeling after the exclusion of inferior vena caval blood independent of reduced pulmonary blood flow. We previously demonstrated by contrast echocardiography that pulmonary arteriovenous malformations develop by 8 weeks after cavopulmonary anastomosis but not after pulmonary artery banding. Hepatocyte growth factor, a pleiotropic factor with morphogenic, mitogenic, and angiogenic activities, signals via its specific receptor c-Met to induce the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In this study, we examined pulmonary artery expression of these factors and their potential role in pulmonary artery remodeling after cavopulmonary anastomosis and pulmonary artery banding.Eighteen lambs aged 35 to 45 days were placed into 3 groups: cavopulmonary anastomosis, pulmonary artery banding, and control (n = 6/group). In the cavopulmonary anastomosis group, the superior vena cava was anastomosed to the right pulmonary artery in an end-to-end fashion. In the pulmonary artery banding group, the left pulmonary artery was banded to reduce blood flow to 20% of control. The control group had a simple right pulmonary artery clamp for 30 minutes. Lung was harvested for Western blot, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunostaining at 2 weeks (n = 3/group) and 5 weeks (n = 3/group) after surgery.The expression of c-Met mRNA after cavopulmonary anastomosis was increased by twofold compared with the control or pulmonary artery banding group. The total lung expression of c-Met by Western blot was also up regulated at 2 weeks (P <.05). However, total lung expression of hepatocyte growth factor and Bcl-2 by Western and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was not different from the control and pulmonary artery banding groups at both 2 and 5 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that c-Met expression was localized to the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery in the cavopulmonary anastomosis, while its expression in the control and pulmonary artery banding lungs was localized to the medial layer. Localization of Bcl-2 on the intimal layer in lambs with cavopulmonary anastomosis followed the same pattern as c-Met.After cavopulmonary anastomosis, pulmonary artery expression of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met and one of its downstream effectors, Bcl-2, had increased in the intimal layer and decreased in the medial layer. Because the hepatocyte growth factor signaling promotes increased endothelial cell survival, it may have a role in pulmonary artery remodeling following cavopulmonary anastomosis. In addition, the change of c-Met expression in the medial layer after cavopulmonary anastomosis suggests a possible mechanism for the smooth muscle cell alteration related to abnormal angiogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2003.09.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221134600031

    View details for PubMedID 15116006

  • Induced fibrillation is equally effective as crystalloid cardioplegia in the protection of fetal myocardial function JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Malhotra, S. P., Thelitz, S., Riemer, R. K., Reddy, V. M., Suleman, S., Hanley, F. L. 2003; 125 (6): 1276-1282

    Abstract

    Fetal cardiac intervention represents a potential advance in the treatment of congenital cardiac lesions that increase in complexity during development. Prenatal repair of a primary defect might prevent pathologic blood-flow patterns that can result in hypoplasia of a cardiac chamber or great vessel. However, strategies to optimize fetal myocardial protection have not been studied. A biventricular working fetal heart preparation was used to evaluate the cardioprotective properties of induced fibrillation and crystalloid cardioplegia.Hearts from 16 fetal lambs at 115 to 125 days' gestation were harvested and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The descending aorta was ligated distal to the ductal insertion and the branch pulmonary arteries were ligated to simulate the parallel circulation of the fetus. Hearts were arrested with normothermic fibrillation (n = 8) or hypothermic crystalloid cardioplegia (n = 8) before reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution. Baseline and postarrest myocardial function measurements were obtained from analysis of pressure-dimension relationships.Fibrillatory and cardioplegic arrest were equally effective at preserving postarrest systolic function (left ventricle, 70% +/- 5% vs 68% +/- 15%, P =.52; right ventricle, 68% +/- 4.5% vs 65% +/- 4.5%, P =.26) and preventing increased diastolic stiffness (left ventricle, 32% +/- 5.3% vs 38% +/- 11%, P =.24; right ventricle, 25% +/- 3.3% vs 27% +/- 2.1%, P =.46). Myocardial water content was unchanged in hearts arrested with fibrillation and cardioplegia (84% +/- 1.5% vs 83.7% +/- 0.9%, P =.71).Normothermic fibrillation and hypothermic crystalloid cardioplegia provide equal protection of the fetal myocardium. In the setting of diminished fetal myocardial reserve and because of the limited ability to manipulate the surrounding temperature in the fetus, normothermic fibrillation may be preferable for in utero repairs of selected congenital heart defects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0022-5223(02)73245-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183864700012

    View details for PubMedID 12830044

  • Fetal myocardial protection is markedly improved by reduced cardioplegic calcium content ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Malhotra, S. P., Thelitz, S., Riemer, R. K., Reddy, V. M., Suleman, S., Hanley, F. L. 2003; 75 (6): 1937-1941

    Abstract

    Fetal cardiac surgery holds a clear therapeutic benefit in the treatment of lesions that increase in complexity due to pathologic blood flow patterns during development. Fetal and neonatal myocardial physiology differ substantially, particularly in the regulation of myocardial calcium concentration. To examine issues of calcium homeostasis and fetal myocardial protection, a novel isolated biventricular working fetal heart preparation was developed.Hearts from 20 fetal lambs, 115 to 125 days gestation, were harvested and perfused with standard Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. The descending aorta was ligated distal to the ductal insertion and the branch pulmonary arteries were ligated to mimic fetal cardiovascular physiology. Hearts were arrested for 30 minutes with normocalcemic (n = 8), hypocalcemic (n = 6), or hypercalcemic (n = 6) cold crystalloid cardioplegia before reperfusion with K-H solution.Compared with normocalcemic cardioplegia, hypocalcemic cardioplegia improved preservation of left ventricular (LV) systolic function (88% +/- 2.2% vs 64% +/- 15% recovery of end-systolic elastance, p = 0.02), diastolic function (12% +/- 21% vs 38% +/- 11% increase in end-diastolic stiffness, p = 0.04), and myocardial contractility (97% +/- 9.6% vs 75.2% +/- 13% recovery of preload recruitable stroke work [PRSW], p = 0.04). In contrast, the fetal myocardium was sensitive to hypercalcemic arrest with poor preservation of LV systolic function (37.5% +/- 8.4% recovery of elastance), diastolic function (86% +/- 21% increased stiffness), and overall contractility (32% +/- 13% recovery of PRSW). Myocardial water content was reduced in hearts arrested with hypocalcemic cardioplegia (79% +/- 1.8% vs 83.7% +/- 0.9%, p = 0.0006).This study demonstrates the sensitivity of the fetal myocardium to cardioplegic calcium concentration. Hypocalcemic cardioplegia provides superior preservation of systolic, diastolic, and contractile function of the fetal myocardium.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183311400054

    View details for PubMedID 12822639

  • Electrical resynchronization - A novel therapy for the failing right ventricle CIRCULATION Dubin, A. M., Feinstein, J. A., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L., Van Hare, G. F., Rosenthal, D. N. 2003; 107 (18): 2287-2289

    Abstract

    Many patients with congenital heart disease develop right ventricular (RV) failure due to anatomy and prior therapy. RV problems may include right bundle-branch block (RBBB), volume loading, and chamber enlargement. Because the failing RV may have regional dyskinesis, we hypothesized that resynchronization therapy might augment its performance.We studied 7 patients with RV dysfunction and RBBB, using a predefined pacing protocol. QRS duration, cardiac index (CI), and RV dP/dt were measured in 4 different pacing states. Atrioventricular pacing improved CI and RV dP/dtmax and decreased QRS duration as compared with atrial pacing or sinus rhythm.Atrioventricular pacing in patients with RBBB and RV dysfunction augments RV and systemic performance. RV resynchronization is a promising novel therapy for patients with RV failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000070930.33499.9F

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182807000014

    View details for PubMedID 12732607

  • Robotic-assisted endoscopic thoracic aortic anastomosis in juvenile lambs HEART SURGERY FORUM Malhotra, S. P., Le, D., Thelitz, S., Hanley, F. L., Riemer, R. K., Suleman, S., Reddy, V. M. 2003; 6 (1): 38-42
  • The role of oxidative stress in the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after cavopulmonary anastomosis JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Malhotra, S. P., Reddy, V. M., Thelitz, S., He, Y. P., McMullan, D. M., Hanley, F. L., Riemer, R. K. 2002; 124 (3): 479-485

    Abstract

    Cavopulmonary anastomosis is used for palliation of cyanotic heart disease. Clinically significant pulmonary arteriovenous malformations occur in up to 25% of patients after surgical intervention. Cavopulmonary anastomosis creates several modifications to pulmonary physiology that may contribute to the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, including reduced pulmonary blood flow and the exclusion of inferior vena caval effluent.By comparing the expression of angiogenic and stress-related proteins after cavopulmonary anastomosis and pulmonary artery banding, we sought to determine which genes were upregulated independent of reduced pulmonary blood flow.Lambs aged 35 to 45 days were placed into 1 of 3 groups: cavopulmonary anastomosis (n = 6), pulmonary artery banding (n = 6), and sham control (n = 6) animals. In our model pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are detectable by means of bubble-contrast echocardiography 8 weeks after cavopulmonary anastomosis. Lung tissue was harvested for Western blotting at 2 and 5 weeks after surgery.Cavopulmonary anastomosis and pulmonary artery banding both increased angiogenic gene expression, but only cavopulmonary anastomosis induced the expression of endothelial stress-related genes. Vascular endothelial growth factor was upregulated 2.5-fold after both cavopulmonary anastomosis (P =.002) and pulmonary artery banding (P =.007). Only cavopulmonary anastomosis upregulated 2 stress-related genes, HO1 and GLUT1, 2.7-fold (P =.002) and 3.8-fold (P =.03), respectively. Hypoxia-inducible factor was upregulated 4-fold (P =.003) after cavopulmonary anastomosis. Pulmonary artery banding failed to induce the increased expression of any of these proteins.Reduced pulmonary blood flow induces a pulmonary angiogenic response but not an endothelial stress response. These results suggest that oxidative stress is more relevant to the formation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations than angiogenic signaling alone because pulmonary artery banding does not result in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Oxidative stress of the pulmonary endothelium resulting from cavopulmonary anastomosis may predispose the affected vasculature to arteriovenous shunting.

    View details for DOI 10.1067/mtc.2002.120346

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177840600009

    View details for PubMedID 12202863

  • Surgical creation of aortopulmonary window in selected patients with pulmonary atresia with poorly developed aortopulmonary collaterals and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Rodefeld, M. D., Reddy, V. M., Thompson, L. D., Suleman, S., Moore, P. C., Teitel, D. F., Hanley, F. L. 2002; 123 (6): 1147-1154

    Abstract

    The morphologic characteristics of the pulmonary circulation vary widely in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collaterals. Although we favor single-stage unifocalization and complete repair as the procedure of choice, a subgroup of patients who meet specific criteria have been treated with initial surgical creation of an aortopulmonary window.Eighteen patients who were considered unsuitable candidates for single-stage repair underwent surgical creation of an aortopulmonary window. Selection criteria included the following: (1) presence of centrally confluent true pulmonary arteries 1.0 to 2.5 mm in diameter, with a well-developed peripheral arborization pattern; (2) multiple small aortopulmonary collateral vessels, most of which communicated with the true pulmonary arterial system; and (3) the presence of marked cyanosis.There were no early deaths, and the 2 late deaths were both unrelated to the procedure. Follow-up angiography (n = 17) demonstrated good growth of true pulmonary arteries in 15 of 17 cases (88%). Mean pulmonary artery diameter increased from 1.76 mm to 3.45 mm. Subsequent operations have been performed in 15 of 18 cases (83%). Intracardiac repair with or without additional unifocalization was achieved in 8 of these 15 (53%). Seven patients (47%) have undergone staged unifocalization as the next procedure; of these, 3 were able to have intracardiac repair. Thus 11 of the 15 patients who have undergone second operations (73%) have had complete intracardiac repair.The initial surgical creation of an aortopulmonary window in carefully selected patients can increase the size of the true pulmonary arteries, making these patients better candidates for eventual intracardiac repair. The procedure should be avoided in patients with pulmonary overcirculation, a predominance of isolated supply collaterals, or true pulmonary arteries larger than 2.5 mm in diameter, and it is not applicable without a true pulmonary artery central confluence.

    View details for DOI 10.1067/mtc.2002.121685

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176384000020

    View details for PubMedID 12063462

  • Neonatal truncus arteriosus repair: surgical techniques and clinical management. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Pediatric cardiac surgery annual Rodefeld, M. D., Hanley, F. L. 2002; 5: 212-217

    Abstract

    Truncus arteriosus is now ideally repaired in the neonatal period with low morbidity and mortality. Published reports have documented mortality rates in the range of 4% to 5% with mean age at repair as low as 11 days. The physiologic basis for improved outcomes with earlier repair is the avoidance of damaging sequelae of pulmonary overcirculation and heart failure. Data show that baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure is lower in infants undergoing earlier repair. Improved operative outcomes also have been achieved with aggressive truncal valve repair versus replacement in the presence of truncal valve dysfunction, right ventricular outflow tract reconstructive techniques that are patient anatomy-specific, and use of regional perfusion techniques for repair of associated interrupted aortic arch. In addition, a heightened awareness of anomalies of coronary artery ostial location, number, angle of takeoff, and degree of patency can result in avoidance of inadvertent injury to the artery and associated myocardial insult.

    View details for PubMedID 11994881

  • Robotic-assisted endoscopic thoracic aortic anastomosis in juvenile lambs. heart surgery forum Malhotra, S. P., Le, D., Thelitz, S., Hanley, F. L., Riemer, R. K., Suleman, S., Reddy, V. M. 2002; 6 (1): 38-42

    Abstract

    Advances in robotic technology have enabled a wider range of applications for minimally invasive techniques in cardiac surgery, including mitral valve repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. With increased technical sophistication, robotic-assisted techniques can be developed for the endoscopic repair of certain congenital cardiac lesions.The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of closed chest thoracic aortic anastomosis in a juvenile ovine model.Lambs, aged 45 to 55 days, underwent surgery that was performed using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Using 3 ports, the surgeon dissected the descending thoracic aorta and mobilized it free from attachments, using single-lung ventilation and CO2 insufflation. Snares were introduced through 2 stab wounds for aortic occlusion proximally and distally. In 4 lambs, the aorta was completely transected and reanastomosed using interrupted nitinol sutures. One lamb underwent longitudinal aortotomy, and patch aortoplasty was performed with the placement of a Gore-Tex patch. Snares were released and the animals were recovered once hemodynamically stable. Animals were sacrificed at 6 to 12 hours after surgery and the descending aorta was harvested. Burst-pressure testing was performed on the anastomoses.All 5 lambs survived the procedure with stabilization of hemodynamic parameters following surgery. The mean aortic clamp time was 47 +/- 17 minutes, and the anastomosis was completed in 26 +/- 5 minutes. The mean burst pressure was 163 +/- 9 mm Hg.Endoscopic thoracic aortic anastomosis can be performed safely and with adequate exposure in a juvenile large-animal model using computer-assisted surgical techniques. With further refinements, these approaches could be applied to the repair of congenital anomalies of the aorta, including interrupted aortic arch and aortic coarctation.

    View details for PubMedID 12611730

  • Arch reconstruction without circulatory arrest: current clinical applications and results of therapy. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Pediatric cardiac surgery annual MacDonald, M. J., Hanley, F. L., Reddy, V. M. 2002; 5: 95-103

    Abstract

    Laboratory and clinical data have confirmed the deleterious effects of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Long-term data and rigorous neuropsychiatric data are currently sparse, but that which are available show adverse outcomes following circulatory arrest, and therefore support the use of continuous perfusion techniques. There are no available long-term data on continuous perfusion techniques with respect to neurologic outcomes, but using these techniques the incidence of postoperative seizures or other neurologic events is rare. Currently available bypass systems and microsurgical techniques have allowed continuous flow and regional perfusion to become practical alternatives. Several innovative techniques for avoiding circulatory arrest during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction for univentricular and biventricular hearts are described. It would appear prudent and desirable to provide continuous perfusion now that long-term survival after repair of even the most complex cardiac anomalies including single ventricle defects is commonplace.

    View details for PubMedID 11994869

Conference Proceedings


  • Surgical outcomes for patients with pulmonary atresia/major aortopulmonary collaterals and Alagille syndrome Mainwaring, R. D., Sheikh, A. Y., Punn, R., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2012: 235-241

    Abstract

    Pulmonary atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/MAPCAs) is a complex congenital heart defect that has undergone significant advances in treatment over the past 15 years. A small subset of patients with PA/MAPCAs have associated Alagille syndrome, which can have an adverse impact on many other organ systems. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional outcomes for the surgical patients with PA/MAPCAs and Alagille syndrome.This was a retrospective review of patients with PA/MAPCA's and Alagille who underwent surgical reconstruction from November 2001 to August 2011. Fifteen patients were identified in our data base. Thirteen had pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) and two had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS).There has been no early or late mortality in this cohort of 15 patients with PA/MAPCA' and Alagille syndrome. The patients have undergone a total of 38 cardiac surgical procedures. Ten of the 13 patients with PA/VSD have achieved complete repair, including unifocalization, a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit and closure of all intra-cardiac shunts. The three unrepaired patients with PA/VSD remain potential candidates for eventual complete repair, while the two patients with PA-IVS remain viable candidates for a single ventricle pathway. The patients in this series have also undergone 12 major non-cardiac procedures.The data demonstrate that surgical reconstruction of PA/MAPCAs can be successfully achieved in patients with Alagille syndrome. The longer-term prognosis remains guarded on the basis of the multi-organ system involvement of Alagille syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ejcts/ezr310

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306365600013

    View details for PubMedID 22402453

  • Surgical Reconstruction of Tracheal Stenosis in Conjunction With Congenital Heart Defects Mainwaring, R. D., Shillingford, M., Davies, R., Koltai, P., Navaratnam, M., Reddy, V. M., Hanley, F. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: 1266-1273

    Abstract

    Surgical reconstruction is the primary method of treating airway obstruction in children. Tracheal stenosis is frequently associated with congenital heart defects, which may further complicate the overall management strategy. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with surgical reconstruction of airway obstruction in conjunction with congenital heart defects.This was a retrospective review of our surgical experience with tracheal stenosis from February 2003 to August 2011. Twenty-seven patients were identified in our database. Six patients had isolated, congenital tracheal stenosis, and 21 had tracheal stenosis in association with congenital heart defects. There were two identifiable subgroups. Thirteen patients had airway stenoses identified concurrently with congenital heart defects and underwent combined repair. The second group comprised 8 patients who had previous correction of their congenital heart defects and experienced delayed presentation of tracheal (n = 6) or bronchial (n = 2) obstruction.The median age at surgery was 9 months. There were 2 postoperative deaths, both in children with single ventricle. The median duration of follow-up for the entire cohort of 25 surviving patients was 4 years. None of the patients have required reoperations on the trachea; 5 have had minor reinterventions.The data demonstrate that tracheal obstruction is frequently found in conjunction with congenital heart defects. Nearly one third of our patients had delayed presentation of airway obstruction that was identified subsequent to previous congenital heart defect repair. Tracheal reconstructive techniques were effective regardless of the cause of the airway obstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.12.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302120200049

    View details for PubMedID 22381444

  • Selective Right Ventricular Unloading and Novel Technical Concepts in Ebstein's Anomaly Malhotra, S. P., Petrossian, E., Reddy, V. M., Qiu, M., Maeda, K., Suleman, S., Macdonald, M., Reinhartz, O., Hanley, F. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2009: 1975-1981

    Abstract

    Favorable outcomes in Ebstein's anomaly are predicated on tricuspid valve competence and right ventricular function. Successful valve repair should be aggressively pursued to avoid the morbidity of prosthetic tricuspid valve replacement. We report our experience with valve-sparing intracardiac repair, emphasizing novel concepts and techniques of valve repair supplemented by selective bidirectional Glenn (BDG).Between June 1993 and December 2008, 57 nonneonatal patients underwent Ebstein's anomaly repairs. The median age at operation was 8.1 years. All were symptomatic in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II (n = 38), III (n = 17), or IV (n = 1). Preoperatively, 26 had mild or moderate cyanosis at rest. We used a number of valve reconstructive techniques that differed substantially from those currently described. BDG was performed in 31 patients (55%) who met specific criteria.No early or late deaths occurred. At the initial repair, 3 patients received a prosthetic valve. Four patients required reoperation for severe tricuspid regurgitation. Repeat repairs were successful in 2 patients. At follow-up (range, 3 months to 6 years), all patients were acyanotic and in NYHA class I. Tricuspid regurgitation was mild or less in 49 (86%) and moderate in 6 (11%). Freedom from a prosthesis was 91% (52 of 57).Following a protocol using BDG for ventricular unloading in selected patients with Ebstein's anomaly can achieve a durable valve-sparing repair using the techniques described. Excellent functional midterm outcomes can be obtained with a selective one and a half ventricle approach to Ebstein's anomaly.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.07.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272029100037

    View details for PubMedID 19932271

  • Cavopulmonary anastomosis induces pulmonary expression of the angiotensin II receptor family Malhotra, S. P., Reddy, V. M., Thelitz, S., He, Y. P., Hanley, F. L., Suleman, S., Riemer, R. K. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2002: 655-660

    Abstract

    Cavopulmonary anastomosis is used for palliation of cyanotic cardiac lesions. Postoperative development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations can be significant in 10% to 25% of patients. To study the basis for formation of arteriovenous malformations, we developed an ovine model that reliably induces their development 8 weeks after cavopulmonary anastomosis. Previously, we found that cavopulmonary anastomosis inhibits the expression of pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and suppresses angiotensin II production.This study examines the role of the angiotensin II receptors, type 1 and type 2, in this setting of pulmonary vascular remodeling.Lambs, aged 40 to 50 days, underwent cavopulmonary anastomosis. In age-matched control animals, a sham operation was performed. Messenger RNA and protein expression in lung specimens was measured at successive time points after cavopulmonary anastomosis or sham operations (n = 3 at each time point).Angiotensin type 1 mRNA was maximally upregulated 2-fold at 5 weeks after cavopulmonary anastomosis (P =.006). Expression of angiotensin type 1 protein was increased at least 2-fold at 2, 5, and 15 weeks after cavopulmonary anastomosis (P =.005). Cavopulmonary anastomosis also increased angiotensin type 2 mRNA and protein expression at least 2-fold at 2 and 5 weeks (P =.02) after surgical intervention. At 15 weeks, expression of angiotensin type 2 mRNA and protein was unchanged from that seen in control animals. Immunolocalization in pulmonary tissue sections 2 weeks after cavopulmonary anastomosis revealed markedly enhanced staining of angiotensin II receptor type 1 in vascular smooth muscle and angiotensin II receptor type 2 in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries.Rapid elevation in the expression of the type 1 and 2 angiotensin II receptors in the affected pulmonary vasculature after cavopulmonary anastomosis suggests their involvement in the pathologic vascular remodeling that occurs after cavopulmonary anastomosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1067/mtc.2002.119699

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175400100008

    View details for PubMedID 11986592

Stanford Medicine Resources: