Engineered cystine knot peptides that bind alpha v beta 3, alpha v beta 5, and alpha 5 beta 1 integrins with low-nanomolar affinity
PROTEINS-STRUCTURE FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS
2009; 77 (2): 359-369
There is a critical need for compounds that target cell surface integrin receptors for applications in cancer therapy and diagnosis. We used directed evolution to engineer the Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor (EETI-II), a knottin peptide from the squash family of protease inhibitors, as a new class of integrin-binding agents. We generated yeast-displayed libraries of EETI-II by substituting its 6-amino acid trypsin binding loop with 11-amino acid loops containing the Arg-Gly-Asp integrin binding motif and randomized flanking residues. These libraries were screened in a high-throughput manner by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify mutants that bound to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. Select peptides were synthesized and were shown to compete for natural ligand binding to integrin receptors expressed on the surface of U87MG glioblastoma cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 10-30 nM. Receptor specificity assays demonstrated that engineered knottin peptides bind to both alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) integrins with high affinity. Interestingly, we also discovered a peptide that binds with high affinity to alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(5), and alpha(5)beta(1) integrins. This finding has important clinical implications because all three of these receptors can be coexpressed on tumors. In addition, we showed that engineered knottin peptides inhibit tumor cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, and in some cases fibronectin, depending on their integrin binding specificity. Collectively, these data validate EETI-II as a scaffold for protein engineering, and highlight the development of unique integrin-binding peptides with potential for translational applications in cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1002/prot.22441
View details for Web of Science ID 000269872900009
View details for PubMedID 19452550