Bio

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., Brandeis University, Chemistry (2014)
  • B.A., Sichuan University, Biomedical Engineering (2007)

Stanford Advisors


Publications

Journal Articles


  • L-Rhamnose-containing supramolecular nanofibrils as potential immunosuppressive materials ORGANIC & BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY Zhao, F., Heesters, B. A., Chiu, I., Gao, Y., Shi, J., Zhou, N., Carroll, M. C., Xu, B. 2014; 12 (35): 6816-6819

    Abstract

    An l-rhamnose-based hydrogelator self-assembles to form nanofibrils, which, in contrast to the properties of monomeric l-rhamnose, suppress the antibody response of mice to phycoerythrin (PE), a fluorescent protein antigen. As the first example of the supramolecular assemblies of a saccharide to suppress immunity, this work illustrates a new approach of immunomodulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4ob01362j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341024300008

    View details for PubMedID 25078446

  • Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation NATURE Chiu, I. M., Heesters, B. A., Ghasemlou, N., Von Hehn, C. A., Zhao, F., Tran, J., Wainger, B., Strominger, A., Muralidharan, S., Horswill, A. R., Wardenburg, J. B., Hwang, S. W., Carroll, M. C., Woolf, C. J. 2013; 501 (7465): 52-?

    Abstract

    Nociceptor sensory neurons are specialized to detect potentially damaging stimuli, protecting the organism by initiating the sensation of pain and eliciting defensive behaviours. Bacterial infections produce pain by unknown molecular mechanisms, although they are presumed to be secondary to immune activation. Here we demonstrate that bacteria directly activate nociceptors, and that the immune response mediated through TLR2, MyD88, T cells, B cells, and neutrophils and monocytes is not necessary for Staphylococcus aureus-induced pain in mice. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice is correlated with live bacterial load rather than tissue swelling or immune activation. Bacteria induce calcium flux and action potentials in nociceptor neurons, in part via bacterial N-formylated peptides and the pore-forming toxin α-haemolysin, through distinct mechanisms. Specific ablation of Nav1.8-lineage neurons, which include nociceptors, abrogated pain during bacterial infection, but concurrently increased local immune infiltration and lymphadenopathy of the draining lymph node. Thus, bacterial pathogens produce pain by directly activating sensory neurons that modulate inflammation, an unsuspected role for the nervous system in host-pathogen interactions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature12479

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323888300030

    View details for PubMedID 23965627

  • Novel Anisotropic Supramolecular Hydrogel with High Stability over a Wide pH Range LANGMUIR Zhao, F., Gao, Y., Shi, J., Browdy, H. M., Xu, B. 2011; 27 (4): 1510-1512

    Abstract

    The hydrolysis of the carboxylic ester bond, by a base or catalyzed by an enzyme under weak basic conditions, serves as the only path to obtain a novel anisotropic supramolecular hydrogel that is stable over a wide pH range. This result not only expands the molecular scope of supramolecular hydrogelators but also illustrates the design principles for creating pH-stable supramolecular soft materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la103982e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287048900042

    View details for PubMedID 21138331

  • beta-Galactosidase-instructed formation of molecular nanofibers and a hydrogel NANOSCALE Zhao, F., Weitzel, C. S., Gao, Y., Browdy, H. M., Shi, J., Lin, H., Lovett, S. T., Xu, B. 2011; 3 (7): 2859-2861

    Abstract

    Here we report the first example of using β-galactosidase to trigger the formation of cell compatible, supramolecular nanofibers, which ultimately may lead to a new approach for the development of soft nanotechnology.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c1nr10333d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292776300022

    View details for PubMedID 21637882

  • Molecular hydrogels of therapeutic agents CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS Zhao, F., Ma, M. L., Xu, B. 2009; 38 (4): 883-891

    Abstract

    This tutorial review aims to introduce a new kind of biomaterials-molecular hydrogels of therapeutic agents. Based on the molecular self-assembly in water, it is possible to transform therapeutic agents into analogues that form hydrogels without compromising their pharmacological efficacy. This transformation can be beneficial in three aspects: (i) the therapeutic agents become "self-deliverable" in the form of hydrogels; (ii) the self-assembly of hydrogelators of drugs might confer new and useful properties such as multivalency or high local densities; (iii) the exploration of molecular hydrogels of drugs may ultimately lead to bioactive molecules that have dual or multiple roles. By summarizing the reports on the molecular hydrogels made from clinical used drugs or other bioactive molecules, this article presents representative molecular hydrogels of therapeutics and outlines the promises and challenges for developing this new class of biomaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b806410p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264523700003

    View details for PubMedID 19421568

  • Preparation of porous chitosan gel beads for copper(II) ion adsorption JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Zhao, F., Yu, B., Yue, Z., Wang, T., Wen, M., Liu, Z., Zhao, C. 2007; 147 (1-2): 67-73

    Abstract

    In this paper, chitosan porous beads were prepared by using a phase inversion technique, and then used for the adsorption and removal of copper(II) ions. The porosity, diameter and other characteristics were characterized. With the increase of chitosan and NaOH concentration used to prepare the beads, the amount of adsorbed Cu2+ per gram of the beads decreased. A maximum adsorption amount was observed at a pH value of 6.0 for the cross-linked porous chitosan beads. The amount of the adsorbed Cu2+ increased with the Cu2+ concentration used in the adsorption experiments. By the relationship of the ratio of the equilibrium Cu2+ concentration in the solution (C(e)) to the adsorbed equilibrium amount (P(e)) (C(e)/P(e)) and C(e), we concluded that the adsorption of Cu2+ to the porous chitosan beads was Langmuir adsorption. The Cu2+-loaded porous chitosan beads were stable in water, which is useful for further study on selectively adsorption of IgG. The results suggested that the porous chitosan beads were useful adsorbents for copper ions removal in water treatment, and the Cu2+-loaded beads may be good sorbents for IgG removal in blood purification.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.12.045

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249136200009

    View details for PubMedID 17258856

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