Engineered heart tissues and induced pluripotent stem cells: Macro- and microstructures for disease modeling, drug screening, and translational studies.
Advanced drug delivery reviews
2016; 96: 234-244
Human Engineered Heart Muscles Engraft and Survive Long Term in a Rodent Myocardial Infarction Model.
2015; 117 (8): 720-730
Engineered heart tissue has emerged as a personalized platform for drug screening. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, patient-specific stem cells can be developed and expanded into an indefinite source of cells. Subsequent developments in cardiovascular biology have led to efficient differentiation of cardiomyocytes, the force-producing cells of the heart. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) have provided potentially limitless quantities of well-characterized, healthy, and disease-specific CMs, which in turn has enabled and driven the generation and scale-up of human physiological and disease-relevant engineered heart tissues. The combined technologies of engineered heart tissue and iPSC-CMs are being used to study diseases and to test drugs, and in the process, have advanced the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering into the field of precision medicine. In this review, we will discuss current developments in engineered heart tissue, including iPSC-CMs as a novel cell source. We examine new research directions that have improved the function of engineered heart tissue by using mechanical or electrical conditioning or the incorporation of non-cardiomyocyte stromal cells. Finally, we discuss how engineered heart tissue can evolve into a powerful tool for therapeutic drug testing.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addr.2015.09.010
View details for PubMedID 26428619
Tissue engineering approaches may improve survival and functional benefits from human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte transplantation, thereby potentially preventing dilative remodeling and progression to heart failure.Assessment of transport stability, long-term survival, structural organization, functional benefits, and teratoma risk of engineered heart muscle (EHM) in a chronic myocardial infarction model.We constructed EHMs from human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and released them for transatlantic shipping following predefined quality control criteria. Two days of shipment did not lead to adverse effects on cell viability or contractile performance of EHMs (n=3, P=0.83, P=0.87). One month after ischemia/reperfusion injury, EHMs were implanted onto immunocompromised rat hearts to simulate chronic ischemia. Bioluminescence imaging showed stable engraftment with no significant cell loss between week 2 and 12 (n=6, P=0.67), preserving ≤25% of the transplanted cells. Despite high engraftment rates and attenuated disease progression (change in ejection fraction for EHMs, -6.7±1.4% versus control, -10.9±1.5%; n>12; P=0.05), we observed no difference between EHMs containing viable and nonviable human cardiomyocytes in this chronic xenotransplantation model (n>12; P=0.41). Grafted cardiomyocytes showed enhanced sarcomere alignment and increased connexin 43 expression at 220 days after transplantation. No teratomas or tumors were found in any of the animals (n=14) used for long-term monitoring.EHM transplantation led to high engraftment rates, long-term survival, and progressive maturation of human cardiomyocytes. However, cell engraftment was not correlated with functional improvements in this chronic myocardial infarction model. Most importantly, the safety of this approach was demonstrated by the lack of tumor or teratoma formation.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306985
View details for PubMedID 26291556