Erin Vogel, PhD, is a social psychologist and postdoctoral fellow. Dr. Vogel studies social influences on health behaviors and the use of digital tools, such as social media, to improve health. Funded by a postdoctoral fellowship award from the California Tobacco Related Diseases Research Program, her current lines of research involve adolescent e-cigarette use, smoking in the LGBTQ+ community, and co-occurring health risk behaviors.

Honors & Awards

  • Postdoc Slam Finalist, UCSF (2018)
  • Travel Award for Early Career Investigators, College on Problems of Drug Dependence (2018)
  • Student Research Award (First Place), Rocky Mountain Psychological Association (2016)
  • Second Place Oral Presentation, Midwest Graduate Research Symposium (2015)
  • Top Woman in STEM, Midwest Graduate Research Symposium, Association of Women in Science (2015)
  • Graduate Research Award, University of Toledo Graduate Student Association (2013)
  • Alumni Scholarship, Illinois Wesleyan University (2008-2012)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Advisory Board Member, Proudly Against Tobacco (2019 - Present)
  • Member, Society of Behavioral Medicine (2019 - Present)
  • Member, UCSF Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (2018 - Present)
  • Member, College on Problems of Drug Dependence (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Social, Personality, & Health Network (SPHN) (2012 - 2017)
  • Member, Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) (2012 - 2017)
  • Member, Midwestern Psychological Association (2012 - 2016)
  • Member, Psi Chi (International Honor Society in Psychology) (2010 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo (2017)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Illinois Wesleyan University (2012)
  • Master of Arts, University of Toledo (2014)
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of California, San Francisco, Nicotine and tobacco research (2019)
  • Ph.D., University of Toledo, Experimental (Social) Psychology (2017)
  • M.A., University of Toledo, Psychology (2014)
  • B.A., Illinois Wesleyan University, Psychology (2012)

Stanford Advisors

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Adolescent e-cigarette use, smoking in the LGBTQ+ community, social media and well-being, multiple health risk behaviors, digital interventions for substance use


  • The Influence of Social Media on Adolescents' E-Cigarette Use, UCSF, Stanford University (July 1, 2018 - June 30, 2021)

    Uses a mixed-methods approach to examine adolescents’ experiences with e-cigarette content on social media and its effects.


    Stanford University

Lab Affiliations


All Publications

  • Sexual and gender minority young adults' smoking characteristics: Assessing differences by sexual orientation and gender identity ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Vogel, E. A., Humfleet, G. L., Meacham, M., Prochaska, J. J., Ramo, D. E. 2019; 95: 98–102
  • Adolescents' E-Cigarette Use: Increases in Frequency, Dependence, and Nicotine Exposure Over 12Months. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Vogel, E. A., Prochaska, J. J., Ramo, D. E., Andres, J., Rubinstein, M. L. 2019; 64 (6): 770–75


    PURPOSE: This study examined changes in e-cigarette and dual-use frequency, levels of nicotine exposure and e-cigarette dependence, and device and e-liquid preferences over 12months.METHODS: Adolescents (N= 173, aged 13-18 years) who reported past-month e-cigarette use and at least 10 lifetime uses were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. The sample was 75.1% male, 54.9% non-Hispanic White, mean age 16.6years (standard deviation= 1.2); 26.6% reported past-month cigarette smoking at baseline (i.e., dual use). At baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up, participants provided saliva samples for cotinine testing and self-reported e-cigarette use frequency, dependence, past-month smoking, product preference, and flavor preference.RESULTS: Most (80.3%) were still using e-cigarettes at 12 months, and daily use increased from 14.5% to 29.8%. Model testing indicated an overall increase from baseline to 12months in frequency of e-cigarette use (F(2, 166)= 5.69, p= .004), dependence (F(2, 164)= 5.49, p= .005), and cotinine levels (F(2, 103)= 4.40, p= .038). Among those reporting only e-cigarette use at baseline, 28.8% reported combustible cigarette use during follow-up. Among those reporting dual use at baseline, 57.1% were still dual using at 12 months, 31.4% reported e-cigarette use only, and none abstained from both products. Higher nicotine delivering e-cigarette devices (i.e., Juul, mods) became more popular over time, whereas flavor preferences (i.e., fruit, mint/menthol, and candy) remained stable.CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' e-cigarette use persisted over a 12-month period with significant increases in frequency of use, nicotine exposure, and e-cigarette dependence. Transitions from single to dual and dual to single nicotine product use were observed in approximately one in three users over the study period.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.02.019

    View details for PubMedID 31122507

  • Development and acceptability testing of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for sexual and gender minority young adults. Internet interventions Vogel, E. A., Belohlavek, A., Prochaska, J. J., Ramo, D. E. 2019; 15: 87–92


    This study tested engagement in and acceptability of a digital smoking cessation intervention designed for young adults and tailored to sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals. The intervention included 90 Facebook posts delivered in private groups tailored to readiness to quit smoking (Ready to quit in 30 days/Not Ready; 180 posts total; 101 posts SGM-tailored by content/image). Acceptability was evaluated over 30 days (3 posts/day). Participants' (N = 27) open-ended feedback was coded and tallied; posts with significant negative feedback were flagged for change. Flags and comment volume were examined by SGM tailoring (versus not tailored) and content category (motivational interviewing, experiential strategies, behavioral strategies, relevant topics). Engagement and acceptability were high. All participants reported viewing at least half of the posts, and the majority reported viewing all 90 posts (M comments per participant = 51.74). The majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements about the intervention's helpfulness and clarity. Posts received an average of 8.08 comments (SD = 2.58), with 59 posts (32.8%) flagged for change. Posts engaged comments and were found to be acceptable at comparable levels regardless of SGM tailoring and content category (all p-values > .189). SGM young adult smokers were highly engaged in an SGM-tailored smoking cessation intervention on Facebook and rated the intervention positively. Both tailored and non-tailored Facebook posts in a variety of content areas were generally well-received by SGM young adults, an underserved population with high rates of smoking.

    View details for PubMedID 30792958

  • Smoking Cessation Intervention Trial Outcomes for Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Vogel, E. A., Thrul, J., Humfleet, G. L., Delucchi, K. L., Ramo, D. E. 2019; 38 (1): 12–20


    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals are more likely to smoke than are non-SGM individuals. It is unclear whether smoking cessation interventions for young adults are effective in the SGM population. The purpose of this study was to compare smoking cessation, other health risk behaviors, and intervention usability between SGM and non-SGM young adult smokers participating in a digital smoking cessation intervention trial.Young adult smokers (N = 500; 135 SGM) were assigned to a 90-day Facebook smoking cessation intervention (treatment) or referred to (control). Intervention participants were assigned to private Facebook groups tailored to their readiness to quit smoking. Participants reported their smoking status and other health risk behaviors at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Usability of the intervention (i.e., perceptions of the intervention and treatment engagement) was assessed in the intervention group at 3 months.Smoking cessation and intervention usability did not significantly differ between SGM participants and non-SGM participants. A greater proportion of SGM participants were at high risk for physical inactivity over the 12-month follow-up period (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, p = .005).SGM and non-SGM young adult smokers did not differ in their smoking cessation rates, perceptions of, or engagement in a digital intervention. Health risk behavior patterns were mostly similar; however, the disparity in physical activity between SGM and non-SGM smokers widened over time. Tailored interventions for SGM young adult smokers could increase focus on SGM experiences that can underlie multiple health risk behaviors, such as discrimination and the normativity of smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/hea0000698

    View details for Web of Science ID 000453765500002

    View details for PubMedID 30489104

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6415665

  • The Put It Out Project (POP) Facebook Intervention for Young Sexual and Gender Minority Smokers: Outcomes of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Vogel, E. A., Ramo, D. E., Meacham, M. C., Prochaska, J. J., Delucchi, K. L., Humfleet, G. L. 2019


    This trial investigated whether a Facebook smoking cessation intervention culturally tailored to young sexual and gender minority (SGM) smokers (versus non-tailored) would increase smoking abstinence.Participants were 165 SGM young adult U.S. smokers (age 18-25) recruited from Facebook in April 2018 and randomized to an SGM-tailored (POP; N=84) or non-tailored (TSP-SGM; N=81) intervention. Interventions delivered weekly live counseling sessions and 90 daily Facebook posts to participants in Facebook groups. Primary analyses compared POP and TSP-SGM on biochemically verified smoking abstinence (yes/no; primary outcome), self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (yes/no), reduction in cigarettes per week by 50+% from baseline (yes/no), making a quit attempt during treatment (yes/no), and stage of change (precontemplation/contemplation vs. preparation/action). Supplemental analyses compared POP to two historical control groups.POP participants were more likely than TSP-SGM participants to report smoking abstinence at 3 (23.8% vs. 12.3%; OR=2.50; p=.03) and 6 months (34.5% vs. 12.3%; OR=4.06; p<.001) and reduction in smoking at 3 months (52.4% vs. 39.5%; OR=2.11; p=.03). Biochemically verified smoking abstinence did not significantly differ between POP and TSP-SGM at 3 (OR=2.00; p=.33) or 6 months (OR=3.12; p=.08), potentially due to challenges with remote biochemical verification. In supplemental analyses, POP participants were more likely to report abstinence at 3 (OR=6.82, p=.01) and 6 (OR=2.75, p=.03) months and reduced smoking at 3 months (OR=2.72, p=.01) than participants who received a referral to pilot study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention tailored to SGM young adults.Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals have disproportionately high smoking prevalence. It is unclear whether smoking cessation interventions culturally tailored to the SGM community are more effective than non-tailored interventions. This pilot trial found preliminary evidence that an SGM-tailored Facebook smoking cessation intervention increased reported abstinence from smoking, compared to a non-tailored intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ntr/ntz184

    View details for PubMedID 31562765

  • Measuring e-cigarette addiction among adolescents. Tobacco control Vogel, E. A., Prochaska, J. J., Rubinstein, M. L. 2019


    With high rates of use and uncertain consequences, valid electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use frequency and addiction measures for adolescents are needed. This cross-sectional study examined correlations for multiple measures of adolescent e-cigarette use with nicotine exposure quantified with salivary cotinine levels.Adolescents (N=173, age 13-18) who reported past-month e-cigarette use were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants self-reported: (1) days of e-cigarette use in a typical month, (2) number of e-cigarette sessions in a typical day (sessions per day; SPD) and the (3) E-Cigarette Addiction Severity Index (EASI). Participants also completed the 10-item Penn State Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index (ECDI), which we examined in full and as a 2-item Heaviness of Vaping Index (HVI; the sum of the ECDI items on use frequency and time to first vaping on wakening). Sessions per month (SPM) were calculated using days per month and SPD. Cotinine levels, SPD and SPM were log-transformed.Among frequency measures, SPM correlated most strongly with cotinine (r=0.59), followed closely by days per month (r=0.58) and SPD (r=0.57), p<0.001. Among dependence measures, the EASI correlated most strongly with cotinine (r=0.51), closely followed by the ECDI and HVI (r's=0.50), all p's<0.001.Adolescents' reports of frequency of e-cigarette use and degree of addiction correlated significantly with cotinine as a biomarker of nicotine exposure. We recommend the EASI and days per month as brief general measures. SPM and the ECDI are more extensive measures that may yield a more nuanced understanding of use.

    View details for PubMedID 31079033

  • Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Young Adult Smokers: Stages of Change and Stability over Time. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine Ramo, D. E., Thrul, J., Vogel, E. A., Delucchi, K., Prochaska, J. J. 2019


    Health risk behaviors (HRBs) are common, yet not well understood in young adult smokers.We examined HRB profiles over 12 months in young adult smokers participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention clinical trial.Participants (N = 500; age M = 20.9 years; 54.6% women) were recruited online and randomized to receive either a 3-month Facebook smoking cessation intervention or referral to (control). A Health Risk Assessment determined risk for 10 behaviors at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. Latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA) were used to identify patterns of HRBs and changes over time.At baseline, participants reported an average of 5.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.7) risk behaviors, including smoking (100%), high-fat diet (84.8%), poor sleep hygiene (71.6%), and low fruit and vegetable intake (69.4%). A 3-class model fit the data best at baseline and all follow-up time points: low risk (28.8% at baseline) with low likelihood of risk on all behaviors except smoking, substance use risk (14.0% at baseline) characterized by heavy episodic drinking, cannabis use, and other illicit drug use, and metabolic risk (57.2% at baseline), with a high percentage of members at risk for a low fruit and vegetable intake, high-fat diet, inactivity, stress, and poor sleep hygiene. Classes were very stable at 3, 6, and 12 months, with few participants transitioning between classes.Most young adult smokers engaged in multiple risk behaviors, with meaningful clustering of behaviors, and demonstrated stability over a year's time. In addition to smoking, targets for intervention are co-occurring substance use and metabolic risk behaviors.NCT02207036.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/abm/kaz025

    View details for PubMedID 31157881

  • Comparing comparisons: Assimilation and contrast processes and outcomes following social and temporal comparison Self and Identity Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Aspiras, O. G., Edmonds, K. A., Gallinari, E. F. 2019
  • Associations between marijuana use and tobacco cessation outcomes in young adults JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT Vogel, E. A., Rubinstein, M. L., Prochaska, J. J., Ramo, D. E. 2018; 94: 69–73


    Marijuana and tobacco co-use is common among young adults, and findings are mixed regarding the association between marijuana use and smoking cessation outcomes. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between marijuana use and smoking cessation outcomes among young adults (aged 18-25 years; N = 500) enrolled in a 3-month smoking cessation intervention on Facebook. At baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months, participants reported their marijuana use and their smoking behaviors (seven-day point prevalence abstinence from smoking, cigarettes per day, quit attempts) and readiness to quit. Longitudinal analyses controlled for experimental condition and adjusted for baseline stage of change, baseline average cigarettes per day, sex, alcohol use, and age participants began smoking regularly. Use of marijuana by young adult smokers was associated with a lower likelihood of reduced smoking (OR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.51, 0.98], p = .036) and a lower likelihood of abstaining from smoking (OR = 0.56, 95% CI [0.35, 0.90], p = .017) in the past seven days, as assessed over 12 months of follow-up. Use of marijuana was not significantly associated with perceptions of or engagement in the smoking cessation intervention, stage of change for quitting smoking, or tobacco quit attempts (all p's > 0.08). Study findings indicate that while marijuana use is unrelated to motivation to quit tobacco and engage in cessation interventions, marijuana use is associated with less success in reducing and abstaining from tobacco. Additional support and targeted tobacco cessation strategies to address challenges associated with marijuana co-use may be needed.

    View details for PubMedID 30243420

  • Prevalence and correlates of adolescents' e-cigarette use frequency and dependence DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE Vogel, E. A., Ramo, D. E., Rubinstein, M. L. 2018; 188: 109–12


    Understanding predictors of e-cigarette use among adolescents in the context of wide availability and extreme popularity of these products is important for prevention and treatment. This study identifies correlates of e-cigarette use frequency and dependence among adolescent users.Adolescent e-cigarette users (N = 173) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants reported demographic and psychosocial characteristics, e-cigarette use behaviors, and cigarette use. Bivariate relationships between potential correlates were examined, and correlates significant at p < .10 were included in full models predicting frequency and dependence.In the full models, frequent use was associated with receiving one's first e-cigarette from a family member rather than a friend (r = -0.23, p < .001) or a store ( = -0.13, p = .037), using nicotine in all e-cigarettes versus some e-cigarettes (r = -0.17, p = .007) or unknown nicotine use (r = -0.15, p = .014), using a customizable device versus a Juul (r = -0.22, p < .001), vape pen (r = -0.20, p = .002), or other/unknown device (r = -0.16, p = .009), and friends' e-cigarette use (r = 0.20, p = .002). Dependence was associated with younger age of first use (r = -0.18, p = .012), friends' use (r = 0.18, p = .01), and recent cigarette use (r = 0.17, p = .019).When assessing problematic e-cigarette use among adolescents, it is important to consider social factors (e.g., friends' and family members' e-cigarette use), device type, and dual use with cigarettes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.03.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000436912700016

    View details for PubMedID 29763848

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5999577

  • The Application of Persuasion Theory to Placebo Effects NEUROBIOLOGY OF THE PLACEBO EFFECT, PT I Geers, A. L., Brinol, P., Vogel, E. A., Aspiras, O., Caplandies, F. C., Petty, R. E., Colloca, L. 2018; 138: 113–36


    Placebo effects, or positive outcomes resulting from expectations about a treatment, are powerful components of modern medical care. In this chapter, we suggest that our understanding of placebo effects may benefit from more explicitly connecting this phenomenon to the existing empirical psychological literature on persuasion. Persuasion typically involves an attempt to bring about a change in beliefs or attitudes as a result of providing information on a topic. We begin by providing a brief overview of the psychological literature on placebo effects. We then point to connections between this literature and research on persuasive communication. Although some links have been made, these initial connections have predominantly relied on classic theories of persuasion rather than on more contemporary and comprehensive models. Next, we describe a modern theory of persuasion that may facilitate the study of placebo effects and analyze two issues pertinent to the literature on placebo effects from the lens of this model. Specifically, we consider how and when characteristics of a practitioner (e.g., variables such as perceptions of a practitioner's confidence or competence) can influence the magnitude of placebo effects, and how modern persuasion theory can help in understanding the durability of placebo effects over time. We conclude that examining placebo effects as an outcome of persuasive communication would be a fruitful line of future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.irn.2018.01.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000436628500008

    View details for PubMedID 29681321

  • "Transformation Tuesday": Temporal context and post valence influence the provision of social support on social media JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Crane, C. 2018; 158 (4): 446–59


    Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have become integral in the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. Users of SNSs seek social support and validation, often using posts that illustrate how they have changed over time. The purpose of the present research is to examine how the valence and temporal context of an SNS post affect the likelihood of other users providing social support. Participants viewed hypothetical SNS posts and reported their intentions to provide social support to the users. Results revealed that participants were more likely to provide social support for posts that were positive and included temporal context (i.e., depicted improvement over time; Study 1). Furthermore, this research suggests that visual representations of change over time are needed to elicit social support (Study 2). Results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for SNS users and theoretical implications for the literature on social support and social media.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/00224545.2017.1385444

    View details for Web of Science ID 000432701500004

    View details for PubMedID 29023225

  • Experiencing is believing: prior experience moderates the impact of self-based and socially-based cues in the context of blood donation JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Roberts, L., Rose, J. P., Vogel, E. A. 2017; 40 (6): 998–1010


    Two studies explored how self-based cues (i.e., self-efficacy), socially-based cues (i.e., perceived social norms), and prior blood donation experience differentially influence behavioral intentions. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N = 766) completed an online study that evaluated prior experiences, self-efficacy, perceived norms, and behavioral intentions in the context of blood donation. In Study 2, a community sample (N = 199) from a clinic waiting room completed similar measures. Across both studies, having high self-efficacy was a necessary and sufficient antecedent to high intentions, regardless of norm perception for donors. For non-donors, however, high self-efficacy was necessary but not sufficient; non-donors' intentions were higher when giving blood was perceived to be normative, but far lower when it was not. When self-efficacy was low, the effects of experience and norms did not exert meaningful effects and donation intentions were quite low. These results demonstrate that the impact of self-based and socially-based cues on behavioral intentions may differ as a function of experience. The findings can inform public health initiatives and enhance the accuracy of theoretical models by directly examining experience as a moderator.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10865-017-9862-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000415166600014

    View details for PubMedID 28631102

  • Comparative Optimism and Event Skewness JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING Rose, J. P., Aspiras, O., Vogel, E., Haught, H., Roberts, L. 2017; 30 (2): 236–55

    View details for DOI 10.1002/bdm.1940

    View details for Web of Science ID 000397999600008

  • Perceptions of Perfection: The Influence of Social Media on Interpersonal Evaluations BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P. 2017; 39 (6): 317–25
  • The Influence of Early Experiences and Adult Attachment on the Exhibition of the Sexual Double Standard SEXUALITY AND CULTURE Zaikman, Y., Vogel, E. A., Vicary, A. M., Marks, M. J. 2016; 20 (3): 425–45
  • Self-reflection and interpersonal connection: Making the most of self-presentation on social media Translational Issues in Psychological Science Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P. 2016; 2 (3): 294-302

    View details for DOI 10.1037/tps0000076

  • Who compares and despairs? The effect of social comparison orientation on social media use and its outcomes PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Okdie, B. M., Eckles, K., Franz, B. 2015; 86: 249–56
  • Social Comparison, Social Media, and Self-Esteem PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA CULTURE Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., Eckles, K. 2014; 3 (4): 206–22

    View details for DOI 10.1037/ppm0000047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000438563100004