Clinical Focus

  • Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
  • Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Shoulder replacement
  • Rotator cuff repair surgery
  • Arthroscopic surgery of shoulder and elbow
  • elbow replacement or reconstruction
  • Shoulder / elbow /arm fracture surgery

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • First Place Award, Residents’ Bowl Philadelphia Orthopedic Society (2005)
  • First Place Award Resident/Fellow Competition, Pennsylvania Orthopedic Society (2002)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Academic faculty, Stanford University Department of Orthopeadics (2006 - Present)
  • Chief of Shoulder and Elbow Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University (2006 - Present)
  • Fellow, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (2009 - Present)
  • Course Director, Stanford University Medical Scholars Program (2008 - Present)
  • Member of Board of Directors, Northern California Western Orthopedic Association (2009 - Present)
  • Member, Mayo Elbow Club (2006 - Present)
  • Faculty/Lab Instructor, Mayo Clinic Annual Elbow Meeting (2006 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Mayo Clinic Rochester (2006) MN
  • Residency:Drexel University (2005) PA
  • Board Certification: Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (2008)
  • Medical Education:New York Medical College (2000) NY
  • Internship:Drexel University (2001) PA
  • BS, UCLA, Physiological Science

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Cheung specializes in surgery related to the shoulder and elbow, including fractures, joint replacements, rotator cuff repair, ligament repair, sports injuries and arthroscopic procedures. She is Cheif of the Shoulder and Elbow Service at Stanford. She is a Board-certified orthopedic surgeon, a Fellow of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery, Member of the prestigious American Shoulder Elbow Society, Member of the Association of Clinical Elbow and Shoulder Surgeons, Member of the Mayo Elbow Club, and a Board Member of the Northern California Orthopedic Society. She completed her Orthopaedic Surgery residency at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA. She completed her Fellowship in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery at the world renowned Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, MN.

Her research has focused on clinical outcomes following revision of total shoulder replacements, revision of total elbow replacements, and treatment of complications following shoulder and elbow reconstruction procedures. Her publications include those in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, and Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. She has presented her work and often lectures at regional and national orthpaedic surgery conferences, and has written numberous textbook chapters in the field of shoulder and elbow reconstruction. Her current research topics include localized bone mineral density in the shoulder after arthroplasty and 3-dimensional kinematic study of the shoulder girdle.


2016-17 Courses


All Publications

  • Patient adherence with postoperative restrictions after rotator cuff repair JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Silverio, L. M., Cheung, E. V. 2014; 23 (4): 508-513


    This study aimed to measure self-reported patient adherence to postoperative restrictions after rotator cuff repair, to evaluate correlations between adherence and functional outcome, and to identify possible indicators of poor adherence. We believed that poor adherence would correlate with poor functional outcome.Fifty consecutive patients undergoing repair for rotator cuff tears were included and instructed to wear an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. Functional evaluations, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, University of California-Los Angeles shoulder score, and Simple Shoulder Test, were made preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients commented on their adherence with a medical adherence measurement questionnaire.Average adherence was 88% (range, 59.2-100). There were no significant correlations between adherence and improvement in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, University of California-Los Angeles, or Simple Shoulder Test scores after rotator cuff repair (P = .06245, .5891, and .7688). Of the patient demographics analyzed, only smoking status had a positive effect on adherence (P = .00432; coefficient, 9.867). All other demographics, including hand dominance, mechanism of injury, repair complexity, comorbidities, living status, employment status, and age, had no significant effect on self-measured adherence to postoperative restrictions (P = .7876, .5889, .6444, .4190, .0609, .4171, .5402).Patients' self-reported adherence did not correlate with shoulder outcome as measured on any of 3 functional outcome scores.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.09.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333058300016

    View details for PubMedID 24581418

  • MRI detection of forearm soft tissue injuries with radial head fractures. Hand (New York, N.Y.) McGinley, J. C., Gold, G., Cheung, E., Yao, J. 2014; 9 (1): 87-92


    This study aims to evaluate the incidence of forearm soft tissue abnormalities associated with radial head fracture severity based on the Mason classification system.Eighteen patients (age 18-45 years) were prospectively evaluated with elbow radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following longitudinal forearm trauma. MRI was performed within 10 days of the initial injury. Radiographs and MR images were evaluated in a blinded fashion by two musculoskeletal radiologists.Thirteen of 18 patients presented with Mason type I radial head fractures. In all patients with Mason type I fractures, the interosseous membrane (IOM) was intact. Two patients had Mason type II fractures with associated partial and compete tearing of the IOM and three patients had Mason type III fractures with complete tearing of the IOM. Edema was noted in the pronator quadratus in six of 13 type I injuries and seen in all type II and III injuries. No structural forearm soft tissue abnormalities were present in patients with Mason type I injuries. The presence of edema within the pronator quadratus correlated with distal forearm pain.The severity of radial head fracture correlates with longitudinal forearm injury evidenced by the presence of IOM tearing. The findings suggest patients with Mason type II or III fractures of the radial head should undergo further evaluation of the forearm for associated soft tissue injuries. Edema within the pronator quadratus was present following forearm trauma regardless of the severity of fracture and was related to symptomatic forearm pain.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11552-013-9561-2

    View details for PubMedID 24570643

  • Biomechanical evaluation of a coracoclavicular and acromioclacicular ligament reconstruction technique utilizing a single continuous intramedullary free tendon graft JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Abrams, G. D., McGarry, M. H., Jain, N. S., Freehill, M. T., Shin, S., Cheung, E. V., Lee, T. Q., Safran, M. R. 2013; 22 (7): 979-985


    Reconstruction of only the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments may restore superior-inferior (S-I) but not anterior-posterior (A-P) stability of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. Concomitant reconstruction of both the AC and CC ligaments may more reliably restore intact biomechanical characteristics of the AC joint.Ten matched pairs of shoulders were utilized. Five specimens underwent CC ligament reconstruction while an equal number underwent combined AC and CC ligament reconstruction utilizing an intramedullary tendon graft. Each of the reconstructions was compared with the intact contralateral control. Translational and load to failure characteristics were compared between groups.No difference was found in S-I translation between intact specimens and CC-only reconstructions (P = .20) nor between intact specimens and AC/CC reconstructions (P = .33) at 10 Newton (N) loads. Significant differences were noted in A-P translation between intact specimens and CC-only reconstructions (P < .001) but no difference in A-P translation between intact specimens and AC/CC reconstructions (P = .34).The A-P and S-I translational biomechanical characteristics of the AC joint were restored using the new technique described. Reconstruction of the CC ligaments only (versus AC/CC combined) led to significantly increased translational motion in the A-P plane as compared to intact control specimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2012.09.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320996100024

  • Response to letter to editor regarding "Risk factors for development of heterotopic ossification of the elbow after fracture fixation". Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery Abrams, G. D., Bellino, M. J., Cheung, E. V. 2013; 22 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.03.011

    View details for PubMedID 23623207

  • Risk factors for development of heterotopic ossification of the elbow after fracture fixation JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Abrams, G. D., Bellino, M. J., Cheung, E. V. 2012; 21 (11): 1550-1554


    Postoperative heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow may occur after surgical fixation of fractures and can contribute to dysfunction. Factors associated with HO formation after surgical fixation of elbow trauma are not well understood.All patients who underwent surgery for elbow trauma at our institution from October 2001 through August 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with prior injury or deformity to the involved elbow were excluded. Demographic data; fracture type; surgical treatment; and presence, location, and size of HO were recorded. The Fisher exact test, ?(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression were used with an ? value of .05 used for significance.A total of 159 patients were identified, with 89 (37 men and 52 women) meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age was 54.4 years (range, 18-90 years), and the mean follow-up time was 180 days. Age, male gender, lateral collateral ligament repair, and dual-incision approach were not associated with increased ectopic bone formation. Distal humeral fractures were a significant predictor of heterotopic bone. In patients in whom HO ultimately developed, it was visible on radiographs obtained 2 weeks postoperatively in 86% of cases.This investigation found predictors for the development of HO after surgical fixation of intra-articular elbow fractures. Furthermore, HO went on to develop at the time of final follow-up in only 14% of patients without HO on radiographs obtained 2 weeks postoperatively. This may suggest that absence of HO on radiographs obtained 2 weeks postoperatively may predict a more favorable outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2012.05.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312000600021

    View details for PubMedID 22947234

  • Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair-Traditional Anchor Techniques OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES IN SPORTS MEDICINE Cheung, E. V., Safran, M. R. 2012; 20 (3): 213-219
  • Postoperative pain associated with orthopedic shoulder and elbow surgery: a prospective study JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Desai, V. N., Cheung, E. V. 2012; 21 (4): 441-450


    In the last 2 decades, extensive research in postoperative pain management has been undertaken to decrease morbidity. Orthopedic procedures tend to have increased pain compared with other procedures, but further research must be done to manage pain more efficiently. Postoperative pain morbidities and analgesic dependence continue to adversely affect health care.The study assessed the pain of 78 elbow and shoulder surgery patients preoperatively and postoperatively using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Preoperatively, each patient scored their preoperative pain (PP) and anticipated postoperative pain (APP). Postoperatively, they scored their 3-day (3dpp) and 6-week postoperative pain (6wpp). The pain intensities at these 4 intervals were then compared and analyzed using Pearson coefficients.APP and PP were strong predictors of postoperative pain. The average APP was higher than the average postoperative pain. The 6wpp was significantly lower than the 3dpp. Sex, chronicity, and type of surgery were not significant factors; however, the group aged 18 to 39 years had a significant correlation with postoperative pain.PP and APP were both independent predictors of increased postoperative pain. PP was also predictive of APP. Although, overall postoperative pain was lower than APP or PP due to pain management techniques, postoperative pain was still significantly higher in patients with increased APP or PP than their counterparts. Therefore, surgeons should factor patient's APP and PP to better manage their patient's postoperative pain to decrease comorbidities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2011.09.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303148600006

    View details for PubMedID 22192767

  • Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair - Traditional Anchor Techniques Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine Emilie Cheung, M., Marc Safran, MD 2012; 20 (3): 213-219
  • The "anconeus slide'': rotation flap for management of posterior wound complications about the elbow JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Fleager, K. E., Cheung, E. V. 2011; 20 (8): 1310-1316


    Wound dehiscence at the tip of the olecranon is not an uncommon complication associated with surgical approaches to the elbow that involve a posterior skin incision. Various flaps have been described in the treatment of such soft tissue defects, but have associated morbidity. The "anconeus slide" rotation flap has low morbidity and is technically simple. In this study, we review the surgical technique and describe our experience with the anconeus rotation flap in 20 consecutive patients.The records of 20 patients who underwent an anconeus rotation flap by a single surgeon, from September 2006 to March 2010 were reviewed. The procedure was performed in the setting of total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) in 12 patients, revision total elbow arthroplasty in 3 patients, wound complications in 4 patients, and for an acute open distal humerus fracture in 1 patient. Patients were evaluated postoperatively for wound healing, pain, and postoperative Mayo Elbow Performance Scores (MEPS).All 20 patients healed their surgical wounds completely. Postoperative MEPS scores averaged 79.3 (range, 50-100).The anconeus rotational flap is a technically simple, reliable, and safe option for treatment of posterior wound complications about the elbow, and in the setting of primary and revision TEA when wound healing is a clinical concern. We recommend its use in patients who have either compromised posterior soft tissue coverage, triceps insufficiency, or factors associated with the potential for compromised wound healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2010.11.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298232100022

    View details for PubMedID 21396832

  • Complications in Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Cheung, E., Willis, M., Walker, M., Clark, R., Frankle, M. A. 2011; 19 (7): 439-449


    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was initially used to manage complex shoulder problems. Indications have been expanded to include rotator cuff arthropathy, massive rotator cuff tear, failed shoulder arthroplasty, and fracture sequelae. Increased use of primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has led to reports of associated problems unique to the procedure. The most common complications include neurologic injury, periprosthetic fracture, hematoma, infection, scapular notching, dislocation, mechanical baseplate failure, and acromial fracture. Little information has been published regarding best practices for managing these complications.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292752700007

    View details for PubMedID 21724923

  • Strategies in Biologic Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repair: A Review CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Cheung, E. V., Silverio, L., Sperling, J. W. 2010; 468 (6): 1476-1484


    Degenerative rotator cuff tears are increasing with the aging population, and healing is not uniform after surgery. Rotator cuffs may show improved healing when biologic factors are added during surgery.We asked: (1) What cellular processes are involved in normal bone-to-tendon healing? (2) What approaches are being developed in tendon augmentation? (3) What approaches are being developed with the addition of growth factors?We reviewed research in relating to biologic augmentation and cellular processes involved in rotator cuff repair, focusing on animal models of rotator cuff repair and nonrandomized human trials.Regular bone-to-tendon healing forms a fibrous junction between tendon and bone that is distinct from the original bone-to-tendon junction. Tendon augmentation with cellular components serves as scaffolding for fibroblastic cells and a possible source of growth factors and fibroblastic cells. Extracellular matrices provide a scaffold for incoming fibroblastic cells, although current research does not conclusively confirm which if any of these scaffolds enhance repair owing in part to intermanufacturer variations and the limited human research. Growth factors and platelet-rich-plasma are established in other fields of research and may enhance repair but have not been rigorously tested.There is potential application of biologic augmentation to improve healing after rotator cuff repair. However, research in this field is still inconclusive and has not been sufficiently demonstrated to merit regular clinical use. Future human trials can elucidate the use of biologic augmentation in rotator cuff repairs.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1323-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277411700004

    View details for PubMedID 20352390

  • External Fixation and Centralization Versus External Fixation and Ulnar Osteotomy: The Treatment of Radial Dysplasia Using the Resolved Total Angle of Deformity JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ORTHOPAEDICS McCarthy, J. J., Kozin, S. H., Tuohy, C., Cheung, E., Davidson, R. S., Noonan, K. 2009; 29 (7): 797-803


    The purpose of this study is to compare preliminary external fixation and centralization to ulnar osteotomy with external fixation for the treatment of radial dysplasia as measured by the resolved total angle (RTA) of deformity.This is a retrospective review of 11 patients (14 limbs) with radial dysplasia. The 3-dimensional deformity was measured by the RTA. Six patients (8 limbs, group 1) underwent correction of their angular deformity with preliminary external fixator distraction followed by centralization. Five patients (6 limbs, group 2) underwent ulnar osteotomy with external fixation. Mean age was 9 years, with a mean follow-up of 41 months.Initial RTA was 112 degrees for group 1, which improved to 38 degrees postoperatively, but worsened to 71 degrees at follow-up. In group 2 the initial RTA was 88 degrees, which improved to 50 degrees, with a worsening to 95 degrees at follow-up. The RTA was found to have high interrater and intrarater reliability.The RTA defines the maximum deformity in radial dysplasia and is a reliable measure. Using the RTA, we showed that preliminary external fixation and centralization are more effective than ulnar osteotomy with external fixation, but both have a high recurrence rate.III.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181b76855

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270499800025

    View details for PubMedID 20104165

  • Open distal clavicle resection : isolated or with adjunctive acromioplasty ACTA ORTHOPAEDICA BELGICA Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W., Zarkadas, P. C., Cofield, R. H. 2009; 75 (5): 581-587


    The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes following open distal clavicle resection for acromioclavicular joint arthritis or distal clavicle osteolysis, with and without associated acromioplasty. Patients with painful clinical findings limited to the acromioclavicular joint had isolated distal clavicle excision (23 shoulders). Patients with acromioclavicular joint abnormalities and rotator cuff tendinopathy also underwent acromioplasty (41 shoulders). At average follow-up of 8.3 years, pain scores improved from 4.7 (1 to 5 scale) to 2.3 (p < 0.001). Patient satisfaction improved from 1.8 (1 to 10 scale) to 8.3 (p < 0.001). Postoperatively the mean Simple Shoulder Test (SST) score was 10.9. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score was 88.3. There were no statistical differences in pain, satisfaction, motion, and shoulder scores between the two groups. Results of distal clavicle resection with or without acromioplasty are favourable with a low rate of complications and seldom is further surgery required.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271598900002

    View details for PubMedID 19999867

  • Surgical Approaches to the Elbow JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Cheung, E. V., Steinmann, S. R. 2009; 17 (5): 325-333


    Surgical exposures for complex injuries about the elbow are technically demanding because of the high density of neurologic, vascular, and ligamentous elements around the elbow. The posterior approaches (ie, olecranon osteotomy, triceps-reflecting, triceps-splitting, triceps-reflecting anconeus pedicle flap, paratricipital) include techniques used to navigate the area around the triceps tendon and anconeus muscle. These approaches may be extended to gain access to the entire joint. The ulnar nerve, the anterior and posterior capsules, and the coronoid process are addressed by means of a medial approach. Lateral approaches are useful in addressing pathology at the radial head, capitellum, coronoid process, and anterior and posterior capsules. These approaches may be combined to address complex pathology in the setting of fracture fixation, arthroplasty, and capsular release.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265547200007

    View details for PubMedID 19411644

  • High revision rate after total elbow arthroplasty with a linked semiconstrained device. Orthopedics Patil, N., Cheung, E. V., Mow, C. S. 2009; 32 (5): 321-?


    The clinical results of semiconstrained total elbow arthroplasty have been encouraging, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. This article presents medium-term clinical results, revision rates, and reasons for revision of a semiconstrained linked total elbow device (Solar Total Elbow; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey). We retrospectively reviewed 17 consecutive total elbow arthroplasty patients operated on between February 1994 and March 2001. Thirteen patients were available for clinical evaluation with an average follow-up of 8.4 years (range, 4-12.6 years). The presenting diagnosis was posttraumatic arthritis in 6 patients, rheumatoid arthritis in 6, and gouty arthritis in 1, with an average patient age of 63.4 years. The results were analyzed with regard to complications following the procedure, functional outcome using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), and radiological evaluation at latest follow-up. The mean MEPS improved from 32.1 to 65 at latest follow-up. Three patients had excellent results, 5 had good results, 1 had a fair result, and 4 had poor results. Seven patients required at least 1 revision surgery, including 2 with humeral component loosening, 2 with ulnar component loosening, and 2 with bushing failure. One patient required resection arthroplasty for deep periprosthetic infection. Three patients eventually sustained periprosthetic fractures. Five patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 2 patients with posttraumatic arthritis underwent revision surgery. Poor clinical outcomes and a high revision rate were noted in patients with posttraumatic arthritis. Further comparative studies with other semiconstrained devices are necessary to determine their clinical effectiveness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    View details for PubMedID 19472967

  • Monteggia fracture-dislocation associated with proximal and distal radioulnar joint instability. A case report. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Cheung, E. V., Yao, J. 2009; 91 (4): 950-954

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.H.00269

    View details for PubMedID 19339581

  • Management of Proximal Humeral Nonunions and Malunions ORTHOPEDIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W. 2008; 39 (4): 475-482


    Surgical treatment of proximal humeral nonunions and malunions are technically challenging. Osteosynthesis with bone grafting for the treatment of nonunions is indicated in young, active patients with adequate bone stock in the proximal fragment and preservation of the glenohumeral articular surfaces. Corrective osteotomy may be a reasonable option for proximal humeral malunions in young patients without evidence of degenerative joint disease. Arthroplasty for proximal humerus nonunions and malunions has a guarded outcome because of limitations in shoulder motion, but pain relief is more consistently improved upon.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2008.06.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260288200009

    View details for PubMedID 18803977

  • Infection associated with hematoma formation after shoulder arthroplasty CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W., Cofield, R. H. 2008; 466 (6): 1363-1367


    Hematoma formation requiring operative treatment after shoulder arthroplasty may be associated with higher patient morbidity. We therefore determined whether there was an association of hematoma formation requiring operative treatment with deep infection after shoulder arthroplasty. Between 1978 and 2006, we performed 4147 shoulder arthroplasties in 3643 patients. Of these, 12 shoulders (0.3%) underwent reoperation for hematoma formation. The mean time interval from arthroplasty to surgery for the hematoma was 7 days (range, 0.5-31 days). Among nine cases in which cultures were taken, six had positive cultures; the organisms included Propionibacterium acnes in three, Staphylococcus epidermidis in one, Streptococcus species in one, and Staphylococcus epidermidis with Peptostreptococcus in one. The minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 68 months; range, 12 to 294 months). Two of the 12 patients eventually underwent resection arthroplasty for deep infection. The Neer score was excellent in one, satisfactory in six, and unsatisfactory in five patients. The data suggest hematoma formation after shoulder arthroplasty is often accompanied by positive intraoperative cultures. The surgeon should be aware of the high rate of unsatisfactory results associated with this complication as well as the possibility of developing a deep infection requiring additional surgery.Level IV, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-008-0226-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255855600017

    View details for PubMedID 18421541

  • Revision shoulder arthroplasty for glenoid component loosening JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W., Cofield, R. H. 2008; 17 (3): 371-375


    Although glenoid component loosening has been recognized as a common reason for failure after total shoulder arthroplasty, there are few studies on the outcome of revision surgery for this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the outcome of patients who underwent revision for glenoid component loosening. Between 1976 and 2002, 68 shoulders in 66 patients underwent revision for glenoid loosening at our institution. Group I consisted of 33 shoulders that underwent placement of a new glenoid component, and group II consisted of 35 shoulders that had removal and bone grafting without glenoid reimplantation. Follow-up averaged 3.8 years for group I and 6.2 years for group II. There was significant overall improvement in pain from preoperatively to postoperatively in both groups (P = .0001). Pain relief occurred in 23 of 33 shoulders in group I and in 24 of 35 in group II (P = .9203). Regarding range of motion, there was no significant change from preoperatively to postoperatively (P > .05), except for active elevation in group I (P = .0387). Patient satisfaction occurred in 24 in group I and in 19 in group II (P = .1150). The rate of survival free of reoperation at 5 years was 91% (95% confidence interval, 81% to 100%) in group I and 78% (95% confidence interval, 63% to 96%) in group II (P = .3019). When the Neer result rating was applied, 9 shoulders in group I and 3 in group II had an excellent or satisfactory result (P = .0432). Twenty shoulders had late positive cultures, most commonly, Propionibacterium acnes. Glenoid revision surgery will often lead to pain relief and patient satisfaction. There is a slight clinical benefit to reimplanting a glenoid component whenever structurally possible. Positive cultures in revision surgery are common, with uncertain clinical significance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2007.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255993000001

    View details for PubMedID 18282720

  • Complications of hinged external fixators of the elbow JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Cheung, E. V., O'Driscoll, S. W., Morrey, B. F. 2008; 17 (3): 447-453


    Despite the growing use of hinged external fixators of the elbow, there are no studies regarding the complications associated with their application. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with complications with this procedure. Between 1998 and 2005, we reviewed the records of 100 consecutive patients who were treated with hinged external fixators (including 433 pin sites). Complications specifically related to pin placement were recorded. There were 15 patients with minor complications (15%) involving 21 pins (4.8%) and 10 patients with major complications (10%) involving 29 pins (6.7%). Minor complications included local erythema and nonpurulent drainage lasting greater than 5 days in 9 patients (21 pins) and the need for skin release to decrease tension adjacent to pins in 6 patients (9 pins). Major complications included purulent pin site drainage in 1 patient (2 pins), fixator malalignment in 1, pin loosening in 4 (11 pins), and deep infection in 4. There were no fractures around the pin sites or nerve injuries associated with pin placement. With care, articulated external fixators can be used without a high incidence of major complications. Most of the complications were attributed to local pin site infection. Factors clinically associated with an increased risk of deep infection include a history of prior procedures in the post-traumatic elbow and the complexity of the operative technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2007.10.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255993000013

    View details for PubMedID 18313332

  • Chronic lateral elbow instability ORTHOPEDIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Cheung, E. V. 2008; 39 (2): 221-?


    Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow is the most common pattern of chronic lateral elbow instability. The primary lesion in posterolateral rotatory instability is injury or attenuation of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament. Posterolateral rotatory instability is diagnosed on the basis of careful history taking and specific physical examination techniques. Reconstruction of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament with repair of the surrounding soft tissue structures is recommended in patients who have symptoms of recurrent lateral instability. Open and arthroscopic reconstruction techniques have resulted in improvement of elbow function and satisfactory results in most patients, although mild limitation in terminal extension of the elbow is a common finding.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2007.12.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255647400009

    View details for PubMedID 18374812

  • Treatment of periprosthetic humerus fractures associated with shoulder arthroplasty JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Steinmann, S. P., Cheung, E. V. 2008; 16 (4): 199-207


    The incidence of periprosthetic humerus fracture associated with shoulder arthroplasty is approximately 0.6% to 3%. Fractures of the humerus occur most often intraoperatively and are more common during total shoulder arthroplasty than hemiarthroplasty because of difficulties in gaining access to the glenoid. Osteopenia, advanced age, female sex, and rheumatoid arthritis are medical comorbid factors that may contribute to humerus fractures and associated delayed healing and poorer function. When the humeral prosthetic component is loose or the fracture line overlaps the majority of the length of the prosthesis, revision with a long-stem implant should be considered. When the fracture overlaps the tip of the prosthesis and extends distally, open reduction and internal fixation is recommended. When the fracture is completely distal to the prosthesis and satisfactory alignment at the fracture site can be maintained with a fracture brace, then a trial of nonsurgical treatment is recommended. The primary goals of treatment are fracture union and pain relief. Loss of glenohumeral motion has limited the successful treatment of this challenging problem.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254661200003

    View details for PubMedID 18390482

  • Long-term outcome of anterior stabilization of the shoulder JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W., Hattrup, S. J., Cofield, R. H. 2008; 17 (2): 265-270


    This study reports long-term experience with anterior shoulder capsule stabilization by performing the Bankart repair when labral tearing was present with a laterally based T-capsule repair in both primary and revision surgery. Between 1979 and 1983, 34 patients underwent this procedure. They were categorized into a primary group of 22 patients and a revision group of 12 patients who had previous surgery to correct anterior shoulder instability. Patients completed our shoulder questionnaire and a Rowe questionnaire. The mean follow-up was 22 years (range, 11-27 years). No recurrent dislocations developed, 4 patients reported shoulder subluxation, and 11 felt apprehension. No patient had further anterior instability surgery. Two received total shoulder arthroplasty. Postoperative average pain was 1.6, average strength was 9.0, and average satisfaction was 8.3 (1-10 scales). Active elevation averaged 169 degrees, external rotation, 65 degrees; and internal rotation was to T12. There was an average of 10.2 "yes" responses on the Simple Shoulder Test. The total American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score averaged 84.3. Applying the Rowe rating, results were excellent in 16, good in 10, fair in 2, and poor in 4. Ratings were better in the primary surgery group (P = .0535). The use of this procedure for correction of shoulder instability can prevent recurrent dislocation, but some degree of instability remains. Clinically important arthritis seldom develops.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2007.06.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254363600014

    View details for PubMedID 18036836

  • Reimplantation of a total elbow prosthesis following resection arthroplasty for infection. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Cheung, E. V., Adams, R. A., Morrey, B. F. 2008; 90 (3): 589-594


    The best approach for treatment of infection after total elbow arthroplasty is not clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with reimplantation of a total elbow prosthesis following a prior resection arthroplasty to treat infection.Between 1976 and 2003 at our institution, twenty-nine patients were treated with reimplantation of a total elbow prosthesis after a prior resection arthroplasty following a deep periprosthetic infection. Eleven of the twenty-nine patients had had at least one procedure performed on the elbow prior to the primary arthroplasty. The mean time interval between the resection arthroplasty and the reimplantation was 72.5 weeks. Patients were followed for an average of 7.4 years after the reimplantation. All patients were assessed clinically, and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed.The mean total Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was 35.5 points (range, 15 to 60 points) before the reimplantation and 66.3 points (range, 20 to 100 points) postoperatively (p < 0.001). The most common infecting organism was Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was present in thirteen (45%) of the twenty-nine elbows, followed by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which was present in seven (24%). The infection was not eradicated in eight elbows (28%).Reimplantation of a total elbow prosthesis after a prior resection arthroplasty is a reasonable option for the treatment of infection. Improvement in function can be expected in most patients. However, the chance of the infection recurring and requiring additional revision surgery is high.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.F.00829

    View details for PubMedID 18310709

  • Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow: Current treatment options JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Cheung, E. V., Adams, R., Morrey, B. F. 2008; 16 (2): 77-87


    In the elbow, as in other joints, primary osteoarthritis is characterized by pain, stiffness, mechanical symptoms, and weakness. But primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is unique in that there is relative preservation of articular cartilage and maintenance of joint space, with hypertrophic osteophyte formation and capsular contracture. Medical treatment and physical therapy may be initiated in the early stages of the disease process. Surgical treatment options include arthroscopic osteocapsular débridement, open ulnohumeral arthroplasty, distraction interposition arthroplasty, and total elbow arthroplasty. The potential for instability and loosening following total elbow arthroplasty in the setting of primary osteoarthritis limits the clinical application of this procedure. This patient population is generally younger than that recommended for total elbow arthroplasty, and their higher functional demands have limited the long-term success of this treatment option. The improvement in arthroscopic débridement techniques is perhaps the greatest advancement in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the elbow in recent years.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252866100005

    View details for PubMedID 18252838

  • Spontaneous regression of postoperative ossification about the elbow: a case report. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery Cheung, E. V., O'Driscoll, S. W. 2007; 16 (6): e15-6

    View details for PubMedID 17391990

  • Fractures of the capitellum HAND CLINICS Cheung, E. V. 2007; 23 (4): 481-?


    Fractures of the capitellum account for less than 1% of all elbow fractures. Because they may be difficult to visualize on plain radiographs, the clinician must have a high index of suspicion for their diagnosis. Anatomic alignment of these fractures is imperative; slight residual displacement may result in significant loss of elbow motion. Surgical management is described with open reduction internal fixation using variable pitch headless screws, precontoured plates, or bioabsorbable pins. The optimal method of fixation depends on the fracture pattern and degree of comminution. If the fracture fragments are too small for stable fixation, excision of the fragments is recommended. Osteonecrosis, as well as, end-stage arthrosis requiring total elbow arthroplasty, has been reported as a rare, but potential, complication.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hcl.2007.08.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252168200010

    View details for PubMedID 18054675

  • Polyethylene insert exchange for wear after toad shoulder arthroplasty JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W., Cofield, R. H. 2007; 16 (5): 574-578


    Virtually no information is available in the literature to guide clinical decision-making in regard to modular polyethylene exchange with metal-backed glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty for the indication of polyethylene wear. This level IV study reports our experience with exchange of the modular polyethylene glenoid component during revision total shoulder arthroplasty. We retrospectively identified 12 shoulders in 11 patients who underwent exchange of the modular polyethylene glenoid component during revision arthroplasty. The primary reason for revision arthroplasty with polyethylene exchange was wear-through or displacement of the polyethylene portion of the glenoid component, but rotator cuff tearing and instability often coexisted. The average follow-up from time of revision to latest evaluation or repeat revision arthroplasty was 68 months. Preoperative pain was a mean of 4.5 (range, 4-5), and postoperative pain was a mean of 2.6 (range, 1-5). Preoperative average active forward elevation was 93 degrees, and external rotation was 51 degrees. Postoperative active forward elevation was 89 degrees, and external rotation was 64 degrees. Average patient satisfaction was rated as the same. According to the modified Neer rating system, 4 shoulders (33%) had a satisfactory result, and 8 (62%) had an unsatisfactory result. Polyethylene exchange of glenoid component after total shoulder arthroplasty can be an effective treatment option in patients who do not have coexistent rotator cuff tear or instability. For most, instability, rotator cuff tear, and glenoid wear occur together, and this is a challenging problem to treat successfully.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2006.12.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250151500013

    View details for PubMedID 17531512

  • Reimplantation of a glenoid component following component removal and allogenic bone-grafting JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Cheung, E. V., Sperling, J. W., Cofield, R. H. 2007; 89A (8): 1777-1783


    Glenoid component loosening has been a leading cause of failure of total shoulder arthroplasty. In the present study, we evaluated the outcome of reimplantation of a new glenoid component following removal of the previous glenoid component and placement of an allograft in order to determine the results, risk factors for an unsatisfactory outcome, and rate of failure associated with this procedure.We reviewed the data on seven shoulders in seven patients. At the time of glenoid component reimplantation, two shoulders received a cemented all-polyethylene glenoid component, three received a bone-ingrowth metal-backed component with columns and screws, and two received a bone-ingrowth metal-backed component with columns and screws augmented with bone cement. The average duration of follow-up was seventy-nine months. At the time of the latest follow-up, all patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically, patient satisfaction was assessed, and the result was graded according to a modified Neer rating system.Two patients had positive growth of Propionibacterium acnes on culture of intraoperative specimens obtained at the time of revision surgery and had continuing pain, and both underwent repeat revision. The remaining five patients expressed satisfaction with the procedure and stated that they felt better following surgery. The mean preoperative pain score for these five patients (on a scale from 1 to 5) was 4.6, and the mean postoperative pain score was 2.4 (p = 0.0042). Range of motion, however, did not improve. The Neer rating of the result (determined for the five patients who did not undergo repeat revision) was excellent for one patient, satisfactory for one, and unsatisfactory (because of limitation of motion) for three.Reimplantation of a glenoid component into a previously grafted bed can provide pain relief for most patients, but motion cannot be reliably improved.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.F.00711

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248546300016

  • Total elbow prosthesis loosening caused by ulnar component pistoning JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Cheung, E. V., O'Driscoll, S. W. 2007; 89A (6): 1269-1274


    Linked semiconstrained total elbow prostheses have been used successfully but may be at higher risk for implant loosening than unlinked implants are. The purpose of the present report was to describe a previously unreported and potentially preventable cause of mechanical loosening of the ulnar component of a linked total elbow prosthesis.A series of ten patients who had painful pistoning of the polymethylmethacrylate-coated ulnar component of a Coonrad-Morrey linked total elbow prosthesis were evaluated clinically and radiographically.All ten patients complained of elbow pain, and eight had a distinct sensation of the ulnar component moving within the ulna. Six patients either complained of squeaking within the elbow or could demonstrate squeaking on examination. Four patients had a complete radiolucent line around the ulnar component or the cement mantle, and six had an incomplete line around the ulnar component. Six patients had a radiolucent gap between the cement and the tip of the ulnar prosthesis. Two patients had proximal migration of the ulnar component within the cement mantle on lateral flexion radiographs. Three patients had anterior impingement, such as between the anterior flange of the humeral implant and a prominent coronoid process, on lateral flexion radiographs. At the time of revision arthroplasty, all ten patients were found to have a loose ulnar component, which was successfully revised with or without impaction grafting. At the time of the most recent follow-up, nine of the ten ulnar components were intact and stable. Three patients required an additional reoperation: one required triceps repair, one required revision of a loose humeral component, and one required a revision total elbow arthroplasty.Pistoning of the ulnar component in the cement mantle leading to failure by means of a pullout mechanism can occur in association with the Coonrad-Morrey total elbow prosthesis with a polymethylmethacrylate-precoated ulnar component. To prevent this problem following any total elbow arthroplasty, the surgeon should check for anterior impingement intraoperatively by ensuring that there is no contact between the anterior flange and a prominent coronoid process or the cement and that no distraction of the trial ulnar component from the ulna occurs with passive elbow flexion. This condition also can be avoided by ensuring that the ulnar component is not inserted too far distally. This mechanism of failure should be considered when future total elbow arthroplasty implants are designed.Therapeutic Level IV.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247085800015

  • Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents: II. Surgical management JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Cheung, E. V., Herman, M. J., Cavalier, R., Pizzutillo, P. D. 2006; 14 (8): 488-498


    Surgical management is indicated for children and adolescents with spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis (< or =50% slip) who fail to respond to nonsurgical measures. In situ posterolateral L5 to S1 fusion is the best option for those with a low-grade slip secondary to L5 pars defects or dysplastic spondylolisthesis at the lumbosacral junction. Pars repair is reserved for patients with symptomatic spondylolysis and low-grade, mobile spondylolisthesis with pars defects cephalad to L5 and for those with multiple-level defects. Screw repair of the pars defect, wiring transverse process to spinous process, and pedicle screw-laminar hook fixation are surgical options. The ideal surgical management of high-grade spondylolisthesis (>50% slip) is controversial. Spinal fusion has been indicated for children and adolescents with high-grade spondylolisthesis regardless of symptoms. In situ L4 to S1 fusion with cast immobilization is safe and effective for alleviating back pain and neurologic symptoms. Instrumented reduction and fusion techniques permit improved correction of sagittal spinal imbalance and more rapid rehabilitation but are associated with a higher risk of iatrogenic nerve root injuries than in situ techniques. Wide decompression of nerve roots combined with instrumented partial reduction may diminish the risk of neurologic complications. Pseudarthrosis and neurologic injury presenting as L5 radiculopathy and sacral root dysfunction are the most common complications associated with surgical management of high-grade spondylolisthesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239707500006

    View details for PubMedID 16885480

  • Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents: I. Diagnosis, natural history, and nonsurgical management JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Cavalier, R., Herman, M. J., Cheung, E. V., Pizzutillo, P. D. 2006; 14 (7): 417-424


    Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are often diagnosed in children presenting with low back pain. Spondylolysis refers to a defect of the vertebral pars interarticularis. Spondylolisthesis is the forward translation of one vertebral segment over the one beneath it. Isthmic spondylolysis, isthmic spondylolisthesis, and stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis are the most common forms seen in children. Typical presentation is characterized by a history of activity-related low back pain and the presence of painful spinal mobility and hamstring tightness without radiculopathy. Plain radiography, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography are useful for establishing the diagnosis. Symptomatic stress reactions of the pars interarticularis or adjacent vertebral structures are best treated with immobilization of the spine and activity restriction. Spondylolysis often responds to brief periods of activity restriction, immobilization, and physiotherapy. Low-grade spondylolisthesis (< or =50% translation) is treated similarly. The less common dysplastic spondylolisthesis with intact posterior elements requires greater caution. Symptomatic high-grade spondylolisthesis (>50% translation) responds much less reliably to nonsurgical treatment. The growing child may need to be followed clinically and radiographically through skeletal maturity. When pain persists despite nonsurgical interventions, when progressive vertebral displacement increases, or in the presence of progressive neurologic deficits, surgical intervention is appropriate.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239178100004

    View details for PubMedID 16822889

  • Immediate range of motion after distal biceps tendon repair JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Cheung, E. V., Lazarus, M., Taranta, M. 2005; 14 (5): 516-518


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of immediate postoperative motion on strength and elbow motion after repair of a distal biceps tendon rupture. We conducted a retrospective review of 13 patients who had repairs of a unilateral distal biceps tendon rupture with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The repairs were performed via a 2-incision technique. The elbows were placed into hinged braces immediately postoperatively, and range of motion was limited to 60 degrees of flexion to full limitation on flexion on the first postoperative day. Elbow extension block was decreased to 40 degrees at 2 weeks, 20 degrees at 4 weeks, and full extension at 6 weeks postoperatively. Elbow range of motion, biceps strength, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were recorded at follow-up. There was a mean loss of 5.8 degrees of full extension when compared with the uninjured side, with no loss of flexion. There was a mean loss of 3.5 degrees of pronation and 8.1 degrees of supination. Flexion strength was 91.4% and supination strength was 89.4% of that of the uninjured side. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 42.8. We conclude that immediate postoperative range of motion after repair of the distal biceps tendon leads to early gain of extension and has no deleterious effect on healing or strength.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2004.12.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232611500011

    View details for PubMedID 16194744

  • An undescribed cause of patellar tendon rupture. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Hosalkar, H. S., Cheung-Moore, E., Atanda, A., Ogilvie, C., Lackman, R. D. 2005; 34 (7): 333-336


    We present a rare case of a myxoid-feature lipoma that arose in the patella fat pad and caused patellar tendon rupture.

    View details for PubMedID 16130351

  • Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use INFLAMMATION RESEARCH Cheung, E. V., Tidball, J. G. 2003; 52 (4): 170-176


    To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations.Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading.Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations.Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182738200005

    View details for PubMedID 12755383