Trauma, Attentional Biases, and Revictimization Among Young Adults
JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & DISSOCIATION
2015; 16 (2): 181-196
Case Series: Sensory Intolerance as a Primary Symptom of Pediatric OCD
ANNALS OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY
2008; 20 (4): 199–203
Individuals with previous histories of trauma are at increased risk for subsequent victimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. Attentional biases to threat-related stimuli are thought to impact one's ability to recognize future risk in his or her environment and may explain high rates of revictimization. Although the literature has identified three possible types of attentional biases among victims of trauma (i.e., interference, facilitation, and avoidance), findings are mixed. The current study examined attentional biases to threats among a sample of men and women with no, some, and multiple incident interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma histories. It was hypothesized that those with multiple incident interpersonal trauma histories would demonstrate an interference effect (i.e., slower response times to threat-related words). Participants (N = 309) were 18- to 29-year-old college students. Self-report measures assessed trauma history, posttraumatic stress, and other psychological sequelae. Attentional biases were assessed using a dot probe computer task. Contrary to hypotheses, no significant differences in response times in the presence of threat-related words or neutral words were found among groups. Results suggest that multiple traumatized individuals do not exhibit attentional bias to threats compared to individuals with some or no trauma.
View details for DOI 10.1080/15299732.2014.975308
View details for Web of Science ID 000351273600004
View details for PubMedID 25734365
Perinatal factors affecting expression of obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents
JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
2008; 18 (4): 373–79
Marked intolerance or intrusive re-experiencing of ordinary sensory stimuli that in turn drive functionally impairing compulsive behaviors are occasionally seen in young children with OCD.We describe a number of children with DSM-IV OCD ascertained from a family genetic study of pediatric OCD, whose intolerance of ordinary sensory stimuli created significant subjective distress and time-consuming ritualistic behavior that was clinically impairing.In each case, these sensory symptoms were the primary presenting symptoms and were experienced in the absence of intrusive thoughts, images, or ideas associated with "conventional" OCD symptoms.These symptoms suggest abnormalities in sensory processing and integration in at least a subset of OCD patients. Recognition of these sensory symptoms and sensory-driven behaviors as part of the broad phenotypic variation in children with OCD could help clinicians more easily identify OCD patients and facilitate treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1080/10401230802437365
View details for Web of Science ID 000261726700003
View details for PubMedID 19034751
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3736727
To examine whether adverse perinatal experiences of children are associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in youth.Subjects were 130 children and adolescents with OCD recruited from a family genetic study of pediatric OCD and 49 matched controls from a contemporaneous family case-control study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects were comprehensively assessed in multiple domains of function. A systematic history of pregnancy, delivery, and infancy complications was obtained.Compared to normal controls, children with OCD had mothers with significantly higher rates of illness during pregnancy requiring medical care (chi(2) +/- 8.61, p +/- 0.003) and more birth difficulties (induced labor, forceps delivery, nuchal cord, or prolonged labor) (chi(2) +/- 7.51, p +/- 0.006). Among the OCD-affected children, we found several significant associations between adverse perinatal experiences and earlier age at onset, increased OCD severity, and increased risk for comorbid ADHD, chronic tic disorder, anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder.Although exploratory, our analyses found that children with OCD had higher rates of several adverse perinatal experiences compared with controls. Among OCD-affected children, comorbid psychopathology was predicted by specific perinatal risk factors. Prospective studies of perinatal adverse events that minimize potential recall bias and type I errors are needed.
View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2007.0112
View details for Web of Science ID 000259232700008
View details for PubMedID 18759647
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2935829