Methods in cell biology
2014; 120: 39-51
Microtubule-sliding activity of a kinesin-8 promotes spindle assembly and spindle-length control
NATURE CELL BIOLOGY
2013; 15 (8): 948-U400
The following protocol describes a method to control the orientation and polarity of polymerizing microtubules (MTs). Reconstitution of specific geometries of dynamic MT networks is achieved using a ultraviolet (UV) micropatterning technique in combination with stabilized MT microseeds. The process is described in three main parts. First, the surface is passivated to avoid the non-specific absorption of proteins, using different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based surface treatment. Second, specific adhesive surfaces (the micropatterns) are imprinted through a photomask using deep UVs. Lastly, MT microseeds are adhered to the micropatterns followed by MT polymerization.
View details for DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-417136-7.00003-3
View details for PubMedID 24484656
MAP65/Ase1 promote microtubule flexibility
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL
2013; 24 (12): 1964-1973
Molecular motors play critical roles in the formation of mitotic spindles, either through controlling the stability of individual microtubules, or by crosslinking and sliding microtubule arrays. Kinesin-8 motors are best known for their regulatory roles in controlling microtubule dynamics. They contain microtubule-destabilizing activities, and restrict spindle length in a wide variety of cell types and organisms. Here, we report an antiparallel microtubule-sliding activity of the budding yeast kinesin-8, Kip3. The in vivo importance of this sliding activity was established through the identification of complementary Kip3 mutants that separate the sliding activity and microtubule-destabilizing activity. In conjunction with Cin8, a kinesin-5 family member, the sliding activity of Kip3 promotes bipolar spindle assembly and the maintenance of genome stability. We propose a slide-disassemble model where the sliding and destabilizing activity of Kip3 balance during pre-anaphase. This facilitates normal spindle assembly. However, the destabilizing activity of Kip3 dominates in late anaphase, inhibiting spindle elongation and ultimately promoting spindle disassembly.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb2801
View details for Web of Science ID 000322570900011
View details for PubMedID 23851487
MAP65 Coordinate Microtubule Growth during Bundle Formation
2013; 8 (2)
Microtubules (MTs) are dynamic cytoskeletal elements involved in numerous cellular processes. Although they are highly rigid polymers with a persistence length of 1-8 mm, they may exhibit a curved shape at a scale of few micrometers within cells, depending on their biological functions. However, how MT flexural rigidity in cells is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we ask whether MT-associated proteins (MAPs) could locally control the mechanical properties of MTs. We show that two major cross-linkers of the conserved MAP65/PRC1/Ase1 family drastically decrease MT rigidity. Their MT-binding domain mediates this effect. Remarkably, the softening effect of MAP65 observed on single MTs is maintained when MTs are cross-linked. By reconstituting physical collisions between growing MTs/MT bundles, we further show that the decrease in MT stiffness induced by MAP65 proteins is responsible for the sharp bending deformations observed in cells when they coalign at a steep angle to create bundles. Taken together, these data provide new insights into how MAP65, by modifying MT mechanical properties, may regulate the formation of complex MT arrays.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E13-03-0141
View details for Web of Science ID 000321200600013
View details for PubMedID 23615441
Quantification of MAP and molecular motor activities on geometrically controlled microtubule networks
2013; 70 (1): 12-23
Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamical structures that play a crucial role in cell physiology. In cooperation with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MTs form bundles endowing cells with specific mechanisms to control their shape or generate forces. Whether the dynamics of MTs is affected by the lateral connections that MAPs make between MTs during bundle formation is still under debate. Using in vitro reconstitution of MT bundling, we analyzed the dynamics of MT bundles generated by two plant MAP65 (MAP65-1/4), MAP65-1 being the plant ortholog of vertebrate PRC1 and yeast Ase1. MAP65-1/4 limit the amplitude of MT bundle depolymerization and increase the elongation phases. The subsequent sustained elongation of bundles is governed by the coordination of MT growth, so that MT ends come in close vicinity. We develop a model based on the assumption that both MAP65-1/4 block MT depolymerization. Model simulations reveal that rescue frequencies are higher between parallel than between anti-parallel MTs. In consequence the polarity of bundled MTs by MAP65 controls the amplitude of bundle's growth. Our results illustrate how MAP-induced MT-bundling, which is finely tuned by MT polarity, robustly coordinates MT elongation within bundles.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0056808
View details for Web of Science ID 000315186000048
View details for PubMedID 23437247
Selective transmigration of monocyte-associated HIV-1 across a human cervical monolayer and its modulation by seminal plasma
2012; 26 (7): 785-796
The spatial organization of the microtubule (MT) network directs cell polarity and mitosis. It is finely regulated by hundreds of different types of microtubule-associated proteins and molecular motors whose specific functions are difficult to investigate directly in cells. Here, we have investigated their functions using geometrically controlled MT networks in vitro in cell-free assay. This was achieved by developing a new method to spatially define MT nucleation using MT microseeds adsorbed on a micropatterned glass substrate. This method could be used to control MT growth and the induction of complex MT networks. We selected the interaction of two radial arrays of dynamic and polarized MTs to analyze the formation of the central antiparallel MT bundle. We investigated the effects of the MT cross-linker anaphase spindle elongation 1 (Ase1) and the kinesin motor Klp2, which are known to regulate MT organization in the spindle midzone. We thus identified the respective roles of each protein and revealed their synergy on the establishment of stable antiparallel MT bundles by quantifying MT interactions over hundreds of comparable MT networks.
View details for DOI 10.1002/cm.21081
View details for Web of Science ID 000313749600002
View details for PubMedID 23027541
To analyse the transmigration of immune cells infected by HIV-1 across the epithelial monolayer using the endometrial human endometrial carcinoma (HEC)-1A cell line and to study the influence of seminal plasma in this process.After sexual intercourse involving a male partner infected by HIV-1, a selection process has been shown to lead to a predominant transmission of the R5 phenotype despite the presence of X4 and R5 strains in semen. Transmigration of HIV-infected monocytes present in semen may represent a pertinent mechanism that could explain this tropism selection.Epithelial monolayer crossing was studied by using HEC-1A epithelial cells cultured on permeable support and monocyte-enriched or lymphocyte-enriched populations of cells infected or not by HIV R5 or X4 strains. Transmigrating cells were quantified and analysed for their ability to transmit HIV infection to immune target cells. The effect of HIV-negative seminal plasma on cell transmigration was analysed.A preferential passage of the R5 strain associated with monocyte-enriched populations was observed together with the ability of this strain to transmit infection. Seminal plasma was found able to decrease the epithelial crossing of immune cells by enhancing transepithelial resistance and by increasing the adherence of immune cells to the monolayer.The preferential transmigration of HIV R5 strains associated with monocytes across the endocervical monolayer may explain the predominant transmission of the R5 strains after sexual intercourse. By its capacity to modulate the tightness of the epithelial structure, seminal plasma reinforces this selection process.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328351426e
View details for Web of Science ID 000302813000003
View details for PubMedID 22495223