Doctor of Philosophy, Wayne State University (2016)
Mehrdad Shamloo, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Emerging evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, pharmacological modulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) pathway was achieved using an integrated stress response inhibitor (ISRIB). While members of this signaling cascade have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets for neurodegeneration, the biological significance of this pathway has not been comprehensively assessed in animal models of AD. The present study investigated the ER stress pathway and its long-term modulation utilizing in vitro and in vivo experimental models of tauopathy (MAPT P301S)PS19 and amyloidosis (APP(Swe)). We report that thapsigargin induces activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) in primary cortical neurons (PCNs) derived from rat and APP(Swe) nontransgenic (nTg) and transgenic (Tg) mice. ISRIB mitigated the induction of ATF4 in PCNs generated from wild-type (WT) but not APP(Swe) mice despite partially restoring thapsigargin-induced translational repression in nTg PCNs. In vivo, C57BL/6J and PS19 mice received prolonged, once-daily administration of ISRIB. While the compound was well tolerated by PS19 and C57BL/6J mice, APP(Swe) mice treated per this schedule displayed significant mortality. Thus, the dose was reduced and administered only on behavioral test days. ISRIB did not improve learning and memory function in APP(Swe) Tg mice. While ISRIB did not reduce tau-related neuropathology in PS19 Tg mice, no evidence of ER stress-related dysfunction was observed in either of these Tg models. Taken together, the significance of ER stress and the relevance of these models to the etiology of AD require further investigation.
View details for PubMedID 28721361
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5510086
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Potential therapeutics aimed at neural repair and functional recovery are limited in their blood-brain barrier permeability and may exert systemic or off-target effects. We examined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), delivered via an extended release HyStem-C hydrogel implant or vehicle, on sensorimotor function, infarct volume, and neuroinflammation, following permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) in rats. Eight days following dMCAo or sham surgery, treatments were implanted directly into the infarction site. Rats received either vehicle, BDNF-only (0.167 g/L), hydrogel-only, hydrogel impregnated with 0.057 g/L of BDNF (hydrogel + BDNFLOW), or hydrogel impregnated with 0.167 g/L of BDNF (hydrogel + BDNFHIGH). The adhesive removal test (ART) and 28-point Neuroscore (28-PN) were used to evaluate sensorimotor function up to two months post-ischemia. The hydrogel + BDNFHIGH group showed significant improvements on the ART six to eight weeks following treatment and their behavioral performance was consistently greater on the 28-PN. Infarct volume was reduced in rats treated with hydrogel + BDNFHIGH as were levels of microglial, phagocyte, and astrocyte marker immunoexpression in the corpus striatum. These data suggest that targeted intracerebral delivery of BDNF using hydrogels may mitigate ischemic brain injury and restore functional deficits by reducing neuroinflammation.
View details for PubMedID 30486515