Dr. Glenn's primary interest is in molecular virology, with a strong emphasis on translating this knowledge into novel antiviral therapies. Current projects aim to better understand the role of prenylation in the life cycles of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and other viruses--both as a mechanism of intracellular trafficking and trigger of virus assembly, and as a target for a promising antiviral treatment. The function and cell biology of hepatitis and respiratory virus proteins are also being studied, with a focus on identifying key determinants of pathogenesis and designing novel antiviral strategies for hepatitis, influenza, and enteroviruses. Of particular interest are targets in host cells upon which viruses depend, and critical RNA secondary structures in viruses. Other interests include exploitation of hepatic stem cells, development of small animal models, NASH, liver cancer, and engineered human liver tissues.

Clinical Focus

  • Gastroenterology

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, Center for Hepatitis and Liver Tissue Engineering (2006 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Translational Research Award, American Liver Foundation/Amgen/AASLD (1998-2002)
  • Regents Scholarship, U.C.S.F. (1984-1993)
  • Elected member, American Society for Clinical Investigation (2008)
  • Clinical Scientist Award in Translational Research, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (2005-2010)
  • Career Award, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (1998-2005)
  • Physician Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (1995-1998)
  • Summa cum laude, U.C. Berkeley (1984)

Professional Education

  • Residency:Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (1995) CA
  • Internship:Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (1994) CA
  • Board Certification: Gastroenterology, American Board of Internal Medicine (1998)
  • Fellowship:Stanford University Gastroenterology Fellowship (1998) CA
  • Medical Education:University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (1993) CA
  • Ph.D., U.C.S.F., Biochemistry and Biophysics (1992)
  • M.D., U.C.S.F., Medicine/MSTP (1993)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Glenn's primary interest is in molecular virology, with a strong emphasis on translating this knowledge into novel antiviral therapies. Current projects aim to better understand the role of prenylation in the life cycles of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and other viruses--both as a mechanism of intracellular trafficking and trigger of virus assembly, and as a target for a promising antiviral treatment. The function and cell biology of hepatitis and respiratory virus proteins are also being studied, with a focus on identifying key determinants of pathogenesis and designing novel antiviral strategies for hepatitis, influenza, and enteroviruses. Of particular interest are targets in host cells upon which viruses depend, and critical RNA secondary structures in viruses. Other interests include exploitation of hepatic stem cells, development of small animal models, NASH, liver cancer, and engineered human liver tissues.


2018-19 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


All Publications

  • Pathogenesis of and New Therapies for Hepatitis D. Gastroenterology Koh, C., Heller, T., Glenn, J. S. 2018


    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection of humans was first reported in 1977, and now it is now estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. Infection with HDV can be an acute or chronic process that occurs only in patients with an HBV infection. Chronic HDV infection commonly results in the most rapidly progressive form of viral hepatitis; it is the chronic viral infection that is most likely to lead to cirrhosis, and it is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV infection is the only chronic human hepatitis virus infection without a therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Peginterferon alpha is the only recommended therapy, but it produces unsatisfactory results. We review therapeutic agents in development, designed to disrupt the HDV life cycle, that might benefit patients with this devastating disease.

    View details for PubMedID 30342879

  • A new dual-targeting real-time RT-PCR assay for hepatitis D virus RNA detection DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE Wang, Y., Glenn, J. S., Winters, M. A., Shen, L., Choong, I., Shi, Y., Bi, S., Ma, L., Zeng, H., Zhang, F. 2018; 92 (2): 112?17


    In this study, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay targeting 2 genetic segments was established to detect HDV RNA. Utilizing the World Health Organization International Standard for Hepatitis D Virus RNA, the lower limit of detection was 575 IU/mL, and the linearity of quantification ranged from 575,000 IU/mL to 575 IU/mL. 384 HBsAg-positive samples collected from China were tested by this method and HDV antibody detection. Eleven samples were positive for anti-HDV IgG which may persist after HDV resolution, 6 samples were HDV RNA positive, and 5 samples were positive for anti-HDV IgM. This assay showed more sensitivity than the detection of anti-HDV IgM. These data demonstrate that the real-time RT-PCR assay for HDV RNA could be implemented in the clinical detection of HDV infection in chronic HBV-infected patients in China.

    View details for PubMedID 29941366

  • Human iPS derived progenitors bioengineered into liver organoids using an inverted colloidal crystal poly (ethylene glycol) scaffold. Biomaterials Ng, S. S., Saeb-Parsy, K., Blackford, S. J., Segal, J. M., Serra, M. P., Horcas-Lopez, M., No, D. Y., Mastoridis, S., Jassem, W., Frank, C. W., Cho, N. J., Nakauchi, H., Glenn, J. S., Rashid, S. T. 2018; 182: 299?311


    Generation of human organoids from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers exciting possibilities for developmental biology, disease modelling and cell therapy. Significant advances towards those goals have been hampered by dependence on animal derived matrices (e.g. Matrigel), immortalized cell lines and resultant structures that are difficult to control or scale. To address these challenges, we aimed to develop a fully defined liver organoid platform using inverted colloid crystal (ICC) whose 3-dimensional mechanical properties could be engineered to recapitulate the extracellular niche sensed by hepatic progenitors during human development. iPSC derived hepatic progenitors (IH) formed organoids most optimally in ICC scaffolds constructed with 140?mum diameter pores coated with type I collagen in a two-step process mimicking liver bud formation. The resultant organoids were closer to adult tissue, compared to 2D and 3D controls, with respect to morphology, gene expression, protein secretion, drug metabolism and viral infection and could integrate, vascularise and function following implantation into livers of immune-deficient mice. Preliminary interrogation of the underpinning mechanisms highlighted the importance of TGFbeta and hedgehog signalling pathways. The combination of functional relevance with tuneable mechanical properties leads us to propose this bioengineered platform to be ideally suited for a range of future mechanistic and clinical organoid related applications.

    View details for PubMedID 30149262

  • Changing Trends in Etiology- and Ethnicity-Based Annual Mortality Rates of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) Kim, D., Li, A. A., Perumpail, B. J., Gadiparthi, C., Kim, W., Cholankeril, G., Glenn, J. S., Harrison, S. A., Younossi, Z. M., Ahmed, A. 2018


    With recent improvements in the treatment of end-stage liver disease (ESLD), a better understanding of the burden of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed in the United States (US). A population-based study using the US Census and national mortality database was performed. We identified the age-standardized etiology-specific mortality rates for cirrhosis and HCC among US adults aged ? 20 years from 2007 to 2016. We determined temporal mortality rate patterns by joinpoint analysis with estimates of annual percentage change (APC). Age-standardized cirrhosis-related mortality rates increased from 19.77/100,000 persons in 2007 to 23.67 in 2016 with an annual increase of 2.3% (95% CI 2.0-2.7). The APC in mortality rates for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-cirrhosis shifted from a 2.9% increase per year during 2007-2014 to a 6.5% decline per year during 2014-2016. Meanwhile, mortality for cirrhosis from alcoholic liver disease (ALD, APC 4.5%) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, APC 15.4%) increased over the same period, while mortality for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-cirrhosis decreased with an average APC of -1.1%. HCC-related mortality increased from 3.48/100,000 persons in 2007 to 4.41 in 2016 at an annual rate of 2.0% (95% CI 1.3-2.6). Etiology-specific mortality rates of HCC were largely consistent with cirrhosis-related mortality. Minority populations had a higher burden of HCC-related mortality.CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis- and HCC-related mortality rates increased between 2007 and 2016 in the US. However, mortality rates in HCV-cirrhosis demonstrated a significant decline from 2014-2016, during the direct-acting antiviral era. Mortality rates for ALD/NAFLD-cirrhosis and HCC have continued to increase, while HBV-cirrhosis-related mortality declined during the 10-year period. Importantly, minorities had a disproportionately higher burden of ESLD-related mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 30014489

  • Changing Trends in Etiology-based Annual Mortality From Chronic Liver Disease, From 2007 Through 2016. Gastroenterology Kim, D., Li, A. A., Gadiparthi, C., Khan, M. A., Cholankeril, G., Glenn, J. S., Ahmed, A. 2018


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has improved, the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been increasing, so we need an updated estimate of the burden and etiology-specific mortality of chronic liver diseases. We studied the trends in age-standardized mortality of chronic liver diseases among adults 20 years or older in the United States (US), from 2007 through 2016.METHODS: We collected data from the US Census and National Center for Health Statistics mortality records, identifying individuals with HCV infection, ALD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using ICD-10 codes. We obtained temporal mortality rate patterns using joinpoint trend analysis with estimates of annual percentage change (APC).RESULTS: Age-standardized HCV-related mortality increased from 7.17/100,000 persons in 2007 to 8.14/100,000 persons in 2013, followed by a marked decrease in the time period at which patients began receiving treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (from 8.09/100,000 persons in 2014 to 7.15/100,000 persons in 2016). The APC in HCV mortality increased 2.0%/year from 2007 through 2014, but decreased 6.4%/year from 2014 through 2016. In contrast, age-standardized mortality increased for ALD (APC of 2.3% from 2007 through 2013 and APC of 5.5% from 2013 through 2016) and NAFLD (APC of 6.1% from 2007 through 2013 and APC of 11.3% from 2013 through 2016). HBV-related mortality decreased steadily from 2007 through 2016, with an average APC of -2.1% (95% CI, -3.0 to -1.2). Etiology-based mortality in minority populations were higher. HCV-related mortality (per 100,000 persons) was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (10.28) and whites (6.92), followed by Hispanics (5.94), and lowest among non-Hispanic Asians (2.33). Non-Hispanic Asians had higher mortality for HBV infection (2.82 per 100,000 vs 1.02 for non-Hispanic blacks, and 0.47 for non-Hispanic whites).CONCLUSION: In our population-based analysis of chronic liver disease mortality in the US, the decline in HCV-related mortality coincided with the introduction of direct-acting antiviral therapies, while the mortality from ALD and NAFLD increased during the same period. Minorities in the US have disproportionately higher chronic liver disease-related mortality.

    View details for PubMedID 30009816

  • Hepatitis D Viremia Among Injection Drug Users in San Francisco JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Mahale, P., Aka, P., Chen, X., Liu, P., Fram, B. J., Wang, A. S., Simenel, S., Tseng, F., Chen, S., Edlin, B. R., Glenn, J. S., O'Brien, T. R. 2018; 217 (12): 1902?6


    People who inject drugs (PWID) are commonly exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV). We evaluated the prevalence of HDV viremia among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive PWID (n = 73) using a new quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay, HDV western blot, and HDV RNA. HDV Q-MAC performed well in this cohort: anti-HDV, 100% sensitivity and specificity; HDV viremia, 61.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Hepatitis D viremia was present in 35.6% of HBsAg-positive participants and was more common in those with resolved compared to chronic hepatitis C (5.1% vs 0.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 9.80; P < .0001).

    View details for PubMedID 29800369

  • Impact of Drug Overdose Deaths on Solid Organ Transplantation in the United States. Journal of general internal medicine Cholankeril, G., Li, A. A., Cholankeril, R., Toll, A. E., Glenn, J. S., Ahmed, A. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29766381

  • Optimizing lonafarnib treatment for the management of chronic delta hepatitis: The LOWR HDV-1 study HEPATOLOGY Yurdaydin, C., Keskin, O., Kalkan, C., Karakaya, F., Caliskan, A., Karatayli, E., Karatayli, S., Bozdayi, A., Koh, C., Heller, T., Idilman, R., Glenn, J. S. 2018; 67 (4): 1224?36


    In a proof-of-concept (POC) study, the oral prenylation inhibitor, lonafarnib (LNF), decreased hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA during 4 weeks of treatment. Here, we explored optimal LNF regimens. Fifteen patients (five groups; 3 per group) completed dosing as follows: (1) LNF 200?mg twice-daily (BID; 12 weeks); (2) LNF 300?mg BID (12 weeks); (3) LNF 100?mg thrice-daily (5 weeks); (4) LNF 100?mg BID?+?pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN?) 180??g once-weekly (QW; 8 weeks); and (5) LNF 100?mg BID?+?ritonavir (RTV) 100?mg once-daily (QD; 8 weeks). Tolerability and efficacy were assessed. Higher LNF monotherapy doses had greater decreases in HDV viral load than achieved in the original POC study. However, this was associated with increased gastrointestinal adverse events. Addition of RTV 100?mg QD to a LNF 100?mg BID regimen yielded better antiviral responses than LNF 300?mg BID monotherapy and with less side effects. A similar improvement was observed with LNF 100?mg BID?+?PEG-IFN? 180??g QW. Two of 6 patients who received 12 weeks of LNF experienced transient posttreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increases resulting in HDV-RNA negativity and ALT normalization.The cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor, RTV, allows a lower LNF dose to be used while achieving higher levels of postabsorption LNF, yielding better antiviral responses and tolerability. In addition, combining LNF with PEG-IFN? achieved more substantial and rapid HDV-RNA reduction, compared to historical responses with PEG-IFN? alone. Twelve weeks of LNF can result in posttreatment HDV-RNA negativity in some patients, which we speculate results from restoring favorable immune responses. These results support further development of LNF with RTV boosting and exploration of the combination of LNF with PEG-IFN. (Hepatology 2018;67:1224-1236).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.29658

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428332600010

    View details for PubMedID 29152762

  • A research agenda for curing chronic hepatitis B virus infection HEPATOLOGY Alter, H., Block, T., Brown, N., Brownstein, A., Brosgart, C., Chang, K., Chen, P., Chisari, F. V., Cohen, C., El-Serag, H., Feld, J., Gish, R., Glenn, J., Greten, T., Guo, H., Guo, J., Hoshida, Y., Hu, J., Kowdley, K. V., Li, W., Liang, J., Locarnini, S., Lok, A. S., Mason, W., McMahon, B., Mehta, A., Perrillo, R., Revill, P., Rice, C. M., Rinaudo, J., Schinazi, R., Seeger, C., Shetty, K., Tavis, J., Zoulim, F. 2018; 67 (3): 1127?31

    View details for PubMedID 28877549

  • Letter to the Editor regarding article "Emerging concepts for the treatment of hepatitis delta" [Menashe Elazar and Jeffrey S Glenn, Curr Opin Virol 24 (2017) 55-59] Reply CURRENT OPINION IN VIROLOGY Elazar, M., Glenn, J. 2018; 28: 169

    View details for PubMedID 29456115

  • Research priorities for the discovery of a cure for chronic hepatitis B: Report of a workshop ANTIVIRAL RESEARCH Block, T. M., Alter, H., Brown, N., Brownstein, A., Brosgart, C., Chang, K., Chen, P., Cohen, C., El-Serag, H., Feld, J., Gish, R., Glenn, J., Greten, T. F., Guo, J., Hoshida, Y., Kowdley, K. V., Li, W., Lok, A. S., McMahon, B., Mehta, A., Perrillo, R., Rice, C. M., Rinaudo, J., Schinazi, R. F., Shetty, K. 2018; 150: 93?100


    In early 2017, the Hepatitis B Foundation invited 30 experts in the fields of hepatitis B and liver cancer research to identify projects they deemed important to the goal of finding a cure for chronic hepatitis B and D and the diseases with which these viral infections are associated. They were also asked to identify general categories of research and to prioritize sub-project topics within those areas. The experts generally agreed on broadly defined areas of research, but there was usually little difference between the highest and lowest scoring projects; for the most part, all programs described in this document were considered valuable and necessary. An executive summary of this discussion was recently published (Alter et al., Hepatology 2017). The present manuscript reports the areas of research identified by the workshop participants, provides a brief rationale for their selection, and attempts to express differences among the priorities assigned to each area of research, when such distinctions were expressed.

    View details for PubMedID 29248746

  • Emerging Therapeutic Targets for Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection. Gastroenterology & hepatology Glenn, J. S. 2018; 14 (1): 47?49

    View details for PubMedID 29491762

  • Structure of an engineered IFN-lambda/IFN-lambda R1/IL-10R beta complex provides insight into the functional dichotomy of type III versus type I IFNs Mendoza, J., Schneider, W. M., Hoffman, H., Vercauteren, K., Jude, K. M., Xiong, A., Moraga, I., Horton, T. M., Glenn, J. S., de Jonga, Y. P., Garcia, K. ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2017: 46
  • Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation Associated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Mahale, P., Glenn, J. S., O'Brien, T. R. 2017; 167 (10): 759?60

    View details for PubMedID 29159388

  • Prevalence of hepatitis D viremia among injection drug users in San Francisco Mahale, P., Aka, P. V., Chen, X., Liu, P., Wang, A. S., Tseng, F., Chen, S., Edlin, B. R., Glenn, J. S., O'Brien, T. WILEY. 2017: 100A
  • Modeling hepatitis delta virus dynamics during ritonavir boosted lonafarnib treatment-the LOWR HDV-3 study Dubey, P., Koh, C., Surana, P., Uprichard, S. L., Han, M., Fryzek, N., Kapuria, D., Etzion, O., Takyar, V. K., Rotman, Y., Yurdaydin, C., Glenn, J. S., Cotler, S., Heller, T., Dahari, H. WILEY. 2017: 21A
  • Quantitative Evaluation of Viral Protein Binding to Phosphoinositide Receptors and Pharmacological Inhibition ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Kim, S., Jackman, J. A., Elazar, M., Cho, S., Glenn, J. S., Cho, N. 2017; 89 (18): 9742?50


    There is significant interest in developing analytical methods to characterize molecular recognition events between proteins and phosphoinositides, which are a medically important class of carbohydrate-functionalized lipids. Within this scope, one area of high priority involves quantitatively evaluating drug candidates that pharmacologically inhibit protein-phosphoinositide interactions. As full-length proteins are often difficult to produce, establishing methods to study these interactions with shorter, bioactive peptides would be advantageous. Herein, we report an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopic approach to detect the specific interaction between an amphipathic, ?-helical (AH) peptide derived from the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein and its biological target, the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] phosphoinositide receptor. After optimization of the peptide tethering strategy and measurement parameters, the binding specificity of AH peptide for PI(4,5)P2 receptors was comparatively evaluated across a panel of phosphoinositides and the influence of ionic strength on AH-PI(4,5)P2 binding strength was tested. Importantly, these capabilities were translated into the development of a novel experimental methodology to determine the inhibitory activity of a small-molecule drug candidate acting against the AH-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, and extracted kinetic parameters agree well with literature values obtained by conventional biochemical methods. Taken together, our findings provide a nanomechanical basis for explaining the high binding specificity of the NS5A AH to PI(4,5)P2 receptors, in turn establishing an analytical framework to study phosphoinositide-binding viral peptides and proteins as well as a broadly applicable approach to evaluate candidate inhibitors of protein-phosphoinositide interactions.

    View details for PubMedID 28809547

  • Long-term culture of human liver tissue with advanced hepatic functions. JCI insight Ng, S. S., Xiong, A., Nguyen, K., Masek, M., No, D. Y., Elazar, M., Shteyer, E., Winters, M. A., Voedisch, A., Shaw, K., Rashid, S. T., Frank, C. W., Cho, N. J., Glenn, J. S. 2017; 2 (11)


    A major challenge for studying authentic liver cell function and cell replacement therapies is that primary human hepatocytes rapidly lose their advanced function in conventional, 2-dimensional culture platforms. Here, we describe the fabrication of 3-dimensional hexagonally arrayed lobular human liver tissues inspired by the liver's natural architecture. The engineered liver tissues exhibit key features of advanced differentiation, such as human-specific cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and the ability to support efficient infection with patient-derived inoculums of hepatitis C virus. The tissues permit the assessment of antiviral agents and maintain their advanced functions for over 5 months in culture. This extended functionality enabled the prediction of a fatal human-specific hepatotoxicity caused by fialuridine (FIAU), which had escaped detection by preclinical models and short-term clinical studies. The results obtained with the engineered human liver tissue in this study provide proof-of-concept determination of human-specific drug metabolism, demonstrate the ability to support infection with human hepatitis virus derived from an infected patient and subsequent antiviral drug testing against said infection, and facilitate detection of human-specific drug hepatotoxicity associated with late-onset liver failure. Looking forward, the scalability and biocompatibility of the scaffold are also ideal for future cell replacement therapeutic strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.90853

    View details for PubMedID 28570275

  • Emerging concepts for the treatment of hepatitis delta. Current opinion in virology Elazar, M., Glenn, J. S. 2017; 24: 55-59


    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis and is associated with a higher risk of cirrhosis, liver decompensation and liver cancer. Interferon alpha is the only agent that has demonstrated efficacy to date, although response rates are low and it is associated with significant side effects. A better understanding of the relevant molecular virology has resulted in the identification of new candidate targets. Future therapeutic options are rapidly evolving as several new agents have entered clinical development, including the entry inhibitor myrcludex-B, the nucleic acid polymer REP2139-Ca inhibiting HBV surface antigen secretion, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib that targets virus assembly, and a better tolerated interferon-interferon lambda.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coviro.2017.04.004

    View details for PubMedID 28475945

  • The IFN-?-IFN-?R1-IL-10Rß Complex Reveals Structural Features Underlying Type III IFN Functional Plasticity. Immunity Mendoza, J. L., Schneider, W. M., Hoffmann, H., Vercauteren, K., Jude, K. M., Xiong, A., Moraga, I., Horton, T. M., Glenn, J. S., de Jong, Y. P., Rice, C. M., Garcia, K. C. 2017; 46 (3): 379-392


    Type III interferons (IFN-?s) signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of the IFN-?R1 subunit, specific for IFN-?s, and interleukin-10R? (IL-10R?), which is shared by multiple cytokines in the IL-10 superfamily. Low affinity of IL-10R? for cytokines has impeded efforts aimed at crystallizing cytokine-receptor complexes. We used yeast surface display to engineer a higher-affinity IFN-? variant, H11, which enabled crystallization of the ternary complex. The structure revealed that IL-10R? uses a network of tyrosine residues as hydrophobic anchor points to engage IL-10 family cytokines that present complementary hydrophobic binding patches, explaining its role as both a cross-reactive but cytokine-specific receptor. H11 elicited increased anti-proliferative and antiviral activities in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, engineered higher-affinity type I IFNs did not increase antiviral potency over wild-type type I IFNs. Our findings provide insight into cytokine recognition by the IL-10R family and highlight the plasticity of type III interferon signaling and its therapeutic potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.02.017

    View details for PubMedID 28329704

  • The IFN-lambda-IFN-lambda R1-IL-10R beta Complex Reveals Structural Features Underlying Type III IFN Functional Plasticity IMMUNITY Mendoza, J. L., Schneider, W. M., Hoffmann, H., Vercauteren, K., Jude, K. M., Xiong, A., Moraga, I., Horton, T. M., Glenn, J. S., de Jong, Y. P., Rice, C. M., Garcia, K. C. 2017; 46 (3): 379-392


    Type III interferons (IFN-?s) signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of the IFN-?R1 subunit, specific for IFN-?s, and interleukin-10R? (IL-10R?), which is shared by multiple cytokines in the IL-10 superfamily. Low affinity of IL-10R? for cytokines has impeded efforts aimed at crystallizing cytokine-receptor complexes. We used yeast surface display to engineer a higher-affinity IFN-? variant, H11, which enabled crystallization of the ternary complex. The structure revealed that IL-10R? uses a network of tyrosine residues as hydrophobic anchor points to engage IL-10 family cytokines that present complementary hydrophobic binding patches, explaining its role as both a cross-reactive but cytokine-specific receptor. H11 elicited increased anti-proliferative and antiviral activities in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, engineered higher-affinity type I IFNs did not increase antiviral potency over wild-type type I IFNs. Our findings provide insight into cytokine recognition by the IL-10R family and highlight the plasticity of type III interferon signaling and its therapeutic potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.02.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396818100011

  • Extracellular Matrix Functionalization and Huh-7.5 Cell Coculture Promote the Hepatic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a 3D ICC Hydrogel Scaffold ACS BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Wang, Y., Lee, J., Shirahama, H., Seo, J., Glenn, J. S., Cho, N. 2016; 2 (12): 2255-2265
  • ECM proteins in a microporous scaffold influence hepatocyte morphology, function, and gene expression SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Wang, Y., Kim, M. H., Shirahama, H., Lee, J. H., Ng, S. S., Glenn, J. S., Cho, N. 2016; 6


    It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype in vitro. However, it is not clear whether specific ECM components such as collagen or fibronectin differentially regulate such processes, especially in 3D scaffolds. In this study, a series of ECM-functionalized inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) microporous scaffolds were fabricated and their influence on Huh-7.5 cell proliferation, morphology, hepatic-specific functions, and patterns of gene expression were compared. Both collagen and fibronectin promoted albumin production and liver-specific gene expression of Huh-7.5 cells, compared with the bare ICC scaffold. Interestingly, cells in the fibronectin-functionalized scaffold exhibited different aggregation patterns to those in the collagen-functionalized scaffold, a variation that could be related to the distinct mRNA expression levels of cell adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, we can conclude that different ECM proteins, such as fibronectin and collagen, indeed play distinct roles in the phenotypic regulation of cells cultured in a 3D environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep37427

    View details for PubMedID 27897167

  • A novel quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay identifies an extremely high HDV prevalence amongst HBV infected Mongolians. Hepatology Chen, X., Oidovsambuu, O., Liu, P., Grosely, R., Elazar, M., Winn, V. D., Fram, B., Boa, Z., Dai, H., Dashtseren, B., Yagaanbuyant, D., Genden, Z., Dashdorj, N., Bungert, A., Dashdorj, N., Glenn, J. S. 2016


    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. HDV requires a hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection to provide HDV with HBV surface antigen envelope proteins. The net effect of HDV is to make the underlying HBV disease worse, including higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accurate assessments of current HDV prevalence have been hampered by the lack of readily available and reliable quantitative assays, combined with the absence of an FDA-approved therapy. We sought to develop a convenient assay for accurately screening populations and to use this assay to determine HDV prevalence in a population with abnormally high rates of HCC. We developed a high throughput quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay for anti-HDV IgG wherein recombinant HDV delta antigen is printed by microarray on slides coated with a noncontinuous, nanostructured plasmonic gold film, enabling quantitative fluorescent detection of anti-HDV antibody in small aliquots of patient serum. This assay was then used to screen all HBV-infected patients identified in a large randomly selected cohort designed to represent the Mongolian population. We identified two quantitative thresholds of captured antibody that were 100% predictive of the sample either being positive on standard western blot, or harboring HDV RNA detectable by qPCR, respectively. Subsequent screening of the HBV-positive cohort revealed that a remarkable 57% were RNA positive and an additional 4% were positive on western blot alone.The Q-MAC assay's unique performance characteristics make it ideal for population screening. Its application to the Mongolian HBsAg+ population reveals an apparent ?60% prevalence of HDV co-infection amongst these HBV-infected Mongolian subjects, which may help explain the extraordinarily high rate of HCC in Mongolia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.28957

    View details for PubMedID 27880976

  • Reconstitution and Functional Analysis of a Full-Length Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase on a Supported Lipid Bilayer. ACS central science Cho, N., Pham, E. A., Hagey, R. J., Lévêque, V. J., Ma, H., Klumpp, K., Glenn, J. S. 2016; 2 (7): 456-466


    Therapeutic targeting of membrane-associated viral proteins is complicated by the challenge of investigating their enzymatic activities in the native membrane-bound state. To permit functional characterization of these proteins, we hypothesized that the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) can support in situ reconstitution of membrane-associated viral protein complexes. As proof-of-principle, we selected the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase which is essential for HCV genome replication, and determined that the SLB platform enables functional reconstitution of membrane protein activity. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring enabled label-free detection of full-length NS5B membrane association, its interaction with replicase subunits NS3, NS5A, and template RNA, and most importantly its RNA synthesis activity. This latter activity could be inhibited by the addition of candidate small molecule drugs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the SLB platform can support functional studies of membrane-associated viral proteins engaged in critical biological activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00112

    View details for PubMedID 27504492

  • Multistep Compositional Remodeling of Supported Lipid Membranes by Interfacially Active Phosphatidylinositol Kinases ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Tabaei, S. R., Guo, F., Rutaganira, F. U., Vafaei, S., Choong, I., Shokat, K. M., Glenn, J. S., Cho, N. 2016; 88 (10): 5042-5045


    The multienzyme catalytic phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in a supported lipid membrane platform is demonstrated for the first time. One-step treatment with PI 4-kinase III? (PI4K?) yielded PI 4-phosphate (PI4P), while a multistep enzymatic cascade of PI4K? followed by PIP 5-kinase produced PI-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2). By employing quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, we were able to track membrane association of kinase enzymes for the first time as well as detect PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 generation based on subsequent antibody binding to the supported lipid bilayers. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI4K? by a small molecule inhibitor was also quantitatively assessed, yielding an EC50 value that agrees well with conventional biochemical readout. Taken together, the development of a PI-containing supported membrane platform coupled with surface-sensitive measurement techniques for kinase studies opens the door to exploring the rich biochemistry and pharmacological targeting of membrane-associated phosphoinositides.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01293

    View details for PubMedID 27118725

  • Design and Structural Characterization of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol 4 Kinase III beta JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY Rutaganira, F. U., Fowler, M. L., McPhail, J. A., Gelman, M. A., Nguyen, K., Xiong, A., Doman, G. L., Tayshanjian, B., Glenn, J. S., Shokat, K. M., Burke, J. E. 2016; 59 (5): 1830-1839


    Type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIII?) is an essential enzyme in mediating membrane trafficking and is implicated in a variety of pathogenic processes. It is a key host factor mediating replication of RNA viruses. The design of potent and specific inhibitors of this enzyme will be essential to define its cellular roles and may lead to novel antiviral therapeutics. We previously reported the PI4K inhibitor PIK93, and this compound has defined key functions of PI4KIII?. However, this compound showed high cross reactivity with class I and III PI3Ks. Using structure-based drug design, we have designed novel potent and selective (>1000-fold over class I and class III PI3Ks) PI4KIII? inhibitors. These compounds showed antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus. The co-crystal structure of PI4KIII? bound to one of the most potent compounds reveals the molecular basis of specificity. This work will be vital in the design of novel PI4KIII? inhibitors, which may play significant roles as antiviral therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01311

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372043400012

  • Future Therapy for Hepatitis B Virus: Role of Immunomodulators. Current hepatology reports Pham, E. A., Perumpail, R. B., Fram, B. J., Glenn, J. S., Ahmed, A., Gish, R. G. 2016; 15 (4): 237-244


    Although currently available therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection can suppress viremia and provide long-term benefits for patients, they do not lead to a functional cure for most patients. Advances in our understanding of the virus-host interaction and the recent remarkable success of immunotherapy in cancer offer new and promising strategies for developing immune modulators that may become important components of a total therapeutic approach to hepatitis B, some of which are now in clinical development. Among the immunomodulatory agents currently being investigated to combat chronic HBV are toll-like receptor agonists, immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic vaccines, and engineered T cells. The efficacy of some immune modulatory therapies is compromised by high viral antigen levels. Cutting edge strategies, including RNA interference and CRISPR/Cas9, are now being studied that may ultimately be shown to have the capacity to lower viral antigen levels sufficiently to substantially increase the efficacy of these agents. The current advances in therapies for chronic hepatitis B are leading us toward the possibility of a functional cure.

    View details for PubMedID 27917363

  • Oral prenylation inhibition with lonafarnib in chronic hepatitis D infection: a proof-of-concept randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2A trial LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES Koh, C., Canini, L., Dahari, H., Zhao, X., Uprichard, S. L., Haynes-Williams, V., Winters, M. A., Subramanya, G., Cooper, S. L., Pinto, P., Wolff, E. F., Bishop, R., Han, M. A., Cotler, S. J., Kleiner, D. E., Keskin, O., Idilman, R., Yurdaydin, C., Glenn, J. S., Heller, T. 2015; 15 (10): 1167-1174


    Therapies for chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection are unsatisfactory. Prenylation is essential for HDV and inhibition abrogates HDV production in experimental models. In a proof-of-concept study, we aimed to assess the effect on HDV RNA levels, safety, and tolerability of the prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib in patients with chronic delta hepatitis.In this phase 2A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, patients aged 18 years or older with chronic HDV infection were randomly assigned (3:1 in group 1 and 2:1 in group 2) to receive lonafarnib 100 mg (group 1) or lonafarnib 200 mg (group 2) twice daily for 28 days with 6 months' follow-up. Participants were randomised by random-number tables blocked in groups of four without stratification. Both groups enrolled six treatment participants and two placebo participants. Group 1 placebo patients received open-label lonafarnib as group 2 participants. The primary therapeutic endpoint was a decrease in HDV RNA viral titre in serum and the primary safety endpoint was the ability to tolerate the drug at the prescribed dose for the full 4-week duration, defined as drug discontinuation due to intolerance or grade 3/4 adverse events. This trial is registered with, number NCT01495585.Between Jan 19, 2012, and April 28, 2014, 14 patients were enrolled, of whom eight were assigned to group 1 and six were assigned to group 2. At day 28, compared with placebo, mean log HDV RNA declines from baseline were -0·73 log IU/mL in group 1 (95% CI 0·17-1·31; p=0·03) and -1·54 log IU/mL in group 2 (1·21-1·93; p<0·0001). Lonafarnib serum concentrations correlated with HDV RNA change (r(2)=0·78, p<0·0001). Model fits show that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) remained stable after a short pharmacological delay (0·75 days [SE 0·24]), lonafarnib effectiveness in blocking HDV production was greater in group 2 than in group 1 (0·952 [SE 0·06] vs 0·739 [0·05], p<0·001), and the HDV half-life was 1·62 days (0·07). There was no evidence of virological resistance. Adverse events were mainly mild to moderate with group 1 patients experiencing diarrhoea in three patients (50%) and nausea in two patients (33%) and in group 2 with all patients (100%) experiencing nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal bloating, and weight loss greater than 2 kg (mean of 4 kg). No treatment discontinuations occurred in any treatment groups.Treatment of chronic HDV with lonafarnib significantly reduces virus levels. The decline in virus levels significantly correlated with serum drug levels, providing further evidence for the efficacy of prenylation inhibition in chronic HDV.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and Eiger Biopharmaceuticals Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00074-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000361854300027

    View details for PubMedID 26189433

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4700535

  • Sofosbuvir and simeprevir combination therapy in the setting of liver transplantation and hemodialysis TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE Perumpail, R. B., Wong, R. J., Ha, L. D., Pham, E. A., Wang, U., Luong, H., Kumari, R., Daugherty, T. J., Higgins, J. P., Younossi, Z. M., Kim, W. R., Glenn, J. S., Ahmed, A. 2015; 17 (2): 275-278


    We report safety, tolerability, and 12-week sustained virologic response with half-standard dose sofosbuvir and standard-dose simeprevir combination therapy in a hepatitis C virus genotype 1a-infected liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis - uncharted territory for sofosbuvir-based therapy. The patient was a non-responder to prior treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Sofosbuvir efficacy was maintained despite pill-splitting and administration of half-standard dose, 200 mg per day. No drug-drug interactions were noted with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Laboratory tests remained stable or improved during therapy. Our observation, if reproduced in a larger study, may lead to significant improvement in clinical outcomes and cost savings in this patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tid.12348

    View details for PubMedID 25641426

  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Is an HCV NS5A Ligand and Mediates Replication of the Viral Genome. Gastroenterology Cho, N., Lee, C., Pang, P. S., Pham, E. A., Fram, B., Nguyen, K., Xiong, A., Sklan, E. H., Elazar, M., Koytak, E. S., Kersten, C., Kanazawa, K. K., Frank, C. W., Glenn, J. S. 2015; 148 (3): 616-625


    Phosphoinositides (PIs) bind and regulate localization of proteins via a variety of structural motifs. PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2) interacts with and modulates the function of several proteins involved in intracellular vesicular membrane trafficking. We investigated interactions between PI(4,5)P2 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) and effects on the viral life cycle.We used a combination of quartz crystal microbalance, circular dichroism, molecular genetics, and immunofluorescence to study specific binding of PI(4,5)P2 by the HCV NS5A protein. We evaluated the effects of PI(4,5)P2 on the function of NS5A by expressing wild-type or mutant forms of Bart79I or FL-J6/JFH-5'C19Rluc2AUbi21 RNA in Huh7 cells. We also studied the effects of strategies designed to inhibit PI(4,5)P2 on HCV replication in these cells.The N-terminal amphipathic helix of NS5A bound specifically to PI(4,5)P2, inducing a conformational change that stabilized the interaction between NS5A and TBC1D20, which is required for HCV replication. A pair of positively charged residues within the amphipathic helix (the basic amino acid PI(4,5)P2 pincer domain) was required for PI(4,5)P2 binding and replication of the HCV-RNA genome. A similar motif was found to be conserved across all HCV isolates, as well as amphipathic helices of many pathogens and apolipoproteins.PI(4,5)P2 binds to HCV NS5A to promote replication of the viral RNA genome in hepatocytes. Strategies to disrupt this interaction might be developed to inhibit replication of HCV and other viruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.11.043

    View details for PubMedID 25479136

  • The interaction between the Hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication. Virology David, N., Yaffe, Y., Hagoel, L., Elazar, M., Glenn, J. S., Hirschberg, K., Sklan, E. H. 2015; 475: 139-149


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B-NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2014.10.021

    View details for PubMedID 25462354

  • Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing. PLoS medicine Xu, D., Nishimura, T., Nishimura, S., Zhang, H., Zheng, M., Guo, Y., Masek, M., Michie, S. A., Glenn, J., Peltz, G. 2014; 11 (4)


    Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU]) developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers.Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po) for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers.FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in preclinical toxicology studies could improve the safety of candidate medications selected for testing in human participants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001628

    View details for PubMedID 24736310

  • Fialuridine Induces Acute Liver Failure in Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Model for Detecting Hepatic Drug Toxicity Prior to Human Testing. PLoS medicine Xu, D., Nishimura, T., Nishimura, S., Zhang, H., Zheng, M., Guo, Y., Masek, M., Michie, S. A., Glenn, J., Peltz, G. 2014; 11 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001628

    View details for PubMedID 24736310

  • Enabling Autologous Human Liver Regeneration With Differentiated Adipocyte Stem Cells CELL TRANSPLANTATION Xu, D., Nishimura, T., Zheng, M., Wu, M., Su, H., Sato, N., Lee, G., Michie, S., Glenn, J., Peltz, G. 2014; 23 (12): 1573-1584


    We developed a novel method for differentiating adipocyte-derived stem cells (ASCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps). ASCs are cultured as spherical cellular aggregates, and are then induced by culture in chemically defined media for a short time period to differentiate into spherical-culture iHeps (SCi-Heps). SCi-Heps have many of the in vitro functional properties of mature hepatocytes, and they can stably reconstitute functioning human liver in vivo in a murine model system, and implantation studies demonstrate that SCi-Heps have a very low malignant potential. All human liver regenerative procedures, including ultrasound-guided direct liver implantation, are scalable and appropriate for human clinical use. These methods can be used to achieve the major promise of regenerative medicine; it may now be possible to regenerate human liver using autologous stem cells obtained from a readily accessible tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.3727/096368913X673432

    View details for PubMedID 24148223

  • Coinfection with hepatitis B and D: Epidemiology, prevalence and disease in patients in Northern California JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY Gish, R. G., Yi, D. H., Kane, S., Clark, M., Mangahas, M., Baqai, S., Winters, M. A., Proudfoot, J., Glenn, J. S. 2013; 28 (9): 1521-1525


    With no report on the overall prevalence and ramifications of hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection in the United States for more than two decades, the characteristics of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) patients coinfected with HDV, including clinical presentation, rate of hepatitis C virus tri-infection, and HDV viral load, were assessed.At California Pacific Medical Center, a retrospective chart review was conducted on all CHB patients.Of 1191 CHB patients, 499 had been tested for HDV, with 42 (8%) determined to be coinfected; half of these were also hepatitis C virus-infected. Cirrhosis was present in 73% of the coinfected, 80% of the tri-infected, but only 22% of the monoinfected. Twenty-nine patients (69%) were Caucasian non-Hispanic; 10 (24%) were Asians and Pacific Islanders. Of 39 patients for whom HBV-DNA quantification at time of HDV presentation was available, 22 (56%) had undetectable levels; four (10%) had levels >?100?000?IU/mL.HDV affects individuals of all ages and various ethnic groups. Although HBV viral loads are lower, rates of cirrhosis are higher in coinfected patients and higher still in the tri-infected. Our data support revising screening guidelines to advocate for all patients with HBV to be screened for HDV in order to both give the individual patient important information related to the possible need for treatment and to support the public health goal of reducing transmission by educating HDV-negative patients about the need for protection against superinfection and HDV-infected patients about the need to protect against transmission to others.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jgh.12217

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323389700017

    View details for PubMedID 23574043

  • Analogs design, synthesis and biological evaluation of peptidomimetics with potential anti-HCV activity BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY Lasheen, D. S., Ismail, M. A., Abou El Ella, D. A., Ismail, N. S., Eid, S., Vleck, S., Glenn, J. S., Watts, A. G., Abouzid, K. A. 2013; 21 (10): 2742-2755


    Two series of peptidomimetics were designed, prepared and evaluated for their anti-HCV activity. One series possesses a C-terminal carboxylate functionality. In the other series, the electrophilic vinyl sulfonate moiety was introduced as a novel class of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. In vitro based studies were then performed to evaluate the efficacies of the inhibitors using Human hepatoma cells, with the vinyl sulfonate ester (10) in particular, found to have highly potent anti-HCV activity with an EC(50) = 0.296 ?M. Finally, molecular modeling studies were performed through docking of the synthesized compounds in the HCV NS3/4A protease active site to assess their binding modes with the enzyme and gain further insight into their structure-activity relationships.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.03.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318318700011

    View details for PubMedID 23583031

  • The anti-genomic (negative) strand of Hepatitis C Virus is not targetable by shRNA. Nucleic acids research Lisowski, L., Elazar, M., Chu, K., Glenn, J. S., Kay, M. A. 2013; 41 (6): 3688-3698


    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other plus-strand RNA viruses typically require the generation of a small number of negative genomes (20-100× lower than the positive genomes) for replication, making the less-abundant antigenome an attractive target for RNA interference(RNAi)-based therapy. Because of the complementarity of duplex short hairpin RNA/small interfering RNA (shRNA/siRNAs) with both genomic and anti-genomic viral RNA strands, and the potential of both shRNA strands to become part of the targeting complexes, preclinical RNAi studies cannot distinguish which viral strand is actually targeted in infected cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the negative HCV genome was bioaccessible to RNAi. We first screened for the most active shRNA molecules against the most conserved regions in the HCV genome, which were then used to generate asymmetric anti-HCV shRNAs that produce biologically active RNAi specifically directed against the genomic or antigenomic HCV sequences. Using this simple but powerful and effective method to screen for shRNA strand selectivity, we demonstrate that the antigenomic strand of HCV is not a viable RNAi target during HCV replication. These findings provide new insights into HCV biology and have important implications for the design of more effective and safer antiviral RNAi strategies seeking to target HCV and other viruses with similar replicative strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkt068

    View details for PubMedID 23396439

  • Using Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers to Predict Human Drug Metabolism and a Drug-Drug Interaction JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS Nishimura, T., Hu, Y., Wu, M., Pham, E., Suemizu, H., Elazar, M., Liu, M., Idilman, R., Yurdaydin, C., Angus, P., Stedman, C., Murphy, B., Glenn, J., Nakamura, M., Nomura, T., Chen, Y., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Peltz, G. 2013; 344 (2): 388-396


    Interspecies differences in drug metabolism have made it difficult to use preclinical animal testing data to predict the drug metabolites or potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that will occur in humans. Although chimeric mice with humanized livers can produce known human metabolites for test substrates, we do not know whether chimeric mice can be used to prospectively predict human drug metabolism or a possible DDI. Therefore, we investigated whether they could provide a more predictive assessment for clemizole, a drug in clinical development for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that analyses performed in chimeric mice can correctly identify the predominant human drug metabolite before human testing. The differences in the rodent and human pathways for clemizole metabolism were of importance, because the predominant human metabolite was found to have synergistic anti-HCV activity. Moreover, studies in chimeric mice also correctly predicted that a DDI would occur in humans when clemizole was coadministered with a CYP3A4 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that using chimeric mice can improve the quality of preclinical drug assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1124/jpet.112.198697

    View details for PubMedID 23143674

  • An HCV IRES element regulates viral replication independent of translation 63rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases (AASLD) Pham, E. A., Cho, N., Pang, P. S., Leveque, V. J., Ma, H., Klumpp, K., Glenn, J. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2012: 706A?706A
  • Structural Map of a MicroRNA-122: Hepatitis C Virus Complex JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Pang, P. S., Pham, E. A., Elazar, M., Patel, S. G., Eckart, M. R., Glenn, J. S. 2012; 86 (2): 1250-1254


    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) enhances hepatitis C virus (HCV) fitness via targeting two sites in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV. We used selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension to resolve the HCV 5'-UTR's RNA secondary structure in the presence of miR-122. Nearly all nucleotides in miR-122 are involved in targeting the second site, beyond classic seed base pairings. These additional interactions enhance HCV replication in cell culture. To our knowledge, this is the first biophysical study of this complex to reveal the importance of 'tail' miR-122 nucleotide interactions.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.06367-11

    View details for PubMedID 22072754

  • Simplified RNA secondary structure mapping by automation of SHAPE data analysis NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Pang, P. S., Elazar, M., Pham, E. A., Glenn, J. S. 2011; 39 (22)


    SHAPE (Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension) technology has emerged as one of the leading methods of determining RNA secondary structure at the nucleotide level. A significant bottleneck in using SHAPE is the complex and time-consuming data processing that is required. We present here a modified data collection method and a series of algorithms, embodied in a program entitled Fast Analysis of SHAPE traces (FAST), which significantly reduces processing time. We have used this method to resolve the secondary structure of the first ~900 nt of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome, including the entire core gene. We have also demonstrated the ability of SHAPE/FAST to detect the binding of a small molecule inhibitor to the HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In conclusion, FAST allows for high-throughput data processing to match the current high-throughput generation of data possible with SHAPE, reducing the barrier to determining the structure of RNAs of interest.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkr773

    View details for PubMedID 21965531

  • Using 'Humanized' TK-NOG mice to predict human drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions 17th North American Regional International-Society-for-the-Study-of-Xenobiotics (ISSX) Meeting Hu, Y., Nishimura, T., Wu, M., Suemizu, H., Elazar, M., Glenn, J., Hasegawa, M., Nakamura, M., Nomura, T., Chen, Y., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Peltz, G. INFORMA HEALTHCARE. 2011: 164?165
  • Structural Linkage between Ligand Discrimination and Receptor Activation by Type I Interferons CELL Thomas, C., Moraga, I., Levin, D., Krutzik, P. O., Podoplelova, Y., Trejo, A., Lee, C., Yarden, G., Vleck, S. E., Glenn, J. S., Nolan, G. P., Piehler, J., Schreiber, G., Garcia, K. C. 2011; 146 (4): 621-632


    Type I Interferons (IFNs) are important cytokines for innate immunity against viruses and cancer. Sixteen human type I IFN variants signal through the same cell-surface receptors, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, yet they can evoke markedly different physiological effects. The crystal structures of two human type I IFN ternary signaling complexes containing IFN?2 and IFN? reveal recognition modes and heterotrimeric architectures that are unique among the cytokine receptor superfamily but conserved between different type I IFNs. Receptor-ligand cross-reactivity is enabled by conserved receptor-ligand "anchor points" interspersed among ligand-specific interactions that "tune" the relative IFN-binding affinities, in an apparent extracellular "ligand proofreading" mechanism that modulates biological activity. Functional differences between IFNs are linked to their respective receptor recognition chemistries, in concert with a ligand-induced conformational change in IFNAR1, that collectively control signal initiation and complex stability, ultimately regulating differential STAT phosphorylation profiles, receptor internalization rates, and downstream gene expression patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.048

    View details for PubMedID 21854986

  • The hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor (BMS-790052) alters the subcellular localization of the NS5A non-structural viral protein VIROLOGY Lee, C., Ma, H., Hang, J. Q., Leveque, V., Sklan, E. H., Elazar, M., Klumpp, K., Glenn, J. S. 2011; 414 (1): 10-18


    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural (NS) 5A protein plays an essential role in the replication of the viral RNA by the membrane-associated replication complex (RC). Recently, a putative NS5A inhibitor, BMS-790052, exhibited the highest potency of any known anti-HCV compound in inhibiting HCV replication in vitro and showed a promising clinical effect in HCV-infected patients. The precise mechanism of action for this new class of potential anti-HCV therapeutics, however, is still unclear. In order to gain further insight into its mode of action, we sought to test the hypothesis that the antiviral effect of BMS-790052 might be mediated by interfering with the functional assembly of the HCV RC. We observed that BMS-790052 indeed altered the subcellular localization and biochemical fractionation of NS5A. Taken together, our data suggest that NS5A inhibitors such as BMS-790052 can suppress viral genome replication by altering the proper localization of NS5A into functional RCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2011.03.026

    View details for PubMedID 21513964

  • Role for ADP Ribosylation Factor 1 in the Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus Replication JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Matto, M., Sklan, E. H., David, N., Melamed-Book, N., Casanova, J. E., Glenn, J. S., Aroeti, B. 2011; 85 (2): 946-956


    We hypothesized that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) plays an important role in the biogenesis and maintenance of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV). Huh7.5 cells, in which HCV replicates and produces infectious viral particles, were exposed to brefeldin A or golgicide A, pharmacological inhibitors of Arf1 activation. Treatment with these agents caused a reduction in viral RNA levels, the accumulation of infectious particles within the cells, and a reduction in the levels of these particles in the extracellular medium. Fluorescence analyses showed that the viral nonstructural (NS) proteins NS5A and NS3, but not the viral structural protein core, shifted their localization from speckle-like structures in untreated cells to the rims of lipid droplets (LDs) in treated cells. Using pulldown assays, we showed that ectopic overexpression of NS5A in Huh7 cells reduces the levels of GTP-Arf1. Downregulation of Arf1 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased both the levels of HCV RNA and the production of infectious viral particles and altered the localization of NS5A to the peripheries of LDs. Together, our data provide novel insights into the role of Arf1 in the regulation of viral RNA replication and the production of infectious HCV.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00753-10

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285554300030

    View details for PubMedID 21068255

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3020004

  • Mixing the right hepatitis C inhibitor cocktail TRENDS IN MOLECULAR MEDICINE Gelman, M. A., Glenn, J. S. 2011; 17 (1): 34-46


    Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is on the cusp of a new era. Until now, standard-of-care therapy has involved interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. With the first successful Phase III trials of specific targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C) compounds, as well as three trials in progress giving the first glimpse of IFN-free combinations of STAT-C agents, this review looks ahead to the new classes of anti-HCV agents currently in clinical development. Successful pharmacologic control of HIV and TB frames the discussion, as well as consideration of the mutation frequency of HCV replication. Maximizing synergy between agents and minimizing cumulative toxicity will be critical to the design of future IFN-free STAT-C regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molmed.2010.10.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287340500005

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3085044

  • Hydrophobic nanoparticles improve permeability of cell-encapsulating poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels while maintaining patternability PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lee, W., Cho, N., Xiong, A., Glenn, J. S., Frank, C. W. 2010; 107 (48): 20709-20714


    Cell encapsulating poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels represent a promising approach for constructing 3D cultures designed to more closely approximate in vivo tissue environment. Improved strategies are needed, however, to optimally balance hydrogel permeability to support metabolic activities of encapsulated cells, while maintaining patternability to restore key aspects of tissue architecture. Herein, we have developed one such strategy incorporating hydrophobic nanoparticles to partially induce looser cross-linking density at the particle-hydrogel interface. Strikingly, our network design significantly increased hydrogel permeability, while only minimally affecting the matrix mechanical strength or prepolymer viscosity. This structural advantage improved viability and functions of encapsulated cells and permitted micron-scale structures to control over spatial distribution of incorporated cells. We expect that this design strategy holds promise for the development of more advanced artificial tissues that can promote high levels of cell metabolic activity and recapitulate key architectural features.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1005211107

    View details for PubMedID 21071674

  • The Future of HCV Therapy: NS4B as an Antiviral Target VIRUSES-BASEL Dvory-Sobol, H., Pang, P. S., Glenn, J. S. 2010; 2 (11): 2481-2492


    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide cause of liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is estimated that more than 170 million individuals are infected with HCV, with three to four million new cases each year. The current standard of care, combination treatment with interferon and ribavirin, eradicates the virus in only about 50% of chronically infected patients. Notably, neither of these drugs directly target HCV. Many new antiviral therapies that specifically target hepatitis C (e.g. NS3 protease or NS5B polymerase inhibitors) are therefore in development, with a significant number having advanced into clinical trials. The nonstructural 4B (NS4B) protein, is among the least characterized of the HCV structural and nonstructural proteins and has been subjected to few pharmacological studies. NS4B is an integral membrane protein with at least four predicted transmembrane (TM) domains. A variety of functions have been postulated for NS4B, such as the ability to induce the membranous web replication platform, RNA binding and NTPase activity. This review summarizes potential targets within the nonstructural protein NS4B, with a focus on novel classes of NS4B inhibitors.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/v2112481

    View details for PubMedID 21157574

  • STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM OF MICRORNA-MODULATED HCV TRANSLATION 61st Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases Pang, P. S., Pham, E. A., Patel, S. G., Winters, M. A., Eckart, M. R., Glenn, J. S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 816A?817A
  • Prevalence, Correlates, and Viral Dynamics of Hepatitis Delta among Injection Drug Users JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Kucirka, L. M., Farzadegan, H., Feld, J. J., Mehta, S. H., Winters, M., Glenn, J. S., Kirk, G. D., Segev, D. L., Nelson, K. E., Marks, M., Heller, T., Golub, E. T. 2010; 202 (6): 845-852


    Most hepatitis delta virus (HDV) prevalence estimates from the United States are >10 years old, and HDV has shown significant temporal variation in other populations. HDV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) dual infection progresses rapidly, has more complications, and has a different treatment regimen than HBV infection alone. Accurate estimates of prevalence and risk factors are important to help clinicians decide who to screen.Injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, who were positive for HBV serologic markers were tested for hepatitis delta antibody (HDAb) at 2 time periods: 1988-1989 (194 participants) and 2005-2006 (258 participants). Those who were HDAb positive in 2005-2006, plus a random sample of HDAb negative, HBV-positive participants were tested for HDV RNA, HBV DNA, and HCV RNA. Characteristics associated with HDV exposure and viremia were identified.HDV prevalence declined from 15% in 1988-1989 to 11% in 2005-2006. Among those with chronic HBV infection, prevalence increased from 29% (14 of 48 participants) to 50% (19 of 38 participants) (P=.05). Visiting a "shooting gallery" (a location where people gather to inject illegal drugs) was a strong correlate of HDAb positivity (relative risk, 3.08; P=.01). Eight (32%) of those who were HDAb positive had HDV viremia. Viremic participants had elevated liver enzyme levels and more emergency room visits.The temporal increase in HDV prevalence among those with chronic HBV infection is troubling; understanding this change should be a priority to prevent the burden from increasing.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/655808

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281091200004

    View details for PubMedID 20701536

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2924454

  • A small molecule inhibits HCV replication and alters NS4B's subcellular distribution ANTIVIRAL RESEARCH Bryson, P. D., Cho, N., Einav, S., Lee, C., Tai, V., Bechtel, J., Sivaraja, M., Roberts, C., Schmitz, U., Glenn, J. S. 2010; 87 (1): 1-8


    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease and represents a significant public health challenge. Treatments for this disease are inadequate and improved antiviral therapies are necessary. Several such antivirals are in development, most of which target the well-characterized NS3 protease or the NS5B polymerase. In contrast, the nonstructural 4B (NS4B) protein, though essential for HCV RNA replication, has been the subject of few pharmacological studies. One of the functions ascribed to this protein is the ability to form intracellular membrane-associated foci (MAF), which are believed to be related to the sites of viral replication. Here, we report the identification of a small molecule that inhibits HCV replication and disrupts the organization of these MAF. Genetic analysis links the compound's mode of action to the NS4B gene product, and transient transfections of NS4B-GFP demonstrate that treatment with this compound can lead to the formation of novel elongated assemblies of NS4B. Furthermore, an in vitro dynamic light scattering assay provides evidence that the second amphipathic helix of NS4B may be the target of the drug. Our results demonstrate that this molecule represents a new potential class of HCV inhibitors and also provides us with a useful tool for studying the HCV life cycle.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.03.013

    View details for PubMedID 20363257

  • Transdifferentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into hepatocytes: a new approach LIVER INTERNATIONAL Lue, J., Lin, G., Ning, H., Xiong, A., Lin, C., Glenn, J. S. 2010; 30 (6): 913-922


    Several studies have demonstrated techniques in differentiating human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into hepatocytes. Unfortunately, transdifferentiation is inefficient, and the function of these induced hepatocyte-like cells (which we termed 'iHeps') is low compared with that of real hepatocytes.We aimed to identify transcriptional deficiencies in iHeps that are critical to hepatocyte development, which may provide insights into improving the efficiency of transdifferentiation.hADSCs were differentiated into iHeps, and iHeps were assayed for hepatocyte-like activity. iHeps were then screened for expression of several growth factors, receptors and transcription factors (TFs) critical to liver development using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Deficient TFs were transduced into hADSCs and hepatocyte function was reassessed after hepatic differentiation.Differentiation of hADSCs into iHeps resulted in the upregulation of hepatic proteins. However, the levels of expression of hepatocyte-specific proteins in these iHeps were well below those of Huh 7.5 hepatoma cells, used in comparison. Five developmental TFs were notably absent on the RT-PCR screen. Lentiviral transduction of these TFs into hADSCs followed by culture in hepatocyte induction medium resulted in increased albumin expression compared with untransduced hADSCs treated in a parallel fashion.These five missing TFs are known to regulate hepatocyte differentiation and some are required to establish the competence of the foregut endoderm. Presumably due to their mesenchymal lineage, hADSCs do not express these endodermal TFs and are not fully competent to respond to critical developmental signals. Supplementation of these TFs may induce competency and enhance the differentiation of hADSCs into hepatocytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02231.x

    View details for PubMedID 20353420

  • The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS4B RNA Binding Inhibitor Clemizole Is Highly Synergistic with HCV Protease Inhibitors Annual Meeting of the Infectious-Diseases-Society-of-America Einav, S., Dvory-Sobol, H., Gehrig, E., Glenn, J. S. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2010: 65?74


    We recently identified a compound, clemizole hydrochloride, that inhibits NS4B's RNA binding and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Although significant, clemizole's antiviral effect is moderate (50% effective concentration of 8 microM against an HCV genotype 2a clone). We hypothesized that the combination of clemizole with other anti-HCV agents can increase the antiviral effect over that achieved with each drug alone and could also decrease the emergence of viral resistance.Luciferase reporter-linked HCV replication assays were used to study the antiviral effects of drug combinations that included clemizole. Data were analyzed using Loewe additivity and Bliss independence models for synergy, and resistance studies were performed using HCV colony formation assays.Clemizole's antiviral effect was highly synergistic with the HCV protease inhibitors SCH503034 and VX950, without toxicity. In contrast, combinations of clemizole with either interferon, ribavirin, or the nucleoside (NM283) and nonnucleoside (HCV796) HCV polymerase inhibitors were additive. Furthermore, combination of clemizole with SCH503034 decreased the frequency of drug-resistant mutants, compared with treatment with either drug alone. Finally, no cross-resistance to clemizole of SCH503034-resistant mutants (or vice versa) was observed.Clemizole can yield high-level synergy with the protease inhibitor class. Inclusion of clemizole in future anti-HCV cocktails can represent an attractive paradigm for increasing current virologic response rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/653080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278322300008

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3008401

  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4B RNA binding inhibitor clemizole is highly synergistic with HCV protease inhibitors. journal of infectious diseases Einav, S., Sobol, H. D., Gehrig, E., Glenn, J. S. 2010; 202 (1): 65-74


    We recently identified a compound, clemizole hydrochloride, that inhibits NS4B's RNA binding and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Although significant, clemizole's antiviral effect is moderate (50% effective concentration of 8 microM against an HCV genotype 2a clone). We hypothesized that the combination of clemizole with other anti-HCV agents can increase the antiviral effect over that achieved with each drug alone and could also decrease the emergence of viral resistance.Luciferase reporter-linked HCV replication assays were used to study the antiviral effects of drug combinations that included clemizole. Data were analyzed using Loewe additivity and Bliss independence models for synergy, and resistance studies were performed using HCV colony formation assays.Clemizole's antiviral effect was highly synergistic with the HCV protease inhibitors SCH503034 and VX950, without toxicity. In contrast, combinations of clemizole with either interferon, ribavirin, or the nucleoside (NM283) and nonnucleoside (HCV796) HCV polymerase inhibitors were additive. Furthermore, combination of clemizole with SCH503034 decreased the frequency of drug-resistant mutants, compared with treatment with either drug alone. Finally, no cross-resistance to clemizole of SCH503034-resistant mutants (or vice versa) was observed.Clemizole can yield high-level synergy with the protease inhibitor class. Inclusion of clemizole in future anti-HCV cocktails can represent an attractive paradigm for increasing current virologic response rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/653080

    View details for PubMedID 20486856

  • Development of novel therapies for hepatitis C ANTIVIRAL RESEARCH Lemon, S. M., McKeating, J. A., Pietschmann, T., Frick, D. N., Glenn, J. S., Tellinghuisen, T. L., Symons, J., Furman, P. A. 2010; 86 (1): 79-92


    The current standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of pegylated IFN and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV). Because of the adverse effects associated with both IFN and ribavirin and because Peg-IFN/RBV provides only about a 45-50% sustained virological response (SVR, undetectable HCV RNA for greater than 24 weeks after cessation of therapy) in genotype 1-infected individuals, there is a need for more potent anti-HCV compounds with fewer adverse effects. The twenty-first International Conference on Antiviral Research held in May 2009 in Miami Beach, Florida, featured a special session focused on novel targets for HCV therapy. The session included presentations by world-renowned experts in HCV virology and covered a diverse array of potential targets for the development of new classes of HCV therapies. This review contains concise summaries of discussed topics that included the innate immune response, virus entry, the NS2 protease, the NS3 helicase, NS4B, and NS5A. Each presenter discussed the current knowledge of these targets and provided examples of recent scientific breakthroughs that are enhancing our understanding of these targets. As our understanding of the role of these novel anti-HCV targets increases so will our ability to discover new, more safe and effective anti-HCV therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.antivira1.2010.02.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277809600148

    View details for PubMedID 20417376

  • Six RNA Viruses and Forty-One Hosts: Viral Small RNAs and Modulation of Small RNA Repertoires in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Systems PLOS PATHOGENS Parameswaran, P., Sklan, E., Wilkins, C., Burgon, T., Samuel, M. A., Lu, R., Ansel, K. M., Heissmeyer, V., Einav, S., Jackson, W., Doukas, T., Paranjape, S., Polacek, C., dos Santos, F. B., Jalili, R., Babrzadeh, F., Gharizadeh, B., Grimm, D., Kay, M., Koike, S., Sarnow, P., Ronaghi, M., Ding, S., Harris, E., Chow, M., Diamond, M. S., Kirkegaard, K., Glenn, J. S., Fire, A. Z. 2010; 6 (2)


    We have used multiplexed high-throughput sequencing to characterize changes in small RNA populations that occur during viral infection in animal cells. Small RNA-based mechanisms such as RNA interference (RNAi) have been shown in plant and invertebrate systems to play a key role in host responses to viral infection. Although homologs of the key RNAi effector pathways are present in mammalian cells, and can launch an RNAi-mediated degradation of experimentally targeted mRNAs, any role for such responses in mammalian host-virus interactions remains to be characterized. Six different viruses were examined in 41 experimentally susceptible and resistant host systems. We identified virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) from all six viruses, with total abundance varying from "vanishingly rare" (less than 0.1% of cellular small RNA) to highly abundant (comparable to abundant micro-RNAs "miRNAs"). In addition to the appearance of vsRNAs during infection, we saw a number of specific changes in host miRNA profiles. For several infection models investigated in more detail, the RNAi and Interferon pathways modulated the abundance of vsRNAs. We also found evidence for populations of vsRNAs that exist as duplexed siRNAs with zero to three nucleotide 3' overhangs. Using populations of cells carrying a Hepatitis C replicon, we observed strand-selective loading of siRNAs onto Argonaute complexes. These experiments define vsRNAs as one possible component of the interplay between animal viruses and their hosts.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000764

    View details for PubMedID 20169186

  • Identification of a Class of HCV Inhibitors Directed Against the Nonstructural Protein NS4B SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Cho, N., Dvory-Sobol, H., Lee, C., Cho, S., Bryson, P., Masek, M., Elazar, M., Frank, C. W., Glenn, J. S. 2010; 2 (15)


    New classes of drugs are needed to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important worldwide cause of liver disease. We describe an activity of a key domain, an amphipathic helix we termed 4BAH2, within a specific HCV nonstructural protein, NS4B. In addition to its proposed role in viral replication, we validate 4BAH2 as essential for HCV genome replication and identify first-generation small-molecule inhibitors of 4BAH2 that specifically prevent HCV replication within cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that the inhibitors target 4BAH2 function by preventing either 4BAH2 oligomerization or 4BAH2 membrane association. 4BAH2 inhibitors represent an additional class of compounds with potential to effectively treat HCV.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000331

    View details for PubMedID 20371471

  • THE EVOLUTION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS INNATE IMMUNE EVASION Western Regional Meeting of the American-Federation-for-Medical-Research Pang, P. S., Planet, P. J., Pham, E. A., Glenn, J. S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2010: 180?80
  • Mixing the right hepatitis C inhibitor cocktail. Trends in molecular medicine Gelman, M. A., Glenn, J. S. 2010


    Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is on the cusp of a new era. Until now, standard-of-care therapy has involved interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. With the first successful Phase III trials of specific targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C) compounds, as well as three trials in progress giving the first glimpse of IFN-free combinations of STAT-C agents, this review looks ahead to the new classes of anti-HCV agents currently in clinical development. Successful pharmacologic control of HIV and TB frames the discussion, as well as consideration of the mutation frequency of HCV replication. Maximizing synergy between agents and minimizing cumulative toxicity will be critical to the design of future IFN-free STAT-C regimens.

    View details for PubMedID 21106440

  • Mechanism of an Amphipathic alpha-Helical Peptide's Antiviral Activity Involves Size-Dependent Virus Particle Lysis ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY Cho, N., Dvory-Sobol, H., Xiong, A., Cho, S., Frank, C. W., Glenn, J. S. 2009; 4 (12): 1061-1067


    The N-terminal region of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein NS5A contains an amphipathic alpha-helix that is necessary and sufficient for NS5A membrane association. A synthetic peptide (AH) comprising this amphipathic helix is able to lyse lipid vesicles that serve as a model system for virus particles. Based on quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments, the degree of vesicle rupturing was found to be inversely related to vesicle size, with maximal activity in the size range of several medically important viruses. In order to confirm and further study vesicle rupture, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were also performed. The size dependence of vesicle rupturing helps explain the peptide's observed effect on the infectivity of a wide range of viruses. Further, in vitro studies demonstrated that AH peptide treatment significantly decreased the infectivity of HCV particles. Thus, the AH peptide might be used to rupture HCV particles extra-corporally (for HCV prevention) and within infected individuals (for HCV therapy).

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cb900149b

    View details for PubMedID 19928982

  • The reliable targeting of specific drug release profiles by integrating arrays of different albumin-encapsulated microsphere types BIOMATERIALS Lee, W., Wiseman, M. E., Cho, N., Glenn, J. S., Frank, C. W. 2009; 30 (34): 6648-6654


    Biodegradable polymer microspheres have been successfully utilized as a medium for controlled protein or peptide-based drug release. Because the release kinetics has been typically controlled by modulating physical or chemical properties of the medium, these parameters must be optimized to obtain a specific release profile. However, due to the complexity of the release mechanism and the complicated interplay between various design parameters of the release medium, detailed prediction of the resulting release profile is a challenge. Herein we suggest a simple method to target specific release profiles more efficiently by integrating release profiles for an array of different microsphere types. This scheme is based on our observation that the resulting release profile from a mixture of different samples can be predicted as the linear summation of the individually measured release profiles of each sample. Hence, by employing a linear equation at each time point and formulating them as a matrix equation, we could determine how much of each microsphere type to include in a mixture in order to have a specific release profile. In accordance with this method, several targeted release profiles were successfully obtained. We expect that the proposed method will allow us to overcome limitations in controlling complicated release mechanisms so that drug delivery systems can be reliably designed to satisfy clinical demands.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.08.035

    View details for PubMedID 19775742

  • The Anti-Hepatitis C Agent Nitazoxanide Induces Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 alpha Via Protein Kinase Activated by Double-Stranded RNA Activation GASTROENTEROLOGY Elazar, M., Liu, M., Mckenna, S. A., Liu, P., Gehrig, E. A., Puglisi, J. D., Rossignol, J., Glenn, J. S. 2009; 137 (5): 1827-1835


    New therapies are needed to treat patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major worldwide cause of chronic liver disease. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), originally used to treat cryptosporidiosis infection, recently was shown to have unexpected antiviral activity in the HCV replicon system and in chronically infected patients. A pilot clinical study suggested that NTZ can augment the antiviral effect of interferon (IFN), although the molecular basis for its effect was unknown.We analyzed the effects of NTZ on the regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha) and its IFN-induced kinase, protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA (PKR), in cells that support HCV RNA replication and in vitro biochemical assays.NTZ increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation, a modification known to mediate host cell antiviral defenses. The addition of IFN to cell cultures increased NTZ-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation. NTZ also increased PKR phosphorylation. In vitro, NTZ promoted PKR autophosphorylation, a key step in activating PKR's kinase activity for eIF2alpha. Finally, NTZ-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation was reduced in the presence of specific inhibitors of PKR autophosphorylation.An important mechanism of NTZ's action involves activation of PKR, a key kinase that regulates the cell's innate antiviral response. These observations could explain the clinical antiviral effect of NTZ. NTZ might represent a new class of small molecules capable of potentiating and recapitulating important antiviral effects of IFN.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.07.056

    View details for PubMedID 19664635

  • The Effect of Donor Race on the Survival of Black Americans Undergoing Liver Transplantation for Chronic Hepatitis C LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Pang, P. S., Kamal, A., Glenn, J. S. 2009; 15 (9): 1126-1132


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of donor race on the outcome of black patients with chronic hepatitis C infection who undergo liver transplantation. The records for deceased donor liver transplants that occurred in the United States between January 1998 and December 2007 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing. 26,212 records contained sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Of these, 11,989 (45.7%) records were for patients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 1292 (4.9%) were for patients both HCV-positive and black. Black recipients with white donors were found to have significantly worse outcomes than all other recipient-donor race combinations (P < 0.001). The crude 5-year survival rate for black recipients who had a black donor was 14% higher than the 5-year survival rate for black recipients who had a white donor. Multivariate regression analysis determined that a graft from a race-unmatched donor was an independent risk factor for graft failure (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.79) among HCV-positive black recipients but not among HCV-negative black recipients after adjustments for donor age, recipient age, cold ischemia time, serum creatinine, serum bilirubin, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and donor cytomegalovirus status. The observation that race-unmatched grafts are a risk factor in HCV-positive black recipients, but not in HCV-negative black recipients, suggests an alteration of the graft-host relationship by HCV. In conclusion, our results suggest that HCV-positive black recipients who undergo liver transplantation can have increased graft survival if their donors are black, with survival rates approaching those of white liver transplant recipients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lt.21835

    View details for PubMedID 19718638

  • The Evolution of the Major Hepatitis C Genotypes Correlates with Clinical Response to Interferon Therapy PLOS ONE Pang, P. S., Planet, P. J., Glenn, J. S. 2009; 4 (8)


    Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) require significantly different durations of therapy and achieve substantially different sustained virologic response rates to interferon-based therapies, depending on the HCV genotype with which they are infected. There currently exists no systematic framework that explains these genotype-specific response rates. Since humans are the only known natural hosts for HCV-a virus that is at least hundreds of years old-one possibility is that over the time frame of this relationship, HCV accumulated adaptive mutations that confer increasing resistance to the human immune system. Given that interferon therapy functions by triggering an immune response, we hypothesized that clinical response rates are a reflection of viral evolutionary adaptations to the immune system.We have performed the first phylogenetic analysis to include all available full-length HCV genomic sequences (n = 345). This resulted in a new cladogram of HCV. This tree establishes for the first time the relative evolutionary ages of the major HCV genotypes. The outcome data from prospective clinical trials that studied interferon and ribavirin therapy was then mapped onto this new tree. This mapping revealed a correlation between genotype-specific responses to therapy and respective genotype age. This correlation allows us to predict that genotypes 5 and 6, for which there currently are no published prospective trials, will likely have intermediate response rates, similar to genotype 3. Ancestral protein sequence reconstruction was also performed, which identified the HCV proteins E2 and NS5A as potential determinants of genotype-specific clinical outcome. Biochemical studies have independently identified these same two proteins as having genotype-specific abilities to inhibit the innate immune factor double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR).An evolutionary analysis of all available HCV genomes supports the hypothesis that immune selection was a significant driving force in the divergence of the major HCV genotypes and that viral factors that acquired the ability to inhibit the immune response may play a role in determining genotype-specific response rates to interferon therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0006579

    View details for PubMedID 19668364

  • Alpha-Helical Peptide-Induced Vesicle Rupture Revealing New Insight into the Vesicle Fusion Process As Monitored in Situ by Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Dissipation and Reflectometry ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Cho, N., Wang, G., Edvardsson, M., Glenn, J. S., Hook, F., Frank, C. W. 2009; 81 (12): 4752-4761


    We have used simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and four-detector optical reflectometry to monitor in situ the structural transformation of intact vesicles to a lipid bilayer on a gold surface. The structural transformation of lipid vesicles to a bilayer was achieved by introducing a particular amphipathic, alpha-helical (AH) peptide. The combined experimental apparatus allows us to simultaneously follow the acoustic and optical property changes of the vesicle rupturing process upon interaction with AH peptides. While QCM-D and reflectometry have similar sensitivities in terms of mass and thickness resolution, there are unique advantages in operating these techniques simultaneously on the same substrate. These advantages permit us to (1) follow the complex interaction between AH peptides and intact vesicles with both acoustic and optical mass measurements, (2) calculate the amount of dynamically coupled water during the interaction between AH peptides and intact vesicles, (3) demonstrate that the unexpectedly large increase of both adsorbed mass and the film's energy dissipation is mainly caused by swelling of the vesicles during the binding interaction with AH peptides, and (4) permit us to understand the structural transformation from intact vesicles to a bilayer via the AH peptide interaction by monitoring viscoelastic properties, acoustic mass, optical mass, and thickness changes of both the binding and destabilization processes. From the deduced "hydration signature" we followed the complex transformation of lipid assemblies. On the basis of this information, a mechanism of this structural transformation is proposed that provides new insight into the process of vesicle fusion on solid substrates.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac900242s

    View details for PubMedID 19459601

  • Mechanisms of HCV survival in the host NATURE REVIEWS GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY Sklan, E. H., Charuworn, P., Pang, P. S., Glenn, J. S. 2009; 6 (4): 217-227


    HCV infection is an important cause of liver disease worldwide-nearly 80% of infected patients develop chronic liver disease, which leads to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The ability of HCV to persist within a host is believed to be related to the numerous mechanisms by which it evades the immune response of the host. These mechanisms can be divided into defensive and offensive strategies. Examples of defensive mechanisms include replication within enclosed structures, which provides protection from the host's antiviral defenses, genetic diversity created by inaccurate replication, which yields mutants resistant to the cell's antiviral strategies, and association of the virion with protective lipoproteins. Offensive mechanisms include virally encoded proteins and other factors that disrupt the ability of the host cells to detect the virus and downregulate its ability to respond to interferon, impair innate immune defense mechanisms and alter T-cell responses, and prevent the development of an effective B-cell-mediated humoral response. Greater understanding of these viral survival strategies will ultimately translate into more effective antiviral therapies and better prognosis for patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nrgastro.2009.32

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265854200009

    View details for PubMedID 19347013

  • Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS Cho, N., Elazar, M., Xiong, A., Lee, W., Chiao, E., Baker, J., Frank, C. W., Glenn, J. S. 2009; 4 (1)


    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from approximately 50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 +/- 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/1748-6041/4/1/011001

    View details for PubMedID 18981544

  • Potential for Hepatitis C Virus Resistance to Nitazoxanide or Tizoxanide ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Korba, B. E., Elazar, M., Lui, P., Rossignol, J., Glenn, J. S. 2008; 52 (11): 4069-4071


    Nitazoxanide and its primary metabolite, tizoxanide, inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in HCV replicon systems. To study the potential for resistance, we subjected Huh7 cells harboring HCV replicons to serial passage in 250 muM G418 and increasing concentrations of nitazoxanide or tizoxanide. Passage of the replicon-containing cell lines in either compound resulted in increases in the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) (7- to 13-fold), EC(90)s (14- to 36-fold), and 50% cytotoxic concentrations (2- to 4-fold) of both compounds. Serial passage in either compound did not alter the susceptibility of HCV replicons to ribavirin or 2'-C-methylcytidine. Interestingly, serial passage in nitazoxanide or tizoxanide resulted in increased sensitivity to alpha interferon 2b: EC(50)s and EC(90)s were reduced three- and eightfold, respectively. Replicons isolated from these cell lines had no greater ability to confer tizoxanide resistance, or increased susceptibility to alpha interferon, than replicons isolated from the parental cell line that had not previously been exposed to nitazoxanide or tizoxanide. These findings are indicative of a cell-mediated activity differing from that of other anti-HCV drugs but complementary with interferon and are consistent with the enhanced response rates observed clinically when nitazoxanide is combined with pegylated interferon therapy. Finally, unlike data for other compounds in advanced clinical development for HCV, these data are consistent with resistance in HCV replicon-containing cell lines conferred by changes in the host and not by mutations in the virus.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.00078-08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260305600035

    View details for PubMedID 18710916

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2573111

  • NITAZOXANIDE (NTZ) IS AN INDUCER EIF2A AND PKR PHOSPHORYLATION 59th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases Elazor, M., Liu, M., McKenna, S., Liu, P., Gehrig, E. A., Elfert, A., Puglisi, J., Rossignol, J., Glenn, J. S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2008: 1151A?1151A
  • PHARMACOLOGICAL INHIBITORS OF A NEW HEPATITIS C TARGET-RNA BINDING BY NS4B-DISCOVERED BY MICROFLUIDIC AFFINITY ANALYSIS 59th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases Einav, S., Gerber, D., Bryson, P. D., Sklan, E., Elazar, M., Maerkl, S., Dvory, H. S., Machlin, E., Gu, W., Quake, S., Glenn, J. S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2008: 356A?356A
  • BINDING DYNAMICS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS' NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS TO CELL AND MODEL MEMBRANES 59th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases Cho, N., Frank, C. W., Glenn, J. S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2008: 758A?759A
  • Discovery of a hepatitis C target and its pharmacological inhibitors by microfluidic affinity analysis NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Einav, S., Gerber, D., Bryson, P. D., Sklan, E. H., Elazar, M., Maerkl, S. J., Glenn, J. S., Quake, S. R. 2008; 26 (9): 1019-1027


    More effective therapies are urgently needed against hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of viral hepatitis. We used in vitro protein expression and microfluidic affinity analysis to study RNA binding by the HCV transmembrane protein NS4B, which plays an essential role in HCV RNA replication. We show that HCV NS4B binds RNA and that this binding is specific for the 3' terminus of the negative strand of the viral genome with a dissociation constant (Kd) of approximately 3.4 nM. A high-throughput microfluidic screen of a compound library identified 18 compounds that substantially inhibited binding of RNA by NS4B. One of these compounds, clemizole hydrochloride, was found to inhibit HCV RNA replication in cell culture that was mediated by its suppression of NS4B's RNA binding, with little toxicity for the host cell. These results yield new insight into the HCV life cycle and provide a candidate compound for pharmaceutical development.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1490

    View details for PubMedID 18758449

  • Isolation and transcriptional profiling of purified hepatic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells STEM CELLS Chiao, E., Elazar, M., Xing, Y., Xiong, A., Kmet, M., Millan, M. T., Glenn, J. S., Wong, W. H., Baker, J. 2008; 26 (8): 2032-2041


    The differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into functional hepatocytes provides a powerful in vitro model system for studying the molecular mechanisms governing liver development. Furthermore, a well-characterized renewable supply of hepatocytes differentiated from hESCs could be used for in vitro assays of drug metabolism and toxicology, screening of potential antiviral agents, and cell-based therapies to treat liver disease. In this study, we describe a protocol for the differentiation of hESCs toward hepatic cells with complex cellular morphologies. Putative hepatic cells were identified and isolated using a lentiviral vector, containing the alpha-fetoprotein promoter driving enhanced green fluorescent protein expression (AFP:eGFP). Whole-genome transcriptional profiling was performed on triplicate samples of AFP:eGFP+ and AFP:eGFP- cell populations using the recently released Affymetrix Exon Array ST 1.0 (Santa Clara, CA, Statistical analysis of the transcriptional profiles demonstrated that the AFP:eGFP+ population is highly enriched for genes characteristic of hepatic cells. These data provide a unique insight into the complex process of hepatocyte differentiation, point to signaling pathways that may be manipulated to more efficiently direct the differentiation of hESCs toward mature hepatocytes, and identify molecular markers that may be used for further dissection of hepatic cell differentiation from hESCs. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0964

    View details for PubMedID 18535157

  • A drug-controllable tag for visualizing newly synthesized proteins in cells and whole animals PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lin, M. Z., Glenn, J. S., Tsien, R. Y. 2008; 105 (22): 7744-7749


    Research on basic cellular processes involving local production or delivery of proteins, such as activity-dependent synaptic modification in neurons, would benefit greatly from a robust, nontoxic method to visualize selectively newly synthesized copies of proteins of interest within cells, tissues, or animals. We report a technique for covalent labeling of newly synthesized proteins of interest based on drug-dependent preservation of epitope tags. Epitope tags are removed from proteins of interest immediately after translation by the activity of a sequence-specific protease until the time a protease inhibitor is added, after which newly synthesized protein copies retain their tags. This method, which we call TimeSTAMP for time-specific tagging for the age measurement of proteins, allows sensitive and nonperturbative visualization and quantification of newly synthesized proteins of interest with exceptionally tight temporal control. We demonstrate applications of TimeSTAMP in retrospectively identifying growing synapses in cultured neurons and in visualizing the distribution of recently synthesized proteins in intact fly brains.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0803060105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256648600023

    View details for PubMedID 18511556

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2402386

  • Isolation of human fetal liver progenitors and their enhanced proliferation by three-dimensional coculture with endothelial cells TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A Xiong, A., Austin, T. W., Lagasse, E., Uchida, N., Tamaki, S., Bordier, B. B., Weissman, I. L., Glenn, J. S., Millan, M. T. 2008; 14 (6): 995-1006


    Liver progenitor cells, characterized by the coexpression of biliary and hepatocyte lineage markers and the ability to form colonies in culture, were isolated by flow cytometry from primary human fetal livers. These prospectively isolated liver progenitor cells supported hepatitis D virus infection, expressed, and produced albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, as tracked by albumin- and alpha-fetoprotein-driven lentiviral promoter reporter constructs and measured by ELISA, respectively. Coculture in three-dimensional (3D) fibrin gel with endothelial cells resulted in the formation of vascular structures by the endothelial cells and increased proliferation of liver progenitors. The enhanced proliferation of liver progenitors that was observed when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured in direct contact was not achieved when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured on adjacent but separate matrices and when they were cultured across transwell membranes. In conclusion, coculture of liver progenitors and endothelial cells in three-dimensional matrix resulted in enhanced liver progenitor proliferation and function. This coculture methodology offers a novel coculture system that could be applied for the development of engineered liver tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2007.0087

    View details for PubMedID 19230124

  • The nucleotide binding motif of hepatitis C virus NS4B can mediate cellular transformation and tumor formation without ha-ras co-transfection HEPATOLOGY Einav, S., Sklan, E. H., Moon, H. M., Gehrig, E., Liu, P., Hao, Y., Lowe, A. W., Glenn, J. S. 2008; 47 (3): 827-835


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease and is complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mechanisms whereby the virus promotes cellular transformation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the guanosine triphosphatase activity encoded in the HCV NS4B protein's nucleotide binding motif (NBM) might play a role in the transformation process. Here we report that NS4B can transform NIH-3T3 cells, leading to tumor formation in vivo. This transformation was independent of co-transfection with activated Ha-ras. Detailed analyses of NS4B mutants revealed that this transforming activity could be progressively inhibited and completely abrogated by increasing genetic impairment of the NS4B nucleotide binding motif.NS4B has in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potential, and the NS4B transforming activity is indeed mediated by its NBM. Moreover, our results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the latter might inhibit not only HCV replication but also the associated HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.22108

    View details for PubMedID 18081150

  • Studies of the potential for resistance to nitazoxanide or tizoxanide 43rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-the-Liver Korba, B. E., Glenn, J. S., Ayers, M. S., Rossignol, J. F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2008: S11?S11
  • TBC1D20 is a Rab1 GTPase-activating protein that mediates hepatitis C virus replication JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Sklan, E. H., Serrano, R. L., Einav, S., Pfeffer, S. R., Lambright, D. G., Glenn, J. S. 2007; 282 (50): 36354-36361


    Like other viruses, productive hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection depends on certain critical host factors. We have recently shown that an interaction between HCV nonstructural protein NS5A and a host protein, TBC1D20, is necessary for efficient HCV replication. TBC1D20 contains a TBC (Tre-2, Bub2, and Cdc16) domain present in most known Rab GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). The latter are master regulators of vesicular membrane transport, as they control the activity of membrane-associated Rab proteins. To better understand the role of the NS5A-TBC1D20 interaction in the HCV life cycle, we used a biochemical screen to identify the TBC1D20 Rab substrate. TBC1D20 was found to be the first known GAP for Rab1, which is implicated in the regulation of anterograde traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Mutation of amino acids implicated in Rab GTPase activation by other TBC domain-containing GAPs abrogated the ability of TBC1D20 to activate Rab1 GTPase. Overexpression of TBC1D20 blocked the transport of exogenous vesicular stomatitis virus G protein from the endoplasmic reticulum, validating the involvement of TBC1D20 in this pathway. Rab1 depletion significantly decreased HCV RNA levels, suggesting a role for Rab1 in HCV replication. These results highlight a novel mechanism by which viruses can hijack host cell machinery and suggest an attractive model whereby the NS5A-TBC1D20 interaction may promote viral membrane-associated RNA replication.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M705221200

    View details for PubMedID 17901050

  • Hepatitis d. Current treatment options in gastroenterology Koytak, E. S., Yurdaydin, C., Glenn, J. S. 2007; 10 (6): 456-463


    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the help of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for virion assembly and penetration into hepatocytes. Thus, it can only cause disease in individuals who carry HBV. HDV infection is present worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas. However, with increased HBV control, HDV infection has significantly declined, although stably persisting, in developed countries. Most HDV-infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis D, and in approximately 80% of those cases, chronic hepatitis D progresses to cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years. The only approved therapy for chronic hepatitis D is interferon-alpha. Although transplantation offers a safe therapeutic option for managing end-stage HDV disease, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed.

    View details for PubMedID 18221606

  • Creation of lipid partitions by deposition of amphipathic viral peptides LANGMUIR Cho, N., Cho, S., Hardesty, J. O., Glenn, J. S., Frank, C. W. 2007; 23 (21): 10855-10863


    Phospholipid vesicles exhibit a natural characteristic to fuse and reform into a continuous single bilayer membrane on hydrophilic solid substrates such as glass, mica, and silica. The resulting solid-supported bilayer mimics physiological tendencies such as lipid flip-flop and lateral mobility. The lateral mobility of fluorescently labeled lipids fused into solid-supported bilayers is found to change upon deposition on the membrane surface of an amphipathic alpha-helical peptide (AH) derived from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein. The binding of the AH peptide to a phospholipid bilayer, with the helical axis parallel to the bilayer, leads to immobilization of the bilayer. We used AFM to better understand the mechanistic details of this specific interaction, and determined that the diminished fluidity of the bilayer is due to membrane thinning. Utilizing this specific interaction between AH peptides and lipid molecules, we demonstrate a novel process for the creation of lipid partition by employing AH peptides as agents to immobilize lipid molecules, thus creating a patterned solid support with partition-defined areas of freely mobile lipid bilayers. This architecture could have a wide range of applications in novel sensing, biotechnology, high-throughput screening, and biomimetic strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/1000640h

    View details for PubMedID 17803321

  • A Rab-GAP TBC domain protein binds hepatitis C virus NS5A and mediates viral replication JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Sklan, E. H., Staschke, K., Oakes, T. M., Elazar, M., Winters, M., Aroeti, B., Danieli, T., Glenn, J. S. 2007; 81 (20): 11096-11105


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of liver disease worldwide. Current therapies are inadequate for most patients. Using a two-hybrid screen, we isolated a novel cellular binding partner interacting with the N terminus of HCV nonstructural protein NS5A. This partner contains a TBC Rab-GAP (GTPase-activating protein) homology domain found in all known Rab-activating proteins. As the first described interaction between such a Rab-GAP and a viral protein, this finding suggests a new mechanism whereby viruses may subvert host cell machinery for mediating the endocytosis, trafficking, and sorting of their own proteins. Moreover, depleting the expression of this partner severely impairs HCV RNA replication with no obvious effect on cell viability. These results suggest that pharmacologic disruption of this NS5A-interacting partner can be contemplated as a potential new antiviral strategy against a pathogen affecting nearly 3% of the world's population.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.01249-07

    View details for PubMedID 17686842

  • Employing two different quartz crystal microbalance models to study changes in viscoelastic behavior upon transformation of lipid vesicles to a bilayer on a gold surface ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Chot, N., Kanazawa, K. K., Glenn, J. S., Frank, C. W. 2007; 79 (18): 7027-7035


    By analyzing the viscoelastic properties of two distinct layers, a layer of "soft" vesicles and a "rigid" bilayer, we have created a model system to permit the study of film behavior in the region of nonlinear mass and frequency change (non-Sauerbrey). The structural transformation of lipid vesicles to a bilayer is shown to be accompanied by significant changes in their physical properties. After the adsorption and saturation of intact vesicles on gold surfaces, the adsorbed vesicle layer exhibits a soft, water-rich, viscoelastic state. The AH peptide, a vesicle-destabilizing agent, is then added to trigger the formation of a much thinner (approximately 5 nm), compact, and rigid bilayer. In this study, we used the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. Large non-Sauerbrey frequency and energy dissipation changes characterize the viscoelastic nature of adsorbed intact vesicle films thicker than approximately 10 nm. Once the transformation is complete, the frequency changes along with zero energy dissipation for sufficiently thin films (t approximately 5 nm) were effectively modeled with the Sauerbrey equation. Furthermore, we checked the validity of the Voigt-Voinova model in which the quartz substrate is treated as a Voigt element, which is beyond the Sauerbrey description. The calculations treating the film as having a constant viscosity agreed well with the Voigt-Voinova model. These results were compared to calculations done using the electromechanical (EM) model, which does not require a series expansion. The Voigt-Voinova results were in excellent agreement with the EM model, providing evidence that the expansion used in their study is quite accurate.

    View details for PubMedID 17685547

  • Employing an amphipathic viral peptide to create a lipid bilayer on Au and TiO2 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Cho, N., Cho, S., Cheong, K. H., Glenn, J. S., Frank, C. W. 2007; 129 (33): 10050-?

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja0701412

    View details for PubMedID 17661464

  • Binding dynamics of hepatitis C virus' NS5A amphipathic peptide to cell and model membranes JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Cho, N., Cheong, K. H., Lee, C., Frank, C. W., Glenn, J. S. 2007; 81 (12): 6682-6689


    Membrane association of the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is required for viral replication. This association is dependent on an N-terminal amphipathic helix (AH) within NS5A and is restricted to a subset of host cell intracellular membranes. The mechanism underlying this specificity is not known, but it may suggest a novel strategy for developing specific antiviral therapy. Here we have probed the mechanistic details of NS5A AH-mediated binding to both cell-derived and model membranes by use of biochemical membrane flotation and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with dissipation. With both assays, we observed AH-mediated binding to model lipid bilayers. When cell-derived membranes were coated on the quartz nanosensor, however, significantly more binding was detected, and the QCM-derived kinetic measurements suggested the existence of an interacting receptor in the target membranes. Biochemical flotation assays performed with trypsin-treated cell-derived membranes exhibited reduced AH-mediated membrane binding, while membrane binding of control cytochrome b5 remained unaffected. Similarly, trypsin treatment of the nanosensor coated with cellular membranes abolished AH peptide binding to the cellular membranes but did not affect the binding of a control lipid-binding peptide. These results therefore suggest that a protein plays a critical role in mediating and stabilizing the binding of NS5A's AH to its target membrane. These results also demonstrate the successful development of a new nanosensor technology ideal both for studying the interaction between a protein and its target membrane and for developing inhibitors of that interaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.02783-06

    View details for PubMedID 17428867

  • The power of silence: Application of small interfering RNAs to gastrointestinal diseases GASTROENTEROLOGY Sklan, E. H., Glenn, J. S. 2007; 132 (7): 2291-2295

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.04.056

    View details for PubMedID 17570202

  • Molecular virology of the hepatitis C virus: Implication for novel therapies INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Glenn, J. S. 2006; 20 (1): 81-?


    With the advent of second-generation agents that for the first time specifically target individual HCV proteins, HCV-specific therapy has arrived. The study of HCV molecular virology has helped make this possible and is helping us to identify additional new antiviral targets that will be targeted by third-generation drugs. Key to these efforts is the development of high-efficiency HCV replicons. The future effective pharmacologic control of HCV will likely consist of a cocktail of simultaneously administered virus-specific agents with independent targets. This should minimize the emergence of resistance against any single agent. The way we treat HCV should change dramatically over the next few years.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.idc.2006.01.001

    View details for PubMedID 16527650

  • Prenylation of HDAg and antiviral drug development HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS Glenn, J. S. 2006; 307: 133-149


    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an important cause of acute and chronic liver disease. Current medical therapies are unable to effectively eradicate HDV infections. Research into the molecular virology of the HDV life cycle has revealed a fascinating collection of biology. These insights are now beginning to be translated into new potential treatment strategies. For example, an essential step in the virus assembly process involves the post-translational lipid modification of a specific HDV protein, namely prenylation of large delta antigen. Preventing prenylation abolishes virus particle formation. Drugs capable of specifically inhibiting prenylation have been developed for use in humans. These agents represent a new class of antiviral agents, with HDV as a first target. Here, a brief review of the HDV life cycle emphasizing the role of prenylation is presented along with implications for drug development and therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238999800007

    View details for PubMedID 16903224

  • Novel therapies for hepatitis C virus based on lessons from virology. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology Glenn, J. S. 2005; 3 (10): S86-8


    As we improve our understanding of the molecular virology of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a variety of new potential antiviral strategies are emerging. Moving beyond interferon and ribavirin, these new strategies for the first time are aimed at HCV-specific targets. It is expected, by analogy with other infections, that effective pharmacologic control of HCV will be achieved best by using a cocktail of such virus-specific agents, each designed against an independent target. As a result, the way we treat HCV should change dramatically over the next few years.

    View details for PubMedID 16234068

  • Molecular virology of the hepatitis C virus: implication for novel therapies. Clinics in liver disease Glenn, J. S. 2005; 9 (3): 353-?


    The study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) molecular virology is helping to shape the future of our anti-HCV strategies by identifying new antiviral targets. With the advent of agents that specifically target individual HCV proteins, HCV-specific therapy has arrived. Key to these efforts is the development of high-efficiency HCV replicons. The future effective pharmacologic control of HCV will likely consist of a cocktail of simultaneously administered virus-specific agents with independent targets. This should minimize the emergence of resistance against any single agent. The way we treat HCV should change dramatically over the next few years.

    View details for PubMedID 16023970

  • Hepatitis C virus core protein associates with detergent-resistant membranes distinct from classical plasma membrane rafts JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Matto, M., Rice, C. M., Aroeti, B., Glenn, J. S. 2004; 78 (21): 12047-12053


    A subpopulation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein in cells harboring full-length HCV replicons is biochemically associated with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) in a manner similar to that of markers of classical lipid rafts. Core protein does not, however, colocalize in immunofluorescence studies with classical plasma membrane raft markers, such as caveolin-1 and the B subunit of cholera toxin, suggesting that core protein is bound to cytoplasmic raft microdomains distinct from caveolin-based rafts. Furthermore, while both the structural core protein and the nonstructural protein NS5A associate with membranes, they do not colocalize in the DRMs. Finally, the ability of core protein to localize to the DRMs did not require other elements of the HCV polyprotein. These results may have broad implications for the HCV life cycle and suggest that the HCV core may be a valuable probe for host cell biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.78.21.12047-12053.2004

    View details for PubMedID 15479844

  • An n-terminal amphipathic helix in hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4B mediates membrane association, correct localization of replication complex proteins, and HCV RNA replication JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Elazar, M., Liu, P., Rice, C. M., Glenn, J. S. 2004; 78 (20): 11393-11400


    Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to replicate its RNA in association with host cell cytoplasmic membranes. Because of its association with such membranes, NS4B, one of the virus's nonstructural proteins, may play an important role in this process, although the mechanistic details are not well understood. We identified a putative N-terminal amphipathic helix (AH) in NS4B that mediates membrane association. Introduction of site-directed mutations designed to disrupt the hydrophobic face of the AH abolishes the AH's ability to mediate membrane association. An AH in NS4B is conserved across HCV isolates. Completely disrupting the amphipathic nature of NS4B's N-terminal helix abolished HCV RNA replication, whereas partial disruption resulted in an intermediate level of replication. Finally, immunofluorescence studies revealed that HCV replication complex components were mislocalized in the AH-disrupted mutant. These results identify a key membrane-targeting domain which can form the basis for developing novel antiviral strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.78.20.11393-11400.2004

    View details for PubMedID 15452261

  • A nucleotide binding motif in hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4B mediates HCV RNA replication JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Einav, S., Elazar, M., Danieli, T., Glenn, J. S. 2004; 78 (20): 11288-11295


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis. There is no effective therapy for most patients. We have identified a nucleotide binding motif (NBM) in one of the virus's nonstructural proteins, NS4B. This structural motif binds and hydrolyzes GTP and is conserved across HCV isolates. Genetically disrupting the NBM impairs GTP binding and hydrolysis and dramatically inhibits HCV RNA replication. These results have exciting implications for the HCV life cycle and novel antiviral strategies.

    View details for PubMedID 15452248

  • Overdependence on the host-an Achilles' heel of HCV? Hepatology Glenn, J. S. 2004; 39 (6): 1734-1735

    View details for PubMedID 15185316

  • Testing antivirals against hepatitis delta virus: farnesyl transferase inhibitors. Methods in molecular medicine Bordier, B. B., Glenn, J. S. 2004; 96: 539-553

    View details for PubMedID 14762290

  • Prenylation inhibitors: a novel class of antiviral agents JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY Einav, S., Glenn, J. S. 2003; 52 (6): 883-886


    Prenylation is a site-specific lipid modification of proteins. Although first described for a variety of cellular proteins, it has become apparent that viruses can also make use of this post-translational modification provided by their host cells. Depriving a virus access to prenylation can have dramatic effects on the targeted virus's life cycle. Selective pharmacological inhibitors of prenylating enzymes have been developed and shown to have potent antiviral effects in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Because prenylation inhibitors target a host cell function, are available in oral form and are surprisingly well tolerated in human trials, these compounds represent an attractive new class of antiviral agents with potential for broad-spectrum activity. After a brief outline of host cell prenylation pathways, we review below the development of prenylation inhibition as an antiviral strategy applied to a prototype target, hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and discuss the potential application of prenylation inhibitors to a broad range of other viruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jac/dkg490

    View details for PubMedID 14613953

  • In vivo antiviral efficacy of prenylation inhibitors against hepatitis delta virus JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Bordier, B. B., Ohkanda, J., Liu, P., Lee, S. Y., Salazar, F. H., Marion, P. L., Ohashi, K., Meuse, L., Kay, M. A., Casey, J. L., Sebti, S. M., Hamilton, A. D., Glenn, J. S. 2003; 112 (3): 407-414


    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) can dramatically worsen liver disease in patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). No effective medical therapy exists for HDV. The HDV envelope requires HBV surface antigen proteins provided by HBV. Once inside a cell, however, HDV can replicate its genome in the absence of any HBV gene products. In vitro, HDV virion assembly is critically dependent on prenyl lipid modification, or prenylation, of its nucleocapsid-like protein large delta antigen. To overcome limitations of current animal models and to test the hypothesis that pharmacologic prenylation inhibition can prevent the production of HDV virions in vivo, we established a convenient mouse-based model of HDV infection capable of yielding viremia. Such mice were then treated with the prenylation inhibitors FTI-277 and FTI-2153. Both agents were highly effective at clearing HDV viremia. As expected, HDV inhibition exhibited duration-of-treatment dependence. These results provide the first preclinical data supporting the in vivo efficacy of prenylation inhibition as a novel antiviral therapy with potential application to HDV and a wide variety of other viruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI200317704

    View details for PubMedID 12897208

  • Amphipathic helix-dependent localization of NS5A mediates hepatitis C virus RNA replication JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Elazar, M., Cheong, K. H., Liu, P., Greenberg, H. B., Rice, C. M., Glenn, J. S. 2003; 77 (10): 6055-6061


    We identified an N-terminal amphipathic helix (AH) in one of hepatitis C virus (HCV)'s nonstructural proteins, NS5A. This AH is necessary and sufficient for membrane localization and is conserved across isolates. Genetically disrupting the AH impairs HCV replication. Moreover, an AH peptide-mimic inhibits the membrane association of NS5A in a dose-dependent manner. These results have exciting implications for the HCV life cycle and novel antiviral strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.77.10.6055-6061.2003

    View details for PubMedID 12719597

  • A prenylation inhibitor prevents production of infectious hepatitis delta virus particles JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Bordier, B. B., Marion, P. L., Ohashi, K., Kay, M. A., Greenberg, H. B., Casey, J. L., Glenn, J. S. 2002; 76 (20): 10465-10472


    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes both acute and chronic liver disease throughout the world. Effective medical therapy is lacking. Previous work has shown that the assembly of HDV virus-like particles (VLPs) could be abolished by BZA-5B, a compound with farnesyltransferase inhibitory activity. Here we show that FTI-277, another farnesyltransferase inhibitor, prevented the production of complete, infectious HDV virions of two different genotypes. Thus, in spite of the added complexity and assembly determinants of infectious HDV virions compared to VLPs, the former are also sensitive to pharmacological prenylation inhibition. Moreover, production of HDV genotype III virions, which is associated with particularly severe clinical disease, was as sensitive to prenylation inhibition as was that of HDV genotype I virions. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors thus represent an attractive potential class of novel antiviral agents for use against HDV, including the genotypes associated with most severe disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.76.20.10465-10472.2002

    View details for PubMedID 12239323

  • Host-microbe interactions: viruses - Lessons in defense: hepatitic C, a case study - Editorial overview CURRENT OPINION IN MICROBIOLOGY Cooper, S. S., Glenn, J., Greenberg, H. B. 2000; 3 (4): 363-365
  • Sustained survival of human hepatocytes in mice: A model for in vivo infection with human hepatitis B and hepatitis delta viruses NATURE MEDICINE Ohashi, K., Marion, P. L., Nakai, H., Meuse, L., Cullen, J. M., Bordier, B. B., Schwall, R., Greenberg, H. B., Glenn, J. S., Kay, M. A. 2000; 6 (3): 327-331


    Persistence of hepatocytes transplanted into the same or related species has been established. The long-term engraftment of human hepatocytes into rodents would be useful for the study of human viral hepatitis, where it might allow the species, technical and size limitations of the current animal models to be overcome. Although transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome produce infectious virus in their serum, the viral life cycle is not complete, in that the early stages of viral binding and entry into hepatocytes and production of an episomal transcriptional DNA template do not occur. As for hepatitis delta virus (HDV), another cause of liver disease, no effective therapy exists to eradicate infection, and it remains resistant even to recent regimens that have considerably changed the treatment of HBV (ref. 13). Here, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of primary human hepatocytes transplanted in a matrix under the kidney capsule of mice with administration of an agonistic antibody against c-Met. These mice were susceptible to HBV infection and completion of the viral life cycle. In addition, we demonstrate super-infection of the HBV-infected mice with HDV. Our results describe a new xenotransplant model that allows study of multiple aspects of human hepatitis viral infections, and may enhance studies of human liver diseases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085580500044

    View details for PubMedID 10700236

  • Shutting the door on hepatitis delta virus (HDV): Sensitivity to prenylation inhibition prompts new therapeutic strategy Viral Hepatitis Reviews Glenn JS 1999; 53: 13-26
  • Use of a prenylation inhibitor as a novel antiviral agent JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Glenn, J. S., Marsters, J. C., Greenberg, H. B. 1998; 72 (11): 9303-9306


    No specific therapy exists for hepatitis delta virus (HDV), which can cause severe liver disease. Molecular genetic studies have implicated the prenylation site of large delta antigen as a critical determinant of HDV particle assembly. We have established a cell culture model which produces HDV-like particles, and we show that delta antigen prenylation can be pharmacologically inhibited by the prenylation inhibitor BZA-5B. Furthermore, BZA-5B specifically abolishes particle production in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that the use of such a prenylation inhibitor-based antiviral therapy may be feasible and identify a novel class of potential antiviral agents.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076373700098

    View details for PubMedID 9765479

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC110351

  • Finding the iron in the melting pot - Practical use of a new genetic assay for hereditary hemochromatosis WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Glenn, J. S., Cheung, R. C. 1998; 168 (6): 525-527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074374100010

    View details for PubMedID 9655998


    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LU44300027

    View details for PubMedID 7689688

  • IDENTIFICATION OF A PRENYLATION SITE IN DELTA-VIRUS LARGE ANTIGEN SCIENCE Glenn, J. S., Watson, J. A., HAVEL, C. M., White, J. M. 1992; 256 (5061): 1331-1333


    During replication, hepatitis delta virus (HDV) switches from production of small to large delta antigen. Both antigen isoforms have an HDV genome binding domain and are packaged into hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived envelopes but differ at their carboxy termini. The large antigen was shown to contain a terminal CXXX box and undergo prenylation. The large, but not the small, antigen formed secreted particles when expressed singly with HBV surface antigen. Mutation of Cys211 in the CXXX box of the large antigen abolished both prenylation and particle formation, suggesting that this site is important for virion morphogenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HW13500037

    View details for PubMedID 1598578



    Infection with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an important cause of acute and chronic liver disease and can be rapidly fatal. Sequencing of the HDV RNA genome has revealed variability at the C-terminal end of the delta antigen reading frame. One genome type (termed the S genome) synthesizes a 24-kDa protein thought to be required for genome replication. Another genome type (termed the L genome) extends the reading frame by 19 amino acids as a result of a single base change. Replication of the S and L genomes was studied in cultured fibroblasts. While the S genome efficiently initiated genome replication, the L genome did not. Moreover, in a codelivery experiment, L genome RNA inhibited replication of the S genome. Potent trans inhibition was also observed following cotransfection of the S genome and a plasmid encoding the larger delta antigen. Mutational analysis indicated that the inhibitory activity was not a simple function of the large delta antigen reading frame's extra length. Implications for the viral life cycle, clinical infection, and potential treatment are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FG77700026

    View details for PubMedID 2016764

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC240587


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991BT15R00034

    View details for PubMedID 2020705


    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AV40500009

    View details for PubMedID 2779447

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