Professor Emeritus, Surgery - General Surgery
Trauma, especially splenic and thoracic
In 2002, Oakes et al described a novel procedure designed to salvage the distal cephalic venous outflow of a Brescia-Cimino fistula by placing a prosthetic graft between the brachial artery in the antecubital space and the cephalic vein at the wrist. In this fashion, the more proximal veins were saved for future procedures. Their approach was reported and found to be successful in the short term, but the long-term durability of the Oakes procedure has not been described. This study aimed to determine the long-term primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency rates of the brachial to distal cephalic vein Oakes procedure.This is a retrospective review of a prospective database in a large, single institution. All patients who underwent the Oakes procedure from 1998 to 2012 were followed up to 2018. We reviewed the time to intervention, type of intervention, patency rates, and mortality of this patient population.Over the 5-year study period, 14 patients were identified who underwent the Oakes procedure, of whom seven (50%) were female. The average age was 55.7 years (range, 38-73 years). All patients had a previously placed Brescia-Cimino that was not suitable for dialysis but was patent. The average number of days to placement of an Oakes brachial to distal cephalic graft was 396 (range, 119-1167) days. A total of 71% (10) of patients underwent an intervention to maintain the graft, of whom 50% (5) underwent an angioplasty and 50% (5) had a thrombectomy/revision procedure. The average number of days to first intervention was 367.3 (range, 21-1048) days from Oakes placement. Of this cohort, 30% (3) of patients had a second intervention, of whom 1 (33%) underwent an angioplasty and 2 (66%) had revisions. One patient had a third and a fourth intervention at 39 days and 74 days, respectively, that were both angioplasties. The overall number of days the Oakes procedure remained usable from placement was 843.6 (range, 21-3790) days or 2.3 years.This study concluded that the Oakes procedure may extend the use of the distal dialysis access site by 2.3 years without increasing infection and is hence a durable solution that should be considered in patients requiring dialysis access.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2018.12.034
View details for PubMedID 30837176
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that venous outflow of a Brescia fistula that is patent but unusable for one of a variety of reasons can provide adequate drainage to sustain a prosthetic arteriovenous graft based on the brachial artery, thus sparing more proximal veins for future access procedures.The operation consists of placement of a prosthetic graft between the brachial artery in the antecubital space and the cephalic vein at the wrist.Between December 1998 and November 1999, 14 patients (eight male and six female; age range, 34 to 73 years; mean age, 51 years) underwent the operation. The original fistulae had been in place for 5 to 27 months (mean, 13 months). Thirteen grafts were patent at 30 days; the one early failure (24 days) was caused by infection. As of May 31, 2001, four grafts were being used (18 (1/2), 20, 23, and 28 months after placement) and four had been withdrawn in a functional state because of death (n = 3) or transplantation (n = 1). Primary functional patency rate with life-table analysis was 71%, 57%, 41%, and 41% at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months; secondary functional patency rate was 86%, 78%, 52%, and 52% at these same intervals. Three grafts had primary functional patencies greater than 18 months.Patent but unusable Brescia fistulae can provide adequate outflow to sustain arteriovenous grafts, thus sparing more proximal veins for future access procedures. The operation can extend by months or years the time during which satisfactory vascular access can be maintained in these patients, potentially increasing survival in some cases. We hope that the availability of this salvage option will encourage vascular surgeons to attempt arteriovenous fistulae at the wrist even in patients with suboptimal venous anatomy.
View details for DOI 10.1067/mva.2002.125750
View details for Web of Science ID 000177489000023
View details for PubMedID 12170217
"Damage control" in severe abdominal trauma, abdominal compartment syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall, and necrotizing pancreatitis often preclude closure of the fascia after laparotomy. Many techniques have been reported for temporary coverage of the exposed viscera, but most have had documented problems. We report the successful use, since 1989, of a temporary sutureless coverage. The viscera are covered with omentum when possible, then with a clear plastic sheet. Sump drains are placed over this layer. The entire abdomen is then covered with two layers of iodophor-impregnated adhesive plastic drape. The last 50 patients managed with this technique are reported. The most common indication (27 patients) was for treatment of severe abdominal trauma. There were no wound infections, fasciitis, or bowel obstruction. Eighteen patients died; no deaths were related to abdominal closure. Temporary abdominal covering with adhesive plastic sheeting is a rapid, safe, and readily available method for managing the open abdomen. This technique provides a physiologic milieu for the abdominal viscera, simplifies nursing care, and promotes safe closure of the abdomen at a later time.
View details for Web of Science ID 000075622800015
View details for PubMedID 9731813
Intratumoral injections of cisplatin/epinephrine-injectable gel were administered weekly for 4 weeks in 45 patients with malignant tumors of various histologic types. Tumors were located on the skin and subcutaneous tissue primarily of the head, neck, and trunk, and on the tongue, oral pharynx, and esophagus. Patients were not candidates for surgery, radiation, or systemic chemotherapy. Each of the treated tumors (n = 82) was evaluated 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the final injection. The initial dose of cisplatin was 1 mg/cm3 tumor volume, with escalation to 6 mg/cm3 allowed, depending on observed toxicities. The mean cumulative dose per patient for the four treatments ranged from 0.56 to 380 mg cisplatin. No dose-limiting cisplatin-related toxicities, such as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, or ototoxicity, were observed. The overall objective tumor response rate was 50% (41 of 82), with 40% (33 of 82) complete responses and a median response duration of 160 days. Complete responses for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were 58% (21 of 36) and 38% (12 of 32), respectively. These results justified further clinical trials to evaluate the role of local chemotherapy with intratumoral cisplatin/epinephrine-injectable gel in the palliative treatment of patients with selected accessible solid tumors.
View details for Web of Science ID 000072955300013
View details for PubMedID 9560102
From August 1987 through February 1995 we performed 42 surgical procedures in 29 patients with occluded or stenotic radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae. Operations were designed to preserve native veins for cannulation (Group I) or to preserve access in the same forearm, bypassing the failed fistula (Group II). For 27 procedures in 22 Group I patients, cumulative primary patency was 70%, 57%, and 47% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. A subgroup of patients was identified, however, in whom excellent results could be reliably predicted. Among 19 hemodynamically stable patients with mature fistulae amendable to more proximal arteriovenous anastomoses, cumulative primary patency was 100%, 81%, and 67% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Secondary patency for 17 such patients was 100%, 89% and 89% for these same intervals. In Group II only two of ten patients required use of other access sites (9 1/2, 18 1/2 months). We believe that all occluded or stenotic radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae should be considered for surgical salvage. Excellent results can be predicted for (1) hemodynamically stable patients with (2) mature fistulae that (3) fail near the arterial anastomosis and are (4) amendable to new more proximal arteriovenous anastomoses.
View details for Web of Science ID 000071670500028
View details for PubMedID 9461110
The management of a patient with a post-traumatic common iliac arteriovenous fistula which was repaired surgically is reported. The current use of less-invasive endoluminal techniques is reviewed.
View details for PubMedID 9293370
We report a case and discuss the special considerations necessary for safe treatment of patients with polysplenia who require esophagectomy for cancer or other conditions. Polysplenia is a form of abnormal arrangement of body organs intermediate between situs solitus and situs inversus, sometimes associated with cardiac abnormalities. Abdominal manifestations include multiple spleens, a preduodenal portal vein, an interrupted inferior vena with azygous continuation, a short pancreas, and intestinal malrotation and malformations with anomalous blood supply. Esophagectomy is complicated in such patients by possible cardiac abnormalities, risk of hemorrhage from the enlarged azygous vein (adjacent to distal esophagus), limited exposure via right thoracotomy because of the dilated azygous venous system, and possibly restricted availability of stomach and colon for esophageal replacement (constraints of mobility stemming from anomalous blood supply and malposition/malrotation).
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WQ11400010
View details for PubMedID 9077725
View details for Web of Science ID A1997BJ68Q00031
Concentrated lye rapidly produces liquefaction necrosis, which can completely dissolve organs of the upper gastrointestinal tract, damaging adjacent structures including, in rare instances, even the transverse colon. Patients so afflicted will survive only if the injury is promptly detected and treated by radical surgical extirpation of all necrotic tissue. Symptoms are unreliable, and definitive diagnosis requires endoscopic evaluation. For years endoscopists were warned to stop at the first site of injury to avoid perforation of the damaged esophagus, but fiberoptic instruments now allow panendoscopy to be safely performed in almost all cases. Endoscopy alone, however, cannot detect extraluminal injury. If there is visual evidence of injury to the duodenum, computed tomography should be routine to search for injury to adjacent structures. Even in the absence of duodenal injury, computed tomography may prove valuable in assessing and managing patients with extensive damage to the esophagus or stomach. In cases of mediastinal or intraabdominal visceral necrosis, steroid therapy, by depressing the patient's ability to mount an inflammatory response, might worsen the injury and lead to life-threatening sepsis. The use of corticosteroids to treat patients following ingestion of caustic substances should therefore be abandoned as both ineffective and potentially dangerous.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RR98300003
View details for PubMedID 8583091
Workup of a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a premature infant showed absence of ultrasonic criteria for diagnosis. Transpyloric intubation for enteral feeding may delay the diagnosis of this disorder and has been thought to play a role in its development.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992KC85600019
View details for PubMedID 1469564
Computed tomography (CT) scanning after blunt abdominal trauma has allowed nonoperative management of selected patients with liver injuries. This report describes 52 adult patients with liver injuries who were treated without immediate surgery. Thirty-four of these hepatic injuries were relatively minor (Grade I-II), and 18 were considered major (Grade III-V). Free intraperitoneal blood in small to large amounts was evident on CT in 37 patients. There were no deaths in this series, no major complications, no known missed intra-abdominal injuries, and no delayed hemorrhage. While most liver injuries appear to heal rapidly by serial CT scans, a small percentage of these patients have residual liver defects persisting for several months and may be at risk for future complications.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990EP97100009
View details for PubMedID 2258960
Patients with spinal cord injury may be admitted directly to a trauma center with a dedicated rehabilitation unit or transferred there days or weeks later. This study analyzed the relationship between time of transfer to a Level I Trauma Center with a spinal cord injury service and efficacy of subsequent rehabilitation. We examined the records of all patients admitted to the service between September 1981 and August 1983 and followed at least one year. There were 197 patients, 102 quadriplegics and 95 paraplegics, aged 15 to 77 years (average = 29.4 years). Median time from injury to admission was 11 days for quadriplegics and 21 days for paraplegics; this was used to define early and late groups. The early quadriplegic group began rehabilitation 2.94 days postinjury; the late quadriplegic group, 74.87 days (p less than .01). Time in rehabilitation did not differ (128.22 days, early; 122.61, late), but total hospitalization--from injury to discharge--was 131.16 days for the early quadriplegic group and 197.27 for the late quadriplegic group (p less than .01). Average duration of prerehabilitation care for the paraplegic groups was 6.19 days (early) and 58.58 days (late) (p less than .01). Time in rehabilitation was the same for both paraplegic groups, but total hospitalization was shorter for early admissions (82.91 days vs 125.90 days, p less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DR85700001
View details for PubMedID 2115765
Isolated intestinal injuries are frequently difficult to diagnose using only physical examination and routine laboratory studies. Between 1980 and 1988, ten patients were identified who had intestinal injuries and had computed tomographic (CT) scans before operation. For none of these scans was the initial reading considered diagnostic of intestinal injury. All patients came to laparotomy from 2 hours to 3 days following injury, and no patient died because of missed intestinal injury. Retrospective review of the scans revealed two to be diagnostic of intestinal perforation with free intraperitoneal air or extravasated contrast. The remaining eight scans had findings suggestive of injury. However, six additional patients had similar suggestive findings and had no evidence of intestinal injury. One patient with missed duodenal injury had not been given gastrointestinal contrast. Computed tomographic findings of intestinal trauma may be subtle or nonspecific and require optimal technique and care in interpretation. The timely treatment of this injury continues to rely on a high index of clinical suspicion and serial examinations by an experienced surgeon.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990CL06100001
View details for PubMedID 2296055
A 26-year-old man had a massive intraabdominal hemorrhage from a hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). The tumor arose within a liver that demonstrated generalized nodular regenerative hyperplasia. The patient had no factors predisposing to either HCA or nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver. Although rare, HCA should be included in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage even in young men. The coexistence of HCA and NRH of the liver in this patient may indicate a common pathogenesis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1986D886900019
View details for PubMedID 3020120
A patient with acute decompensated chronic liver disease developed acute tubular necrosis after an episode of hypotension. Renal failure was managed by hemodialysis for 11 weeks during which period hepatic function improved. Despite persistently severe oliguria, tubular function recovered as judged by a fall in urine sodium content and a rise in specific gravity, suggesting the development of the hepato-renal syndrome. Therefore, a peritoneovenous shunt was inserted. This was followed by a prompt diuresis; further dialysis was not required. This case suggests potential roles for hemodialysis and peritoneovenous shunting in patients with advanced, but potentially reversible hepatic and renal failure and draws attention to the need for formal evaluation of such a possibility.
View details for Web of Science ID A1985APN2800014
View details for PubMedID 4045179
In today's rapidly changing medical-economic environment, hospitals must continually reexamine their services to determine which are cost efficient. We used a database system to analyze our financial experience with motor vehicle accident victims discharged between July 1982 and June 1983. We found that motor vehicle accidents accounted for 2.1% of discharges, but 6.6% of patient-days. The average length of stay was 23.8 days, more than three times the hospital average (7.4 days). Charges averaged +723 per day, essentially identical with the hospital average. In terms of patient-days, 51% of accident victims were covered by private insurance, 39% by Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid), and 3% by Medicare; 7% were uninsured and unsponsored. Hospital charges related directly to patient-days and were identical for the four financial categories. Overall reimbursement for these patients was 80.3% of charges, approximately equal to our estimated costs. Reimbursement as a percentage of charges varied greatly according to the category of sponsorship: private insurance, 90%; Medicare, 78%; and unsponsored, 15%. Medi-Cal paid a fixed confidential per diem rate. Conclusions: Caring for victims of motor vehicle accidents was a break-even proposition for our institution in 1982-1983. Uninsured and unsponsored patients produced a large deficit which of necessity had to be made up by cost shifting to privately insured patients or by direct tax subsidies. Motor vehicle insurance per se made only a modest contribution to our reimbursement for the care of these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
View details for Web of Science ID A1985APH6200002
View details for PubMedID 4020907
This study evaluates our experience with CT scanning in thoracic and abdominal trauma. It was designed to analyze the accuracy and usefulness of CT with regard to: a) type of trauma, b) location of injury, c) timing of scanning, d) timing of operative intervention, e) confirmatory findings, and f) ultimate patient outcome. Between 1978 and 1983, 2,069 CT scans were performed for trauma in our institution, of which 122 were abdominal and ten thoracic, in 98 patients. Thirty-one of these patients had operation or autopsy confirmation of the findings; for 11 patients subsequent CT was available. Abdominal scanning was positive in 48 patients. The organs most commonly injured were spleen (17 patients), pancreas (nine), kidney (11), and liver (eight). Two pancreatic scans were initially interpreted as negative, but in retrospect definite abnormalities were present. Conclusions: 1) Thoraco-abdominal CT scanning documents injury to the liver, spleen, kidney, and retroperitoneum with a high degree of accuracy. 2) CT is most useful in stable trauma patients without obvious indications for laparotomy but with abnormal findings requiring explanation. 3) CT scanning is useful in evaluating patients for delayed complications following trauma. 4) Attention to details of technique and clinical correlation are essential to avoid misinterpretation of thoracoabdominal CT scans, especially of the pancreas. 5) Use of CT scans may assist in the safe, nonoperative management of selected patients with injury limited to solid organs.
View details for Web of Science ID A1984TY45500003
View details for PubMedID 6512895
Thoracoscopy was originally devised for diagnostic purposes but has subsequently come to have several therapeutic applications as well. This report reviews our experience with 13 patients in whom thoracoscopy was used in a therapeutic capacity. In three patients intrapleural foreign bodies (segments of polyethylene catheters) were removed endoscopically. In two patients open postpneumonectomy empyema cavities were explored and debrided thoracoscopically. In the remaining eight patients thoracoscopy was used to facilitate chemical pleurodesis in the treatment of effusions or pneumothoraces, after resectable disease had first been ruled out. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) Thoracoscopy can serve therapeutic as well as diagnostic functions. (2) Excellent exposure can be obtained during general anesthesia by use of one-lung ventilation. (3) Thoracoscopy is a safe, simple, and effective means of removing intrapleural foreign bodies. (4) Thoracoscopy allows chemical pleurodesis to be applied selectively to patients who will not require future thoracotomy; i.e., those with proved incurable malignant disease or with recurrent pneumothoraces without gross abnormalities of the pulmonary parenchyma. (5) Chemical pleurodesis is facilitated by this technique, which assures uniform exposure of all pleural surfaces to the sclerosing agent. (6) Pleurodesis is less painful when the sclerosing agent is introduced during general anesthesia. (7) Thoracoscopy allows safe, complete, visually guided débridement of open postpneumonectomy empyema cavities.
View details for Web of Science ID A1984SD58800013
View details for PubMedID 6694418
Between 1972 and 1981 40 victims of near-drowning were admitted to the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center. Hospital records were reviewed with regard to: 1) the circumstances of submersion and rescue; 2) the patient's condition upon arrival at the emergency room; 3) treatment, hospital course, and ultimate outcome. There were ten hospital deaths, 23 patients recovered completely, and seven were discharged with incapacitating neurologic disability. Three of the neurologically impaired patients died between 1 and 13 months after discharge. All patients who arrived with a beating heart were eventually discharged neurologically intact. Of the 21 patients who required in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ten died, seven remained comatose, and four recovered without serious neurologic deficits. The use of hypothermia, steroids, and barbiturate coma was not randomized, but did not appear to influence ultimate outcome. Intracranial pressure was monitored in five patients and was never elevated during the first 24 hours. The complete recovery of nearly 20% of apparently lifeless individuals justifies aggressive resuscitation and support of all victims of near-drowning.
View details for Web of Science ID A1982NZ68300004
View details for PubMedID 7097814
View details for Web of Science ID A1982NL38300025
Between May, 1980, and October, 1981, 22 morbidly obese patients ranging in weight from 93.4 to 236.8 kg (average, 145.2 kg) underwent transthoracic gastric stapling. Fourteen of these operations were performed using endobronchial intubation and selective collapse of the left lung to facilitate surgical exposure. The patients were compared with 22 consecutive patients treated by trans-abdominal gastric stapling during the same period. None of the 44 patients had evidence of chronic alveolar hypoventilation (pickwickian syndrome). In terms of operating time, blood loss, duration of intubation, and hospital stay, the two groups did not differ significantly. Despite marked shunting during one-lung ventilation, satisfactory arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) could be demonstrated on 100% oxygen for all thoracotomy patients (PaO2 range, 67 to 230 torr; mean, 132.3 torr). In fact, except for a lower PaO2 during one-lung anesthesia, the thoracotomy patients were indistinguishable from the laparotomy patients in terms of perioperative respiratory function. Pain, sedation, and positioning led to significant decreases in vital capacity and one-second forced expiratory volume in both groups on the first post-operative day, and in the thoracotomy group on the second day. There were only two wound infections in the thoracotomy group, as opposed to six infections with two dehiscences in the laparotomy group. It is concluded that lateral thoracotomy with or without one-lung anesthesia can be performed safely in massively obese patients--at least in those without preexisting alveolar hypoventilation syndrome.
View details for Web of Science ID A1982PP68000013
View details for PubMedID 7138124
Conventional treatment of caustic esophagitis consists of early endoscopy to the first site of injury followed by antibiotic and steroid therapy, with early mechanical dilatation to prevent stricture formation. The failure of this approach in two recent patients led us to review our overall experience with the management of patients who had ingested lye or other caustic substances. Of 42 patients treated at the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center between 1970 and 1980, seven sustained severe esophageal burns. All had intractable strictures despite steroids, antibiotics, and, in three cases, attempts at dilatation. We conclude that patient survival should not be jeopardized by overly aggressive attempts to salvage an extensively damaged esophagus. Such attempts will probably prove both futile and dangerous, and effective re-establishment of oral-intestinal continuity is now possible by a variety of techniques.
View details for Web of Science ID A1982NC06600005
View details for PubMedID 7057663
Overwhelming sepsis may occur, even years later, in asplenic children or adults who are otherwise healthy. The injured spleen can be successfully repaired in almost all patients. Repair should not be attempted if the survival of the patient would be jeopardized by continuing or delayed hemorrhage. If splenectomy is unavoidable, the patient must be informed of his vulnerable state and be protected as much as possible by vaccines and by early aggressive treatment of all infections.
View details for Web of Science ID A1981MB49900004
View details for PubMedID 7244986
During the past 5 years, 20 phrenic nerve stimulators have been implanted in 11 patients who were ventilator dependent because of neurogenic respiratory failure. Ten patients had traumatic spinal cord lesions; the remaining patient suffered from a progressive demyelinating disease. There was no operative mortality. Complications included 1 stimulator malfunction and 1 pneumothorax. In spite of adjacent tracheostomies, there were no infections or wound complications. Of the 20 stimulators implanted, 13 initially produced good diaphragmatic function, 2 had fair function, and 5 had little or not function. Three patients became completely independent of their ventilators; 6 became partially independent, thus simplifying nursing care. There were no late complications. As of December, 1979, 7 patients had benefited or were continuing to benefit from phrenic nerve stimulation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1980KD42900005
View details for PubMedID 6968185