Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > Hematology
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  • Cancer > Blood and Marrow Transplant
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Lymphoma
  • Genetics
  • Leukemia
  • Leukemia - Blood and Marrow Transplant
  • Multiple Myeloma - Blood and Marrow Transplant
  • Blood Stem Cell Transplant
  • Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • Hematology
  • Cancer - Genetics
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma - Blood and Marrow Transplant
  • Hodgkin's Disease - Blood and Marrow Transplant

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Medical Director of Stanford Cellular Therapeutics and Transplantation Laboratory, Stanford University (2011 - Present)
  • Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease, NIH (2004 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Clinical Investigator Training Program Scholar, Harvard Medical School (2001-2003)
  • Medical Scientist Training Fellow, NIH (1993-1995)
  • Predoctoral Fellow, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (1989-1993)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Yale Medical School (1995)
  • Phi Betta Kappa, University of Notre Dame (1987)

Professional Education


  • Residency:Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (1998) MA
  • Internship:Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (1996) MA
  • Fellowship:Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (2001) MA
  • Medical Education:Yale University (1995) CT
  • B.S., University of Notre Dame (1987)
  • M.D., Yale University Medical School (1995)
  • Ph.D., Yale University, Genetics (1995)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I am a physician-scientist who has established a human translational research group that fosters the development of young researchers to excel as both laboratory immunologists, and clinical translational researchers. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure hematologic malignancies. In an effort to discover beneficial graft-v-tumor minor histocompatibility antigens and distinguish from detrimental graft-v-host disease(GVHD) mHA, the Miklos lab has pioneered protein microarray technologies screening for allogeneic antibodies, especially H-Y antigens following sex mismatched transplantation. Our observation that allogeneic HY antibodies develop in association with chronic GVHD has supported a series of clinical trials testing rituximab cGVHD therapy. More recently, we have applied high throughput sequencing B and T cell VDJ receptor sequences enabling: 1) lymphoid disease quantification, 2) detailed B and T cell donor reconstitution kinetics, and 3) clonal analysis of antigen specific responses following allo-HCT.

Clinical Trials


  • Transplantation for Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase 1 Nilotinib in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: Determine the safety and tolerability of nilotinib in steroid dependent / refractory cGVHD. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: Determine the clinical efficacy of nilotinib in steroid dependent / refractory cGVHD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, 650-721-2372.

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  • Phase I/II of a CpG-Activated Whole Cell Vaccine Followed by Autologous Immunotransplant for MCL Recruiting

    While autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHCT) has been shown to cure some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) still has a prognosis marked by relapse. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of treating newly diagnosed MCL patients with an autologous, tumor-derived vaccine followed by re-infusion of vaccine-primed T cells combined with standard autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHCT). CpG-MCL vaccine is derived from each patient's own tumor, treated in vitro with the immunostimulatory CpG-enriched oligodeoxynucleotide - PF-3512676 - and irradiated. The overall treatment schema is that patients receive: induction chemotherapy, priming vaccinations, leukapheresis to harvest vaccine-primed T cells, preparative myeloablative chemotherapy followed by AHCT, re-infusion of vaccine-primed T-cells ('immunotransplant') and repeat vaccinations zero and three months post-AHCT.

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  • A Phase II Trial of Rituximab and Corticosteroid Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize the addition of rituximab to prednisone for the initial treatment of chronic GVHD will increase the overall response rate, and enable a more rapid and effective steroid taper.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Imatinib and Rituximab in Treating Cutaneous Sclerosis in Patients With Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is evaluating how well imatinib mesylate works compared to rituximab in treating cutaneous sclerosis in patients with chronic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD). Both imatinib and rituximab have been reported to decrease skin thickening and improve skin and joint flexibility in people with cutaneous sclerosis due to chronic GVHD.

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  • Autologous Followed by Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with poor risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This trial uses a combination of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using the patient's own cells. This is followed with non-myeloablative transplant using stem cells from a related or unrelated donor to try and generate an anti-lymphoma response from the new immune system.

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  • A Pilot Study of Imatinib Mesylate in Steroid Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To determine if subjects with steroid refractory cGVHD can tolerate imatinib mesylate and whether their cGVHD responds to imatinib mesylate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • Comparing Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Versus Bone Marrow Transplantation in Individuals With Hematologic Cancers Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) versus marrow from unrelated donors for transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recipients will be stratified by transplant center and disease risk and will be randomized to either the PBSC or marrow arm in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Phase 1 Infused Donor T Regulatory Cells in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic GVHD Recruiting

    Two investigational devices, the CliniMACS cell selection system and the BD influx highspeed cell sorter, will be used together to isolate highly purified regulatory T cells from the donor's cellular product. It is believed that using these devices in combination will produce a cellular product that is highly purified to prevent the infusion of other T cells that may contribute to graft versus host disease.

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  • Phase II Trial of Prophylactic Rituximab Therapy for Prevention of CGVHD Not Recruiting

    To determine if Rituximab administered after allogeneic transplantation decreases the incidence of chronic GvHD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Postdoctoral Advisees


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Minimal residual disease quantification using consensus primers and high- throughput IGH sequencing predicts post-transplant relapse in chronic lymphocytic leukemia LEUKEMIA Logan, A. C., Zhang, B., Narasimhan, B., Carlton, V., Zheng, J., Moorhead, M., Krampf, M. R., Jones, C. D., Waqar, A. N., Faham, M., Zehnder, J. L., Miklos, D. B. 2013; 27 (8): 1659-1665

    Abstract

    Quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) predicts post-transplant relapse in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We utilized an MRD-quantification method that amplifies immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) loci using consensus V and J segment primers followed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS), enabling quantification with a detection limit of one CLL cell per million mononuclear cells. Using this IGH-HTS approach, we analyzed MRD patterns in over 400 samples from 40 CLL patients who underwent reduced-intensity allo-HCT. Nine patients relapsed within 12 months post-HCT. Of the 31 patients in remission at 12 months post-HCT, disease-free survival was 86% in patients with MRD <10(-4) and 20% in those with MRD 10(-4) (relapse hazard ratio (HR) 9.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-32; P<0.0001), with median follow-up of 36 months. Additionally, MRD predicted relapse at other time points, including 9, 18 and 24 months post-HCT. MRD doubling time <12 months with disease burden 10(-5) was associated with relapse within 12 months of MRD assessment in 50% of patients, and within 24 months in 90% of patients. This IGH-HTS method may facilitate routine MRD quantification in clinical trials.Leukemia advance online publication, 12 March 2013; doi:10.1038/leu.2013.52.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2013.52

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322823200006

    View details for PubMedID 23419792

  • A distinct evolution of the T-cell repertoire categorizes treatment refractory gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease BLOOD Meyer, E. H., Hsu, A. R., Liliental, J., Loehr, A., Florek, M., Zehnder, J. L., Strober, S., Lavori, P., Miklos, D. B., Johnson, D. S., Negrin, R. S. 2013; 121 (24): 4955-4962

    Abstract

    Steroid refractory gastrointestinal (GI) acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) without immune markers to establish a diagnosis or guide therapy. We found that T cell receptor β (TCRβ) CDR3 repertoire sequencing reveals patterns that could eventually serve as a disease biomarker of T cell alloreactivity in aGVHD. We identified T cell clones in GI biopsies in a heterogeneous group of 15 allogeneic HCT patients with GI aGVHD symptoms. Seven steroid-refractory aGVHD patients showed a more conserved TCRβ clonal structure between different biopsy sites in the GI tract than eight primary-therapy responsive patients. Tracking GI clones identified at endoscopy longitudinally in the blood also revealed an increased clonal expansion in patients with steroid-refractory disease. Immune repertoire sequencing-based methods could enable a novel personalized way to guide diagnosis and therapy in diseases where T cell activity is a major determinant.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-03-489757

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321896300024

  • H-Y antigen-binding B cells develop in male recipients of female hematopoietic cells and associate with chronic graft vs. host disease PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sahaf, B., Yang, Y., Arai, S., Herzenberg, L. A., Herzenberg, L. A., Miklos, D. B. 2013; 110 (8): 3005-3010

    Abstract

    B cells are known to play an important role in pathogenesis of human chronic graft vs. host disease (cGVHD). Our group has previously shown that IgG allo-antibodies recognize Y chromosome-encoded proteins (H-Y) and a dominant H-Y epitope, DEAD box protein (DBY-2) detectable 6-12 mo after transplant in male patients who receive grafts from female donors (F?M) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Here we present FACS studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected 6 mo after transplant showing that 16 of 28 (57%) F?M HCT patients have circulating donor B cells that express B-cell receptor (mainly IgM and Ig?) specific for DBY-2. The detection of these DBY-2 B cells 6 mo after HCT are associated with cGVHD development (P = 0.004). Specifically, 15 of 16 F?M with DBY-2 B cells developed cGVHD. In contrast, cGVHD developed in only 5 of the 12 who did not have DBY-2 B cells detected. This demonstrates circulating human B cells binding an alloantigen (DBY-2) and that these DBY-2-specific B cells appear before development of cGVHD in roughly half of the F?M patients. Our study suggests that detection of anti-DBY-2 B cells may predict cGVHD and that this prediction may have clinical utility. Validation of this hypothesis will require larger prospective studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1222900110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315954400081

    View details for PubMedID 23382226

  • Massive evolution of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in children with B precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia BLOOD Gawad, C., Pepin, F., Carlton, V. E., Klinger, M., Logan, A. C., Miklos, D. B., Faham, M., Dahl, G., Lacayo, N. 2012; 120 (22): 4407-4417

    Abstract

    The ability to distinguish clonal B-cell populations based on the sequence of their rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus is an important tool for diagnosing B-cell neoplasms and monitoring treatment response. Leukemic precursor B cells may continue to undergo recombination of the IgH gene after malignant transformation; however, the magnitude of evolution at the IgH locus is currently unknown. We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the repertoire of IgH sequences in diagnostic samples of 51 children with B precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We identified clonal IgH rearrangements in 43 of 51 (84%) cases and found that the number of evolved IgH sequences per patient ranged dramatically from 0 to 4024. We demonstrate that the evolved IgH sequences are not the result of amplification artifacts and are unique to leukemic precursor B cells. In addition, the evolution often follows an allelic exclusion pattern, where only 1 of 2 rearranged IgH loci exhibit ongoing recombination. Thus, precursor B-cell leukemias maintain evolution at the IgH locus at levels that were previously underappreciated. This finding sheds light on the mechanisms associated with leukemic clonal evolution and may fundamentally change approaches for monitoring minimal residual disease burden.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2012-05-429811

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313111300023

    View details for PubMedID 22932801

  • Prophylactic rituximab after allogeneic transplantation decreases B-cell alloimmunity with low chronic GVHD incidence BLOOD Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Narasimhan, B., Chen, G. L., Jones, C. D., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Weng, W., Benjamin, J. E., Schaenman, J., Brown, J., Ramirez, J., Zehnder, J. L., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B. 2012; 119 (25): 6145-6154

    Abstract

    B cells are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We hypothesized that prophylactic anti-B-cell therapy delivered 2 months after transplantation would decrease allogeneic donor B-cell immunity and possibly the incidence of cGVHD. Therefore, in the present study, patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 22) and mantle-cell lymphoma (n = 13) received a total lymphoid irradiation of 80 cGy for 10 days and antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/d for 5 days. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was infused weekly on days 56, 63, 70, and 77 after transplantation. The incidence of acute GVHD was 6%. The cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3%. Rituximab treatment after allogeneic transplantation significantly reduced B-cell allogeneic immunity, with complete prevention of alloreactive H-Y Ab development in male patients with female donors (P = .01). Overall survival and freedom from progression at 4 years for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were 73% and 47%, respectively; for mantle-cell lymphoma patients, they were 69% and 53%, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-12-395970

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307398700030

    View details for PubMedID 22563089

  • High-throughput VDJ sequencing for quantification of minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and immune reconstitution assessment PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Logan, A. C., Gao, H., Wang, C., Sahaf, B., Jones, C. D., Marshall, E. L., Buno, I., Armstrong, R., Fire, A. Z., Weinberg, K. I., Mindrinos, M., Zehnder, J. L., Boyd, S. D., Xiao, W., Davis, R. W., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 108 (52): 21194-21199

    Abstract

    The primary cause of poor outcome following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is disease recurrence. Detection of increasing minimal residual disease (MRD) following HCT may permit early intervention to prevent clinical relapse; however, MRD quantification remains an uncommon diagnostic test because of logistical and financial barriers to widespread use. Here we describe a method for quantifying CLL MRD using widely available consensus primers for amplification of all Ig heavy chain (IGH) genes in a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, followed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) for disease-specific IGH sequence quantification. To achieve accurate MRD quantification, we developed a systematic bioinformatic methodology to aggregate cancer clone sequence variants arising from systematic and random artifacts occurring during IGH-HTS. We then compared the sensitivity of IGH-HTS, flow cytometry, and allele-specific oligonucleotide PCR for MRD quantification in 28 samples collected from 6 CLL patients following allogeneic HCT. Using amplimer libraries generated with consensus primers from patient blood samples, we demonstrate the sensitivity of IGH-HTS with 454 pyrosequencing to be 10(-5), with a high correlation between quantification by allele-specific oligonucleotide PCR and IGH-HTS (r = 0.85). From the same dataset used to quantify MRD, IGH-HTS also allowed us to profile IGH repertoire reconstitution after HCT-information not provided by the other MRD methods. IGH-HTS using consensus primers will broaden the availability of MRD quantification in CLL and other B cell malignancies, and this approach has potential for quantitative evaluation of immune diversification following transplant and nontransplant therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1118357109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298479900065

    View details for PubMedID 22160699

  • Measurement and Clinical Monitoring of Human Lymphocyte Clonality by Massively Parallel V-D-J Pyrosequencing SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Boyd, S. D., Marshall, E. L., Merker, J. D., Maniar, J. M., Zhang, L. N., Sahaf, B., Jones, C. D., Simen, B. B., Hanczaruk, B., Nguyen, K. D., Nadeau, K. C., Egholm, M., Miklos, D. B., Zehnder, J. L., Fire, A. Z. 2009; 1 (12)

    Abstract

    The complex repertoire of immune receptors generated by B and T cells enables recognition of diverse threats to the host organism. In this work, we show that massively parallel DNA sequencing of rearranged immune receptor loci can provide direct detection and tracking of immune diversity and expanded clonal lymphocyte populations in physiological and pathological contexts. DNA was isolated from blood and tissue samples, a series of redundant primers was used to amplify diverse DNA rearrangements, and the resulting mixtures of barcoded amplicons were sequenced using long-read ultra deep sequencing. Individual DNA molecules were then characterized on the basis of DNA segments that had been joined to make a functional (or nonfunctional) immune effector. Current experimental designs can accommodate up to 150 samples in a single sequence run, with the depth of sequencing sufficient to identify stable and dynamic aspects of the immune repertoire in both normal and diseased circumstances. These data provide a high-resolution picture of immune spectra in normal individuals and in patients with hematological malignancies, illuminating, in the latter case, both the initial behavior of clonal tumor populations and the later suppression or re-emergence of such populations after treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000540

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277263200001

    View details for PubMedID 20161664

  • Antibody responses to H-Y minor histocompatibility antigens correlate with chronic graft-versus-host disease and disease remission BLOOD Miklos, D. B., Kim, H. T., Miller, K. H., Guo, L. X., Zorn, E., Lee, S. J., Hochberg, E. P., Wu, C. J., Alyea, E. P., Cutler, C., Ho, V., Soiffer, R. J., Antin, J. H., Ritz, J. 2005; 105 (7): 2973-2978

    Abstract

    Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) are known targets of donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In contrast, B-cell responses to mHAs have not been extensively characterized and the clinical significance of antibodies to mHAs is unknown. We tested 121 patients who underwent HSCT and 134 healthy donors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against 5 mHAs encoded by genes on the Y chromosome (DBY, UTY, ZFY, RPS4Y, and EIF1AY). Antibodies to at least one H-Y protein developed in 52% of male patients with female donors compared with 8.7% of male patients with male donors (P < .0001), and in 41.4% of healthy females compared with 7.8% of healthy males (P < .0001). H-Y antibodies develop 4 to 12 months after transplantation and persist for long periods. The clinical significance of H-Y antibodies was characterized in 75 male patients with hematologic malignancies who received stem cells from female donors (F --> M HSCT). The presence of H-Y antibodies correlated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by univariate (odds ratio [OR] = 15.5; P < .0001) and multivariable logistic regression analysis (OR = 56.5; P < .0001). Antibody response to Y-chromosome encoded histocompatibility antigens (H-Y antigens) was also associated with maintenance of disease remission (P < .0001). B cells may provide a new target for immune intervention in chronic GVHD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228042900059

    View details for PubMedID 15613541

  • Birth Order and Transplantation Outcome in HLA-Identical Sibling Stem Cell Transplantation: An Analysis on Behalf of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Dobbelstein, C., Ahn, K. W., Haagenson, M., Hale, G. A., Van Rood, J. J., Miklos, D., Waller, E. K., Spellman, S. R., Fernandez-Vina, M., Ganser, A., Aljurf, M., Bornhaeuser, M., Gupta, V., Marino, S. R., Pollack, M. S., Reddy, V., Eder, M., Lee, S. J. 2013; 19 (5): 741-745

    Abstract

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the most effective treatment option for many hematologic malignancies, but graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of treatment failure. Along with well-established risk factors for transplantation outcomes, recent single-center studies have identified a birth order effect in HLA-identical sibling SCT, with lower rates of acute and chronic GVHD and improved overall survival when the donor is younger than the recipient. One hypothesized mechanism for this effect is microchimerism due to fetomaternal and transmaternal sibling cell trafficking during pregnancy as the donor is exposed to recipient antigens in utero. The aim of the present study was to validate previously reported single-center data in a large, multicenter cohort provided by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All adult and pediatric patients (n = 11,365) with a hematologic malignancy who underwent allogeneic SCT with a graft from an HLA-identical sibling donor between 1990 and 2007 were included. When donors were younger than recipients, there was a significantly lower rate of acute GVHD grade II-IV and chronic GVHD in children, as well as a lower rate of chronic GVHD in adolescents. However, the hypothesized overall positive effect of lower relapse and better survival when donors are younger than recipients was not observed. Our data suggest that if otherwise equally matched, a graft from a younger sibling may be superior to a graft from an older sibling for children and adolescents undergoing SCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.01.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318132500010

    View details for PubMedID 23380341

  • Humoral Immunity to Cytomegalovirus and Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease VIRAL IMMUNOLOGY Namboodiri, A. M., Nietert, P. J., Wadia, P. P., Miklos, D. B., Pandey, J. P. 2012; 25 (4): 338-340

    Abstract

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether humoral immune responses to the HCMV antigens were quantitatively different in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients who developed cGVHD from those who did not. Antibodies to HCMV and its proteins UL94 and UL70 were quantitated in 79 cGVHD and 30 non-cGVHD patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Mean levels of antibodies to the whole HCMV and to its protein UL94 were not significantly different between the cGVHD and the non-cGVHD subjects. However, the levels of antibodies to HCMV UL70 were significantly higher in non-cGVHD subjects than in those with cGVHD (20.91±15.63 versus 15.00±10.35 ng/mL; p=0.03). This suggests that anti-UL70 antibodies might play a protective role in the development of cGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/vim.2012.0013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307729400014

    View details for PubMedID 22803743

  • Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as GVHD prophylaxis in myeloablative, matched-related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L., Florek, M., Armstrong, R., McCune, J. S., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Sheehan, K., Lavori, P., Negrin, R. 2012; 47 (4): 581-588

    Abstract

    We investigated sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with advanced hematological malignancies receiving myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-identical sibling donors. On the basis of pre-study stopping rules, the trial was closed to accrual after enrollment of 11 adult patients. In all, 7 of the 11 patients received BU-containing preparative regimens. Sirolimus was discontinued in three patients because of the toxicity-related events of severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, portal vein thrombosis, altered mental status and in one patient because of the risk of poor wound healing. In all, 6 of the 11 patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD (AGVHD) a median of 15.5 days post HCT. Two of three patients with grade IV AGVHD had sirolimus discontinued by 9 days post HCT. All patients responded to AGVHD therapy without GVHD-related deaths. There were two non-relapse- and two relapse-related deaths. At a median follow-up of 38 months (2-47 months), 7 of 11 patients were alive without disease. MMF and sirolimus GVHD prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of AGVHD, however, there were no GVHD-related deaths. The severe toxicities in the patients receiving the BU-containing preparative regimens limited the continued use of sirolimus and MMF for the prevention of AGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700018

    View details for PubMedID 21552302

  • Clonally identical Hodgkin's disease develops after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for CLL BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Tseng, D., Jones, C. D., Anderson, M., Warnke, R., Zehnder, J. L., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 46 (12): 1576-1578

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2010.340

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298326500015

    View details for PubMedID 21258419

  • Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for Patients with Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Baker, J., Armstrong, R., Wong, R. M., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Benjamin, J. E., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S. 2011; 17 (11): 1679-1687

    Abstract

    Donor leukocyte infusions induce remissions in some patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication of this strategy. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a unique population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express the CD3(+)CD56(+) phenotype and show marked up-regulation of the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D (CD314). CIK cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted and NKG2D-dependent in target recognition and cytotoxicity. We explored the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of allogeneic CIK cells in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic HCT. Eighteen patients (median age, 53 years; range, 20-69 years) received CIK cell infusions at escalating doses of 1 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 4), 5 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 6), and 1 × 10(8) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 8). The median expansion of CD3(+) cells was 12-fold (range, 4- to 91-fold). CD3(+)CD56(+) cells represented a median of 11% (range, 4%-44%) of the harvested cells, with a median 31-fold (range, 7- to 515-fold) expansion. Median CD3(+)CD314(+) cell expression was 53% (range, 32%-78%) of harvested cells. Significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Acute GVHD grade I-II was seen in 2 patients, and 1 patient had limited chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 1-69 months) from CIK infusion, the median overall survival was 28 months, and the median event-free survival was 4 months. All deaths were due to relapsed disease; however, 5 patients had longer remissions after infusion of CIK cells than from allogeneic HCT to relapse. Our findings indicate that this form of adoptive immunotherapy is well tolerated and induces a low incidence of GVHD, supporting further investigation as an upfront modality to enhance graft-versus-tumor responses in high-risk patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296829000016

    View details for PubMedID 21664472

  • A phase 1 study of imatinib for corticosteroid-dependent/refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease: response does not correlate with anti-PDGFRA antibodies BLOOD Chen, G. L., Arai, S., Flowers, M. E., Otani, J. M., Qiu, J., Cheng, E. C., McMillan, A., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 118 (15): 4070-4078

    Abstract

    Stimulatory antiplatelet derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA) antibodies have been associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed a phase 1 dose escalation trial of imatinib in corticosteroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD to assess the safety of imatinib and test the hypothesis that abrogation of PDGFRA signaling can ameliorate the manifestations of cGVHD. Fifteen patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 56.6 weeks (range, 18-82.4 weeks). Imatinib 400 mg daily was associated with more frequent moderate to life-threatening adverse events than 200 mg daily. The main adverse events were nausea, edema, confusion, diarrhea, liver function test elevation, fatigue, and myalgia. The overall response rate was 40% (6 of 15). The treatment failure rate was 40% (6 of 15). Twenty percent (3 of 15) of subjects had stable disease. Of 4 subjects with phospho-PDGFRA and phospho-PDGFRB immunohistochemistry studies before and after treatment, inhibition of phosphorylation was observed in 3 but correlated with response in one. Anti-PDGFRA antibodies were observed in 7 of 11 evaluable subjects but correlated with clinical activity in 4. We conclude that cGVHD responds to imatinib through multiple pathways that may include PDGFRA signal transduction. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00760981.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-03-341693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296282200013

    View details for PubMedID 21828142

  • Combined CD4 T-Cell and Antibody Response to Human Minor Histocompatibility Antigen DBY After Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Porcheray, F., Miklos, D. B., Floyd, B. H., Sarantopoulos, S., Bellucci, R., Soiffer, R. J., Antin, J. H., Alyea, E. P., Ritz, J., Zorn, E. 2011; 92 (3): 359-365

    Abstract

    Antibody responses to HY antigens in male recipients are frequent after transplantation of stem cells from female donors (Miklos et al., Blood 2005; 105: 2973; Miklos et al., Blood 2004; 103: 353). However, evidence that this B-cell immunity is accompanied by T-cell responses to the cognate antigens is scarce. Here, we examined T- and B-cell responses to DBY antigen in a male patient who received hematopoietic stem cells from a human leukocyte antigen-identical female sibling.We used 93 overlapping peptides representing the entire DBY protein to detect and characterize T-cell and antibody responses to DBY by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.High frequency CD4+ T cells specific for a unique DBY peptide were detected in the patient blood. We isolated the corresponding T-cell clone and characterized the recognized epitope as an 18-mer peptide restricted by human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*0101. Upon stimulation, this clone produced cytokines with no evidence of Th1 or Th2 polarization. Remarkably, this clone also recognized the DBX homologue peptide and responded to female donor dendritic cells stimulated with poly I/C or lipopolysaccharide, indicating that the peptide was endogenously processed in these cells. High titer DBY-specific antibodies were also found in the patient serum which, in contrast to the T-cell response, did not cross-react with DBX.We show here the development of a coordinated B and T-cell response to DBY in a recipient of sex mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Our findings support a role for CD4+ T cells in the development of humoral immunity to minor histocompatibility antigens.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e3182244cc3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293176300021

    View details for PubMedID 21709606

  • The Outcomes of Family Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Hematologic Malignancies Are Not Associated with Patient Age BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Dong, L., Wu, T., Gao, Z., Zhang, M., Kan, F., Spellman, S. R., Tan, X., Zhao, Y., Wang, J., Lu, D., Miklos, D., Petersdorf, E., Fernandez-Vina, M., Lee, S. J. 2011; 17 (8): 1205-1213

    Abstract

    Haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used to treat hematologic malignancies, but it is unknown whether the procedure is more effective in adults or children. To address this question, we analyzed patients aged 1 to 65 years old receiving myeloablative conditioning regimens followed by family 2 to 3 antigen HLA-mismatched HCT and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR; n = 137) or performed in Dao-Pei Hospital in China, China (n = 181). The Dao-Pei cohort had more acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), less relapse, lower transplant-related mortality (TRM), and better leukemia-free survival (LFS) than the CIBMTR cohort. Overall survival (OS) and outcomes were similar between adults and children. In the CIBMTR cohort receiving ex vivo T cell depletion (TCD), adults had higher TRM (relative risk [RR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-5.69, P = .008) and lower OS (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.84, P = .023) than children. In the CIBMTR subset that did not receive ex vivo TCD, relapse was lower in adults compared to children (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.80, P = .020), but TRM, LFS, and OS were similar. We conclude that outcomes in adults and children are similar overall, although children have better survival than adults if ex vivo TCD is used.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.12.703

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293429600013

    View details for PubMedID 21193055

  • B cells promote insulin resistance through modulation of T cells and production of pathogenic IgG antibodies NATURE MEDICINE Winer, D. A., Winer, S., Shen, L., Wadia, P. P., Yantha, J., Paltser, G., Tsui, H., Wu, P., Davidson, M. G., Alonso, M. N., Leong, H. X., Glassford, A., Caimol, M., Kenkel, J. A., Tedder, T. F., McLaughlin, T., Miklos, D. B., Dosch, H., Engleman, E. G. 2011; 17 (5): 610-U134

    Abstract

    Chronic inflammation characterized by T cell and macrophage infiltration of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a hallmark of obesity-associated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Here we show a fundamental pathogenic role for B cells in the development of these metabolic abnormalities. B cells accumulate in VAT in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, and DIO mice lacking B cells are protected from disease despite weight gain. B cell effects on glucose metabolism are mechanistically linked to the activation of proinflammatory macrophages and T cells and to the production of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Treatment with a B cell-depleting CD20 antibody attenuates disease, whereas transfer of IgG from DIO mice rapidly induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Moreover, insulin resistance in obese humans is associated with a unique profile of IgG autoantibodies. These results establish the importance of B cells and adaptive immunity in insulin resistance and suggest new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for managing the disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.2353

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290250400038

    View details for PubMedID 21499269

  • Protein Microarrays Discover Angiotensinogen and PRKRIP1 as Novel Targets for Autoantibodies in Chronic Renal Disease MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS Butte, A. J., Sigdel, T. K., Wadia, P. P., Miklos, D. B., Sarwal, M. M. 2011; 10 (3)

    Abstract

    Biomarkers for early detection of chronic kidney disease are needed, as millions of patients suffer from chronic diseases predisposing them to kidney failure. Protein microarrays may also hold utility in the discovery of auto-antibodies in other conditions not commonly considered auto-immune diseases. We hypothesized that proteins are released as a consequence of damage at a cellular level during end-organ damage from renal injury, not otherwise recognized as self-antigens, and an adaptive humoral immune response to these proteins might be detected in the blood, as a noninvasive tracker of this injury. The resultant antibodies (Ab) detected in the blood would serve as effective biomarkers for occult renal injury, enabling earlier clinical detection of chronic kidney disease than currently possible, because of the redundancy of the serum creatinine as a biomarker for early kidney injury. To screen for novel autoantibodies in chronic kidney disease, 24 protein microarrays were used to compare serum Ab from patients with chronic kidney disease against matched controls. From a panel of 38 antigens with increased Ab binding, four were validated in 71 individuals, with (n=50) and without (n=21) renal insufficiency. Significant elevations in the titer of novel auto-Ab were noted against angiotensinogen and PRKRIP1 in renal insufficiency. Current validation is underway to evaluate if these auto-Ab can provide means to follow the evolution of chronic kidney disease in patients with early stages of renal insufficiency, and if these rising titers of these auto-Ab correlate with the rate of progression of chronic kidney disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/mcp.M110.000497

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287847200001

    View details for PubMedID 21183621

  • Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Naik, S., Wong, R., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Johnston, L. 2011; 46 (2): 192-199

    Abstract

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 20-60) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0?mg/kg (days -8 to -5), etoposide 60?mg/kg (day -4), CY 60?mg/kg (day -2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n=41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n=8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n=8), and myelodysplasia (n=39). Thirty-six percent (n=35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n=61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.6-14.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 22-42) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 21-41). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 15-33) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 20-38) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 29-47) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade II-IV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 18-36) and 29% (95% CI 18-40), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P=0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P=0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2010.114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287190700004

    View details for PubMedID 20498648

  • Recombinant antigen microarrays for serum/plasma antibody detection. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Wadia, P. P., Sahaf, B., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 723: 81-104

    Abstract

    Recombinant antigen arrays represent a new frontier in parallel analysis of multiple immune response profiles requiring only minute blood samples. In this article, we review the benefits and pitfalls of recombinant antigen microarrays developed for multiplexed antibody quantification. In particular, we describe the development of antigen arrays presenting a set of Y chromosome-encoded antigens, called H-Y antigens. These H-Y antigens are immunologically recognized as minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA) following allogeneic blood and organ transplantation. Clinically relevant B-cell responses against H-Y antigens have been demonstrated in male patients receiving female hematopoietic stem cell grafts and are associated with chronic graft versus host development. This chapter discusses our recombinant antigen microarray methods to measure these clinically relevant allo-antibodies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-043-0_7

    View details for PubMedID 21370061

  • Outcomes of pediatric bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and myelodysplasia using matched sibling, mismatched related, or matched unrelated donors BLOOD Shaw, P. J., Kan, F., Ahn, K. W., Spellman, S. R., Aljurf, M., Ayas, M., Burke, M., Cairo, M. S., Chen, A. R., Davies, S. M., Frangoul, H., Gajewski, J., Gale, R. P., Godder, K., Hale, G. A., Heemskerk, M. B., Horan, J., Kamani, N., Kasow, K. A., Chan, K. W., Lee, S. J., Leung, W. H., Lewis, V. A., Miklos, D., Oudshoorn, M., Petersdorf, E. W., Ringden, O., Sanders, J., Schultz, K. R., Seber, A., Setterholm, M., Wall, D. A., Yu, L., Pulsipher, M. A. 2010; 116 (19): 4007-4015

    Abstract

    Although some trials have allowed matched or single human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donors (mmRDs) along with HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs) for pediatric bone marrow transplantation in early-stage hematologic malignancies, whether mmRD grafts lead to similar outcomes is not known. We compared patients < 18 years old reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic T-replete, myeloablative bone marrow transplantation between 1993 and 2006. In total, patients receiving bone marrow from 1208 MSDs, 266 8/8 allelic-matched unrelated donors (URDs), and 151 0-1 HLA-antigen mmRDs were studied. Multivariate analysis showed that recipients of MSD transplants had less transplantation-related mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD, along with better disease-free and overall survival than the URD and mmRD groups. No differences were observed in transplant-related mortality, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the mmRD and URD groups. These data show that mmRD and 8/8 URD outcomes are similar, whereas MSD outcomes are superior to the other 2 sources. Whether allele level typing could identify mmRD recipients with better outcomes will not be known unless centers alter practice and type mmRD at the allele level.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-01-261958

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284110400040

    View details for PubMedID 20671124

  • H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births HUMAN REPRODUCTION Nielsen, H. S., Wu, F., Aghai, Z., Steffensen, R., van Halteren, A. G., Spierings, E., Christiansen, O. B., Miklos, D., Goulmy, E. 2010; 25 (11): 2745-2752

    Abstract

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown to arrest development of male bovine embryos efficiently. We consequently questioned the role of H-Y antibodies in women with SRM.Serum samples from patients with unexplained SRM (n = 84), unexplained primary recurrent miscarriage (PRM) (n = 12) and healthy women (n = 37) were obtained. The samples were taken during pregnancy (gestational weeks 4-5) for 77 (80%) of the patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies that specifically recognized any of the five recombinant H-Y proteins (EIF1AY, RPS4Y1, ZFY, DDX3Y and UTY) and their H-X homologs.H-Y-specific antibodies were more frequent in SRM patients (46%) compared with female controls (19%, P = 0.004) and PRM patients (8%, P = 0.01). The presence of H-Y antibodies in early pregnancy was associated with a low male: female birth ratio among the subsequent live births, as only 12% of children born to H-Y antibody-positive patients were boys compared with 44% boys born to H-Y antibody negative patients (P = 0.03).The high frequency of H-Y antibody-positive SRM patients and the association between the presence of these antibodies in early pregnancy and the low number of male offspring, suggest that maternal immune responses against H-Y antigens can cause pregnancy losses. Further exploring these mechanisms may increase our understanding of unexplained SRM.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deq242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283124000007

    View details for PubMedID 20823116

  • Complete donor T-cell engraftment 30 days after allogeneic transplantation predicts molecular remission in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Jones, C. D., Arai, S., Lowsky, R., Tyan, D. B., Zehnder, J. L., Miklos, D. B. 2010; 150 (5): 637-639
  • Allogeneic T cells impair engraftment and hematopoiesis after stem cell transplantation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Müller, A. M., Linderman, J. A., Florek, M., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J. A. 2010; 107 (33): 14721-14726

    Abstract

    Because of the perception that depleting hematopoietic grafts of T cells will result in poorer immune recovery and in increased risk of graft rejection, pure hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which avoid the potentially lethal complication of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), have not been used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in humans. Ideal grafts should contain HSC plus mature cells that confer only the benefits of protection from pathogens and suppression of malignancies. This goal requires better understanding of the effects of each blood cell type and its interactions during engraftment and immune regeneration. Here, we studied hematopoietic reconstitution post-HCT, comparing grafts of purified HSC with grafts supplemented with T cells in a minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA)-mismatched mouse model. Cell counts, composition, and chimerism of blood and lymphoid organs were evaluated and followed intensively through the first month, and then subsequently for up to 1 yr. Throughout this period, recipients of pure HSC demonstrated superior total cell recovery and lymphoid reconstitution compared with recipients of T cell-containing grafts. In the latter, rapid expansion of T cells occurred, and suppression of hematopoiesis derived from donor HSC was observed. Our findings demonstrate that even early post-HCT, T cells retard donor HSC engraftment and immune recovery. These observations contradict the postulation that mature donor T cells provide important transient immunity and facilitate HSC engraftment.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1009220107

    View details for PubMedID 20679222

  • Phase I/II Trial of GN-BVC, a Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine-Containing Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Recurrent and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arai, S., Letsinger, R., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Horning, S. J. 2010; 16 (8): 1145-1154

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation with augmented BCNU regimens is effective treatment for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); however, BCNU-related toxicity and disease recurrence remain challenges. We designed a conditioning regimen with gemcitabine in combination with vinorelbine in an effort to reduce the BCNU dose and toxicity without compromising efficacy. In this phase I/II dose escalation study, the gemcitabine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 1250 mg/m(2), and a total of 92 patients were treated at this dose to establish safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of BCNU-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints included 2-year freedom from progression (FFP), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Sixty-eight patients (74%) had 1 or more previously defined adverse risk factors for transplant (stage IV at relapse, B symptoms at relapse, greater than minimal disease pretransplant). The incidence of BCNU-related toxicity was 15% (95% confidence interval, 9%-24%). Only 2% of patients had a documented reduction in diffusing capacity of 20% or greater. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the FFP at 2 years was 71% and the OS at 2 years was 83%. Two-year FFP was 96%, 72%, 67%, and 14% for patients with 0 (n = 24), 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 23), or 3 (n = 8) risk factors, respectively. Regression analysis identified PET status pretransplant and B symptoms at relapse as significant prognostic factors for FFP. This new transplant regimen for HL resulted in decreased BCNU toxicity with encouraging FFP and OS. A prospective, risk-modeled comparison of this new combination with other conditioning regimens is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280137800013

    View details for PubMedID 20197102

  • Individual Variation in the Germline Ig Gene Repertoire Inferred from Variable Region Gene Rearrangements JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Boyd, S. D., Gaeta, B. A., Jackson, K. J., Fire, A. Z., Marshall, E. L., Merker, J. D., Maniar, J. M., Zhang, L. N., Sahaf, B., Jones, C. D., Simen, B. B., Hanczaruk, B., Nguyen, K. D., Nadeau, K. C., Egholm, M., Miklos, D. B., Zehnder, J. L., Collins, A. M. 2010; 184 (12): 6986-6992

    Abstract

    Individual variation in the Ig germline gene repertoire leads to individual differences in the combinatorial diversity of the Ab repertoire, but the study of such variation has been problematic. The application of high-throughput DNA sequencing to the study of rearranged Ig genes now makes this possible. The sequencing of thousands of VDJ rearrangements from an individual, either from genomic DNA or expressed mRNA, should allow their germline IGHV, IGHD, and IGHJ repertoires to be inferred. In addition, where previously mere glimpses of diversity could be gained from sequencing studies, new large data sets should allow the rearrangement frequency of different genes and alleles to be seen with clarity. We analyzed the DNA of 108,210 human IgH chain rearrangements from 12 individuals and determined their individual IGH genotypes. The number of reportedly functional IGHV genes and allelic variants ranged from 45 to 60, principally because of variable levels of gene heterozygosity, and included 14 previously unreported IGHV polymorphisms. New polymorphisms of the IGHD3-16 and IGHJ6 genes were also seen. At heterozygous loci, remarkably different rearrangement frequencies were seen for the various IGHV alleles, and these frequencies were consistent between individuals. The specific alleles that make up an individual's Ig genotype may therefore be critical in shaping the combinatorial repertoire. The extent of genotypic variation between individuals is highlighted by an individual with aplastic anemia who appears to lack six contiguous IGHD genes on both chromosomes. These deletions significantly alter the potential expressed IGH repertoire, and possibly immune function, in this individual.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1000445

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278516700047

    View details for PubMedID 20495067

  • Rituximab in hematopoietic cell transplantation EXPERT OPINION ON BIOLOGICAL THERAPY Arai, S., Miklos, D. B. 2010; 10 (6): 971-982

    Abstract

    The success of rituximab therapy in managing B cell malignancies supports its widespread application in both autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.We searched the PubMed database using the terms rituximab, stem cell transplant, autologous, or allogeneic and limited the search to clinical trials in English. In total, 92 trials were identified and 16 were reviewed in detail for significance of rituximab intervention. In this review, we will examine rituximab's emerging roles in: i) in vivo graft purging; ii) maintenance following autologous transplantation; iii) allogeneic transplant conditioning; and iv) the rationale for its use in the treatment/prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.The reader will gain an understanding of the use of rituximab not only in transplants for B cell malignancies, but also its extension to other diseases where we are learning that B cells are involved in the pathogenesis.With rituximab firmly established in the non-transplant therapy of B cell malignancies, the new challenge in transplantation is how to incorporate the drug for optimum efficacy in those patients coming to transplant with relapse after rituximab-containing therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1517/14712598.2010.485982

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277392300011

    View details for PubMedID 20420511

  • Antibodies specifically target AML antigen NuSAP1 after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation BLOOD Wadia, P. P., Coram, M., Armstrong, R. J., Mindrinos, M., Butte, A. J., Miklos, D. B. 2010; 115 (10): 2077-2087

    Abstract

    Identifying the targets of immune response after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) promises to provide relevant immune therapy candidate proteins. We used protein microarrays to serologically identify nucleolar and spindle-associated protein 1 (NuSAP1) and chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit B (p60; CHAF1b) as targets of new antibody responses that developed after allogeneic HCT. Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) validated their post-HCT recognition and enabled ELISA testing of 120 other patients with various malignancies who underwent allo-HCT. CHAF1b-specific antibodies were predominantly detected in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), whereas NuSAP1-specific antibodies were exclusively detected in patients with AML 1 year after transplantation (P < .001). Complete genomic exon sequencing failed to identify a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for NuSAP1 and CHAF1b between the donor and recipient cells. Expression profiles and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed NuSAP1 was predominately expressed in the bone marrow CD34(+)CD90(+) hematopoietic stem cells, leukemic cell lines, and B lymphoblasts compared with other tissues or cells. Thus, NuSAP1 is recognized as an immunogenic antigen in 65% of patients with AML following allogeneic HCT and suggests a tumor antigen role.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211375

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275751300033

    View details for PubMedID 20053754

  • TLI and ATG conditioning with low risk of graft-versus-host disease retains antitumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Turnbull, B. B., Heydari, K., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2009; 114 (5): 1099-1109

    Abstract

    A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268491100025

    View details for PubMedID 19423725

  • Identifying compartment-specific non-HLA targets after renal transplantation by integrating transcriptome and "antibodyome'' measures PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Li, L., Wadia, P., Chen, R., Kambham, N., Naesens, M., Sigdel, T. K., Miklos, D. B., Sarwal, M. M., Butte, A. J. 2009; 106 (11): 4148-4153

    Abstract

    We have conducted an integrative genomics analysis of serological responses to non-HLA targets after renal transplantation, with the aim of identifying the tissue specificity and types of immunogenic non-HLA antigenic targets after transplantation. Posttransplant antibody responses were measured by paired comparative analysis of pretransplant and posttransplant serum samples from 18 pediatric renal transplant recipients, measured against 5,056 unique protein targets on the ProtoArray platform. The specificity of antibody responses were measured against gene expression levels specific to the kidney, and 2 other randomly selected organs (heart and pancreas), by integrated genomics, employing the mapping of transcription and ProtoArray platform measures, using AILUN. The likelihood of posttransplant non-HLA targets being recognized preferentially in any of 7 microdissected kidney compartments was also examined. In addition to HLA targets, non-HLA immune responses, including anti-MICA antibodies, were detected against kidney compartment-specific antigens, with highest posttransplant recognition for renal pelvis and cortex specific antigens. The compartment specificity of selected antibodies was confirmed by IHC. In conclusion, this study provides an immunogenic and anatomic roadmap of the most likely non-HLA antigens that can generate serological responses after renal transplantation. Correlation of the most significant non-HLA antibody responses with transplant health and dysfunction are currently underway.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0900563106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264278800020

    View details for PubMedID 19251643

  • B Cells and Transplantation: An Educational Resource BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Small, T. N., Robinson, W. H., Miklos, D. B. 2009; 15 (1): 104-113

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.10.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263034300022

    View details for PubMedID 19147088

  • H-Y antibody development associates with acute rejection in female patients with male kidney transplants TRANSPLANTATION Tan, J. C., Wadia, P. P., Coram, M., Grumet, F. C., Kambham, N., Miller, K., Pereira, S., Vayntrub, T., Miklos, D. B. 2008; 86 (1): 75-81

    Abstract

    Human minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA) and clinically relevant immune responses to them have not been well defined in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that women with male kidney transplants would develop antibodies against H-Y, the mHA encoded on the Y-chromosome, in association with graft rejection.We tested sera from 118 consecutive transplant recipients with kidney biopsies. Antibodies that specifically recognized the recombinant H-Y antigens RPS4Y1 or DDX3Y were detected by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Immunogenic epitopes were further identified using overlapping H-Y antigen peptides for both the H-Y proteins.In the 26 female recipients of male kidneys, H-Y antibody development posttransplant (1) was more frequent (46%) than in other gender combinations (P<0.001), (2) showed strong correlation with acute rejection (P=0.00048), (3) correlated with plasma cell infiltrates in biopsied kidneys (P=0.04), and (4) did not correlate with C4d deposition or donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Of the two H-Y antigens, RPS4Y1 was more frequently recognized (P=0.005).This first demonstration of a strong association between H-Y antibody development and acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients shows that in solid organ allografts, humoral immune responses against well defined mHA have clear clinical correlates, can be easily monitored, and warrant study for possible effects on long-term graft function.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e31817352b9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257790400014

    View details for PubMedID 18622281

  • Renal pathology in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients MODERN PATHOLOGY Troxell, M. L., Pilapil, M., Miklos, D. B., Higgins, J. P., Kambham, N. 2008; 21 (4): 396-406

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation-associated renal injury may be related to a combination of factors including chemotherapy, radiation, infection, immunosuppressive agents, ischemia, and graft-versus-host disease. Renal biopsy specimens from hematopoietic cell transplant recipients at two institutions (Stanford University Medical Center and Oregon Health & Science University) were reviewed in correlation with clinical data. Fifteen cases were identified (post hematopoietic cell transplant time 0.7-14.5 years), including six with autologous hematopoietic cell transplant. Indications for renal biopsy included proteinuria (n=13; nephrotic range in 8), increased serum creatinine (n=10), or both (n=6). Many patients had multiple pathologic findings on renal biopsy. Membranous glomerulonephritis was the most common diagnosis (n=7), including two patients with autologous hematopoietic cell transplant and five with evidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease elsewhere. Four membranous glomerulonephritis patients achieved sustained remission with rituximab therapy. Other glomerular pathology included focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=1) and minimal change disease (n=1). Evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy was common (in isolation or combined with other pathology), as was acute tubular necrosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Of 14 patients with follow-up (2-64 months, mean 19 months), 6 had chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl), 2 had end stage renal disease, and 6 had essentially normal renal function. Our retrospective study shows that renal dysfunction in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients is often multifactorial, and biopsy may reveal treatable causes. Membranous glomerulonephritis is seen in autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, and may respond to anti-B-cell therapy, which has implications regarding pathogenesis and relationship to graft-versus-host disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.3801011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254288500005

    View details for PubMedID 18223556

  • Rituximab for steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease BLOOD Cutler, C., Miklos, D., Kim, H. T., Treister, N., Woo, S., Bienfang, D., Klickstein, L. B., Levin, J., Miller, K., Reynolds, C., Macdonell, R., Pasek, M., Lee, S. J., Ho, V., Soiffer, R., Antin, J. H., Ritz, J., Alyea, E. 2006; 108 (2): 756-762

    Abstract

    B cells may be implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as evidenced by antibody production against sex-mismatched, Y chromosome-encoded minor HLA antigens in association with chronic GVHD. We therefore designed a phase 1/2 study of anti-B-cell therapy with rituximab in steroid-refractory chronic GVHD. Twenty-one patients were treated with 38 cycles of rituximab. Rituximab was tolerated well, and toxicity was limited to infectious events. The clinical response rate was 70%, including 2 patients with complete responses. Responses were limited to patients with cutaneous and musculoskeletal manifestations of chronic GVHD and were durable through 1 year after therapy. The median dose of prednisone among treated subjects fell from 40 mg/day to 10 mg/day, 1 year after rituximab therapy (P < .001). A chronic GVHD symptom score improved in the majority of treated patients. Antibody titers against Y chromosome-encoded minor HLA antigens fell and remained low, whereas titers against infectious antigens (EBV, tetanus) remained stable or rose during the treatment period. We conclude that specific anti-B-cell therapy with rituximab may be beneficial for patients with steroidrefractory chronic GVHD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00136396.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-01-0233

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239129500057

    View details for PubMedID 16551963

  • Toward biomarkers for chronic graft-versus-host disease: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease: III. Biomarker working group report BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Schultz, K. R., Miklos, D. B., Fowler, D., Cooke, K., Shizuru, J., Zorn, E., Holler, E., Ferrara, Y., Shulman, H., Lee, S. Y., Martin, P., Filipovich, A. H., Flowers, M. E., Weisdorf, D., Couriel, D., Lachenbruch, P. A., Mittleman, B., Vogelsang, G. B., Pavletic, S. Z. 2006; 12 (2): 126-137

    Abstract

    Biology-based markers that can be used to confirm the diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or monitor progression of the disease could help in the evaluation of new therapies. Biomarkers have been defined as any characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of a normal biologic or pathogenic process, a pharmacologic response to a therapeutic intervention, or a surrogate end point intended to substitute for a clinical end point. The following applications of biomarkers could be useful in chronic GVHD clinical trials or management: (1) predicting response to therapy; (2) measuring disease activity and distinguishing irreversible damage from continued disease activity; (3) predicting the risk of developing chronic GVHD; (4) diagnosing chronic GVHD: (5) predicting the prognosis of chronic GVHD; (6) evaluating the balance between GVHD and graft-versus-leukemia effects (graft-versus-leukemia or GVT); and (7) serving as a surrogate end point for therapeutic response. Such biomarkers can be identified by either hypothesis-driven testing or by high-throughput discovery-based methods. To date, no validated biomarkers have been established for chronic GVHD, although several candidate biomarkers have been identified from limited hypothesis-driven studies. Both approaches have merit and should be pursued. The consistent treatment and standardized documentation needed to support biomarker studies are most likely to be satisfied in prospective clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.11.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235284900002

    View details for PubMedID 16443511

  • Antibody response to DBY minor histocompatibility antigen is induced after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and in healthy female donors BLOOD Miklos, D. B., Kim, H. T., Zorn, E., Hochberg, E. P., Guo, L. X., Mattes-Ritz, A., Viatte, S., Soiffer, R. J., Antin, J. H., Ritz, J. 2004; 103 (1): 353-359

    Abstract

    Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) recognized by donor T cells play a central role as immunologic targets of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft versus leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Men who have undergone sex-mismatched allogeneic HSCT are at high risk for GVHD because of immune responses directed against mHAs encoded by genes on the Y chromosome (termed H-Y antigens). We hypothesized that the immunogenicity of mHAs results in a coordinated response involving B cells as well as T cells. To test this, we measured antibody responses to a well-characterized H-Y antigen, dead box RNA helicase Y (DBY), and its homolog, DBX, in 150 HSCT patients. Using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we found that 50% of male patients who received stem cell grafts from female donors developed antibody responses to recombinant DBY protein. Antibodies to DBY were also detected in 17% of healthy women, but not in healthy men. Antibody responses were directed primarily against areas of amino acid disparity between DBY and DBX. These studies demonstrate that the immune response to mHA includes the generation of specific antibodies and suggests that the serologic response to these antigens may also be useful in the identification of new mHAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2003-03-0984

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187573000060

    View details for PubMedID 14512314

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