Epidemiology of peritonitis following maintenance peritoneal dialysis catheter placement during infancy: a report of the SCOPE collaborative
2018; 33 (4): 713–22
De novo weekly and biweekly darbepoetin alfa dosing in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease
2018; 33 (1): 125–37
Maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the dialysis modality of choice for infants and young children. However, there are limited outcome data for those who undergo PD catheter insertion and initiate maintenance PD within the first year of life.Using data from the Children's Hospital Association's Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Collaborative (SCOPE), we examined peritonitis rates and patient survival in 156 infants from 29 North American pediatric dialysis centers who had a chronic PD catheter placed prior to their first birthday.In-hospital and overall annualized rates of peritonitis were 1.73 and 0.76 episodes per patient-year, respectively. Polycystic kidney disease was the most frequent renal diagnosis and pulmonary hypoplasia the most common co-morbidity in infants with peritonitis. Multivariable regression models demonstrated that nephrectomy at or prior to PD catheter placement and G-tube insertion after catheter placement were associated with a nearly sixfold and nearly threefold increased risk of peritonitis, respectively. Infants with peritonitis had longer initial hospital stays and lower overall survival (86.3 vs. 95.6%, respectively; P < 0.02) than those without an episode of peritonitis.In this large cohort of infants with ESRD, the frequency of peritonitis was high and several risk factors associated with the development of peritonitis were identified. Given that peritonitis was associated with a longer duration of initial hospitalization and increased mortality, increased attention to the potentially modifiable risk factors for infection is needed.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-017-3839-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000427901900019
View details for PubMedID 29150711
The Effect of Intradialytic Intralipid Therapy in Pediatric Hemodialysis Patients.
Journal of renal nutrition
2017; 27 (2): 132-137
Darbepoetin alfa is a commonly prescribed erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) for correcting anemia in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, little information exists on its use in ESA-naïve patients. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa in pediatric patients initiating ESA therapy.One-hundred sixteen pediatric ESA-naïve subjects (aged 1-18 years) with CKD stages 3-5D and hemoglobin (Hb) <10 g/dl from 43 centers in the US, Europe, and Mexico were randomized by age (three groups) and dialysis status (yes vs. no) to receive darbepoetin alfa once weekly (QW) or every 2 weeks (Q2W) subcutaneously (not on dialysis and peritoneal dialysis subjects) and intravenously (hemodialysis subjects). The drug was titrated to achieve Hb levels of 10.0-12.0 g/dl over 25 weeks. Patient- and parent-reported health-related outcomes were measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) in children ≥2 years.In both groups, mean Hb concentrations increased to ≥11.0 g/dl over the first 3 months of treatment and remained stable within the 10.0-12.0 g/dl target range. The median time to achieve hemoglobin ≥10 g/dl was slightly longer for subjects <12 years (QW and Q2W, both 28 days) vs. those ≥12 years (23 and 22 days, respectively). Adverse event profiles were similar between groups, with QW, four (7%) and Q2W, five (9%). PedsQL™ scores showed modest increases.Darbepoetin alfa can be safely administered either QW or Q2W to ESA-naïve pediatric patients with CKD-related anemia to achieve Hb targets of 10.0-12.0 g/dl.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-017-3758-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000416153700015
View details for PubMedID 28815341
Effect of elevated blood pressure on quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease
2016; 31 (7): 1129-1136
Growth of children on maintenance hemodialysis is poor. Oral nutritional supplements are the preferred way to augment nutrition; however, many children have difficulties adhering to prescribed oral supplements. In our unit, we have been utilizing intralipid (IL) therapy as nutritional supplement during hemodialysis sessions. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy, and benefits of intradialytic IL therapy.A retrospective chart review.Fifteen pediatric hemodialysis patients receiving intradialytic IL therapy for at least 3 months from July 2011 through July 2014.For each patient, anthropometric measurements and laboratory nutritional parameters were compared prior to and at the end of IL therapy. Anthropometric measurements evaluated were dry weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and BMI corrected for height age. Laboratory nutritional parameters evaluated were albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate, predialysis blood urea nitrogen, transferrin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Adverse events during therapy were also noted.Significant improvement was noted in albumin levels, predialysis blood urea nitrogen, and normalized protein catabolic rate during therapy (P = .02; P = .03; P = .03, respectively). Six patients (37.5%) improved their weight standard deviation score, and eight patients (50%) improved their BMI standard deviation score though not statistically significant (P = .59; P = .9, respectively). No significant side effects were noted.Administration of IL alone during hemodialysis is well tolerated with beneficial effects on nutritional parameters. The provision of IL alone is relatively cheap and does not require additional resources. In conjunction with other measures of nutritional support, it can help improve nutritional status of pediatric hemodialysis patients.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2016.10.003
View details for PubMedID 27923526
CRIT-LINE: a noninvasive tool to monitor hemoglobin levels in pediatric hemodialysis patients
2015; 30 (6): 991-998
Although hypertension is known to have an adverse impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults, little is known about the effects of hypertension and use of antihypertensive medications on HRQoL in hypertensive children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of impact of elevated blood pressure (BP) and antihypertensive medication use on HRQoL scores obtained in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study. Blood pressure was measured both manually and by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. HRQoL was assessed with the PedsQL survey.The study sample included 551 participants with sufficient data for cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional analysis of presence of prehypertension or hypertension and impact on HRQoL found mild associations between elevated BP and HRQoL scores with overall PedsQL parent and child scores averaging 79 vs. 76.5 and 83 vs. 78.5, respectively. However, no associations persisted under longitudinal multivariate analysis.Despite apparent small effects of elevated BP on HRQoL at baseline, no association was found between the presence of elevated BP and HRQoL over time in children with mild-to-moderate CKD. In addition, antihypertensive medication use did not appear to have an impact on HRQoL in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-015-3262-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000376925900013
View details for PubMedID 26857712
44-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: revealing the true burden of hypertension in pediatric hemodialysis patients.
2015; 30 (4): 653-660
The national average for achieving the KDOQI-recommended hemoglobin (Hgb) target level of 11-12 g/dL is low with the current anemia management protocol of measuring Hgb levels every 2-4 weeks to guide intervention. The objective of this study was to correlate initial Hgb readings from the CRIT-LINE monitor with actual serum Hgb levels in pediatric patients on hemodialysis (HD).Data were collected from pediatric HD patients who had Hgb tests ordered for routine and/or clinical reasons. Hgb concentrations were read with the CRIT-LINE after 0.5 or 1 L of blood had been processed by HD in patients with a body weight of ≤20 or >20 kg, respectively. Ultrafiltration was kept at a minimum until the CRIT-LINE Hgb was read.In total, 217 Hgb readings from 23 HD patients were analyzed. Results showed a statistically significant correlation between CRIT-LINE readings and laboratory Hgb measurements (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) using Pearson correlation coefficients for well-distributed data. The mean Hgb levels measured by CRIT-LINE and the laboratory were 11.12 ± 1.63 and 11.31 ± 1.69 g/dL, respectively.The CRIT-LINE monitor is an accurate instrument for monitoring Hgb levels in HD patients. Further studies will be needed to evaluate whether using CRIT-LINE Hgb levels to guide anemia management will improve the percentage of children with Hgb levels within target.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-014-2986-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000353296700016
View details for PubMedID 25854612
Whole-body single-frequency bioimpedance analysis in pediatric hemodialysis patients
2014; 29 (8): 1417-1423
The blood pressure (BP) burden is high in pediatric hemodialysis (HD) patients and adversely affects prognosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether 44-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) provides additional relevant BP data compared with 24-h ABPM.ABPM was initiated at the end of the mid-week dialysis run in 13 stable pediatric HD patients and continued until the next run for 44 h. Day 1 was defined as the initial 24-h ABPM and Day 2 as the time period after that until the next dialysis run. All patients had an echocardiogram to calculate the left ventricular mass index (LVMI).A higher percentage of patients were diagnosed with hypertension from the 44-h ABPM than from the 24-h ABPM. All BP indexes and loads (except nighttime diastolic load) were significantly higher on Day 2 than on Day 1. Patients with BP loads of ≥25 % on 44-h ABPM had significantly higher LVMI than those patients with normal BP loads. No such association was found with 24-h ABPM and LVMI. Higher interdialytic weight gain was associated with higher Day-2 nighttime systolic BP load.The 44-h ABPM provides more information than the 24-h ABPM in terms of diagnosing and assessing the true burden of hypertension in pediatric HD patients. Elevated BP loads from 44-h ABPM correlate with a higher LVMI on the echocardiogram.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-014-2964-7
View details for PubMedID 25266709
CKiD (CKD in Children) Prospective Cohort Study: A Review of Current Findings
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES
2012; 60 (6): 1002-1011
We hypothesized that the percent change in resistance (%RΔ) from bioimpedance analysis (BIA) measurements during hemodialysis (HD) can provide information on pediatric HD patients' hydration status.Whole-body single-frequency BIA measurements were obtained before HD, each hour on HD, and after HD during two HD sessions. Pre-and post-HD weights, blood pressures, Crit-Line® measurements, and intradialytic symptoms were collected on the day of the BIA measurements.One hundred and thirty BIA measurements were obtained from 14 HD patients. The group was 43 % girls, and the mean age was 13.2 ± 4.4 years. Percent change in resistance was 13.5 ± 10.8 % at the end of HD; %RΔ correlated with percent body weight change (%BWΔ) following HD (r = -0.83, P < 0.01), as well as with percent blood volume change (%BVΔ) (r = -0.79, P < 0.01). The %RΔ was similar between patients with and without hypertension immediately before HD and was greater in those with intradialytic symptoms (19.1 ± 7.7 %) than in those without (9.9 ± 11.2 %) (P = 0.02). Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) had lower %RΔ (7.2 ± 9.7 %) than those without (19.5 ± 7.7 %) (P = 0.03). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) also correlated strongly with %RΔ (r = -0.79, P = 0.004) and %BWΔ (r = 0.82, P = 0.002).Our study showed that %RΔ strongly correlates with %BWΔ and %BVΔ and that %RΔ also correlated with intradialytic symptoms and LVMI.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-014-2778-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000338700400017
Rituximab treatment for recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a pediatric patient after renal transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type
2012; 16 (5): E183-E187
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a life-long condition associated with substantial morbidity and premature death due to complications from a progressive decrease in kidney function. The incidence and prevalence of all stages of CKD in children continues to increase worldwide. Between 2000 and 2008, the kidney replacement therapy incidence rate in those aged 0-19 years increased 5.9% to 15 per million population, highlighting the importance of CKD research in children. Many comorbid conditions seen in adults with CKD, including cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment, also are highly prevalent in children, implicitly demonstrating the crucial need for initiating therapy early to improve health outcomes in children with CKD. The CKiD (Chronic Kidney Disease in Children) Study is a prospective cohort study of 586 children aged 1-16 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30-90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Since its inception, CKiD has identified risk factors for CKD progression and cardiovascular disease in children with CKD and highlighted the effects of CKD on outcomes unique to children, including neurocognitive development and growth. This review summarizes the findings to date, illustrating the spectrum of CKD-associated complications in children and emphasizing areas requiring further investigation. Taken in sum, these elements stress that initiating treatment at an early age is essential for reducing long-term morbidity and mortality in children with CKD.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.07.018
View details for Web of Science ID 000310845100018
View details for PubMedID 23022429
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3496011
Casual Blood Pressure and Neurocognitive Function in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Report of the Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Cohort Study
CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
2011; 6 (8): 1831-1837
Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) of the Finnish type due to mutation in the NPHS-1 gene results in massive proteinuria due to structural abnormality in the glomerular slit diaphragm, and is usually refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Patients eventually require bilateral nephrectomy and renal replacement therapy, with transplantation being the ultimate goal. Post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome occurs in about 25% of children and is thought to be immune-mediated secondary to antibodies formed against the nephrin protein in renal allograft. Conventional therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids with or without plasmapheresis often fails to achieve remission resulting in graft loss in 12-16%. There is limited experience with use of rituximab (RTX) in pediatric organ transplant recipients. We report the first case of post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a 4-yr-old child with CNS due to NPHS-1 mutation in whom CNI, corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide therapy was unsuccessful, but who achieved remission after depletion of B cells with RTX, associated with a decrease in the level of anti-nephrin antibodies. The child remains in remission 5 yr following treatment. Our experience suggests that activated B cells may play a pivotal role in the recurrence of nephrosis after renal transplantation in children with CNS.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01519.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000306131700011
View details for PubMedID 21672106
Donor-specific antibody against denatured HLA-A1: Clinically nonsignificant?
2011; 72 (6): 492-498
Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for cognitive dysfunction, and over half have hypertension. Data on the potential contribution of hypertension to CKD-associated neurocognitive deficits in children are limited. Our objective was to determine whether children with CKD and elevated BP (EBP) had decreased performance on neurocognitive testing compared with children with CKD and normal BP.This was a cross-sectional analysis of the relation between auscultatory BP and neurocognitive test performance in children 6 to 17 years enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) project.Of 383 subjects, 132 (34%) had EBP (systolic BP and/or diastolic BP ≥90(th) percentile). Subjects with EBP had lower mean (SD) scores on Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI) Performance IQ than those with normal BP (normal BP versus EBP, 96.1 (16.7) versus 92.4 (14.9), P = 0.03) and WASI Full Scale IQ (97.0 (16.2) versus 93.4 (16.5), P = 0.04). BP index (subject's BP/95(th) percentile BP) correlated inversely with Performance IQ score (systolic, r = -0.13, P = 0.01; diastolic, r = -0.19, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the association between lower Performance IQ score and increased BP remained significant after controlling for demographic and disease-related variables (EBP, β = -3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.3 to -0.06; systolic BP index, β = -1.16 to 95% CI: -2.1, -0.21; diastolic BP index, β = -1.17, 95% CI: -1.8 to -0.55).Higher BP was independently associated with decreased WASI Performance IQ scores in children with mild-to-moderate CKD.
View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.00810111
View details for Web of Science ID 000293721400007
View details for PubMedID 21700829
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3156422
Role of Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children on Dialysis
CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
2011; 6 (4): 870-876
Pre-transplant screening of a woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) showed no anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alloantibodies by anti-human globulin-complement-dependent cytotoxicity (AHG-CDC; class I) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (class II). Following a negative AHG-CDC crossmatch, an HLA*01:01+ deceased donor (DD) kidney was transplanted in September 2005. Subsequent screening of pre-transplant serum by LABScreen Single Antigen (SA) array showed strong reactivity versus A*01:01. Despite that reactivity, at 5 years post-transplant, the patient has a serum creatinine of 1.6 mg/dl and has never experienced humoral or cellular rejection. Retrospective flow-cytometric crossmatch of pre- and post-transplant sera versus DD cells was negative. Rescreening of multiple pre- and post-transplant sera revealed anti-A1 reactivity persisting from the first through the last samples tested. The patient's anti-A1 was almost two fold more reactive with denatured A*01:01 FlowPRA SA beads after denaturation with acid treatment (pH 2.7) than with untreated beads. Parallel results were observed with pH 2.7 treated versus untreated A1+ T cells in FXM. These data highlight the difficulty in interpreting screening results obtained using bead arrays, because of antibodies that appear to recognize denatured but not native class I HLA antigens. We suggest that such bead-positive, flow cytometric crossmatch negative antibodies are not associated with humoral rejection, may not necessarily be detrimental to a graft, and deserve further evaluation before becoming a barrier to transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humimm.2011.02.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000291138900005
View details for PubMedID 21396421
Steroid-Free Immunosuppression Since 1999: 129 Pediatric Renal Transplants with Sustained Graft and Patient Benefits
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION
2009; 9 (6): 1362-1372
Pre- or postdialysis BP recordings are imprecise, can be biased, and have poor test-retest reliability in children on dialysis. We aimed to examine the possible differences between pre- and postdialysis BP levels and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in diagnosis of hypertension (HTN).Twenty-four children on dialysis had 24-hour ABPM in the interdialytic period, and values were compared with average pre- and postdialysis systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) recordings that week. Each patient had an echocardiogram to determine presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).By ABPM, 8% of patients had white coat HTN and 12% had masked HTN. There was no significant difference in diagnosis of systolic HTN based on ABPM daytime SBP mean or load and postdialysis SBP. However, only 15% of patients had diastolic HTN based on postdialysis measures, whereas 46% of patients had significantly elevated daytime DBP loads and 71% had high nighttime DBP loads on ABPM. Forty-eight percent of patients were SBP nondippers. Children with LVH had higher daytime and nighttime SBP loads, significantly higher daytime and nighttime DBP loads, and lesser degree of nocturnal dipping of SBP compared with those who did not.ABPM is more informative than pre- and postdialysis BPs and improves the predictability of BP as a risk factor for target organ damage. Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of HTN among pediatric dialysis patients is enhanced with addition of ABPM.
View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.07960910
View details for Web of Science ID 000289223600026
View details for PubMedID 21273374
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3069381
Patient selection critical for calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in pediatric kidney transplantation
2008; 12 (5): 541-549
Despite early promising patient and graft outcomes with steroid-free (SF) immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, data on long-term safety and efficacy results are lacking. We present our single-center experience with 129 consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients on SF immunosuppression, with a mean follow-up of 5 years. Outcomes are compared against a matched cohort of 57 concurrent recipients treated with steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression. In the SF group, 87% of kidney recipients with functioning grafts remain corticosteroid-free. Actual intent-to-treat SF (ITT-SF) and still-on-protocol SF patient survivals are 96% and 96%, respectively, actual graft survivals for both groups are 93% and 96%, respectively and actual death-censored graft survivals for both groups are 97% and 99%, respectively. Unprecedented catch-up growth is observed in SF recipients below 12 years of age. Continued low rates of acute rejection, posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), hypertension and hyperlipidemia are seen in SF patients, with sustained benefits for graft function. In conclusion, extended enrollment and longer experience with SF immunosuppression for renal transplantation in low-risk children confirms protocol safety, continued benefits for growth and graft function, low acute rejection rates and reduced cardiovascular morbidity.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02640.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000266448900017
View details for PubMedID 19459814
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2724986
Severe cryptosporidiosis in a seven-year-old renal transplant recipient - Case report and review of the literature
2007; 11 (1): 94-100
CNI withdrawal may be employed as a "rescue" strategy for patients with established renal allograft injury and/or declining allograft function, with the aim at eliminating CNI-associated nephrotoxic effects. This analysis reviews outcomes in a pediatric population and identifies risk factors for adverse events post-CNI withdrawal. We performed a retrospective analysis of 17 pediatric renal transplants who underwent CNI withdrawal, with conversion to sirolimus and MMF. Mean CrCl decreased from 64.3 +/- 22 to 59.38 +/- 28.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.04) at six months and 57.46 +/- 31.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.02) at 12 months post-withdrawal. Forty-one percent of patients experienced AR. Increased risk for AR was associated with prior AR history, lower sirolimus trough levels, and lower CNIT biopsy scores. Graft loss (24%) was associated with worse CrCl, proteinuria, and histologic chronicity. Proteinuria (spot protein/creatinine ratio) increased from 0.75 +/- 1.0 to 1.71 +/- 2.0 (p = 0.03), unrelated to de novo sirolimus use. Four patients returned to CNI-based immunosuppression due to AR (n = 3) and gastrointestinal side effects (n = 1). Careful selection of pediatric candidates for CNI withdrawal is recommended. Worsening graft function and graft loss may be minimized by selecting patients with high CNIT scores and low biopsy chronicity and excluding patients with prior AR history.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00847.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000257700900013
View details for PubMedID 18564305
Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoa that can cause gastroenteritis in humans. In immunocompromised hosts, infection can be severe, leading to life-threatening persistent diarrhea. There is limited experience in treating this infection in solid organ transplants. Although newer drugs active against Cryptosporidium exist, they are only licensed in the USA for treatment of immunocompetent hosts. Here we describe a seven-year-old renal transplant recipient with severe cryptosporidiosis. He had a protracted course of diarrhea of up to 2 L/day. He was successfully managed with combination antimicrobial therapy including nitazoxanide, paromomycin, and azithromycin. In conjunction with this regimen, he had a reduction in immunosuppression and complete bowel rest. His stool pattern normalized in four weeks and he has had no recurrence after six months of follow up.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2006.00593.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000244147500017
View details for PubMedID 17239130