Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Adolescent Medicine
  • Eating Disorders

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Medical Education:Yale School Of Medicine Office of Student Affairs (1987) CT
  • Residency:Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1990) MD
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1990)
  • Board Certification: Adolescent Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (1994)
  • Fellowship:UCSF Medical Center (1993) CA
  • MPH, Johns Hopkins, Health Care Policy & Management (1991)
  • MD, Yale School of Medicine, Medicine (1987)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Access to health care services for adolescents.
Confidentiality.
Mental Health Financing.
Eating disorders.

Teaching

2019-20 Courses


Publications

All Publications


  • Weight Loss and Illness Severity in Adolescents With Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. Pediatrics Garber, A. K., Cheng, J., Accurso, E. C., Adams, S. H., Buckelew, S. M., Kapphahn, C. J., Kreiter, A., Le Grange, D., Machen, V. I., Moscicki, A., Saffran, K., Sy, A. F., Wilson, L., Golden, N. H. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Lower weight has historically been equated with more severe illness in anorexia nervosa (AN). Reliance on admission weight to guide clinical concern is challenged by the rise in patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AAN) requiring hospitalization at normal weight.METHODS: We examined weight history and illness severity in 12- to 24-year-olds with AN (n = 66) and AAN (n = 50) in a randomized clinical trial, the Study of Refeeding to Optimize Inpatient Gains (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02488109). Amount of weight loss was the difference between the highest historical percentage median BMI and admission; rate was the amount divided by duration (months). Unpaired t tests compared AAN and AN; multiple variable regressions examined associations between weight history variables and markers of illness severity at admission. Stepwise regression examined the explanatory value of weight and menstrual history on selected markers.RESULTS: Participants were 16.5 ± 2.6 years old, and 91% were of female sex. Groups did not differ by weight history or admission heart rate (HR). Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire global scores were higher in AAN (mean 3.80 [SD 1.66] vs mean 3.00 [SD 1.66]; P = .02). Independent of admission weight, lower HR (beta = -0.492 [confidence interval (CI) -0.883 to -0.100]; P = .01) was associated with faster loss; lower serum phosphorus was associated with a greater amount (beta = -0.005 [CI -0.010 to 0.000]; P = .04) and longer duration (beta = -0.011 [CI -0.017 to 0.005]; P = .001). Weight and menstrual history explained 28% of the variance in HR and 36% of the variance in serum phosphorus.CONCLUSIONS: Weight history was independently associated with markers of malnutrition in inpatients with restrictive eating disorders across a range of body weights and should be considered when assessing illness severity on hospital admission.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-2339

    View details for PubMedID 31694978

  • Effect of Hospitalization on Percent Median Body Mass Index at One Year, in Underweight Youth With Restrictive Eating Disorders. journal of adolescent health Kapphahn, C. J., Graham, D. A., Woods, E. R., Hehn, R., Mammel, K. A., Forman, S. F., Fisher, M., Robinson, K. A., Rome, E. S., Hergenroeder, A., Golden, N. H. 2017

    Abstract

    Data from low-weight patients with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) treated in outpatient adolescent medicine-based ED treatment programs were analyzed to determine whether there was an association between hospitalization and gain to at least 90% median body mass index (mBMI) at 1-year follow-up.Data were retrospectively collected for 322 low-weight (<85% mBMI at intake) patients aged 9-21 years, who presented with restrictive EDs to 14 adolescent medicine-based ED programs in 2010. Positive outcome was defined as being at least 90% mBMI (%mBMI = patient's body mass index/mBMI for age × 100) at 1-year follow-up. Association between treatment at a higher level of care and gain to at least 90% mBMI was analyzed for 140 patients who were <85% mBMI at the time of presentation, had not been previously hospitalized, and had 1-year follow-up data available.For patients presenting at <85% mBMI, those who were hospitalized in the year following intake had 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.6-10.1) times the odds of gain to at least 90% mBMI, compared with patients who were not hospitalized, when controlling for baseline %mBMI.In this national cohort of patients with restrictive EDs presenting to adolescent medicine-based ED programs at <85% mBMI, those who were hospitalized had greater odds of being at least 90% mBMI at 1-year follow-up.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.03.020

    View details for PubMedID 28587796

  • History of Overweight/Obesity as Predictor of Care Received at 1-year Follow-Up in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. journal of adolescent health Kennedy, G. A., Forman, S. F., Woods, E. R., Hergenroeder, A. C., Mammel, K. A., Fisher, M. M., Ornstein, R. M., Callahan, S. T., Golden, N. H., Kapphahn, C. J., Garber, A. K., Rome, E. S., Richmond, T. K. 2017; 60 (6): 674-679

    Abstract

    Previous research has indicated that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or atypical AN with premorbid history of overweight/obesity have greater weight loss and longer illness duration than patients with no such history. However, little is known about the association of premorbid overweight/obesity and receiving inpatient medical care during treatment for an eating disorder.Using logistic regression, we sought to determine if history of overweight/obesity was associated with receiving inpatient medical care in a sample of 522 patients (mean age 15.5 years, 88% female) with AN/atypical AN.Binary results demonstrated greater percent weight loss (27.4% vs. 16.2%) and higher percent median body mass index (%mBMI, 99.8% vs. 85.2%) at presentation in those with a history of overweight/obesity (p < .001) but no difference in duration of illness (p = .09). In models adjusted for demographics and percent weight loss, history of overweight/obesity was associated with lower odds of receiving inpatient medical care (odds ratio .60 [95% confidence interval: .45-.80]) at 1-year follow-up. However, these associations were no longer significant after adjusting for %mBMI. Mediation results suggest that %mBMI fully mediates the relationship between history of overweight/obesity and inpatient medical care, in that those with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive care due to presenting at a higher weight.Our findings suggest that, despite greater degree of weight loss and no difference in duration of illness, participants with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive inpatient medical care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.001

    View details for PubMedID 28284563

  • A 6-Week School Curriculum Improves Boys' Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Gender-Based Violence in Kenya JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE Keller, J., Mboya, B. O., Sinclair, J., Githua, O. W., Mulinge, M., Bergholz, L., Paiva, L., Golden, N. H., Kapphahn, C. 2017; 32 (4): 535-557

    Abstract

    This study investigated the effects of a gender-based violence (GBV) educational curriculum on improving male attitudes toward women and increasing the likelihood of intervention if witnessing GBV, among adolescent boys in Nairobi, Kenya. In total, 1,543 adolescents participated in this comparison intervention study: 1,250 boys received six 2-hr sessions of the "Your Moment of Truth" (YMOT) intervention, and 293 boys comprised the standard of care (SOC) group. Data on attitudes toward women were collected anonymously at baseline and 9 months after intervention. At follow-up, boys were also asked whether they encountered situations involving GBV and whether they successfully intervened. Compared with baseline, YMOT participants had significantly higher positive attitudes toward women at follow-up, whereas scores for SOC participants declined. At follow-up, the percentage of boys who witnessed GBV was similar for the two groups, except for physical threats, where the intervention group reported witnessing more episodes. The percentage of boys in the intervention group who successfully intervened when witnessing violence was 78% for verbal harassment, 75% for physical threat, and 74% for physical or sexual assault. The percentage of boys in the SOC group who successfully intervened was 38% for verbal harassment, 33% for physical threat, and 26% for physical or sexual assault. Results from the logistic regression demonstrate that more positive attitudes toward women predicted whether boys in the intervention group would intervene successfully when witnessing violence. This standardized 6-week GBV training program is highly effective in improving attitudes toward women and increasing the likelihood of successful intervention when witnessing GBV.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0886260515586367

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398894000004

  • Clinical Management of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Part I-Psychiatric and Behavioral Interventions. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology Thienemann, M., Murphy, T., Leckman, J., Shaw, R., Williams, K., Kapphahn, C., Frankovich, J., Geller, D., Bernstein, G., Chang, K., Elia, J., Swedo, S. 2017; 27 (7): 566–73

    Abstract

    This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS).Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms.Current guidelines result from consensus among the Consortium members.While underlying infectious and inflammatory processes in PANS and PANDAS patients are treated, psychiatric and behavioral symptoms need simultaneous treatment to decrease suffering and improve adherence to therapeutic intervention. Psychological, behavioral, and psychopharmacologic interventions tailored to each child's presentation can provide symptom improvement and improve functioning during both the acute and chronic stages of illness. In general, typical evidence-based interventions are appropriate for the varied symptoms of PANS and PANDAS. Individual differences in expected response to psychotropic medication may require marked reduction of initial treatment dose. Antimicrobials and immunomodulatory therapies may be indicated, as discussed in Parts 2 and 3 of this guideline series.

    View details for PubMedID 28722481

  • Clinical Management of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Part I—Psychiatric and Behavioral Interventions Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Thienemann, M., Murphy, T., Leckman, J., Shaw, R., Williams, K., Kapphahn, C., Frankovich, J., Geller, D., Bernstein, G., Chang, K., Elia, J., Swedo, S. 2017; 27 (7): 566-573

    Abstract

    This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS).Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms.Current guidelines result from consensus among the Consortium members.While underlying infectious and inflammatory processes in PANS and PANDAS patients are treated, psychiatric and behavioral symptoms need simultaneous treatment to decrease suffering and improve adherence to therapeutic intervention. Psychological, behavioral, and psychopharmacologic interventions tailored to each child's presentation can provide symptom improvement and improve functioning during both the acute and chronic stages of illness. In general, typical evidence-based interventions are appropriate for the varied symptoms of PANS and PANDAS. Individual differences in expected response to psychotropic medication may require marked reduction of initial treatment dose. Antimicrobials and immunomodulatory therapies may be indicated, as discussed in Parts 2 and 3 of this guideline series.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2016.0145

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5610394

  • Use of Psychopharmacologic Medications in Adolescents With Restrictive Eating Disorders: Analysis of Data From the National Eating Disorder Quality Improvement Collaborative. journal of adolescent health Monge, M. C., Forman, S. F., McKenzie, N. M., Rosen, D. S., Mammel, K. A., Callahan, S. T., Hehn, R., Rome, E. S., Kapphahn, C. J., Carlson, J. L., Romano, M. E., Malizio, J. B., Bravender, T. D., Sigel, E. J., Rouse, M. R., Graham, D. A., Jay, M. S., Hergenroeder, A. C., Fisher, M. M., Golden, N. H., Woods, E. R. 2015; 57 (1): 66-72

    Abstract

    Psychopharmacologic medications are often prescribed to patients with restrictive eating disorders (EDs), and little is known about the frequency of use in adolescents. We examined the use of psychopharmacologic medications in adolescents referred for treatment of restrictive ED, potential factors associated with their use, and reported psychiatric comorbidities.Retrospective data from the initial and 1-year visits were collected for patients referred for evaluation of restrictive ED at 12 adolescent-based ED programs during 2010 (Group 1), including diagnosis, demographic information, body mass index, prior treatment modalities, and psychopharmacologic medications. Additional data regarding patients' comorbid psychiatric conditions and classes of psychopharmacologic medications were obtained from six sites (Group 2).Overall, 635 patients met inclusion criteria and 359 had 1-year follow-up (Group 1). At intake, 20.4% of Group 1 was taking psychopharmacologic medication and 58.7% at 1 year (p ≤ .0001). White, non-Hispanic race (p = .020), and prior higher level of care (p < .0001) were positively associated with medication use at 1 year. Among Group 2 (n = 256), serotonin reuptake inhibitors/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors use was most common, and 62.6% had a reported psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of any psychiatric comorbidity was highly associated with medication use; odds ratio, 10.0 (5.6, 18.0).Adolescents with restrictive ED treated at referral centers have high rates of reported psychopharmacologic medication use and psychiatric comorbidity. As more than half of this referral population were reported to be taking medication, continued investigation is warranted to ensure the desired outcomes of the medications are being met.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.03.021

    View details for PubMedID 26095410

  • A 6-Week School Curriculum Improves Boys' Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Gender-Based Violence in Kenya. Journal of interpersonal violence Keller, J., Mboya, B. O., Sinclair, J., Githua, O. W., Mulinge, M., Bergholz, L., Paiva, L., Golden, N. H., Kapphahn, C. 2015

    Abstract

    This study investigated the effects of a gender-based violence (GBV) educational curriculum on improving male attitudes toward women and increasing the likelihood of intervention if witnessing GBV, among adolescent boys in Nairobi, Kenya. In total, 1,543 adolescents participated in this comparison intervention study: 1,250 boys received six 2-hr sessions of the "Your Moment of Truth" (YMOT) intervention, and 293 boys comprised the standard of care (SOC) group. Data on attitudes toward women were collected anonymously at baseline and 9 months after intervention. At follow-up, boys were also asked whether they encountered situations involving GBV and whether they successfully intervened. Compared with baseline, YMOT participants had significantly higher positive attitudes toward women at follow-up, whereas scores for SOC participants declined. At follow-up, the percentage of boys who witnessed GBV was similar for the two groups, except for physical threats, where the intervention group reported witnessing more episodes. The percentage of boys in the intervention group who successfully intervened when witnessing violence was 78% for verbal harassment, 75% for physical threat, and 74% for physical or sexual assault. The percentage of boys in the SOC group who successfully intervened was 38% for verbal harassment, 33% for physical threat, and 26% for physical or sexual assault. Results from the logistic regression demonstrate that more positive attitudes toward women predicted whether boys in the intervention group would intervene successfully when witnessing violence. This standardized 6-week GBV training program is highly effective in improving attitudes toward women and increasing the likelihood of successful intervention when witnessing GBV.

    View details for PubMedID 26063788

  • EFFECT OF HOSPITALIZATION ON WEIGHT RESTORATION IN ADOLESCENTS WITH RESTRICTIVE EATING DISORDERS Kapphahn, C. J., Hehn, R., Woods, E. R., Mammel, K. A., Forman, S. F., Fisher, M., Robinson, K. A., Rome, E. S., Hergenroeder, A. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2015: S86–S87
  • Predictors of Outcome at 1 Year in Adolescents With DSM-5 Restrictive Eating Disorders: Report of the National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Forman, S. F., McKenzie, N., Hehn, R., Monge, M. C., Kapphahn, C. J., Mammel, K. A., Callahan, S. T., Sigel, E. J., Bravender, T., Romano, M., Rome, E. S., Robinson, K. A., Fisher, M., Malizio, J. B., Rosen, D. S., Hergenroeder, A. C., Buckelew, S. M., Jay, M. S., Lindenbaum, J., Rickert, V. I., Garber, A., Golden, N. H., Woods, E. R. 2014; 55 (6): 750-756

    Abstract

    The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative evaluated data of patients with restrictive eating disorders to analyze demographics of diagnostic categories and predictors of weight restoration at 1 year.Fourteen Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs participated in a retrospective review of 700 adolescents aged 9-21 years with three visits, with DSM-5 categories of restrictive eating disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Data including demographics, weight and height at intake and follow-up, treatment before intake, and treatment during the year of follow-up were analyzed.At intake, 53.6% met criteria for AN, 33.9% for atypical AN, and 12.4% for ARFID. Adolescents with ARFID were more likely to be male, younger, and had a longer duration of illness before presentation. All sites had a positive change in mean percentage median body mass index (%MBMI) for their population at 1-year follow-up. Controlling for age, gender, duration of illness, diagnosis, and prior higher level of care, only %MBMI at intake was a significant predictor of weight recovery. In the model, there was a 12.7% change in %MBMI (interquartile range, 6.5-19.3). Type of treatment was not predictive, and there were no significant differences between programs in terms of weight restoration.The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative provides a description of the patient population presenting to a national cross-section of 14 Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs and categorized by DSM-5. Treatment modalities need to be further evaluated to assess for more global aspects of recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.06.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345395200006

  • Predictors of outcome at 1 year in adolescents with DSM-5 restrictive eating disorders: report of the national eating disorders quality improvement collaborative. journal of adolescent health Forman, S. F., McKenzie, N., Hehn, R., Monge, M. C., Kapphahn, C. J., Mammel, K. A., Callahan, S. T., Sigel, E. J., Bravender, T., Romano, M., Rome, E. S., Robinson, K. A., Fisher, M., Malizio, J. B., Rosen, D. S., Hergenroeder, A. C., Buckelew, S. M., Jay, M. S., Lindenbaum, J., Rickert, V. I., Garber, A., Golden, N. H., Woods, E. R. 2014; 55 (6): 750-756

    Abstract

    The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative evaluated data of patients with restrictive eating disorders to analyze demographics of diagnostic categories and predictors of weight restoration at 1 year.Fourteen Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs participated in a retrospective review of 700 adolescents aged 9-21 years with three visits, with DSM-5 categories of restrictive eating disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Data including demographics, weight and height at intake and follow-up, treatment before intake, and treatment during the year of follow-up were analyzed.At intake, 53.6% met criteria for AN, 33.9% for atypical AN, and 12.4% for ARFID. Adolescents with ARFID were more likely to be male, younger, and had a longer duration of illness before presentation. All sites had a positive change in mean percentage median body mass index (%MBMI) for their population at 1-year follow-up. Controlling for age, gender, duration of illness, diagnosis, and prior higher level of care, only %MBMI at intake was a significant predictor of weight recovery. In the model, there was a 12.7% change in %MBMI (interquartile range, 6.5-19.3). Type of treatment was not predictive, and there were no significant differences between programs in terms of weight restoration.The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative provides a description of the patient population presenting to a national cross-section of 14 Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs and categorized by DSM-5. Treatment modalities need to be further evaluated to assess for more global aspects of recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.06.014

    View details for PubMedID 25200345

  • THE IMPACT OF A SIX-WEEK SCHOOL CURRICULUM ON BOYS' ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS RELATED TO GENDER BASED VIOLENCE (GBV) IN KENYA Sinclair, J., Githua, O. W., Omondi, B., Kapphahn, C. J., Sinclair, L., Mulinge, M. M., Golden, N. H. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2014: S6
  • Higher Caloric Intake in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Is Associated With Reduced Length of Stay and No Increased Rate of Refeeding Syndrome JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Golden, N. H., Keane-Miller, C., Sainani, K. L., Kapphahn, C. J. 2013; 53 (5): 573-578

    Abstract

    To determine the effect of higher caloric intake on weight gain, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia in adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa.Electronic medical records of all subjects 10-21 years of age with anorexia nervosa, first admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic factors, anthropometric measures, incidence of hypophosphatemia (≤3.0 mg/dL), hypomagnesemia (≤1.7 mg/dL), and hypokalemia (≤3.5 mEq/L), and daily change in percent median body mass index (BMI) (%mBMI) from baseline were recorded. Subjects started on higher-calorie diets (≥1,400 kcal/d) were compared with those started on lower-calorie diets (<1,400 kcal/d).A total of 310 subjects met eligibility criteria (age, 16.1 ± 2.3 years; 88.4% female, 78.5 ± 8.3 %mBMI), including 88 in the lower-calorie group (1,163 ± 107 kcal/d; range, 720-1,320 kcal/d) and 222 in the higher-calorie group (1,557 ± 265 kcal/d; range, 1,400-2,800 kcal/d). Neither group had initial weight loss. The %mBMI increased significantly (p < .001) from baseline by day 1 in the higher-calorie group and day 2 in the lower-calorie group. Compared with the lower-calorie group, the higher-calorie group had reduced LOS (13.0 ± 7.3 days versus 16.6 ± 9.0 days; p < .0001), but the groups did not differ in rate of change in %mBMI (p = .50) or rates of hypophosphatemia (p = .49), hypomagnesemia (p = 1.0), or hypokalemia (p = .35). Hypophosphatemia was associated with %mBMI on admission (p = .004) but not caloric intake (p = .14).A higher caloric diet on admission is associated with reduced LOS, but not increased rate of weight gain or rates of hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, or hypokalemia. Refeeding hypophosphatemia depends on the degree of malnutrition but not prescribed caloric intake, within the range studied.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.05.014

    View details for PubMedID 23830088

  • A self-defense program reduces the incidence of sexual assault in kenyan adolescent girls. journal of adolescent health Sinclair, J., Sinclair, L., Otieno, E., Mulinge, M., Kapphahn, C., Golden, N. H. 2013; 53 (3): 374-380

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of a standardized 6-week self-defense program on the incidence of sexual assault in adolescent high school girls in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Population-based survey of 522 high school girls in the Korogocho-Kariobangi locations in Nairobi, Kenya, at baseline and 10 months later. Subjects were assigned by school attended to either a "No Means No Worldwide" self-defense course (eight schools; N = 402) or to a life-skills class (two schools; N = 120). Both the intervention and the life-skills classes were taught in the schools by trained instructors. Participants were administered the same survey at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 522 girls (mean age, 16.7 ± 1.5 years; range, 14-21 years) completed surveys at baseline, and 489 at 10-month follow-up. At baseline, 24.5% reported sexual assault in the prior year, with the majority (90%) reporting assault by someone known to them (boyfriend, 52%; relative, 17%; neighbor, 15%; teacher or pastor, 6%). In the self-defense intervention group, the incidence of sexual assault decreased from 24.6% at baseline to 9.2% at follow-up (p < .001), in contrast to the control group, in which the incidence remained unchanged (24.2% at baseline and 23.1% at follow-up; p = .10). Over half the girls in the intervention group reported having used the self-defense skills to avert sexual assault in the year after the training. Rates of disclosure increased in the intervention group, but not in controls. CONCLUSIONS: A standardized 6-week self-defense program is effective in reducing the incidence of sexual assault in slum-dwelling high school girls in Nairobi, Kenya.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.04.008

    View details for PubMedID 23727500

  • An Eleven Site National Quality Improvement Evaluation of Adolescent Medicine-Based Eating Disorder Programs: Predictors of Weight Outcomes at One Year and Risk Adjustment Analyses JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Forman, S. F., Grodin, L. F., Graham, D. A., Sylvester, C. J., Rosen, D. S., Kapphahn, C. J., Callahan, S. T., Sigel, E. J., Bravender, T., Peebles, R., Romano, M., Rome, E. S., Fisher, M., Malizio, J. B., Mammel, K. A., Hergenroeder, A. C., Buckelew, S. M., Golden, N. H., Woods, E. R. 2011; 49 (6): 594-600

    Abstract

    This quality improvement project collected and analyzed short-term weight gain data for patients with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) treated in outpatient adolescent medicine-based ED programs nationally.Data on presentation and treatment of low-weight ED patients aged 9-21 years presenting in 2006 were retrospectively collected from 11 independent ED programs at intake and at 1-year follow-up. Low-weight was defined as < 90% median body weight (MBW) which is specific to age. Treatment components at each program were analyzed. Risk adjustment was performed for weight gain at 1 year for each site, accounting for clinical variables identified as significant in bivariate analyses.The sites contained 6-51 patients per site (total N = 267); the mean age was 14.1-17.1 years; duration of illness before intake was 5.7-18.6 months; % MBW at intake was 77.5-83.0; and % MBW at follow-up was 88.8-93.8. In general, 40%-63% of low weight ED subjects reached ≥90% MBW at 1-year follow-up. At intake, patients with higher % MBW (p = .0002) and shorter duration of illness (p = .01) were more likely to be ≥90% MBW at follow-up. Risk-adjusted odds ratios controlled for % MBW and duration of illness were .8 (.5, 1.4)-1.3 (.3, 3.8), with no significant differences among sites.A total of 11 ED programs successfully compared quality improvement data. Shorter duration of illness before intake and higher % MBW predicted improved weight outcomes at 1 year. After adjusting for risk factors, program outcomes did not differ significantly. All adolescent medicine-based ED programs were effective in assisting patients to gain weight.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.04.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297261000005

    View details for PubMedID 22098769

  • Financing mental health services for adolescents: A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Kapphahn, C. J., Morreale, M. C., Rickert, V. I., Walker, L. R. 2006; 39 (3): 456-458
  • Financing mental health services for adolescents: A background paper JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Kapphahn, C., Morreale, M., Rickert, V. I., Walker, L. 2006; 39 (3): 318-327

    Abstract

    Good mental health provides an essential foundation for normal growth and development through adolescence and into adulthood. Many adolescents, however, experience mental health problems that significantly impede the attainment of their full potential. The majority of these adolescents do not receive needed mental health services, in part because of financial obstacles to care. This article reviews the magnitude and impact of mental health problems during adolescence and highlights the importance of insurance coverage in assuring access to mental health services for adolescents. Significant limitations in private health insurance coverage of mental health services are outlined. Recent federal and state efforts to move toward parity in private insurance coverage between mental and physical health services are discussed, including an explanation of the role of Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in providing access to mental health services for adolescents. Finally, other elements that would facilitate financial access to essential mental health services for adolescents are presented.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.06.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240324100003

    View details for PubMedID 16919792

  • Adolescent girls' and boys' preferences for provider gender and confidentiality in their health care JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Kapphahn, C. J., Wilson, K. M., Klein, J. D. 1999; 25 (2): 131-142

    Abstract

    To assess the influence of demographic variables and health risk status on adolescents' preferences and actual receipt of services regarding provider gender, sharing a physician with parents, and private examinations.Data from students participating in the Commonwealth Fund 1997 Survey of the Health of Adolescent Girls were analyzed. The weighted sample included 6748 students from grades 5-12. The influence of demographic variables and health risk status on preferences regarding physician gender, sharing a physician with parents, and parental presence during examinations and on actual physician gender, sharing a physician with parents, and receipt of confidential care was assessed for the 5067 students who indicated that they had a health check-up or physical examination within the past 2 years. Associations were examined using SAS to determine preliminary estimates of significance and correlation coefficients, and SUDAAN to generate proportions and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel Chi-squared values. A multiple logistic regression procedure in SUDAAN was used to assess interaction among demographic variables.Gender, race/ethnicity, grade level, and risk status were associated with preferences regarding provider gender and sharing a physician with parents. 50% of girls preferred a female provider; 48% had no preference. 23% of boys preferred a male provider; 65% had no preference. Most adolescents had no preference regarding whether they shared a physician with parents. Gender, race/ethnicity, grade level, and risk status were associated with preference regarding parental presence during examinations. Most younger girls preferred to have a parent present; most younger boys had no preference. Most older girls and boys preferred private examinations. For actual care situation, most adolescents were cared for by male health providers and did not share a physician with parents. 57% of girls and 66% of boys spoke privately with their health provider. Girls who had a female physician were more likely to have private time than were girls receiving care from a male physician. Gender, grade level, and risk status were associated with having private time with a physician.Gender was a significant variable in adolescents' preferences regarding health care. Preferences were also influenced by race/ethnicity, grade level, and risk status. A substantial proportion of adolescents, including those involved in health risk activities, report not having private time with their health provider.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081723700007

    View details for PubMedID 10447040

  • Access to medical care for adolescents: Results from the 1997 Commonwealth Fund Survey of the Health of Adolescent Girls JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Klein, J. D., Wilson, K. M., McNulty, M., Kapphahn, C., Collins, K. S. 1999; 25 (2): 120-130

    Abstract

    This study examined the factors associated with access to care among adolescents, including gender, insurance coverage, and having a regular source of health care.Analyses were done on the 1997 Commonwealth Fund Survey of the Health of Adolescent Girls, a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in 5th through 12th grade. Access to health care, missing needed care, and whether the adolescent had private time with their provider were assessed. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square statistics were computed using SUDAAN.Nearly a third of the 6748 adolescents surveyed had missed needed care. The most common reason for missing care was not wanting a parent to know (35%). Girls were more likely than boys to miss care (29% vs. 24%). Most adolescents reported using a source of primary health care (92%); girls were more likely than boys to use a physician's office rather than another site (65% vs. 60%). Eleven percent of adolescents reported having no health insurance. Uninsured adolescents were more likely to have missed needed care (46% vs. 25%) [corrected].Certain groups of adolescents have less access to health care. Girls have more emotional barriers, such as not wanting parents to know about care, and embarrassment. Adolescents without health insurance are at high risk for missing care because of financial strain. States, insurers, and advocates can influence policies around confidentiality and insurance coverage to address these issues.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081723700006

    View details for PubMedID 10447039

  • Meeting the health care needs of adolescents in managed care: A background paper JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Engligh, A., Kapphahn, C., Perkins, J., Wibbelsman, C. J. 1998; 22 (4): 278-292

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072891400002

    View details for PubMedID 9561460

  • Schools sites for research: Land of opportunity - And dilemma JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Kapphahn, C. J. 1996; 18 (3): 165-165

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UC63400001

    View details for PubMedID 8777190

  • THE IMPACT OF HEALTH-INSURANCE STATUS ON ADOLESCENTS UTILIZATION OF SCHOOL-BASED CLINIC SERVICES - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH-CARE REFORM JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Brindis, C., Kapphahn, C., MCCARTER, V., Wolfe, A. L. 1995; 16 (1): 18-25

    Abstract

    1) To examine variations among students with different health insurance coverage in their use of school-based clinics (SBCs), reasons for not receiving health care when needed, and reasons for using or not using SBCs, and 2) to determine if insurance status is a significant factor in predicting SBC use, after controlling for demographic variables and health status.Confidential questionnaires were administered to 2,860 adolescents attending 3 urban high schools with on-site SBCs. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess differences among insurance groups in patterns of SBC use and reasons for clinic use/nonuse.Students with private insurance or HMO coverage had the highest rates of SBC utilization (67% & 66%) and students without health insurance and with Medicaid had the lowest (57% & 59%) (p < 0.01). While there was no difference among adolescents according to insurance group membership in their use of SBC medical services, a significantly higher proportion of students with Medicaid coverage used SBC mental health services. Students without health insurance were less likely to receive health care from any source when it was needed. After controlling for demographic variables and health status, no insurance factors remained significant.SBC users represent a variety of insurance groups. Health care reform efforts need to take into account the special needs of adolescents and the challenges they face in accessing care that go beyond financial barriers to care. SBC have been shown to provide a convenient and acceptable source of care, as well as offering the opportunity to provide preventive and primary care services to at-risk youth. As the country moves to a managed care environment potential partnerships with SBCs represent a unique opportunity to improve the delivery of care to adolescents, assuring increased access to a package of health services that they need.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QE91700004

    View details for PubMedID 7742332