Bio

Current Role at Stanford


Senior Research Scholar, Department of Pediatrics

Education & Certifications


  • DrPH, UC Berkeley, Public Health (2006)
  • MPH, UC Berkeley, Infectious Diseases (1999)
  • BA, Carleton College, Biology (1996)

Projects


  • Medical Monitoring Project (November 1, 2004)

    Enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance

    Location

    California

  • GBV Prevention in Kenya (10/1/2012)

    Location

    Nairobi, Kenya

  • Family Planning and PMTCT in Africa (9/1/2011)

    Location

    Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe

Professional

Professional Interests


Program Evaluation
Infectious Disease Prevention
Program Management

Dr. Sarnquist has been managing and evaluating public health and research programs for almost 15 years. Her major area of interest is the implementation and evaluation of behavioral and clinical interventions to improve child and maternal health both globally and within the U.S. She is particularly interested in multidisciplinary work that brings together expertise from varying fields and involves multiple organizations. She has extensive experience with HIV prevention interventions, primarily in the PMTCT context, as well as experience with interventions to improve family planning uptake, reduce adolescent sexual assault, enhance HIV surveillance and service access, improve prenatal care, and reduce racial/ethnic health disparities. She has worked in New York and California, as well as on projects in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Peru, Mexico, and Albania. Dr. Sarnquist also acts as an informal research mentor to undergraduates, medical students, and residents.

Professional Affiliations and Activities


  • Member, American Public Health Association, HIV/AIDS and International Health sections (2003 - Present)
  • Board Member, MayView Community Health Center (2005 - 2009)

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Factors Influencing Women's Decision to Seek Antenatal Care in the ANDES of Peru MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Ayala, L. S., Blumenthal, P. D., Sarnquist, C. C. 2013; 17 (6): 1112-1118

    Abstract

    This qualitative study aimed to assess factors influencing pregnant women's decision to seek or avoid antenatal care (ANC) in the Andes of Peru. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women utilizing ANC (+) and 10 women avoiding ANC (-). Interviews were translated to English from Quechua and Spanish, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Factors influencing ANC- women included: expecting criticism for having additional children; long ANC wait time and inconvenient hours of operation; and masculine gender of health workers. For ANC+ women, motivating factors included: maximizing positive health outcomes; past negative maternity experiences; pressure from family members; and avoidance of rumored fines or fees associated with ANC non-attendance and in-hospital deliveries, respectively. Both ANC+ and ANC- women were fearful and embarrassed about possible criticism for having additional children and the gender of the health workers, yet they weighed these factors differently. To better understand how rural women make decisions about ANC attendance, it is important to consider the value they place on the factors influencing their decision, and their emotional assessment of such issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-012-1113-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321785300017

    View details for PubMedID 22956365

  • Communicating About Vaccines and Vaccine Safety: What Are Medical Residents Learning and What Do They Want to Learn? JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT AND PRACTICE Sarnquist, C., Sawyer, M., Calvin, K., Mason, W., Blumberg, D., Luther, J., Maldonado, Y. 2013; 19 (1): 40-46

    Abstract

    Physicians spend significant amounts of time discussing vaccine safety concerns with patients and parents. This study aimed to better understand the educational needs of US residents regarding vaccine safety communication, primarily by quantifying the vaccine safety communication training that residents currently receive and elucidating residents' preferences around education about vaccines and vaccine safety communication.A mixed-methods needs assessment consisting of focus groups and a survey.A convenience sample of 303 medical residents in pediatrics, family medicine, and internal medicine from across the United States participated in an online, anonymous survey from March through June 2010. In addition, 9 focus groups with 47 resident participants were held. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/RESULTS: The sample included residents in pediatrics (239, 80.2%), internal or family medicine (30, 10.1%), and dual medicine-pediatrics (29, 9.7%); 20.6% of the residents reported "not learning" about vaccine safety communication in their residency programs. Preferred learning methods, which were also the most commonly used methods, included didactic lectures and role-modeling/cases. Electronic teaching method were not only less desired but also very rarely utilized. More than 95% of residents reported thinking that vaccine safety communication would be very or somewhat important in their careers.Improving education on vaccine safety communication within US residency programs, as well as offering self-learning opportunities, can better prepare physicians for their careers.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3182495776

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311830300011

    View details for PubMedID 23169402

  • BARRIERS TO CARE AND CURRENT MEDICAL AND SOCIAL NEEDS OF HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS IN ALBANIA CENTRAL EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Morrison, S. D., Banushi, V. H., Sarnquist, C., Gashi, V. H., Osterberg, L., Maldonado, Y., Harxhi, A. 2011; 19 (2): 91-97

    Abstract

    As HIV/AIDS prevalence rises in Eastern Europe, assessment of local epidemics in the bordering Central European region, especially South Eastern Europe, is vital in order to meet treatment and prevention needs. Understanding current medical and social needs and barriers to care experienced by HIV-positive patients in these regions may provide insight into how to best respond to the local epidemics, increase patients' access to treatment, and reduce loss to follow-up.This study assesses the patient characteristics, barriers to care, and current medical and social needs of HIV-positive patients in Albania. Semi-structured interviews were used in this cross-sectional study.We interviewed 79 of 85 patients (93% response rate) followed at the University Hospital Center of Tirana (UHCT) HIV/AIDS Ambulatory Clinic, which represented the majority of patients under HIV care in Albania during 2009.The local HIV epidemic seems to be comprised mainly of heterosexual men who have spent an average of 3.6 years abroad. The vast majority of patients under care at UHCT HIV/AIDS Ambulatory Clinic had experienced barriers to care associated with social stigma (97.4%), lack of knowledge of HIV medical care (76.6%), and medical provider's lack of knowledge of HIV (70.9%). Social needs of the patients were also overwhelmingly unmet (90.0-95.7%).In addressing HIV/AIDS in Albania, it will be crucial to educate the healthcare sector in ways to identify and address barriers to care and current medical and social needs of HIV-positive patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291919600008

    View details for PubMedID 21739899

  • Increased Uptake of HIV Testing With the Integration of Nurse-Initiated HIV Testing Into Routine Prenatal Care JAIDS-JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES Cohan, D., Sarnquist, C., Gomez, E., Feakins, C., Maldonado, Y., Zetola, N. 2008; 49 (5): 571-573

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261219000020

    View details for PubMedID 19202463

  • Rapid HIV testing on Labor and delivery - Lessons from the field JAIDS-JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES Rahangdale, L., Sarnquist, C., Feakins, C., Nassos, P., Haller, B., Cohan, D. 2007; 46 (3): 376-378

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250607500023

    View details for PubMedID 18090304

  • The effectiveness of state and national policy on the implementation of perinatal HIV prevention interventions AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Sarnquist, C. C., Cunningham, S. D., Sullivan, B., Maldonado, Y. 2007; 97 (6): 1041-1046

    Abstract

    The 1994 and 1995 US Public Health Service Guidelines regarding HIV testing and treatment for pregnant women and the resulting 1995 California law mandating an HIV test and treatment offer to every pregnant woman aim to reduce perinatal HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of such policies after implementation is often unclear. We analyzed the association between these policies and offers of HIV tests and treatment to HIV-infected women in California.Data from active, population-based surveillance of 496 HIV-infected women and their infants, collected from 1987 to 2002, were analyzed to compare rates of offers of HIV tests and treatment before and after 1996.We found significant increases in offers of HIV tests (P<.001) and offers of treatment (P<.001) when we compared women who delivered between 1987 and 1995 with those who delivered between 1996 and 2002. Receipt of prenatal care was the major predictor of both test and treatment offer. A significant shift in reported HIV risk factors was also evident between the 2 groups.Our findings of increased offers of HIV tests and treatment to HIV-infected pregnant women suggest that the national guidelines and the 1996 California law improved health care for these women, which may lessen the risk of perinatal HIV transmission.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2005.072371

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246867200016

    View details for PubMedID 17463383

  • Reproductive Health and Family Planning Needs Among HIV-Infected Women in Sub-Saharan Africa CURRENT HIV RESEARCH Sarnquist, C. C., Rahangdale, L., Maldonado, Y. 2013; 11 (2): 160-168

    Abstract

    Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion.Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes.HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317098500008

    View details for PubMedID 23432491

  • Staphylococcal infections in children, California, USA, 1985-2009. Emerging infectious diseases Gutierrez, K., Halpern, M. S., Sarnquist, C., Soni, S., Arroyo, A. C., Maldonado, Y. 2013; 19 (1): 10-20

    Abstract

    We conducted a retrospective, observational, population-based study to investigate the effect of staphylococcal infections on the hospitalization of children in California during 1985-2009. Hospitalized children with staphylococcal infections were identified through the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database. Infections were categorized as community onset, community onset health care-associated, or hospital onset. Infection incidence was calculated relative to all children and to those hospitalized in acute-care facilities. A total of 140,265 records were analyzed. Overall incidence increased from 49/100,000 population in 1985 to a peak of 83/100,000 in 2006 and dropped to 73/100,000 in 2009. Staphylococcal infections were associated with longer hospital stays and higher risk for death relative to all-cause hospitalizations of children. The number of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections increased, and the number of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections remained unchanged. Children <3 years of age, Blacks, and those without private insurance were at higher risk for hospitalization.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1901.111740

    View details for PubMedID 23260060

  • Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. PloS one Morrison, S. D., Rashidi, V., Banushi, V. H., Barbhaiya, N. J., Gashi, V. H., Sarnquist, C., Maldonado, Y., Harxhi, A. 2013; 8 (3)

    Abstract

    Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK), 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ?0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0059816

    View details for PubMedID 23544101

  • Levels of self-reported depression and anxiety among HIV-positive patients in Albania: a cross-sectional study CROATIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Morrison, S. D., Banushi, V. H., Sarnquist, C., Gashi, V. H., Osterberg, L., Maldonado, Y., Harxhi, A. 2011; 52 (5): 622-628

    Abstract

    To gain an initial perspective of mental health issues facing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive population at the University Hospital Center of Tirana (UHCT) HIV/AIDS Ambulatory Clinic.From June-August 2009, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 79 patients (93% response rate) at the UHCT HIV/AIDS Ambulatory Clinic. The interviews assessed patient-reported histories of mental health diagnoses, patients' demographics, and current emotional health status.The percentage of patients who reported a history of diagnosis of depression or anxiety was high - 62.3% and 82.3%, respectively. Factors associated with a history of depression included having been diagnosed with anxiety (P<0.001), having a higher number of barriers to care (P<0.001), having a higher number of current medical and social needs (P<0.001), or having not obtained antiretroviral therapy (ART) abroad (P=0.004). Factors associated with a history of anxiety included having been on first-line ART (P=0.008), having been diagnosed with HIV for shorter periods of time (P=0.043), having been diagnosed with depression (P<0.001), having a higher number of current medical and social needs (P=0.035), or having not obtained ART abroad (P=0.003).Mental health problems are widespread among the known HIV-positive patient population in Albania. The high prevalences of anxiety and depression and of dual diagnoses of these conditions suggest the need for more mental health care for HIV-positive patients in Albania.

    View details for DOI 10.3325/cmj.2011.52.622

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297080000006

    View details for PubMedID 21990080

  • Rural HIV-infected women's access to medical care: ongoing needs in California AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV Sarnquist, C. C., Soni, S., Hwang, H., Topol, B. B., Mutima, S., Maldonado, Y. A. 2011; 23 (7): 792-796

    Abstract

    HIV-infected women living in rural areas often have considerably less access to care than their urban and suburban counterparts. In much of the USA, little is known about HIV care among rural populations. This study elucidated barriers to care for rural women in California. Methods included retrospective structured interviews conducted with 64 women living in rural areas and receiving HIV care at 11 California healthcare facilities. Facilities were randomly sampled and all HIV-infected female patients seeking care at those facilities during a specified time period were eligible. The most commonly cited barriers to accessing care included physical health problems that prevented travel to care (32.8%), lack of transportation (31.2%), and lack of ability to navigate the healthcare system (25.0%). Being divorced/separated/widowed (compared to being either married or single) was associated with reporting physical health as a barrier to care (p=0.03); being unemployed (p=0.003) or having to travel 31-90 minutes (p=0.007, compared to less than 31 or greater than 90) were both associated with transportation as a barrier; and speaking English rather than Spanish was associated with reporting "difficulty navigating the system" (p=0.04). Twenty-nine women (45.3%) reported difficulty in traveling to appointments. Overall, 24 (37.5%) women missed an HIV medical appointment in the previous 12-month period, primarily due to their physical health and transportation limitations. Physical health and transportation problems were both the major barriers to accessing health services and the primary reasons for missing HIV care appointments among this population of HIV-infected women living in rural areas. Providing transportation programs and/or mobile clinics, as well as providing support for patients with physical limitations, may be essential to improving access to HIV care in rural areas.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2010.516345

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299479300002

    View details for PubMedID 21287418

  • How Racial and Ethnic Groupings May Mask Disparities: The Importance of Separating Pacific Islanders From Asians in Prenatal Care Data MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Sarnquist, C. C., Grieb, E. M., Maldonado, Y. A. 2010; 14 (4): 635-641

    Abstract

    To understand racial/ethnic differences in prenatal care receipt among Pacific Islanders and Asians, who are often combined into a single A/PI category.Retrospective, population-based data were collected by the Vital Statistics branch of the California Department of Health Services. Approximately 2.6 million records of all live California births with a birth certificate in 2000-2004 were included. Analysis focused on prenatal care receipt and population characteristics associated with lack of adequate prenatal care, especially among Asian and Pacific Islander groups.Pacific Islanders (n = 11,962) were the most likely, compared to any other racial/ethnic group, to have inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.9, 95% CIs 2.8-3.1), even when controlling for factors known to affect care receipt, specifically maternal age, educational attainment, parity, insurance, geographical region of residence, and maternal place of birth. In contrast, Asian women (n = 295,741) received care closer to that of the White reference group (OR = 1.5, 95% CIs 1.5-1.5). Among Pacific Islanders, Samoans (OR = 3.0, 95% CIs 2.7-3.4) were at particular risk of inadequate care compared to other PI sub-groups.Pacific Islander women received less adequate prenatal care than women of other racial/ethnic groups. The common practice of combining Asians and Pacific Islanders into a single A/PI category may mask needs in the Pacific Islander community. Therefore, in order to continue to reduce health disparities, it may be necessary to collect separate data on these two distinct populations in order to be able to appropriately direct programs and resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-009-0494-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279477400017

    View details for PubMedID 19582560

  • Frequency of Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening in HIV-Infected Women in a County-Based HIV Clinic in the Western United States JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH Rahangdale, L., Sarnquist, C., Yavari, A., Blumenthal, P., Israelski, D. 2010; 19 (4): 709-712

    Abstract

    Women's primary-care services are frequently dispensed to HIV-infected women through HIV specialty clinics. Our objective was to evaluate cervical cancer and breast cancer screening practices in a county-based HIV clinic in San Mateo, California.This was a retrospective cohort study of medical records of HIV-infected women obtaining HIV care at this site.Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, 69 women were documented to have at least 12 months of medical care at the clinic. Median followup time was 51 months. Over 253 person-years of followup, there were 656 pap smears performed per 1,000 person-years; 77.9% of women had at least one Pap smear during the study time period. A total of 59.5% (47/79) of normal pap smears had a followup pap smear within 18 months; 62.0% of abnormal pap smears had a followup pap smear within 12 months. A CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm(3) was associated with not receiving a pap smear in multivariable analysis. Mammogram screening was performed on 64.7% of women aged 40 or older.Based on the results of this study, the majority of HIV-infected women at this clinic received cervical and breast cancer screening at some point during their care. Only two-thirds of abnormal pap smear results had followup pap smear screening within a year. With the increased risk of cervical cancer in HIV-infected women, efforts should be made to promote cervical cancer screening, particularly in high-risk women.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2009.1412

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277030400009

    View details for PubMedID 20201703

  • Prenatal Screening for Infectious Diseases: An Analysis of Disparities and Adherence to Policy in California MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Sheikh, L. A., Sarnquist, C., Grieb, E. M., Sullivan, B., Maldonado, Y. A. 2009; 13 (2): 260-267

    Abstract

    Prenatal infectious diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity among newborns, but many are preventable with proper maternal screening and treatment. METHODS; Adherence to prenatal infectious disease screening guidelines and demographic factors that influence adherence were determined utilizing existing data on 1837 live births from 1999-2003.We found higher rates of testing for syphilis (94.54%), rubella (92.69%) and hepatitis B (94.23%) than for HIV (73.82%) and GBS (69.05%). Adherence to testing guidelines varied by both disease and maternal factors. Lack of insurance, geographic location, inadequate prenatal care and incarceration were the main maternal factors associated with lack of testing.Disease screening rates may be improved by reducing socioeconomic barriers to prenatal testing, supporting access to insurance, eliminating provider biases and providing adequate prenatal care.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-008-0341-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263081300012

    View details for PubMedID 18446431

  • Patient acceptance of and satisfaction with rapid HIV testing in a labor and delivery setting JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH Rahangdale, L., Sarnquist, C., Maldonado, Y., Cohan, D. 2008; 17 (3): 465-471

    Abstract

    To evaluate women's acceptance of and satisfaction with rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in a labor and delivery (L&D) setting.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women who underwent counseling for rapid HIV testing in an L&D unit at a university-affiliated urban hospital from April 1, 2005, to July 15, 2006. Medical chart abstractions were performed for all 158 eligible women, and a convenience sample of 46 women also completed a survey evaluating their satisfaction using a validated decisional conflict scale.Uptake of rapid HIV testing was 98.1% (155 of 158). Overall, 89.1% of the 46 surveyed women reported feeling satisfied with their testing experience, and 82.6% of women reported no decisional conflict in making decisions for rapid testing; 9% of women reported decisional conflict. The median decisional conflict score on a scale of 0-100 was 5 (mean 11.6, SD 16). In addition, most women reported feeling certain about their decision to test (87.0%), feeling informed about testing (76.1%), having high levels of clarity about their values regarding testing (76.1%), and feeling supported in their decision-making process (76.1%).In this study population, there was a high level of acceptance and satisfaction with rapid HIV testing in the L&D setting. Rapid HIV testing is a vital component of perinatal HIV transmission prevention, as well as being an opportunity for women, some of whom have little contact with the healthcare system, to learn their HIV status.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2007.0545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254734800015

    View details for PubMedID 18373491

  • A comparison of perinatal HIV prevention opportunities for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women in California AIDS EDUCATION AND PREVENTION Kropp, R. Y., Sarnquist, C. C., Montgomery, E. T., Ruiz, J. D., Maldonado, Y. A. 2006; 18 (5): 430-443

    Abstract

    Using a semi-structured survey and convenience sample of pregnant/recently delivered Hispanic (n = 453) and non-Hispanic (n = 904) women in four California counties, this study compared rates of timely prenatal care (PNC) initiation, HIV test counseling, test offering, and test acceptance in PNC between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. Hispanic women were less likely to report timely PNC initiation (69.3% vs. 80.4%, p < .0001), receiving test offer (69.5% vs. 76.7%, p = .002), and ever having been tested (77.3% vs. 87.9%, p < .0001) than non-Hispanic women. Hispanic women were more likely to report not knowing where to go (p = .04) and having no insurance (p < .001), transportation (p = .001), and child care (p = .007) as reasons for late PNC start. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic women most commonly accepted a test offer for their health/health of their baby; Hispanic women were more likely to accept based on doctor/nurse recommendation (80.1% vs. 62.7%, p < .001). A quarter of Hispanic and non-Hispanic women reported they didn't feel they had a choice or that test was done automatically. Efforts to improve perinatal HIV prevention opportunities for all women in California are required. Furthermore, Hispanic women may have disparities in receipt of prenatal care and HIV test offer that need additional attention.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241078100005

    View details for PubMedID 17067254

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