Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Nevada Las Vegas (2019)
  • Bachelor of Science, Juniata College (2012)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications

  • Pharmacokinetics of CamSA, a potential prophylactic compound against Clostridioides difficile infections. Biochemical pharmacology Yip, C., Okada, N. C., Howerton, A., Amei, A., Abel-Santos, E. 2020; 183: 114314


    Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) are the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C. difficile produces dormant spores that serve as infectious agents. Bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract signal spores to germinate into toxin-producing cells. As spore germination is required for CDI onset, anti-germination compounds may serve as prophylactics. CamSA, a synthetic bile salt, was previously shown to inhibit C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, a single dose of CamSA was sufficient to offer multi-day protection from CDI in mice without any observable toxicity. To study this intriguing protection pattern, we examined the pharmacokinetic parameters of CamSA. CamSA was stable to the gut of antibiotic-treated mice but was extensively degraded by the microbiota of non-antibiotic-treated animals. Our data also suggest that CamSA's systemic absorption is minimal since it is retained primarily in the intestinal lumen and liver. CamSA shows weak interactions with CYP3A4, a P450 hepatic isozyme involved in drug metabolism and bile salt modification. Like other bile salts, CamSA seems to undergo enterohepatic circulation. We hypothesize that the cycling of CamSA between the liver and intestines serves as a slow-release mechanism that allows CamSA to be retained in the gastrointestinal tract for days. This model explains how a single CamSA dose can prevent murine CDI even though spores are present in the animal's intestine for up to four days post-challenge.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114314

    View details for PubMedID 33152344

  • Modulators of Bacterial Spore Germination Germination: Types, Process and Effects Yip, C., Hassan, C., Phan, J., Abel-Santos, E. edited by Mora-Escobedo, R., Martinez-Villaluenga, C., Reynoso-Camacho, R. 2019
  • The Design, Synthesis, and Characterizations of Spore Germination Inhibitors Effective against an Epidemic Strain of Clostridium difficile JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY Sharma, S. K., Yip, C., Esposito, E., Sharma, P. V., Simon, M. P., Abel-Santos, E., Firestine, S. M. 2018; 61 (15): 6759–78


    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), particularly those caused by the BI/NAP1/027 epidemic strains, are challenging to treat. One method to address this disease is to prevent the development of CDI by inhibiting the germination of C. difficile spores. Previous studies have identified cholic amide m-sulfonic acid, CamSA, as an inhibitor of spore germination. However, CamSA is inactive against the hypervirulent strain R20291. To circumvent this problem, a series of cholic acid amides were synthesized and tested against R20291. The best compound in the series was the simple phenyl amide analogue which possessed an IC50 value of 1.8 μM, more than 225 times as potent as the natural germination inhibitor, chenodeoxycholate. This is the most potent inhibitor of C. difficile spore germination described to date. QSAR and molecular modeling analysis demonstrated that increases in hydrophobicity and decreases in partial charge or polar surface area were correlated with increases in potency.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00632

    View details for Web of Science ID 000441484300020

    View details for PubMedID 30004695

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6192251

  • Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infections ANTIBIOTIC DRUG DISCOVERY: NEW TARGETS AND MOLECULAR ENTITIES Yip, C., Phan, J., Abel-Santos, E., Firestine, S. M., Lister, T. 2017; 58: 1–19

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