Current Role at Stanford
Graduate/Clinical Education Librarian, Lane Medical Library
Graduate/Clinical Education Librarian, Lane Medical Library
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of randomized trials comparing oral versus intravenous iron therapy to treat postpartum anemia.DATA SOURCES: Data sources were: PubMed (1972-2017); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CENTRAL (1972-2017); CINAHL (1972-2017); Web of Science; Excerpta Medica Database, and EMBASE (1972-2017).STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included randomized trials comparing oral versus intravenous iron monotherapy to treat postpartum anemia (classified as a hemoglobin<12 g/dL).STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The primary outcome was the hemoglobin concentration at 6 weeks postpartum. Secondary outcomes included: hemoglobin concentration at 1 - 5 weeks postpartum, ferritin concentration at 1 - 6 weeks postpartum; and maternal adverse outcomes. For meta-analysis, mean differences and odds ratios using a random effects model were calculated. Risk of heterogeneity was reported as I2.RESULTS: Fifteen randomized trials met our inclusion criteria (n=1,001 and 1,181 women receiving oral iron and intravenous iron, respectively); 4 studies reported data for our primary outcome. We observed higher postpartum week 6 hemoglobin concentrations in the iv iron group compared to the oral iron group, (mean difference 0.9 g/dL, 95% CI=0.4, 1.3; p=0.0003). Compared to oral iron, women receiving iv iron had higher hemoglobin concentrations at postpartum weeks 1, 2, and 3; higher ferritin concentrations at postpartum weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6; an increased likelihood of skin flushing (odds ratio=6.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-31.03; P=0.01; I2=0%); and a decreased likelihood of constipation (odds ratio=0.08, 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.21; P=<0.00001, I2=27%) and dyspepsia (odds ratio=0.07, 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.42; P=0.004; I2=0%). The reported event rate for anaphylaxis among women receiving intravenous iron was 0.6%.CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, among women with postpartum anemia, hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks postpartum were almost 1 g/dL higher in women who received intravenous iron compared to oral iron. The safety profile of intravenous iron was also reassuring. Given the weaker hemoglobin response and higher risk of gastrointestinal side-effects with oral iron use, our findings suggest that intravenous iron be considered as a viable treatment option for postpartum iron deficiency anemia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.12.016
View details for PubMedID 30578747
Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) for 12 weeks is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 2 (GT2) in most of Asia despite availability of new CHC medications. SOF-RBV real-world effectiveness has only been reported in small and/or single-centre studies. Our goal was to determine the real-world effectiveness of 12-week SOF+RBV therapy for CHC GT2 in Asia.A systematic search on PubMed and Embase was conducted through 30 June 2017. We identified full articles and conference proceedings of at least 10 adult patients with CHC GT2 treated with SOF+RBV for 12 weeks under real-world setting in Asia.A total of 2208 patients from 13 studies were included. The pooled sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was 95.8% (95% CI 94.6% to 96.9%) with non-significant heterogeneity (I2=34.4%). Anaemia (27.9%) was the most common adverse event (AE), with serious AEs in 2.0% and only 0.7% discontinued therapy prematurely. In subgroup analyses, patients with cirrhosis had 8.7% lower SVR12 than non-cirrhotic patients (P<0.0001), and treatment-experienced patients had 7.2% lower SVR12 than treatment-naïve patients (P=0.0002). Cirrhotic treatment-experienced patients had the lowest SVR12 at 84.5%. There were no significant differences in pooled SVR12 among patient subgroups: RBV dose reduction versus no dose reduction (P=0.30); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) versus no HCC (P=0.10); GT 2a versus 2b (P=0.86); and <65 vs ≥65 years of age (P=0.20).SOF+RBV for 12 weeks was safe and effective for patients with CHC GT2 in Asia, although those with cirrhosis and prior treatment failure had a lower pooled SVR12 rate.CRD42017067928.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjgast-2018-000207
View details for PubMedID 30002863
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6038840
Genotype 3 (GT3) is a common chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype in Asia. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have high cure rates, but real-world results are limited for Asia.To determine the real-world effectiveness of DAAs for patients with CHC GT3 in Asia.A systematic search was performed in PubMed (including MEDLINE), Embase, and selected international meeting abstract repositories. Eligible studies were postmarketing observational studies from Asia with the primary outcome of sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12).A total of 15 studies with 4230 patients yielded a pooled SVR12 of 92.7%. High heterogeneity (I2=93.2%, P<0.0001) was noted. In subgroup analyses, patients with cirrhosis had 10.9% lower SVR12 than non-cirrhotic patients (88.6% vs 98.9%; P<0.0001) and contributed 69.5% of the heterogeneity. Prior treatment failure did not reduce the pooled SVR12 (treatment-naïve: 94.6%, 95% CI 91.3% to 96.7% vs treatment-experienced: 94.0%, 95% CI 77.5% to 98.6%; P=0.89). Twenty-four weeks of sofosbuvir+ribavirin dual therapy was the most commonly used regimen which led to similar SVR12 (OR=1.1, P=0.73) but lower adverse event rate than 12 weeks of sofosbuvir+ribavirin+pegylated interferon triple therapy.Sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 24 weeks is the most widely used and generally well-tolerated DAA therapy in Asia. However, its effectiveness is not optimal in GT3 patients with cirrhosis.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjgast-2018-000209
View details for PubMedID 30147941
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6104766
Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have shown high efficacy and tolerability for patients with HCV genotype 1/1b (GT1/1b) in clinical trials. However, robust real-world evidence of interferon (IFN)-free DAA treatment for HCV GT1-infected patients in Asia is still lacking.To systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness and tolerability of IFN-free DAA therapy for HCV GT1 infection in Asia.We included studies that enrolled adult patients with HCV GT1 infection in routine clinical practice in Asia, using IFN-free DAA regimens, and reported sustained virological response (SVR) after 12/24 weeks end-of-treatment by 31 May 2017. The pooled SVR rates were computed with a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression as previously registered in PROSPERO were performed to determine how pre-planned variables might have affected the pooled estimates.We included 41 studies from eight countries and regions, comprising of 8574 individuals. The pooled SVR rates for GT1 were 89.9% (95% CI 88.6-91.1, I2 = 55.1%) with daclatasvir/asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) and 98.1% (95% CI 97.0-99.0, I2 = 41.0%) with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin (LDV/SOF ± RBV). Baseline cirrhosis but not prior treatment history and age, attenuated the effectiveness of both regimens. Baseline resistance associated substitutions (RASs) severely attenuated SVR of DCV/ASV (65.4% vs 94.3%, P < 0.001) and only minimally with LDV/SOF ± RBV (94.5% vs 99.2%, P = 0.003). Patients with renal dysfunction treated with DCV/ASV showed a higher SVR rate (93.9% vs 89.8%, P = 0.046). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) LDV/SOF ± RBV achieved a lower SVR than those without HCC (94.1% vs 98.7%, P = 0.001).All oral DAA treatment of HCV GT1 resulted in high cure rates in Asian patients in routine clinical practice setting including elderly patients and those with end-stage renal disease.
View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.14507
View details for PubMedID 29327780
Statins may improve outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of statins in the setting of CLD.We searched several databases from inception to 17 October 2016 to identify comparative studies evaluating the role of statins in CLD. Outcomes of interest were the associations between statin use and progression of fibrosis, development of hepatic decompensation in cirrhosis, and mortality in CLD. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were pooled and analyzed using a random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the method of detection for progression of hepatic fibrosis and quality of studies.We included 10 studies (1 randomized controlled trial and 9 observational) with 259,453 patients (54,441 statin users and 205,012 nonusers). For progression of hepatic fibrosis, pooled HR (95% confidence interval) was 0.49 (0.39-0.62). On subgroup analysis of studies using ICD-9 (The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) coding and a second method to detect cirrhosis, pooled HR was 0.58 (0.51-0.65); pooled HR for studies using ICD-9 coding only was 0.36 (0.29-0.44). For progression of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, pooled HR was 0.52 (0.37-0.73). For hepatic decompensation in cirrhosis, pooled HR was 0.54 (0.46-0.65). For mortality, pooled HR based on observational studies was 0.67 (0.46-0.98); in the randomized controlled trial, HR was 0.39 (0.15-0.99). However, the quality of evidence for these associations is low as most included studies were retrospective in nature and limited by residual confounding.Statins may retard the progression of hepatic fibrosis, may prevent hepatic decompensation in cirrhosis, and may reduce all-cause mortality in patients with CLD. As the quality (certainty) of evidence is low, further studies are needed before statins can be routinely recommended.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 6 June 2017; doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.170.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ajg.2017.170
View details for PubMedID 28585556
To review available evidence for use of cone-beam CT during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for detection of tumor and feeding arteries.Literature searches were conducted from inception to May 15, 2016, in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Searches included "cone beam," "CBCT," "C-arm," "CACT," "cone-beam CT," "volumetric CT," "volume computed tomography," "volume CT," AND "liver," "hepatic*," "hepatoc*." Studies that involved adults with HCC specifically and treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization that used cone-beam CT were included.Inclusion criteria were met by 18 studies. Pooled sensitivity of cone-beam CT for detecting tumor was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-95%), whereas pooled sensitivity of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for tumor detection was 67% (95% CI, 51%-80%). Pooled sensitivity of cone-beam CT for detecting tumor feeding arteries was 93% (95% CI, 91%-95%), whereas pooled sensitivity of DSA was 55% (95% CI, 36%-74%).Cone-beam CT can significantly increase detection of tumors and tumor feeding arteries during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Cone-beam CT should be considered as an adjunct tool to DSA during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization treatments of HCC.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2016.11.037
View details for PubMedID 28109724
Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety.To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue.Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov.Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: (1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, (2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and (3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency.We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates.Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from <1% to 36% across a range of hospital settings. Two studies showed relationships between high alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. Although studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes.Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:136-144. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.2520
View details for PubMedID 26663904
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4778561
It is unknown whether children with brain tumors have a higher risk of complications while participating in sports. We sought to estimate the prevalence of such events by conducting a systematic review of the literature, and we surveyed providers involved with pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumor patients.A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was conducted for original articles addressing sport-related complications in the brain-tumor population. An online questionnaire was created to survey providers involved with pediatric CNS tumor patients about their current recommendations and experience regarding sports and brain tumors.We retrieved 32 subjects, including 19 pediatric cases from the literature. Most lesions associated with sport complications were arachnoid cysts (n = 21), followed by glioma (n = 5). The sports in which symptom onset most commonly occurred were soccer (n = 7), football (n = 5), and running (n = 5). We surveyed 111 pediatric neuro-oncology providers. Sport restriction varied greatly from none to 14 sports. Time to return to play in sports with contact also varied considerably between providers. Rationales for limiting sports activities were partly related to subspecialty. Responders reported 9 sport-related adverse events in patients with brain tumor.Sport-related complications are uncommon in children with brain tumors. Patients might not be at a significantly higher risk and should not need to be excluded from most sports activities.
View details for PubMedID 26034627
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4369718
BACKGROUND: Screening of persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) for Lynch syndrome can yield substantial benefits at acceptable costs, presuming sufficient uptake of genetic testing by first-degree relatives of Lynch syndrome probands. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the frequency of, and factors associated with, genetic testing of first-degree relatives of Lynch syndrome probands. METHODS: We searched 4 databases (CINAHL, PsycInfo, PUBMED, and SCOPUS) for articles published through May 2011 reporting uptake of genetic testing by relatives of Lynch syndrome probands. Two investigators independently screened articles to determine whether they met inclusion criteria; data were collected on populations, methodologies, and uptake of genetic testing. A narrative, qualitative systematic review was performed. RESULTS: We identified 1258 potentially relevant articles; 533 were fully reviewed and 8 were included in the final analysis. Of first-degree relatives of Lynch syndrome probands, 52% or less received genetic testing. For each proband, 4.6 or fewer relatives underwent genetic testing. Demographic factors (age <50 y, female sex, parenthood, level of education, employment, participation in medical studies), psychological factors (lack of depressive symptoms), and possibly family history (greater number of relatives with cancer) were associated with uptake of genetic testing. CONCLUSION: Based on a systematic review, genetic testing appears to be underutilized by first-degree relatives of patients with Lynch syndrome. The clinical benefit and economic feasibility of screening persons with CRC for Lynch syndrome depends on optimizing family-wide uptake of genetic testing. Future research and clinical efforts should focus on ways to overcome barriers to genetic testing.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.04.044
View details for Web of Science ID 000323816100012
This study sought to assess the safety of same-day discharge in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).The safety of same-day discharge has previously been evaluated primarily in small, single-center studies.We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting outcomes of patients discharged on the same day as PCI. Demographic data, procedural characteristics, and adverse outcomes were collected. Two composite outcomes were pre-specified: 1) death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR); and 2) major bleeding or vascular complications.Data from 12,803 patients in 37 studies were collated, including 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 2,738) and 30 observational studies (n = 10,065). The majority of patients in both cohorts underwent PCI for stable angina. The vascular access site was predominantly transradial in the randomized cohort (60.8%) and transfemoral in the observational cohort (70.0%). In the RCTs, no difference was seen between same-day discharge and routine overnight observation with regard to death/MI/TLR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43 to 1.87; p = 0.78) or for major bleeding/vascular complications (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 0.84 to 3.40; p = 0.15). In observational studies, the primary outcome of death/MI/TLR occurred at a pooled rate of 1.00% (95% CI: 0.58% to 1.68%), and major bleeding/vascular complications occurred at a pooled rate of 0.68% (95% CI: 0.35% to 1.32%).In selected patients undergoing largely elective PCI, same-day discharge was associated with a low rate of major complications and appeared to be as safe as routine overnight observation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.03.051
View details for Web of Science ID 000322064100004
View details for PubMedID 23623905
View details for Web of Science ID 000312351600003
The health benefits of organic foods are unclear.To review evidence comparing the health effects of organic and conventional foods.MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2011), EMBASE, CAB Direct, Agricola, TOXNET, Cochrane Library (January 1966 to May 2009), and bibliographies of retrieved articles.English-language reports of comparisons of organically and conventionally grown food or of populations consuming these foods.2 independent investigators extracted data on methods, health outcomes, and nutrient and contaminant levels.17 studies in humans and 223 studies of nutrient and contaminant levels in foods met inclusion criteria. Only 3 of the human studies examined clinical outcomes, finding no significant differences between populations by food type for allergic outcomes (eczema, wheeze, atopic sensitization) or symptomatic Campylobacter infection. Two studies reported significantly lower urinary pesticide levels among children consuming organic versus conventional diets, but studies of biomarker and nutrient levels in serum, urine, breast milk, and semen in adults did not identify clinically meaningful differences. All estimates of differences in nutrient and contaminant levels in foods were highly heterogeneous except for the estimate for phosphorus; phosphorus levels were significantly higher than in conventional produce, although this difference is not clinically significant. The risk for contamination with detectable pesticide residues was lower among organic than conventional produce (risk difference, 30% [CI, -37% to -23%]), but differences in risk for exceeding maximum allowed limits were small. Escherichia coli contamination risk did not differ between organic and conventional produce. Bacterial contamination of retail chicken and pork was common but unrelated to farming method. However, the risk for isolating bacteria resistant to 3 or more antibiotics was higher in conventional than in organic chicken and pork (risk difference, 33% [CI, 21% to 45%]).Studies were heterogeneous and limited in number, and publication bias may be present.The published literature lacks strong evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods. Consumption of organic foods may reduce exposure to pesticide residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.None.
View details for DOI 10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00007
View details for PubMedID 22944875
View details for Web of Science ID 000308361500005
Published data regarding the effect of concomitant clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on cardiovascular outcomes have been conflicting.To perform an updated meta-analysis in order to determine changes in risk differences (RD) between primary and secondary outcome analyses.Primary analysis was based on definite vascular outcomes, including all cause mortality, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and/or stroke. Secondary analysis also incorporated probable cardiac events, which included re-hospitalization for cardiac symptoms or revascularization procedures. RD were combined using a random-effects model.We reviewed 1,204 publications of which 26 studies (16 published articles, 10 abstracts) met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis of outcomes from the two randomized controlled trials did not show an increased risk (RD 0.0, 95% CI -0.01, 0.01) for adverse outcomes. The meta-analysis of primary outcomes showed a RD of 0.02 (95% CI 0.01, 0.03) for all studies. The meta-analysis for secondary outcomes yielded a RD of 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.04) based on 19 published papers and abstracts. When primary and secondary outcomes were combined, the meta-analysis for published papers yielded an overall RD of 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.06).In patients using concomitant clopidogrel and PPI therapy, the risk of adverse cardiac outcomes was 0% based on data from well-controlled randomized trials. Data from retrospective studies and the addition of probable vascular events significantly increased the RD estimates, likely due to lack of adjustment for potential confounders.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-2007-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000303385100025
View details for PubMedID 22198703
BACKGROUND A potential relationship has been suggested between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). AIM To evaluate whether there is a causal relationship between GERD and different ILDs. METHODS We conducted a systematic search of literature published between 1980 and 2010. After a review by two independent authors, each study was assigned an evidence-based rating according to a standard scoring system. RESULTS We identified 319 publications and 22 of them met the entry criteria. Of those, the relationship between GERD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was investigated in 14 articles, pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in six articles and pulmonary involvement in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) in two articles. We found the prevalence of GERD and/or oesophageal dysmotility to be higher in patients with different types of ILD as compared with those without ILD [Evidence B]. Among patients with IPF, 67-76% demonstrated abnormal oesophageal acid exposure off PPI treatment. No relationship was demonstrated between severity of GERD and severity of IPF [Evidence B]. Data are scant on outcomes of antireflux treatment in patients with IPF. There is a correlation between the severity of ILD and the degree of oesophageal motor impairment in patients with SSc and MCTD [Evidence B]. CONCLUSIONS Based on the currently available data, a causal relationship between GERD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cannot be established. There is scant evidence about antireflux therapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. There may be an association between lung and oesophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease, but a causal relationship cannot be established.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04870.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000297100300004
View details for PubMedID 21999527
Carbonated beverages have unique properties that may potentially exacerbate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as high acidity and carbonation. Cessation of carbonated beverage consumption is commonly recommended as part of lifestyle modifications for patients with GERD.To evaluate the relationship of carbonated beverages with oesophageal pH, oesophageal motility, oesophageal damage, GERD symptoms and GERD complications.A systematic review.Carbonated beverage consumption results in a very short decline in intra-oesophageal pH. In addition, carbonated beverages may lead to a transient reduction in lower oesophageal sphincter basal pressure. There is no evidence that carbonated beverages directly cause oesophageal damage. Carbonated beverages have not been consistently shown to cause GERD-related symptoms. Furthermore, there is no evidence that these popular drinks lead to GERD complications or oesophageal cancer.Based on the currently available literature, it appears that there is no direct evidence that carbonated beverages promote or exacerbate GERD.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04232.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000274407000001
View details for PubMedID 20055784
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are stockpiled internationally for extended use in an influenza pandemic.To evaluate the safety and efficacy of extended-duration (>4 weeks) NAI chemoprophylaxis against influenza.Studies published in any language through 11 June 2009 identified by searching 10 electronic databases and 3 trial registries.Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind human trials of extended-duration NAI chemoprophylaxis that reported outcomes of laboratory-confirmed influenza or adverse events.2 reviewers independently assessed study quality and abstracted information from eligible studies.Of 1876 potentially relevant citations, 7 trials involving 7021 unique participants met inclusion criteria. Data were pooled by using random-effects models. Chemoprophylaxis with NAIs decreased the frequency of symptomatic influenza (relative risk [RR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.18 to 0.37]; risk difference [RD], -3.9 percentage points [CI, -5.8 to -1.9 percentage points]) but not asymptomatic influenza (RR, 1.03 [CI, 0.81 to 1.30]; RD, -0.4 percentage point [CI, -1.6 to 0.9 percentage point]). Adverse effects were not increased overall among NAI recipients (RR, 1.01 [CI, 0.94 to 1.08]; RD, 0.1 percentage point [CI, -0.2 to 0.4 percentage point]), but nausea and vomiting were more common among those who took oseltamivir (RR, 1.48 [CI, 1.86 to 2.33]; RD, 1.7 percentage points [CI, 0.6 to 2.9 percentage points]). Prevention of influenza did not statistically significantly differ between zanamivir and oseltamivir.All trials were industry-sponsored. No study was powered to detect rare adverse events, and none included diverse racial groups, children, immunocompromised patients, or individuals who received live attenuated influenza virus vaccine.Extended-duration zanamivir and oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis seems to be highly efficacious for preventing symptomatic influenza among immunocompetent white and Japanese adults. Extended-duration oseltamivir is associated with increased nausea and vomiting. Safety and efficacy in several subpopulations that might receive extended-duration influenza chemoprophylaxis are unknown.
View details for Web of Science ID 000270470500004
View details for PubMedID 19652173
To identify the characteristics of phase II studies that predict for subsequent "positive" phase III trials (those that reached the proposed primary end points of study or those wherein the study drug was superior to the standard regimen investigating targeted agents in advanced tumors.We identified all phase III clinical trials of targeted therapies against advanced cancers published from 1985 to 2005. Characteristics of the preceding phase II studies were reviewed to identify predictive factors for success of the subsequent phase III trial. Data were analyzed using the chi(2) test and logistic regression models.Of 351 phase II studies, 167 (47.6%) subsequent phase III trials were positive and 184 (52.4%) negative. Phase II studies from multiple rather than single institutions were more likely to precede a successful trial (60.4% v 39.4%; P < .001). Positive phase II results were more likely to lead to a successful phase III trial (50.8% v 22.5%; P = .003). The percentage of successful trials from pharmaceutical companies was significantly higher compared with academic, cooperative groups, and research institutes (89.5% v 44.2%, 45.2%, and 46.3%, respectively; P = .002). On multivariate analysis, these factors and shorter time interval between publication of phase II results and III study publication were independent predictive factors for a positive phase III trial.In phase II studies of targeted agents, multiple- versus single-institution participation, positive phase II trial, pharmaceutical company-based trials, and shorter time period between publication of phase II to phase III trial were independent predictive factors of success in a phase III trial. Investigators should be cognizant of these factors in phase II studies before designing phase III trials.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2007.14.8874
View details for Web of Science ID 000254178600020
View details for PubMedID 18285603
Without detailed evidence of their effectiveness, pedometers have recently become popular as a tool for motivating physical activity.To evaluate the association of pedometer use with physical activity and health outcomes among outpatient adults.English-language articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sport Discus, PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, Thompson Scientific (formerly known as Thompson ISI), and ERIC (1966-2007); bibliographies of retrieved articles; and conference proceedings.Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an assessment of pedometer use among adult outpatients, reported a change in steps per day, and included more than 5 participants.Two investigators independently abstracted data about the intervention; participants; number of steps per day; and presence or absence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Data were pooled using random-effects calculations, and meta-regression was performed.Our searches identified 2246 citations; 26 studies with a total of 2767 participants met inclusion criteria (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 18 observational studies). The participants' mean (SD) age was 49 (9) years and 85% were women. The mean intervention duration was 18 weeks. In the RCTs, pedometer users significantly increased their physical activity by 2491 steps per day more than control participants (95% confidence interval [CI], 1098-3885 steps per day, P < .001). Among the observational studies, pedometer users significantly increased their physical activity by 2183 steps per day over baseline (95% CI, 1571-2796 steps per day, P < .0001). Overall, pedometer users increased their physical activity by 26.9% over baseline. An important predictor of increased physical activity was having a step goal such as 10,000 steps per day (P = .001). When data from all studies were combined, pedometer users significantly decreased their body mass index by 0.38 (95% CI, 0.05-0.72; P = .03). This decrease was associated with older age (P = .001) and having a step goal (P = .04). Intervention participants significantly decreased their systolic blood pressure by 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.7-5.9 mm Hg, P < .001). This decrease was associated with greater baseline systolic blood pressure (P = .009) and change in steps per day (P = .08).The results suggest that the use of a pedometer is associated with significant increases in physical activity and significant decreases in body mass index and blood pressure. Whether these changes are durable over the long term is undetermined.
View details for Web of Science ID 000251055900030
View details for PubMedID 18029834
We designed hedges for clinical queries sent to MEDLINE and Google in an attempt to explicitly model the relationship, such as treatment or diagnosis, between search terms. A pilot evaluation suggested that mean average precision (MAP) improved for a precomputed diagnostic query but not for a precomputed treatment query. An important limitation to this approach is that target resources do not explicitly model these relationships.
View details for PubMedID 16779453