Current Role at Stanford
Graduate/Clinical Education Librarian, Lane Medical Library
Graduate/Clinical Education Librarian, Lane Medical Library
BACKGROUND A potential relationship has been suggested between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). AIM To evaluate whether there is a causal relationship between GERD and different ILDs. METHODS We conducted a systematic search of literature published between 1980 and 2010. After a review by two independent authors, each study was assigned an evidence-based rating according to a standard scoring system. RESULTS We identified 319 publications and 22 of them met the entry criteria. Of those, the relationship between GERD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was investigated in 14 articles, pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in six articles and pulmonary involvement in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) in two articles. We found the prevalence of GERD and/or oesophageal dysmotility to be higher in patients with different types of ILD as compared with those without ILD [Evidence B]. Among patients with IPF, 67-76% demonstrated abnormal oesophageal acid exposure off PPI treatment. No relationship was demonstrated between severity of GERD and severity of IPF [Evidence B]. Data are scant on outcomes of antireflux treatment in patients with IPF. There is a correlation between the severity of ILD and the degree of oesophageal motor impairment in patients with SSc and MCTD [Evidence B]. CONCLUSIONS Based on the currently available data, a causal relationship between GERD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cannot be established. There is scant evidence about antireflux therapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. There may be an association between lung and oesophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease, but a causal relationship cannot be established.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04870.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000297100300004
View details for PubMedID 21999527
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are stockpiled internationally for extended use in an influenza pandemic.To evaluate the safety and efficacy of extended-duration (>4 weeks) NAI chemoprophylaxis against influenza.Studies published in any language through 11 June 2009 identified by searching 10 electronic databases and 3 trial registries.Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind human trials of extended-duration NAI chemoprophylaxis that reported outcomes of laboratory-confirmed influenza or adverse events.2 reviewers independently assessed study quality and abstracted information from eligible studies.Of 1876 potentially relevant citations, 7 trials involving 7021 unique participants met inclusion criteria. Data were pooled by using random-effects models. Chemoprophylaxis with NAIs decreased the frequency of symptomatic influenza (relative risk [RR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.18 to 0.37]; risk difference [RD], -3.9 percentage points [CI, -5.8 to -1.9 percentage points]) but not asymptomatic influenza (RR, 1.03 [CI, 0.81 to 1.30]; RD, -0.4 percentage point [CI, -1.6 to 0.9 percentage point]). Adverse effects were not increased overall among NAI recipients (RR, 1.01 [CI, 0.94 to 1.08]; RD, 0.1 percentage point [CI, -0.2 to 0.4 percentage point]), but nausea and vomiting were more common among those who took oseltamivir (RR, 1.48 [CI, 1.86 to 2.33]; RD, 1.7 percentage points [CI, 0.6 to 2.9 percentage points]). Prevention of influenza did not statistically significantly differ between zanamivir and oseltamivir.All trials were industry-sponsored. No study was powered to detect rare adverse events, and none included diverse racial groups, children, immunocompromised patients, or individuals who received live attenuated influenza virus vaccine.Extended-duration zanamivir and oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis seems to be highly efficacious for preventing symptomatic influenza among immunocompetent white and Japanese adults. Extended-duration oseltamivir is associated with increased nausea and vomiting. Safety and efficacy in several subpopulations that might receive extended-duration influenza chemoprophylaxis are unknown.
View details for Web of Science ID 000270470500004
View details for PubMedID 19652173
To identify the characteristics of phase II studies that predict for subsequent "positive" phase III trials (those that reached the proposed primary end points of study or those wherein the study drug was superior to the standard regimen investigating targeted agents in advanced tumors.We identified all phase III clinical trials of targeted therapies against advanced cancers published from 1985 to 2005. Characteristics of the preceding phase II studies were reviewed to identify predictive factors for success of the subsequent phase III trial. Data were analyzed using the chi(2) test and logistic regression models.Of 351 phase II studies, 167 (47.6%) subsequent phase III trials were positive and 184 (52.4%) negative. Phase II studies from multiple rather than single institutions were more likely to precede a successful trial (60.4% v 39.4%; P < .001). Positive phase II results were more likely to lead to a successful phase III trial (50.8% v 22.5%; P = .003). The percentage of successful trials from pharmaceutical companies was significantly higher compared with academic, cooperative groups, and research institutes (89.5% v 44.2%, 45.2%, and 46.3%, respectively; P = .002). On multivariate analysis, these factors and shorter time interval between publication of phase II results and III study publication were independent predictive factors for a positive phase III trial.In phase II studies of targeted agents, multiple- versus single-institution participation, positive phase II trial, pharmaceutical company-based trials, and shorter time period between publication of phase II to phase III trial were independent predictive factors of success in a phase III trial. Investigators should be cognizant of these factors in phase II studies before designing phase III trials.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2007.14.8874
View details for Web of Science ID 000254178600020
View details for PubMedID 18285603
Without detailed evidence of their effectiveness, pedometers have recently become popular as a tool for motivating physical activity.To evaluate the association of pedometer use with physical activity and health outcomes among outpatient adults.English-language articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sport Discus, PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, Thompson Scientific (formerly known as Thompson ISI), and ERIC (1966-2007); bibliographies of retrieved articles; and conference proceedings.Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an assessment of pedometer use among adult outpatients, reported a change in steps per day, and included more than 5 participants.Two investigators independently abstracted data about the intervention; participants; number of steps per day; and presence or absence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Data were pooled using random-effects calculations, and meta-regression was performed.Our searches identified 2246 citations; 26 studies with a total of 2767 participants met inclusion criteria (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 18 observational studies). The participants' mean (SD) age was 49 (9) years and 85% were women. The mean intervention duration was 18 weeks. In the RCTs, pedometer users significantly increased their physical activity by 2491 steps per day more than control participants (95% confidence interval [CI], 1098-3885 steps per day, P < .001). Among the observational studies, pedometer users significantly increased their physical activity by 2183 steps per day over baseline (95% CI, 1571-2796 steps per day, P < .0001). Overall, pedometer users increased their physical activity by 26.9% over baseline. An important predictor of increased physical activity was having a step goal such as 10,000 steps per day (P = .001). When data from all studies were combined, pedometer users significantly decreased their body mass index by 0.38 (95% CI, 0.05-0.72; P = .03). This decrease was associated with older age (P = .001) and having a step goal (P = .04). Intervention participants significantly decreased their systolic blood pressure by 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.7-5.9 mm Hg, P < .001). This decrease was associated with greater baseline systolic blood pressure (P = .009) and change in steps per day (P = .08).The results suggest that the use of a pedometer is associated with significant increases in physical activity and significant decreases in body mass index and blood pressure. Whether these changes are durable over the long term is undetermined.
View details for Web of Science ID 000251055900030
View details for PubMedID 18029834
We designed hedges for clinical queries sent to MEDLINE and Google in an attempt to explicitly model the relationship, such as treatment or diagnosis, between search terms. A pilot evaluation suggested that mean average precision (MAP) improved for a precomputed diagnostic query but not for a precomputed treatment query. An important limitation to this approach is that target resources do not explicitly model these relationships.
View details for PubMedID 16779453