Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Boston University (2012)
  • Bachelor of Science, Arizona State University (2003)

Stanford Advisors


Journal Articles

  • Safety behaviors and sleep effort predict sleep disturbance and fatigue in an outpatient sample with anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of psychosomatic research Fairholme, C. P., Manber, R. 2014; 76 (3): 233-236


    Theoretical and empirical support for the role of dysfunctional beliefs, safety behaviors, and increased sleep effort in the maintenance of insomnia has begun to accumulate. It is not yet known how these factors predict sleep disturbance and fatigue occurring in the context of anxiety and mood disorders. It was hypothesized that these three insomnia-specific cognitive-behavioral factors would be uniquely associated with insomnia and fatigue among patients with emotional disorders after adjusting for current symptoms of anxiety and depression and trait levels of neuroticism and extraversion.Outpatients with a current anxiety or mood disorder (N=63) completed self-report measures including the Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep Scale (DBAS), Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors Questionnaire (SRBQ), Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (GSES), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (FFI), and the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Multivariate path analysis was used to evaluate study hypotheses.SRBQ (B=.60, p<.001, 95% CI [.34, .86]) and GSES (B=.31, p<.01, 95% CI [.07, .55]) were both significantly associated with PSQI. There was a significant interaction between SRBQ and DBAS (B=.25, p<.05, 95% CI [.04, .47]) such that the relationship between safety behaviors and fatigue was strongest among individuals with greater levels of dysfunctional beliefs.Findings are consistent with cognitive behavioral models of insomnia and suggest that sleep-specific factors might be important treatment targets among patients with anxiety and depressive disorders with disturbed sleep.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.01.001

    View details for PubMedID 24529043

  • Who is at risk for having persistent insomnia symptoms? A longitudinal study in the general population in Korea. Sleep medicine Suh, S., Yang, H., Fairholme, C. P., Kim, H., Manber, R., Shin, C. 2014; 15 (2): 180-186


    Our study had three goals: (1) to investigate the longitudinal course of insomnia symptoms over 4years (3 time points) by analyzing the trajectory of insomnia symptoms for all participants, (2) to compare persistent insomnia symptom to nonpersistent insomnia symptom groups on mental health and quality of life (QoL), and (3) to conduct exploratory analyses on the relative contribution of multiple factors to persistence of insomnia symptoms.Our population-based longitudinal study utilized a community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study (KoGES). Participants were 1247 individuals (40.1% men; mean age, 54.3±7.1years). Insomnia, QoL (measured by 12-item Short-Form health survey [SF-12]), sleep-interfering behaviors, and depression (measured by the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) were followed with biennial examinations at 3 data points spaced 2years apart (baseline, time 1, and time 2).Among individuals experiencing insomnia symptoms at baseline, the most common trajectory was to experience persistent nocturnal insomnia symptoms across all 3 time points. Those with persistent insomnia symptoms had significantly lower physical and mental QoL (measured by SF-12) and higher depression (measured by BDI) at time points compared to those without persistent nocturnal insomnia symptoms. A follow-up exploratory receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis identified poor sleep quality, frequent sleep-interfering behaviors, and low mental health QoL as the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia symptoms above other well-known risk factors.In particular, an interaction between poor sleep quality, sleep-interfering behaviors, and mental health QoL appeared to be the strongest risk factor for persistent insomnia symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.sleep.2013.09.024

    View details for PubMedID 24457162

  • Sleep disturbance and emotion dysregulation as transdiagnostic processes in a comorbid sample. Behaviour research and therapy Fairholme, C. P., Nosen, E. L., Nillni, Y. I., Schumacher, J. A., Tull, M. T., Coffey, S. F. 2013; 51 (9): 540-546


    Sleep disturbance and emotion dysregulation have been identified as etiologic and maintaining factors for a range of psychopathology and separate literatures support their relationships to anxiety, depression, PTSD, and alcohol dependence (AD) symptom severity. Previous studies have examined these relationships in isolation, failing to account for the high rates of comorbidity among disorders. It is not yet known whether these processes uniquely predict symptom severity in each of these domains. Participants were 220 patients in residential substance abuse treatment, who had experienced a potentially traumatic event and exceeded screening cutoffs for probable PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Controlling for emotion dysregulation and the interrelationships among the outcome variables, insomnia was uniquely associated with anxiety (B = .27, p < .001), depression (B = .25, p < .001), PTSD (B = .22, p < .001), and AD (B = .17, p = .01) symptom severity. Similarly, controlling for insomnia, emotion dysregulation was uniquely associated with anxiety (B = .40, p < .001), depression (B = .47, p < .001), PTSD (B = .38, p < .001), and AD (B = .26, p < .001) symptom severity. Insomnia and emotion dysregulation appear to be transdiagnostic processes uniquely associated with symptom severity across a number of different domains and might be important treatment targets for individuals with PTSD and AD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2013.05.014

    View details for PubMedID 23831496

  • Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial BEHAVIOR THERAPY Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., Ellard, K. K., Boisseau, C. L., Thompson-Hollands, J., Carl, J. R., Gallagher, M. W., Barlow, D. H. 2012; 43 (3): 666-678


    This study further evaluates the efficacy of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP). A diagnostically heterogeneous clinical sample of 37 patients with a principal anxiety disorder diagnosis was enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving up to 18 sessions of treatment and a 6-month follow-up period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either immediate treatment with the UP (n=26) or delayed treatment, following a 16-week wait-list control period (WLC; n=11). The UP resulted in significant improvement on measures of clinical severity, general symptoms of depression and anxiety, levels of negative and positive affect, and a measure of symptom interference in daily functioning across diagnoses. In comparison, participants in the WLC condition exhibited little to no change following the 16-week wait-list period. The effects of UP treatment were maintained over the 6-month follow-up period. Results from this RCT provide additional evidence for the efficacy of the UP in the treatment of anxiety and comorbid depressive disorders, and provide additional support for a transdiagnostic approach to the treatment of emotional disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305667600018

    View details for PubMedID 22697453

  • Transdiagnostic processes in emotional disorders and insomnia: Results from a sample of adult outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Fairholme, C. P., Carl, J. R., Farchione, T. J., Schonwetter, S. W. 2012; 50 (7-8): 522-528


    Conceptual similarities between recent models of insomnia and emotional disorders suggest there may be common factors that underlie or maintain these difficulties. Maladaptive cognitive and behavioral processes similar to those described in connection with emotional disorders have been cited as key mechanisms in the maintenance of primary insomnia. Unfortunately, research on this potential overlap is lacking. The present study examined the relationship among anxiety sensitivity (AS), dysfunctional beliefs, fatigue, safety behaviors, and insomnia severity in 59 outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. Key insomnia processes (dysfunctional beliefs, fatigue, safety behaviors) were all related to insomnia severity in the comorbid sample, although AS was not. However, as hypothesized, AS did moderate the relationship of both dysfunctional beliefs and fatigue with insomnia severity. The relationships between key insomnia processes and insomnia severity was strongest among individuals high in AS. Results support the hypothesis that common mechanisms are involved for insomnia and emotional disorders. AS might function as a mechanism for the maintenance of sleep disturbance in the context of anxiety and mood disorders, suggesting a promising avenue for future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2012.03.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306445400010

    View details for PubMedID 22560005

  • The temporal course of anxiety sensitivity in outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders: Relationships with behavioral inhibition and depression JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Rosellini, A. J., Fairholme, C. P., Brown, T. A. 2011; 25 (4): 615-621


    The present study evaluated the temporal course of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS; concerns over physical symptoms, mental incapacitation, and social embarrassment) and their relationships with behavioral inhibition (BI) and depression (DEP) in 606 outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. A semi-structured interview and self-report questionnaires were administered on three occasions over a two-year period. All three constructs decreased over the study period and AS temporally functioned more similar to DEP than BI. Cross-sectional and temporal correlations supported the discriminant validity of AS from BI. As expected, initial levels of BI predicted less improvement in all AS dimensions. In contrast, higher initial levels of mental incapacitation AS were associated with greater improvement in DEP. Our results are discussed in regard to the measurement of AS in clinical samples, conceptualizations of AS as a lower-order vulnerability, and prognostic implications of directional paths between BI and AS and AS and DEP.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.02.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289588000023

    View details for PubMedID 21377316



    Anxiety and mood disorders are common, chronic, costly, and characterized by high comorbidity. The development of cognitive behavioral approaches to treating anxiety and mood disorders has left us with highly efficacious treatments that are increasingly widely accepted. The proliferation of treatment manuals targeting single disorders, sometimes with trivial differences among them, leaves the mental health professional with no clear way to choose one manual over another and little chance of ever becoming familiar with most of them, let alone trained to competence in their delivery. Deepening understanding of the nature of emotional disorders reveals that commonalities in etiology and latent structures among these disorders supersedes differences. Based on empirical evidence from the domains of learning, emotional development and regulation, and cognitive science, we have distilled a set of psychological procedures that comprise a unified intervention for emotional disorders. The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive behavioral treatment, which emphasizes the adaptive, functional nature of emotions, and seeks to identify and correct maladaptive attempts to regulate emotional experiences, thereby facilitating appropriate processing and extinction of excessive emotional responding to both internal (somatic) and external cues. The treatment components of the UP are briefly outlined. Theory and rationale supporting this new approach are described along with some preliminary evidence supporting its efficacy. Implications for the treatment of emotional disorders using the UP are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/da.20735

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282740700002

    View details for PubMedID 20886609

  • The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study. Cognitive and behavioral practice Boisseau, C. L., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., Ellard, K. K., Barlow, D. H. 2010; 17 (1): 102-113


    A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the UP drawing from theory and research that underlies current transdiagnostic approaches to treatment and consistent with recent dimensional classification proposals (Brown & Barlow, in press). Treatment is illustrated module-by-module describing how the principles of the UP were applied in the presented case.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.09.003

    View details for PubMedID 23997572

  • The Role of Emotion in Psychological Therapy. Clinical psychology : a publication of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association Ehrenreich, J. T., Fairholme, C. P., Buzzella, B. A., Ellard, K. K., Barlow, D. H. 2007; 14 (4): 422-428


    This Special Issue of Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice provides a series of articles detailing efforts to consider the concepts of emotion and emotion regulation in relation to clinical assessment and psychopathology intervention efforts across the lifespan. In our commentary, we review some common themes and challenges presented in these articles to move forward the discussion of emotion's role in psychological therapy. We discuss efforts to conceptualize the role of context in defining emotion concepts and maximizing the relevancy of such concepts to treatment. We review the importance of imbuing efforts to develop emotion-focused treatments with emphases on positive, as well as negative, emotions and flexibility in the expression of these emotions. We also highlight the relevance of a lifespan developmental approach to the accurate use of emotion and emotion regulation concepts within treatment. Finally, we discuss the application of these issues to our own treatment development and evaluation efforts regarding a unified approach to the treatment of emotional disorders in adults and adolescents.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00102.x

    View details for PubMedID 18843381

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