Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, West Virginia University (2011)
  • Master of Science, West Virginia University (2008)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Middlebury College (2004)

Stanford Advisors


Journal Articles

  • Association between depression and anxiety on blood pressure dysregulation and pulse in the Health and Retirement Study INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Gould, C. E., Beaudreau, S. A. 2013; 28 (10): 1045-1053


    OBJECTIVE: Extreme blood pressure (BP) values are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression, but findings from studies are conflicting. The present study tested linear and curvilinear models of the association between anxiety and depression symptoms and BP in the Health and Retirement Study. The relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and pulse was also tested. METHOD: Participants were aged 50 to 104 (N = 4179) and completed the Health and Retirement Study Psychosocial Questionnaire and Physical Measurements in 2006. BP and pulse were measured using an automated cuff. The means of three BP and pulse measurements taken 45 to 60 s apart were used. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured with brief forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: Ordinal regression analyses examined the relationship between BP and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In models adjusted for medical illness and medications, anxiety was associated with systolic hypotension, and depression was associated with diastolic hypotension. Higher pulse was associated with depression but not anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that BP dysregulation, specifically hypotension, may be a useful indicator of anxiety and depression. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/gps.3926

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323844800008

    View details for PubMedID 23335009

  • Diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment no dementia in the aging, demographics, and memory study (ADAMS) INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOGERIATRICS Gould, C. E., Beaudreau, S. A., Salman, H. 2013; 25 (1): 167-168

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1041610212001196

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312528400020

    View details for PubMedID 22835854

  • Initial evaluation of the Older Adult Social-Evaluative Situations Questionnaire: a measure of social anxiety in older adults INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOGERIATRICS Gould, C. E., Gerolimatos, L. A., Ciliberti, C. M., Edelstein, B. A., Smith, M. D. 2012; 24 (12): 2009-2018


    The assessment of social anxiety in late life has been examined in few studies (e.g. Gretarsdottir et al., 2004; Ciliberti et al., 2011). The present study describes the creation and initial psychometric evaluation of a new, content valid measure of social anxiety for older adults, the Older Adult Social-Evaluative Situations Questionnaire (OASES).Psychometric properties of the OASES were evaluated in a community dwelling sample of older adults (N = 137; 70.8% female). Convergent validity was established by examining the relation between the OASES and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Discriminant validity was established by examining the relation between the OASES and measures of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS), perceived health status (Short Form Health Survey, SF-12), and demographic variables. The validity analyses of the OASES were based on a smaller sample with n values ranging from 98 to 137 depending on missing data on each questionnaire.Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's ?, for the OASES total score was 0.96. All items on the OASES were endorsed by participants. Convergent validity was demonstrated by medium to large correlations with the SPAI, LSAS, and BAI. Support for discriminant validity was evidenced by small to medium correlations between the OASES and GDS, SF-12, and demographic variables.Evidence in support of convergent and discriminant validity of the OASES is discussed. Although the results from the present study suggest that this measure may assess anxiety in and avoidance of social situations salient to older adults, future studies are needed to further examine the psychometric properties of the OASES and replicate these results in both clinical and more diverse samples of older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1041610212001275

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310313700014

    View details for PubMedID 22846411

  • Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire Among Older Adults BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Gerolimatos, L. A., Gould, C. E., Edelstein, B. A. 2012; 36 (4): 600-616


    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related symptoms, reactions, and external threats but has limited psychometric support for use with older adults. Psychometric evaluations of other measures often reveal that factor structures differ among older adults compared with other age groups. The present study examined the factor structure of the ACQ in a sample of community-dwelling older adults in an attempt to understand the construct of perceived anxiety control in this population. A total of 135 adults aged 60 to 94 completed the ACQ and a demographics questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis was accomplished using maximum likelihood extraction with equamax rotation. Parallel analysis indicated that a four-factor structure be retained. The four-factor solution explained 40.80% of variance and provided a good fit to the data. The four factors were Internal Control, External Lack of Control, Internal Lack of Control, and Effective Coping. Each factor contained an adequate number of items and had good internal consistency. The four-factor solution suggests that a previous recommendation to shorten the ACQ, based on factor analysis with young adults, may be imprudent for older adults. The authors also discuss implications for the understanding of perceived anxiety control among older adults and assessment of anxiety in older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145445512443982

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307335500012

    View details for PubMedID 22563044

  • A preliminary investigation of developmentally sensitive items for the assessment of social anxiety in late life JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Ciliberti, C., Gould, C., Smith, M., Chorney, D., Edelstein, B. 2011; 25 (5): 686-689


    The current study aimed to examine the salience of anxiety-provoking social situations for older adults. A list of potentially anxiety-provoking situations was developed from a review of existing measures of social anxiety. In addition to items derived from existing measures, the investigators generated items thought to be particularly relevant for older adults. One hundred and four older adults were asked, "Please check all situations where you might feel uncomfortable, nervous, scared, worried, embarrassed, or anxious." Participants were also prompted to record any additional situations in which they experienced anxiety. Older adults endorsed items not included on typical measures of social anxiety at high rates. Exploratory analyses of the effects of gender on item endorsement were examined and significant differences were found for several items. The authors discuss these findings and their implications for the assessment of late-life social anxiety.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290595100010

    View details for PubMedID 21474276

  • Worry, emotion control, and anxiety control in older and young adults JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Gould, C. E., Edelstein, B. A. 2010; 24 (7): 759-766


    Young adults worry more than older adults; however, few studies have examined why age differences may exist in the frequency of worry. The present study aimed to identify age differences in worry frequency, and examine the relation of age and worry to control over one's emotions and control over anxiety. Older adults worried less often than young adults; however, young women worried more often than young men and older adults. Also, young women reported less control over their anxiety and less control over the external signs of their emotions compared to young men and older adults. Worriers had less perceived control over their anxiety, less control over the inner experience of emotions, and less control over the external signs of emotion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281325600015

    View details for PubMedID 20708492

  • An examination of two-process theories of false recognition MEMORY Arndt, J., Gould, C. 2006; 14 (7): 814-833


    Contemporary theories of false memory suggest there are two processes that combine to produce false memory: one that increases false memory (error-inflating processes) and one that counteracts false memory (error-editing processes). Two experiments using the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) explored the influence of manipulating the number of associates studied, study item presentation frequency, backward associative strength, and study time on error-inflating and error-editing processes separately by examining speeded and unspeeded recognition decisions. The results of these studies indicate that (1) increasing the number of associates studied primarily influenced error-inflating processes; (2) increasing backward associative strength increased error-inflating processes and impaired error-editing processes; (3) increasing study item presentation frequency increased both error-inflating and error-editing processes; and (4) increasing study time had a weak effect on error-editing processes. Further, the results of these studies suggest that comprehensive theories of false memory phenomena must propose the existence of two different factors: one that increases false memory and is available early in memory retrieval, and one that usually, but not always, decreases false memory and is available later in retrieval.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09658210600680749

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241268000003

    View details for PubMedID 16938694

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