Doctor of Philosophy, Universiteit Utrecht (2011)
Joanna Wysocka, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Transcriptional enhancers are the primary determinants of tissue-specific gene expression. Although the majority of our current knowledge of enhancer elements comes from detailed analyses of individual loci, recent progress in epigenomics has led to the development of methods for comprehensive and conservation-independent annotation of cell type-specific enhancers. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitations of different genomic approaches to enhancer mapping and summarize observations that have been afforded by the genome-wide views of enhancer landscapes, with a focus on development. We propose that enhancers serve as information integration hubs, at which instructions encoded by the genome are read in the context of a specific cellular state, signaling milieu and chromatin environment, allowing for exquisitely precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression during embryogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tig.2012.02.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000305094000004
View details for PubMedID 22487374
Recent data demonstrates that stem cells can exist in two morphologically, molecularly and functionally distinct pluripotent states; a naïve LIF-dependent pluripotent state which is represented by murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and an FGF-dependent primed pluripotent state represented by murine and rat epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We find that derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under EpiSC culture conditions yields FGF-dependent iPSCs from hereon called FGF-iPSCs) which, unexpectedly, display naïve ES-like/ICM properties. FGF-iPSCs display X-chromosome activation, multi-lineage differentiation, teratoma competence and chimera contribution in vivo. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions. Characterization of the key molecular signalling pathways revealed FGF-iPSCs to depend on the Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways, while signalling through the JAK-STAT pathway is not required for FGF-iPS cell maintenance. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0016092
View details for Web of Science ID 000285793600060
View details for PubMedID 21209851
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been classified into two distinct states: a primitive, naive LIF-dependent state represented by murine ESCs, and a primed bFGF-dependent state observed in murine and rat epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). The vast similarities between EpiSCs and human ESCs suggest that, despite their blastocyst origin, human ESCs exist in a primed pluripotent state. Recent findings demonstrate that the naive and primed pluripotent states are interconvertible, even in human cells, and hint that growth factor-mediated Nanog expression may be an important factor regulating the balance between them.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.10.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000284390500007
View details for PubMedID 21040897
Murine pluripotent stem cells can exist in two functionally distinct states, LIF-dependent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bFGF-dependent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). However, human pluripotent cells so far seemed to assume only an epiblast-like state. Here we demonstrate that human iPSC reprogramming in the presence of LIF yields human stem cells that display morphological, molecular, and functional properties of murine ESCs. We termed these hLR5 iPSCs because they require the expression of five ectopic reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, cMyc, and Nanog, to maintain this more naive state. The cells are "metastable" and upon ectopic factor withdrawal they revert to standard human iPSCs. Finally, we demonstrate that the hLR5 state facilitates gene targeting, and as such provides a powerful tool for the generation of recombinant human pluripotent stem cell lines.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.05.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000278840700014
View details for PubMedID 20569691
The ubiquitin ligase Hul5 was recently identified as a component of the proteasome, a multisubunit protease that degrades ubiquitin-protein conjugates. We report here a proteasome-dependent conjugating activity of Hul5 that endows proteasomes with the capacity to extend ubiquitin chains. hul5 mutants show reduced degradation of multiple proteasome substrates in vivo, suggesting that the polyubiquitin signal that targets substrates to the proteasome can be productively amplified at the proteasome. However, the products of Hul5 conjugation are subject to disassembly by a proteasome-bound deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp6. A hul5 null mutation suppresses a ubp6 null mutation, suggesting that a balance of chain-extending and chain-trimming activities is required for proper proteasome function. As the association of Hul5 with proteasomes was found to be strongly stabilized by Ubp6, these enzymes may be situated in proximity to one another. We propose that through dynamic remodeling of ubiquitin chains, proteasomes actively regulate substrate commitment to degradation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.051
View details for Web of Science ID 000243690000019
View details for PubMedID 17190603