Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Professor, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University (2008 - Present)
  • Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University (2008 - Present)
  • Professor, Department of Biology, Stanford University (2005 - Present)
  • Faculty Director Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford University (2005 - Present)
  • Director, Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution (2002 - Present)
  • Staff Scientist, Carnegie Institution of Washington (1984 - 2002)
  • Assistant Professor, Biology, University of Utah (1981 - 1984)

Honors & Awards


  • BBVA Frontiers of Knowledge Award, BBVA Foundation (2013)
  • Max Planck Research Prize, Max Planck Society (2013)
  • Fellow, Ecological Society of America (2012)
  • Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2010)
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2009)
  • Heinz Award, Heinz Group (2009)
  • Member, US National Academy of Sciences (2001)
  • ESA Aldo Leopold Fellow, ESA Aldo Leopold (2000)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, US National Committee for SCOPE (1991 - 1998)
  • Editorial Review Board, Ecology (1991 - 1993)
  • Chairman, IGBP-BAHC focus 3: Large-scale processes (1991 - 1997)
  • Testimony, US Senate Committee (1992 - 1992)
  • Member editorial board, Ecological Applications (1993 - 1996)
  • Chair, US National Committee for SCOPE (1993 - 1998)
  • Senior Editor, Global Change Biology (1994 - 1999)
  • Member, NRC Ecosystem Panel (1997 - 1999)
  • Member, NSF Ecosystem Studies Panel (1997 - 1999)
  • Member, NRC Grand Challenges in Environmental Biology (1998 - 2000)
  • Member, NRC: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (1999 - 2006)
  • Testimony, US House Committee (1999 - 1999)
  • Chair, Advisory Comm., US Carbon Cycle Science Program (2000 - 2005)
  • Member, PNAS, Editorial Board (2000 - 2009)
  • Chair, Advisory Committee, US Carbon Cycle Science Program (2000 - 2005)
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences (2001 - Present)
  • Cluster Coordinator, SCOPE (2002 - 2005)
  • Coordinating Lead Author, IPCC, WG2 (2004 - 2007)
  • Chair, NEON ISEP revision committee (2006 - 2007)
  • Member, SSC: Global Carbon Project (2006 - 2008)
  • 2006 - 2008 | Co-chair, Stanford Environmental Venture Fund Panel, Stanford University (2006 - 2008)
  • Member, NRC Board on International Science Organizations (2006 - 2009)
  • Townsend Distinguished Lecturer, University South Carolina (2007 - 2007)
  • Testimony, US Senate briefing (2007 - 2007)
  • Chair, NEON Science, Technology, & Education Advisory Committee (2007 - Present)
  • Member, NRC committee on energy externalities (2008 - 2009)
  • Chair, NRC committee on ecological impacts of climate change (2008 - 2008)
  • Member, NRC comm on research opportunities at the interface of physics and biological sciences (2008 - 2009)
  • Co-chair, WGII, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2010 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Stanford University, Biological Sciences (1981)
  • AB, Harvard College, Biology (1975)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Research
My field is global ecology, and my research emphasizes ecological contributions across the range of Earth science disciplines. My colleagues and I develop diverse approaches to quantifying large-scale ecosystem processes, using satellites, atmospheric data, models, and census data, and explore global-scale patterns of vegetation-climate feedbacks, carbon cycle dynamics, primary production, forest management, and fire. At the ecosystem-scale, we conduct experiments on grassland responses to global change, which integrate approaches from molecular biology to remote sensing.

Teaching
I am one of five professors who teach the Earth Systems field studies course for advanced undergrads and co-terms at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. I also teach an introductory seminar on climate change for freshmen.

Professional Activities
Director, Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution; Faculty Director, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve; Professor, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University; Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University; Senior Fellow, Precourt Institute for Energy, Stanford University; Melvin and Joan Lane Professor for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies, Stanford University

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


  • Biology (School of Humanities and Sciences) (Phd Program)

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Campbell, J. E., Lobell, D. B., Genova, R. C., Zumkehr, A., Field, C. B. 2013; 8 (3)
  • Environmental and community controls on plant canopy chemistry in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Dahlin, K. M., Asner, G. P., Field, C. B. 2013; 110 (17): 6895-6900

    Abstract

    Understanding how and why plant communities vary across space has long been a goal of ecology, yet parsing the relative importance of different influences has remained a challenge. Species-specific models are not generalizable, whereas broad plant functional type models lack important detail. Here we consider plant trait patterns at the local scale and ask whether plant chemical traits are more closely linked to environmental gradients or to changes in species composition. We used the visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectrometer of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to develop maps of four plant chemical traits-leaf nitrogen per mass, leaf carbon per mass, leaf water concentration, and canopy water content-across a diverse Mediterranean-type ecosystem (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, CA). For all four traits, plant community alone was the strongest predictor of trait variation (explaining 46-61% of the heterogeneity), whereas environmental gradients accounted for just one fourth of the variation in the traits. This result emphasizes the critical role that species composition plays in mediating nutrient and carbon cycling within and among different communities. Environmental filtering and limits to similarity can act strongly, simultaneously, in a spatially heterogeneous environment, but the local-scale environmental gradients alone cannot account for the variation across this landscape.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1215513110

    View details for PubMedID 23569241

  • Drought's legacy: multiyear hydraulic deterioration underlies widespread aspen forest die-off and portends increased future risk GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Anderegg, W. R., Plavcova, L., Anderegg, L. D., Hacke, U. G., Berry, J. A., Field, C. B. 2013; 19 (4): 1188-1196

    Abstract

    Forest mortality constitutes a major uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Recent drought-induced, widespread forest die-offs highlight that climate change could accelerate forest mortality with its diverse and potentially severe consequences for the global carbon cycle, ecosystem services, and biodiversity. How trees die during drought over multiple years remains largely unknown and precludes mechanistic modeling and prediction of forest die-off with climate change. Here, we examine the physiological basis of a recent multiyear widespread die-off of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) across much of western North America. Using observations from both native trees while they are dying and a rainfall exclusion experiment on mature trees, we measure hydraulic performance over multiple seasons and years and assess pathways of accumulated hydraulic damage. We test whether accumulated hydraulic damage can predict the probability of tree survival over 2 years. We find that hydraulic damage persisted and increased in dying trees over multiple years and exhibited few signs of repair. This accumulated hydraulic deterioration is largely mediated by increased vulnerability to cavitation, a process known as cavitation fatigue. Furthermore, this hydraulic damage predicts the probability of interyear stem mortality. Contrary to the expectation that surviving trees have weathered severe drought, the hydraulic deterioration demonstrated here reveals that surviving regions of these forests are actually more vulnerable to future droughts due to accumulated xylem damage. As the most widespread tree species in North America, increasing vulnerability to drought in these forests has important ramifications for ecosystem stability, biodiversity, and ecosystem carbon balance. Our results provide a foundation for incorporating accumulated drought impacts into climate-vegetation models. Finally, our findings highlight the critical role of drought stress accumulation and repair of stress-induced damage for avoiding plant mortality, presenting a dynamic and contingent framework for drought impacts on forest ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.12100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315900800020

    View details for PubMedID 23504895

  • Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Georgescu, M., Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B., Mahalov, A. 2013; 40 (5): 972-977

    View details for DOI 10.1002/grl.50206

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318242900032

  • Fostering advances in interdisciplinary climate science PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Shaman, J., Solomon, S., Colwell, R. R., Field, C. B. 2013; 110: 3653-3656

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1301104110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315842100001

    View details for PubMedID 23440191

  • Linking definitions, mechanisms, and modeling of drought-induced tree death TRENDS IN PLANT SCIENCE Anderegg, W. R., Berry, J. A., Field, C. B. 2012; 17 (12): 693-700

    Abstract

    Tree death from drought and heat stress is a critical and uncertain component in forest ecosystem responses to a changing climate. Recent research has illuminated how tree mortality is a complex cascade of changes involving interconnected plant systems over multiple timescales. Explicit consideration of the definitions, dynamics, and temporal and biological scales of tree mortality research can guide experimental and modeling approaches. In this review, we draw on the medical literature concerning human death to propose a water resource-based approach to tree mortality that considers the tree as a complex organism with a distinct growth strategy. This approach provides insight into mortality mechanisms at the tree and landscape scales and presents promising avenues into modeling tree death from drought and temperature stress.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312825400003

    View details for PubMedID 23099222

  • Planetary Opportunities: A Social Contract for Global Change Science to Contribute to a Sustainable Future BIOSCIENCE DeFries, R. S., Ellis, E. C., Chapin, F. S., Matson, P. A., Turner, B. L., Agrawal, A., Crutzen, P. J., Field, C., Gleick, P., Kareiva, P. M., Lambin, E., Liverman, D., Ostrom, E., Sanchez, P. A., Syvitski, J. 2012; 62 (6): 603-606
  • The roles of hydraulic and carbon stress in a widespread climate-induced forest die-off PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Anderegg, W. R., Berry, J. A., Smith, D. D., Sperry, J. S., Anderegg, L. D., Field, C. B. 2012; 109 (1): 233-237

    Abstract

    Forest ecosystems store approximately 45% of the carbon found in terrestrial ecosystems, but they are sensitive to climate-induced dieback. Forest die-off constitutes a large uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, climate-ecosystem interactions, and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Current understanding of the physiological mechanisms mediating climate-induced forest mortality limits the ability to model or project these threshold events. We report here a direct and in situ study of the mechanisms underlying recent widespread and climate-induced trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) forest mortality in western North America. We find substantial evidence of hydraulic failure of roots and branches linked to landscape patterns of canopy and root mortality in this species. On the contrary, we find no evidence that drought stress led to depletion of carbohydrate reserves. Our results illuminate proximate mechanisms underpinning recent aspen forest mortality and provide guidance for understanding and projecting forest die-offs under climate change.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1107891109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298876500048

    View details for PubMedID 22167807

  • Environmental filtering and land-use history drive patterns in biomass accumulation in a mediterranean-type landscape ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Dahlin, K. M., Asner, G. P., Field, C. B. 2012; 22 (1): 104-118

    Abstract

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) reflects multiple and often undetermined ecological and land-use processes, yet detailed landscape-level studies of AGB are uncommon due to the difficulty in making consistent measurements at ecologically relevant scales. Working in a protected mediterranean-type landscape (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, California, USA), we combined field measurements with remotely sensed data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory's light detection and ranging (lidar) system to create a detailed AGB map. We then developed a predictive model using a maximum of 56 explanatory variables derived from geologic and historic-ownership maps, a digital elevation model, and geographic coordinates to evaluate possible controls over currently observed AGB patterns. We tested both ordinary least-squares regression (OLS) and autoregressive approaches. OLS explained 44% of the variation in AGB, and simultaneous autoregression with a 100-m neighborhood improved the fit to an r2 = 0.72, while reducing the number of significant predictor variables from 27 variables in the OLS model to 11 variables in the autoregressive model. We also compared the results from these approaches to a more typical field-derived data set; we randomly sampled 5% of the data 1000 times and used the same OLS approach each time. Environmental filters including incident solar radiation, substrate type, and topographic position were significant predictors of AGB in all models. Past ownership was a minor but significant predictor, despite the long history of conservation at the site. The weak predictive power of these environmental variables, and the significant improvement when spatial autocorrelation was incorporated, highlight the importance of land-use history, disturbance regime, and population dynamics as controllers of AGB.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301095600009

    View details for PubMedID 22471078

  • Effect of vineyard-scale climate variability on Pinot noir phenolic composition AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY Nicholas, K. A., Matthews, M. A., Lobell, D. B., Willits, N. H., Field, C. B. 2011; 151 (12): 1556-1567
  • California perennial crops in a changing climate CLIMATIC CHANGE Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. 2011; 109: 317-333
  • Climate extremes in California agriculture CLIMATIC CHANGE Lobell, D. B., Torney, A., Field, C. B. 2011; 109: 355-363
  • Native and Non-Native Community Assembly through Edaphic Manipulation: Implications for Habitat Creation and Restoration RESTORATION ECOLOGY Bonebrake, T. C., Navratil, R. T., Boggs, C. L., Fendorf, S., Field, C. B., Ehrlichl, P. R. 2011; 19 (6): 709-716
  • Strong response of an invasive plant species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to global environmental changes ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Dukes, J. S., Chiariello, N. R., Loarie, S. R., Field, C. B. 2011; 21 (6): 1887-1894

    Abstract

    Global environmental changes are altering interactions among plant species, sometimes favoring invasive species. Here, we examine how a suite of five environmental factors, singly and in combination, can affect the success of a highly invasive plant. We introduced Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle), which is considered by many to be California's most troublesome wildland weed, to grassland plots in the San Francisco Bay Area. These plots experienced ambient or elevated levels of warming, atmospheric CO2, precipitation, and nitrate deposition, and an accidental fire in the previous year created an additional treatment. Centaurea grew more than six times larger in response to elevated CO2, and, outside of the burned area, grew more than three times larger in response to nitrate deposition. In contrast, resident plants in the community responded less strongly (or did not respond) to these treatments. Interactive effects among treatments were rarely significant. Results from a parallel mesocosm experiment, while less dramatic, supported the pattern of results observed in the field. Taken together, our results suggest that ongoing environmental changes may dramatically increase Centaurea's prevalence in western North America.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294155900001

    View details for PubMedID 21939031

  • Forest biomass allometry in global land surface models GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Wolf, A., Ciais, P., Bellassen, V., Delbart, N., Field, C. B., Berry, J. A. 2011; 25
  • Allometric growth and allocation in forests: a perspective from FLUXNET ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Wolf, A., Field, C. B., Berry, J. A. 2011; 21 (5): 1546-1556

    Abstract

    To develop a scheme for partitioning the products of photosynthesis toward different biomass components in land-surface models, a database on component mass and net primary productivity (NPP), collected from FLUXNET sites, was examined to determine allometric patterns of allocation. We found that NPP per individual of foliage (Gfol), stem and branches (Gstem), coarse roots (Gcroot) and fine roots (Gfroot) in individual trees is largely explained (r2 = 67-91%) by the magnitude of total NPP per individual (G). Gfol scales with G isometrically, meaning it is a fixed fraction of G ( 25%). Root-shoot trade-offs were manifest as a slow decline in Gfroot, as a fraction of G, from 50% to 25% as stands increased in biomass, with Gstem and Gcroot increasing as a consequence. These results indicate that a functional trade-off between aboveground and belowground allocation is essentially captured by variations in G, which itself is largely governed by stand biomass and only secondarily by site-specific resource availability. We argue that forests are characterized by strong competition for light, observed as a race for individual trees to ascend by increasing partitioning toward wood, rather than by growing more leaves, and that this competition stronglyconstrains the allocational plasticity that trees may be capable of. The residual variation in partitioning was not related to climatic or edaphic factors, nor did plots with nutrient or water additions show a pattern of partitioning distinct from that predicted by G alone. These findings leverage short-term process studies of the terrestrial carbon cycle to improve decade-scale predictions of biomass accumulation in forests. An algorithm for calculating partitioning in land-surface models is presented.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292766100010

    View details for PubMedID 21830701

  • Global Change Could Amplify Fire Effects on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions PLOS ONE Niboyet, A., Brown, J. R., Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J. C., Leadley, P. W., Le Roux, X., Barthes, L., Barnard, R. L., Field, C. B., Hungate, B. A. 2011; 6 (6)

    Abstract

    Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases.We took advantage of an accidental, low-severity wildfire that burned part of a long-term global change experiment to investigate the interactive effects of a fire disturbance and increases in CO(2) concentration, precipitation and nitrogen supply on soil nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions in a grassland ecosystem. We examined the responses of soil N(2)O emissions, as well as the responses of the two main microbial processes contributing to soil N(2)O production--nitrification and denitrification--and of their main drivers. We show that the fire disturbance greatly increased soil N(2)O emissions over a three-year period, and that elevated CO(2) and enhanced nitrogen supply amplified fire effects on soil N(2)O emissions: emissions increased by a factor of two with fire alone and by a factor of six under the combined influence of fire, elevated CO(2) and nitrogen. We also provide evidence that this response was caused by increased microbial denitrification, resulting from increased soil moisture and soil carbon and nitrogen availability in the burned and fertilized plots.Our results indicate that the combined effects of fire and global environmental changes can exceed their effects in isolation, thereby creating unexpected feedbacks to soil greenhouse gas emissions. These findings highlight the need to further explore the impacts of ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning in the context of global change if we wish to be able to model future soil greenhouse gas emissions with greater confidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0020105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291611500008

    View details for PubMedID 21687708

  • Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Loarie, S. R., Lobell, D. B., Asner, G. P., Mu, Q., Field, C. B. 2011; 1 (2): 105-109
  • Direct climate effects of perennial bioenergy crops in the United States PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Georgescu, M., Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. 2011; 108 (11): 4307-4312

    Abstract

    Biomass-derived energy offers the potential to increase energy security while mitigating anthropogenic climate change, but a successful path toward increased production requires a thorough accounting of costs and benefits. Until recently, the efficacy of biomass-derived energy has focused primarily on biogeochemical consequences. Here we show that the biogeophysical effects that result from hypothetical conversion of annual to perennial bioenergy crops across the central United States impart a significant local to regional cooling with considerable implications for the reservoir of stored soil water. This cooling effect is related mainly to local increases in transpiration, but also to higher albedo. The reduction in radiative forcing from albedo alone is equivalent to a carbon emissions reduction of , which is six times larger than the annual biogeochemical effects that arise from offsetting fossil fuel use. Thus, in the near-term, the biogeophysical effects are an important aspect of climate impacts of biofuels, even at the global scale. Locally, the simulated cooling is sufficiently large to partially offset projected warming due to increasing greenhouse gases over the next few decades. These results demonstrate that a thorough evaluation of costs and benefits of bioenergy-related land-use change must include potential impacts on the surface energy and water balance to comprehensively address important concerns for local, regional, and global climate change.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1008779108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288450900015

    View details for PubMedID 21368189

  • Land-Cover and Surface Water Change Drive Large Albedo Increases in South America EARTH INTERACTIONS Loarie, S. R., Lobell, D. B., Asner, G. P., Field, C. B. 2011; 15
  • Nutrient Limitations of Carbon Uptake: From Leaves to Landscapes in a California Rangeland Ecosystem RANGELAND ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENT Houlton, B. Z., Field, C. B. 2010; 63 (1): 120-127
  • The velocity of climate change NATURE Loarie, S. R., Duffy, P. B., Hamilton, H., Asner, G. P., Field, C. B., Ackerly, D. D. 2009; 462 (7276): 1052-U111

    Abstract

    The ranges of plants and animals are moving in response to recent changes in climate. As temperatures rise, ecosystems with 'nowhere to go', such as mountains, are considered to be more threatened. However, species survival may depend as much on keeping pace with moving climates as the climate's ultimate persistence. Here we present a new index of the velocity of temperature change (km yr(-1)), derived from spatial gradients ( degrees C km(-1)) and multimodel ensemble forecasts of rates of temperature increase ( degrees C yr(-1)) in the twenty-first century. This index represents the instantaneous local velocity along Earth's surface needed to maintain constant temperatures, and has a global mean of 0.42 km yr(-1) (A1B emission scenario). Owing to topographic effects, the velocity of temperature change is lowest in mountainous biomes such as tropical and subtropical coniferous forests (0.08 km yr(-1)), temperate coniferous forest, and montane grasslands. Velocities are highest in flooded grasslands (1.26 km yr(-1)), mangroves and deserts. High velocities suggest that the climates of only 8% of global protected areas have residence times exceeding 100 years. Small protected areas exacerbate the problem in Mediterranean-type and temperate coniferous forest biomes. Large protected areas may mitigate the problem in desert biomes. These results indicate management strategies for minimizing biodiversity loss from climate change. Montane landscapes may effectively shelter many species into the next century. Elsewhere, reduced emissions, a much expanded network of protected areas, or efforts to increase species movement may be necessary.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08649

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272996000046

    View details for PubMedID 20033047

  • Potential impact of US biofuels on regional climate GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Georgescu, M., Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. 2009; 36
  • Boosted carbon emissions from Amazon deforestation GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Loarie, S. R., Asner, G. P., Field, C. B. 2009; 36
  • Greater Transportation Energy and GHG Offsets from Bioelectricity Than Ethanol SCIENCE Campbell, J. E., Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. 2009; 324 (5930): 1055-1057

    Abstract

    The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of 81% more transportation kilometers and 108% more emissions offsets per unit area of cropland than does cellulosic ethanol. These results suggest that alternative bioenergy pathways have large differences in how efficiently they use the available land to achieve transportation and climate goals.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1168885

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266246700037

    View details for PubMedID 19423776

  • Crop Yield Gaps: Their Importance, Magnitudes, and Causes ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES Lobell, D. B., Cassman, K. G., Field, C. B. 2009; 34: 179-204
  • Protecting climate with forests ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Jackson, R. B., Randerson, J. T., Canadell, J. G., Anderson, R. G., Avissar, R., Baldocchi, D. D., Bonan, G. B., Caldeira, K., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Field, C. B., Hungate, B. A., Jobbagy, E. G., Kueppers, L. M., Nosetto, M. D., Pataki, D. E. 2008; 3 (4)
  • Responses of a California annual grassland to litter manipulation JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE Amatangelo, K. L., Dukes, J. S., Field, C. B. 2008; 19 (5): 605-612
  • Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: Implications for the global carbon cycle BIOSCIENCE Schuur, E. A., Bockheim, J., Canadell, J. G., Euskirchen, E., Field, C. B., Goryachkin, S. V., Hagemann, S., Kuhry, P., Lafleur, P. M., Lee, H., Mazhitova, G., Nelson, F. E., Rinke, A., Romanovsky, V. E., Shiklomanov, N., Tarnocai, C., Venevsky, S., Vogel, J. G., Zimov, S. A. 2008; 58 (8): 701-714

    View details for DOI 10.1641/B580807

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259058100009

  • Changing feedbacks in the climate-biosphere system FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Chapin, F. S., Randerson, J. T., McGuire, A. D., Foley, J. A., Field, C. B. 2008; 6 (6): 313-320

    View details for DOI 10.1890/080005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258249200017

  • The global potential of bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Campbell, J. E., Lobell, D. B., Genova, R. C., Field, C. B. 2008; 42 (15): 5791-5794

    Abstract

    Converting forest lands into bioenergy agriculture could accelerate climate change by emitting carbon stored in forests, while converting food agriculture lands into bioenergy agriculture could threaten food security. Both problems are potentially avoided by using abandoned agriculture lands for bioenergy agriculture. Here we show the global potential for bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands to be less than 8% of current primary energy demand, based on historical land use data, satellite-derived land cover data, and global ecosystem modeling. The estimated global area of abandoned agriculture is 385-472 million hectares, or 66-110% of the areas reported in previous preliminary assessments. The area-weighted mean production of above-ground biomass is 4.3 tons ha(-1) y(-1), in contrast to estimates of up to 10 tons ha(-1) y(-1) in previous assessments. The energy content of potential biomass grown on 100% of abandoned agriculture lands is less than 10% of primary energy demand for most nations in North America, Europe, and Asia, but it represents many times the energy demand in some African nations where grasslands are relatively productive and current energy demand is low.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es800052w

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258075100065

    View details for PubMedID 18754510

  • A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere NATURE Houlton, B. Z., Wang, Y., Vitousek, P. M., Field, C. B. 2008; 454 (7202): 327-U34

    Abstract

    Dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is widely recognized as an important process in controlling ecosystem responses to global environmental change, both today and in the past; however, significant discrepancies exist between theory and observations of patterns of N(2) fixation across major sectors of the land biosphere. A question remains as to why symbiotic N(2)-fixing plants are more abundant in vast areas of the tropics than in many of the mature forests that seem to be nitrogen-limited in the temperate and boreal zones. Here we present a unifying framework for terrestrial N(2) fixation that can explain the geographic occurrence of N(2) fixers across diverse biomes and at the global scale. By examining trade-offs inherent in plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus capture, we find a clear advantage to symbiotic N(2) fixers in phosphorus-limited tropical savannas and lowland tropical forests. The ability of N(2) fixers to invest nitrogen into phosphorus acquisition seems vital to sustained N(2) fixation in phosphorus-limited tropical ecosystems. In contrast, modern-day temperatures seem to constrain N(2) fixation rates and N(2)-fixing species from mature forests in the high latitudes. We propose that an analysis that couples biogeochemical cycling and biophysical mechanisms is sufficient to explain the principal geographical patterns of symbiotic N(2) fixation on land, thus providing a basis for predicting the response of nutrient-limited ecosystems to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO(2).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257665300037

    View details for PubMedID 18563086

  • Energy assumptions were reasonable at the time, but not now NATURE Field, C. B. 2008; 453 (7192): 154-155

    View details for DOI 10.1038/453154b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255592400013

    View details for PubMedID 18464715

  • Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION Field, C. B., Campbell, J. E., Lobell, D. B. 2008; 23 (2): 65-72

    Abstract

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tree.2007.12.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253620000004

    View details for PubMedID 18215439

  • Estimation of the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect using growth rate anomalies of CO2 and crop yields since 1961 GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. 2008; 14 (1): 39-45
  • Simulated global changes alter phosphorus demand in annual grassland GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Menge, D. N., Field, C. B. 2007; 13 (12): 2582-2591
  • Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Canadell, J. G., Le Quere, C., Raupach, M. R., Field, C. B., Buitenhuis, E. T., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Gillett, N. P., Houghton, R. A., Marland, G. 2007; 104 (47): 18866-18870

    Abstract

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO(2) emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000-2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y(-1). The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO(2) emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO(2) sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO(2) growth rate have been approximately 65 +/- 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 +/- 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 +/- 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate-carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0702737104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251292500092

    View details for PubMedID 17962418

  • Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Raupach, M. R., Marland, G., Ciais, P., Le Quere, C., Canadell, J. G., Klepper, G., Field, C. B. 2007; 104 (24): 10288-10293

    Abstract

    CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning and industrial processes have been accelerating at a global scale, with their growth rate increasing from 1.1% y(-1) for 1990-1999 to >3% y(-1) for 2000-2004. The emissions growth rate since 2000 was greater than for the most fossil-fuel intensive of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenarios developed in the late 1990s. Global emissions growth since 2000 was driven by a cessation or reversal of earlier declining trends in the energy intensity of gross domestic product (GDP) (energy/GDP) and the carbon intensity of energy (emissions/energy), coupled with continuing increases in population and per-capita GDP. Nearly constant or slightly increasing trends in the carbon intensity of energy have been recently observed in both developed and developing regions. No region is decarbonizing its energy supply. The growth rate in emissions is strongest in rapidly developing economies, particularly China. Together, the developing and least-developed economies (forming 80% of the world's population) accounted for 73% of global emissions growth in 2004 but only 41% of global emissions and only 23% of global cumulative emissions since the mid-18th century. The results have implications for global equity.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0700609104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247363000066

    View details for PubMedID 17519334

  • Environment. Tropical forests and climate policy. Science Gullison, R. E., Frumhoff, P. C., Canadell, J. G., Field, C. B., Nepstad, D. C., Hayhoe, K., Avissar, R., Curran, L. M., Friedlingstein, P., Jones, C. D., Nobre, C. 2007; 316 (5827): 985-986

    View details for PubMedID 17495140

  • Responses of temporal distribution of gastropods to individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition in annual grassland ACTA OECOLOGICA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY Peters, H. A., Hsu, G., Cleland, E. E., Chiariello, N. R., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2007; 31 (3): 343-352
  • A model of biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus including symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphatase production GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Wang, Y., Houlton, B. Z., Field, C. B. 2007; 21 (1)
  • Historical effects of temperature and precipitation on California crop yields CLIMATIC CHANGE Lobell, D. B., Cahill, K. N., Field, C. B. 2007; 81 (2): 187-203
  • Global scale climate - crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. 2007; 2 (1)
  • Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES Field, C. B., Lobell, D. B., Peters, H. A., Chiariello, N. R. 2007; 32: 1-29
  • Impacts of future climate change on California perennial crop yields: Model projections with climate and crop uncertainties AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B., Cahill, K. N., Bonfils, C. 2006; 141 (2-4): 208-218
  • Interactive effects of fire, elevated carbon dioxide, nitrogen deposition, and precipitation on a California annual grassland ECOSYSTEMS Henry, H. A., Chiariello, N. R., Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2006; 9 (7): 1066-1075
  • Carbon sequestration in California agriculture, 1980-2000 ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Kroodsma, D. A., Field, C. B. 2006; 16 (5): 1975-1985

    Abstract

    To better understand agricultural carbon fluxes in California, USA, we estimated changes in soil carbon and woody material between 1980 and 2000 on 3.6 x 10(6) ha of farmland in California. Combining the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model with data on harvest indices and yields, we calculated net primary production, woody production in orchard and vineyard crops, and soil carbon. Over the 21-yr period, two trends resulted in carbon sequestration. Yields increased an average of 20%, corresponding to greater plant biomass and more carbon returned to the soils. Also, orchards and vineyards increased in area from 0.7 x 10(6) ha to 1.0 x 10(6) ha, displacing field crops and sequestering woody carbon. Our model estimates that California's agriculture sequestered an average of 19 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1). Sequestration was lowest in non-rice annual cropland, which sequestered 9 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1) of soil carbon, and highest on land that switched from annual cropland to perennial cropland. Land that switched from annual crops to vineyards sequestered 68 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1), and land that switched from annual crops to orchards sequestered 85 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1). Rice fields, because of a reduction in field burning, sequestered 55 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1) in the 1990s. Over the 21 years, California's 3.6 x 10(6) ha of agricultural land sequestered 11.0 Tg C within soils and 3.5 Tg C in woody biomass, for a total of 14.5 Tg C statewide. This is equal to 0.7% of the state's total fossil fuel emissions over the same time period. If California's agriculture adopted conservation tillage, changed management of almond and walnut prunings, and used all of its orchard and vineyard waste wood in the biomass power plants in the state, California's agriculture could offset up to 1.6% of the fossil fuel emissions in the state.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241362400031

    View details for PubMedID 17069388

  • Diverse responses of phenology to global changes in a grassland ecosystem PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cleland, E. E., Chiariello, N. R., Loarie, S. R., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2006; 103 (37): 13740-13744

    Abstract

    Shifting plant phenology (i.e., timing of flowering and other developmental events) in recent decades establishes that species and ecosystems are already responding to global environmental change. Earlier flowering and an extended period of active plant growth across much of the northern hemisphere have been interpreted as responses to warming. However, several kinds of environmental change have the potential to influence the phenology of flowering and primary production. Here, we report shifts in phenology of flowering and canopy greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in response to four experimentally simulated global changes: warming, elevated CO(2), nitrogen (N) deposition, and increased precipitation. Consistent with previous observations, warming accelerated both flowering and greening of the canopy, but phenological responses to the other global change treatments were diverse. Elevated CO(2) and N addition delayed flowering in grasses, but slightly accelerated flowering in forbs. The opposing responses of these two important functional groups decreased their phenological complementarity and potentially increased competition for limiting soil resources. At the ecosystem level, timing of canopy greenness mirrored the flowering phenology of the grasses, which dominate primary production in this system. Elevated CO(2) delayed greening, whereas N addition dampened the acceleration of greening caused by warming. Increased precipitation had no consistent impacts on phenology. This diversity of phenological changes, between plant functional groups and in response to multiple environmental changes, helps explain the diversity in large-scale observations and indicates that changing temperature is only one of several factors reshaping the seasonality of ecosystem processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0600815103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240648300035

    View details for PubMedID 16954189

  • Gastropod herbivory in response to elevated CO2 and N addition impacts plant community composition ECOLOGY Cleland, E. E., Peters, H. A., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2006; 87 (3): 686-694

    Abstract

    In this study, the influence of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N) deposition on gastropod herbivory was investigated for six annual species in a California annual grassland community. These experimentally simulated global changes increased availability of important resources for plant growth, leading to the hypothesis that species with the most positive growth and foliar nutrient responses would experience the greatest increase in herbivory. Counter to the expectations, shifts in tissue N and growth rates caused by N deposition did not predict shifts in herbivore consumption rates. N deposition increased seedling N concentrations and growth rates but did not increase herbivore consumption overall, or for any individual species. Elevated CO2 did not influence growth rates nor have a statistically significant influence on seedling N concentrations. Elevated CO2 at ambient N levels caused a decline in the number of seedlings consumed, but the interaction between CO2 and N addition differed among species. The results of this study indicate that shifting patterns of herbivory will likely influence species composition as environmental conditions change in the future; however, a simple trade-off between shifting growth rates and palatability is not evident.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236289600017

    View details for PubMedID 16602298

  • The effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the amount and depth distribution of plant water uptake in a California annual grassland GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Moore, L. A., Field, C. B. 2006; 12 (3): 578-587
  • Is carbon within the global terrestrial biosphere becoming more oxidized? Implications for trends in atmospheric O-2 GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Randerson, J. T., Masiello, C. A., Still, C. J., Rahn, T., Poorter, H., Field, C. B. 2006; 12 (2): 260-271
  • Herbivore control of annual grassland composition in current and future environments ECOLOGY LETTERS Peters, H. A., Cleland, E. E., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2006; 9 (1): 86-94

    Abstract

    Selective consumption by herbivores influences the composition and structure of a range of plant communities. Anthropogenically driven global environmental changes, including increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)), warming, increased precipitation, and increased N deposition, directly alter plant physiological properties, which may in turn modify herbivore consumption patterns. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that responses of annual grassland composition to global changes can be predicted exclusively from environmentally induced changes in the consumption patterns of a group of widespread herbivores, the terrestrial gastropods. This was done by: (1) assessing gastropod impacts on grassland composition under ambient conditions; (2) quantifying environmentally induced changes in gastropod feeding behaviour; (3) predicting how grassland composition would respond to global-change manipulations if influenced only by herbivore consumption preferences; and (4) comparing these predictions to observed responses of grassland community composition to simulated global changes. Gastropod herbivores consume nearly half of aboveground production in this system. Global changes induced species-specific changes in plant leaf characteristics, leading gastropods to alter the relative amounts of different plant types consumed. These changes in gastropod feeding preferences consistently explained global-change-induced responses of functional group abundance in an intact annual grassland exposed to simulated future environments. For four of the five global change scenarios, gastropod impacts explained > 50% of the quantitative changes, indicating that herbivore preferences can be a major driver of plant community responses to global changes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00847.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235306400012

    View details for PubMedID 16958872

  • Responses of grassland production to single and multiple global environmental changes PLOS BIOLOGY Dukes, J. S., Chiariello, N. R., Cleland, E. E., Moore, L. A., Shaw, M. R., Thayer, S., Tobeck, T., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2005; 3 (10): 1829-1837

    Abstract

    In this century, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are expected to cause warmer surface temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. At the same time, reactive nitrogen is entering natural systems at unprecedented rates. These global environmental changes have consequences for the functioning of natural ecosystems, and responses of these systems may feed back to affect climate and atmospheric composition. Here, we report plant growth responses of an ecosystem exposed to factorial combinations of four expected global environmental changes. We exposed California grassland to elevated CO2, temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition for five years. Root and shoot production did not respond to elevated CO2 or modest warming. Supplemental precipitation led to increases in shoot production and offsetting decreases in root production. Supplemental nitrate deposition increased total production by an average of 26%, primarily by stimulating shoot growth. Interactions among the main treatments were rare. Together, these results suggest that production in this grassland will respond minimally to changes in CO2 and winter precipitation, and to small amounts of warming. Increased nitrate deposition would have stronger effects on the grassland. Aside from this nitrate response, expectations that a changing atmosphere and climate would promote carbon storage by increasing plant growth appear unlikely to be realized in this system.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030319

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232404600016

    View details for PubMedID 16076244

  • Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on extracellular enzyme activity and soil density fractionation in a California annual grassland GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Henry, H. A., Juarez, J. D., Field, C. B., Vitousek, P. M. 2005; 11 (10): 1808-1815
  • A technique for identifying the roots of different species in mixed samples using nuclear ribosomal DNA JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE Moore, L. A., Field, C. B. 2005; 16 (1): 131-134
  • Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on plant litter quality in a California annual grassland OECOLOGIA Henry, H. A., Cleland, E. E., Field, C. B., Vitousek, P. M. 2005; 142 (3): 465-473

    Abstract

    Although global changes can alter ecosystem nutrient dynamics indirectly as a result of their effects on plant litter quality, the interactive effects of global changes on plant litter remain largely unexplored in natural communities. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2, N deposition, warming and increased precipitation on the composition of organic compounds in plant litter in a fully-factorial experiment conducted in a California annual grassland. While lignin increased within functional groups under elevated CO2, this effect was attenuated by warming in grasses and by water additions in forbs. CO2-induced increases in lignin within functional groups also were counteracted by an increase in the relative biomass of forbs, which contained less lignin than grasses. Consequently, there was no net change in the overall lignin content of senesced tissue at the plot level under elevated CO2. Nitrate additions increased N in both grass and forb litter, although this effect was attenuated by water additions. Relative to changes in N within functional groups, changes in functional group dominance had a minor effect on overall litter N at the plot level. Nitrate additions had the strongest effect on decomposition, increasing lignin losses from Avena litter and interacting with water additions to increase decomposition of litter of other grasses. Increases in lignin that resulted from elevated CO2 had no effect on decomposition but elevated CO2 increased N losses from Avena litter. Overall, the interactions among elements of global change were as important as single-factor effects in influencing plant litter chemistry. However, with the exception of variation in N, litter quality had little influence on decomposition over the short term.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-004-1713-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226357400015

    View details for PubMedID 15558326

  • Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria respond to multifactorial global change PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Horz, H. P., Barbrook, A., Field, C. B., Bohannan, B. J. 2004; 101 (42): 15136-15141

    Abstract

    Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple co-occurring global changes can alter the abundance, diversity, and productivity of plant communities. Below ground processes, often mediated by soil microorganisms, are central to the response of these communities to global change. Very little is known, however, about the effects of multiple global changes on microbial communities. We examined the response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), microorganisms that mediate the transformation of ammonium into nitrite, to simultaneous increases in atmospheric CO2, precipitation, temperature, and nitrogen deposition, manipulated on the ecosystem level in a California grassland. Both the community structure and abundance of AOB responded to these simulated global changes. Increased nitrogen deposition significantly altered the structure of the ammonia-oxidizing community, consistently shifting the community toward dominance by bacteria most closely related to Nitrosospira sp. 2. This shift was most pronounced when temperature and precipitation were not increased. Total abundance of AOB significantly decreased in response to increased atmospheric CO2. This decrease was most pronounced when precipitation was also increased. Shifts in community composition were associated with increases in nitrification, but changes in abundance were not. These results demonstrate that microbial communities can be consistently altered by global changes and that these changes can have implications for ecosystem function.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0406616101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224688700030

    View details for PubMedID 15469911

  • Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Hayhoe, K., Cayan, D., Field, C. B., Frumhoff, P. C., Maurer, E. P., Miller, N. L., Moser, S. C., Schneider, S. H., Cahill, K. N., Cleland, E. E., Dale, L., Drapek, R., Hanemann, R. M., Kalkstein, L. S., Lenihan, J., Lunch, C. K., Neilson, R. P., Sheridan, S. C., Verville, J. H. 2004; 101 (34): 12422-12427

    Abstract

    The magnitude of future climate change depends substantially on the greenhouse gas emission pathways we choose. Here we explore the implications of the highest and lowest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions pathways for climate change and associated impacts in California. Based on climate projections from two state-of-the-art climate models with low and medium sensitivity (Parallel Climate Model and Hadley Centre Climate Model, version 3, respectively), we find that annual temperature increases nearly double from the lower B1 to the higher A1fi emissions scenario before 2100. Three of four simulations also show greater increases in summer temperatures as compared with winter. Extreme heat and the associated impacts on a range of temperature-sensitive sectors are substantially greater under the higher emissions scenario, with some interscenario differences apparent before midcentury. By the end of the century under the B1 scenario, heatwaves and extreme heat in Los Angeles quadruple in frequency while heat-related mortality increases two to three times; alpine/subalpine forests are reduced by 50-75%; and Sierra snowpack is reduced 30-70%. Under A1fi, heatwaves in Los Angeles are six to eight times more frequent, with heat-related excess mortality increasing five to seven times; alpine/subalpine forests are reduced by 75-90%; and snowpack declines 73-90%, with cascading impacts on runoff and streamflow that, combined with projected modest declines in winter precipitation, could fundamentally disrupt California's water rights system. Although interscenario differences in climate impacts and costs of adaptation emerge mainly in the second half of the century, they are strongly dependent on emissions from preceding decades.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0404500101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223596200007

    View details for PubMedID 15314227

  • Atmospheric science. Nitrogen and climate change. Science Hungate, B. A., Dukes, J. S., Shaw, M. R., Luo, Y., Field, C. B. 2003; 302 (5650): 1512-1513

    View details for PubMedID 14645831

  • Grassland responses to three years of elevated temperature, CO2, precipitation, and N deposition ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Zavaleta, E. S., Shaw, M. R., Chiariello, N. R., Thomas, B. D., Cleland, E. E., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 2003; 73 (4): 585-604
  • Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Zavaleta, E. S., Thomas, B. D., Chiariello, N. R., Asner, G. P., Shaw, M. R., Field, C. B. 2003; 100 (17): 9892-9893

    Abstract

    Models predict that global warming may increase aridity in water-limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We show that interactions between warming and the dominant biota in a grassland ecosystem produced the reverse effect. In a 2-year field experiment, simulated warming increased spring soil moisture by 5-10% under both ambient and elevated CO2. Warming also accelerated the decline of canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) each spring by 11-17% by inducing earlier plant senescence. Lower transpirational water losses resulting from this earlier senescence provide a mechanism for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism-environment interactions to modify the direction as well as the magnitude of global change effects on ecosystem functioning.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1732012100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184926000049

    View details for PubMedID 12907704

  • Postfire response of North American boreal forest net primary productivity analyzed with satellite observations GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Hicke, J. A., Asner, G. P., Kasischke, E. S., French, N. H., Randerson, J. T., Collatz, G. J., Stocks, B. J., Tucker, C. J., Los, S. O., Field, C. B. 2003; 9 (8): 1145-1157
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizae respond to plants exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 as a function of soil depth PLANT AND SOIL Rillig, M. C., Field, C. B. 2003; 254 (2): 383-391
  • Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Zavaleta, E. S., Shaw, M. R., Chiariello, N. R., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2003; 100 (13): 7650-7654

    Abstract

    Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity, with combined effects that, at least in some settings, are simple, additive combinations of single-factor effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0932734100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183845800045

    View details for PubMedID 12810960

  • Temporal evolution of the European forest sector carbon sink from 1950 to 1999 GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Nabuurs, G. J., Schelhaas, M. J., Mohren, G. M., Field, C. B. 2003; 9 (2): 152-160
  • Element interactions and the cycles of life: An overview INTERACTIONS OF THE MAJOR BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Melillo, J. M., Field, C. B., MOLDAN, B. 2003; 61: 1-12
  • Grassland responses to global environmental changes suppressed by elevated CO2 SCIENCE Shaw, M. R., Zavaleta, E. S., Chiariello, N. R., Cleland, E. E., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 2002; 298 (5600): 1987-1990

    Abstract

    Simulated global changes, including warming, increased precipitation, and nitrogen deposition, alone and in concert, increased net primary production (NPP) in the third year of ecosystem-scale manipulations in a California annual grassland. Elevated carbon dioxide also increased NPP, but only as a single-factor treatment. Across all multifactor manipulations, elevated carbon dioxide suppressed root allocation, decreasing the positive effects of increased temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition on NPP. The NPP responses to interacting global changes differed greatly from simple combinations of single-factor responses. These findings indicate the importance of a multifactor experimental approach to understanding ecosystem responses to global change.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179629200044

    View details for PubMedID 12471257

  • Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DeFries, R. S., Houghton, R. A., Hansen, M. C., Field, C. B., Skole, D., Townshend, J. 2002; 99 (22): 14256-14261

    Abstract

    Carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth are highly uncertain components of the contemporary carbon budget, due in part to the lack of spatially explicit and consistent information on changes in forest area. We estimate fluxes for the 1980s and 1990s using subpixel estimates of percent tree cover derived from coarse (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite data in combination with a terrestrial carbon model. The satellite-derived estimates of change in forest area are lower than national reports and remote-sensing surveys from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) in all tropical regions, especially for the 1980s. However, our results indicate that the net rate of tropical forest clearing increased approximately 10% from the 1980s to 1990s, most notably in southeast Asia, in contrast to an 11% reduction reported by the FRA. We estimate net mean annual carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth to average 0.6 (0.3-0.8) and 0.9 (0.5-1.4) petagrams (Pg).yr(-1) for the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Compared with previous estimates of 1.9 (0.6-2.5) Pg.yr(-1) based on FRA national statistics of changes in forest area, this alternative estimate suggests less "missing" carbon from the global carbon budget but increasing emissions from tropical land-use change.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.182560099

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178967400054

    View details for PubMedID 12384569

  • Root production and demography in a california annual grassland under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Higgins, P. A., Jackson, R. B., Des Rosiers, J. M., Field, C. B. 2002; 8 (9): 841-850
  • Satellite estimates of productivity and light use efficiency in United States agriculture, 1982-98 GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Lobell, D. B., Hicke, J. A., Asner, G. P., Field, C. B., Tucker, C. J., Los, S. O. 2002; 8 (8): 722-735
  • Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Goodale, C. L., Apps, M. J., Birdsey, R. A., Field, C. B., Heath, L. S., Houghton, R. A., Jenkins, J. C., Kohlmaier, G. H., Kurz, W., Liu, S. R., Nabuurs, G. J., Nilsson, S., Shvidenko, A. Z. 2002; 12 (3): 891-899
  • Satellite-derived increases in net primary productivity across North America, 1982-1998 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Hicke, J. A., Asner, G. P., Randerson, J. T., Tucker, C., Los, S., Birdsey, R., Jenkins, J. C., Field, C., Holland, E. 2002; 29 (10)
  • Trends in North American net primary productivity derived from satellite observations, 1982-1998 GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Hicke, J. A., Asner, G. P., Randerson, J. T., Tucker, C., Los, S., Birdsey, R., Jenkins, J. C., Field, C. 2002; 16 (2)
  • Artificial climate warming positively affects arbuscular mycorrhizae but decreases soil aggregate water stability in an annual grassland OIKOS Rillig, M. C., WRIGHT, S. F., Shaw, M. R., Field, C. B. 2002; 97 (1): 52-58
  • Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Vitousek, P. M., Cassman, K., Cleveland, C., Crews, T., Field, C. B., Grimm, N. B., Howarth, R. W., Marino, R., Martinelli, L., Rastetter, E. B., SPRENT, J. I. 2002; 57 (1): 1-45
  • Nitrogen controls on climate model evapotranspiration JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Dickinson, R. E., Berry, J. A., Bonan, G. B., Collatz, G. J., Field, C. B., Fung, I. Y., Goulden, M., Hoffmann, W. A., Jackson, R. B., Myneni, R., Sellers, P. J., Shaikh, M. 2002; 15 (3): 278-295
  • Global change - Sharing the garden SCIENCE Field, C. B. 2001; 294 (5551): 2490-2491

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172927700038

    View details for PubMedID 11752562

  • Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems NATURE Schimel, D. S., House, J. I., Hibbard, K. A., Bousquet, P., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Braswell, B. H., Apps, M. J., Baker, D., Bondeau, A., Canadell, J., Churkina, G., Cramer, W., Denning, A. S., Field, C. B., Friedlingstein, P., Goodale, C., Heimann, M., Houghton, R. A., Melillo, J. M., Moore, B., Murdiyarso, D., Noble, I., Pacala, S. W., Prentice, I. C., Raupach, M. R., Rayner, P. J., Scholes, R. J., Steffen, W. L., Wirth, C. 2001; 414 (6860): 169-172

    Abstract

    Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given that the terrestrial and marine environments are currently absorbing about half of the carbon dioxide that is emitted by fossil-fuel combustion. This carbon uptake is therefore limiting the extent of atmospheric and climatic change, but its long-term nature remains uncertain. Here we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of global and regional patterns of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen data confirm that the terrestrial biosphere was largely neutral with respect to net carbon exchange during the 1980s, but became a net carbon sink in the 1990s. This recent sink can be largely attributed to northern extratropical areas, and is roughly split between North America and Eurasia. Tropical land areas, however, were approximately in balance with respect to carbon exchange, implying a carbon sink that offset emissions due to tropical deforestation. The evolution of the terrestrial carbon sink is largely the result of changes in land use over time, such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land and fire prevention, in addition to responses to environmental changes, such as longer growing seasons, and fertilization by carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Nevertheless, there remain considerable uncertainties as to the magnitude of the sink in different regions and the contribution of different processes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172029100037

    View details for PubMedID 11700548

  • Consistent land- and atmosphere-based US carbon sink estimates SCIENCE Pacala, S. W., Hurtt, G. C., Baker, D., Peylin, P., Houghton, R. A., Birdsey, R. A., Heath, L., Sundquist, E. T., Stallard, R. F., Ciais, P., Moorcroft, P., Caspersen, J. P., Shevliakova, E., Moore, B., Kohlmaier, G., Holland, E., Gloor, M., Harmon, M. E., Fan, S. M., SARMIENTO, J. L., Goodale, C. L., Schimel, D., Field, C. B. 2001; 292 (5525): 2316-2320

    Abstract

    For the period 1980-89, we estimate a carbon sink in the coterminous United States between 0.30 and 0.58 petagrams of carbon per year (petagrams of carbon = 10(15) grams of carbon). The net carbon flux from the atmosphere to the land was higher, 0.37 to 0.71 petagrams of carbon per year, because a net flux of 0.07 to 0.13 petagrams of carbon per year was exported by rivers and commerce and returned to the atmosphere elsewhere. These land-based estimates are larger than those from previous studies (0.08 to 0.35 petagrams of carbon per year) because of the inclusion of additional processes and revised estimates of some component fluxes. Although component estimates are uncertain, about one-half of the total is outside the forest sector. We also estimated the sink using atmospheric models and the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (the tracer-transport inversion method). The range of results from the atmosphere-based inversions contains the land-based estimates. Atmosphere- and land-based estimates are thus consistent, within the large ranges of uncertainty for both methods. Atmosphere-based results for 1980-89 are similar to those for 1985-89 and 1990-94, indicating a relatively stable U.S. sink throughout the period.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169455900054

    View details for PubMedID 11423659

  • Resource optimization and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ECOSYSTEMS Rastetter, E. B., Vitousek, P. M., Field, C., Shaver, G. R., Herbert, D., AGREN, G. I. 2001; 4 (4): 369-388
  • Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 on old and new soil carbon pools (vol 33, pg 365, 2001) SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY Cardon, Z. G., Hungate, B. A., Cambardella, C. A., Chapin, F. S., Field, C. B., Holland, E. A., Mooney, H. A. 2001; 33 (7-8): 1141-1141
  • Species-specific responses of plant communities to altered carbon and nutrient availability GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Joel, G., Chapin, F. S., Chiariello, N. R., Thayer, S. S., Field, C. B. 2001; 7 (4): 435-450
  • Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition SCIENCE Behrenfeld, M. J., Randerson, J. T., McClain, C. R., Feldman, G. C., Los, S. O., Tucker, C. J., Falkowski, P. G., Field, C. B., Frouin, R., Esaias, W. E., Kolber, D. D., Pollack, N. H. 2001; 291 (5513): 2594-2597

    Abstract

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) provides global monthly measurements of both oceanic phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass and light harvesting by land plants. These measurements allowed the comparison of simultaneous ocean and land net primary production (NPP) responses to a major El Niño to La Niña transition. Between September 1997 and August 2000, biospheric NPP varied by 6 petagrams of carbon per year (from 111 to 117 petagrams of carbon per year). Increases in ocean NPP were pronounced in tropical regions where El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on upwelling and nutrient availability were greatest. Globally, land NPP did not exhibit a clear ENSO response, although regional changes were substantial.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167861000039

    View details for PubMedID 11283369

  • Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 on old and new soil carbon pools SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY Cardon, Z. G., Hungate, B. A., Cambardella, C. A., Chapin, F. S., Field, C. B., Holland, E. A., Mooney, H. A. 2001; 33 (3): 365-373
  • Nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition in a grassland under elevated CO2 NATURE Hu, S., Chapin, F. S., Firestone, M. K., Field, C. B., Chiariello, N. R. 2001; 409 (6817): 188-191

    Abstract

    Carbon accumulation in the terrestrial biosphere could partially offset the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on atmospheric CO2. The net impact of increased CO2 on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is unclear, however, because elevated CO2 effects on carbon input to soils and plant use of water and nutrients often have contrasting effects on microbial processes. Here we show suppression of microbial decomposition in an annual grassland after continuous exposure to increased CO2 for five growing seasons. The increased CO2 enhanced plant nitrogen uptake, microbial biomass carbon, and available carbon for microbes. But it reduced available soil nitrogen, exacerbated nitrogen constraints on microbes, and reduced microbial respiration per unit biomass. These results indicate that increased CO2 can alter the interaction between plants and microbes in favour of plant utilization of nitrogen, thereby slowing microbial decomposition and increasing ecosystem carbon accumulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166316200043

    View details for PubMedID 11196641

  • Common-pool resources and commons institutions - An overview of the applicability of the concept and approach to current environmental problems PROTECTING THE COMMONS Burger, J., Field, C., Norgaard, R. B., Ostrom, E., Policansky, D. 2001: 1-15
  • Assessing photosynthetic downregulation in sunflower stands with an optically-based model PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESEARCH Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B., Fredeen, A. L., Thayer, S. 2001; 67 (1-2): 113-125
  • Plant physiology of the "missing" carbon sink PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Field, C. B. 2001; 125 (1): 25-28

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167544600006

    View details for PubMedID 11154288

  • Introduction. Photosynthesis research Berry, J. A., Field, C. B., Grossman, A. R. 2001; 67 (1-2): 1-3

    View details for PubMedID 16228311

  • Assessing photosynthetic downregulation in sunflower stands with an optically-based model. Photosynthesis research Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B., Fredeen, A. L., Thayer, S. 2001; 67 (1-2): 113-25

    Abstract

    Using a simple light-use efficiency model based on optical measurements, we explored spatial patterns of photosynthetic activity in fertilized and unfertilized sunflower stands. The model had two components: (1) absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), and (2) radiation-use efficiency. APAR was the product of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and leaf absorptance, which was derived from leaf reflectance. Radiation-use efficiency was either assumed to be constant or allowed to vary linearly with the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a measure of xanthophyll cycle pigment activity. When efficiency was assumed to be constant, the model overestimated photosynthetic rates in upper canopy layers exposed to direct PPFD, particularly in the unfertilized canopy due to the greater photosynthetic downregulation associated with higher levels of photoprotective (de-epoxidized) xanthophyll cycle pigments in these conditions. When efficiency was allowed to vary according to the PRI, modeled photosynthetic rates closely matched measured rates for all canopy layers in both treatments. These results illustrate the importance of considering reduced radiation-use efficiency due to photosynthetic downregulation when modeling photosynthesis from reflectance, and illustrate the potential for detecting radiation-use efficiency through leaf optical properties. At least under the conditions of this study, these results also suggest that xanthophyll cycle pigment activity and net carbon uptake are coordinately regulated, allowing assays of Photosystem II activity to reveal changing rates of net assimilation. Because the optical methods in this study are adaptable to multiple spatial scales (leaf to landscape), this approach may provide a scalable model for estimating photosynthetic rates independently from flux measurements.

    View details for PubMedID 16228321

  • Soil microbiota in two annual grasslands: responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 OECOLOGIA Hungate, B. A., Jaeger, C. H., Gamara, G., Chapin, F. S., Field, C. B. 2000; 124 (4): 589-598
  • Belowground consequences of vegetation change and their treatment in models ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Jackson, R. B., Schenk, H. J., Jobbagy, E. G., Canadell, J., Colello, G. D., Dickinson, R. E., Field, C. B., Friedlingstein, P., Heimann, M., Hibbard, K., Kicklighter, D. W., Kleidon, A., Neilson, R. P., Parton, W. J., Sala, O. E., Sykes, M. T. 2000; 10 (2): 470-483
  • Carbon metabolism of the terrestrial biosphere: A multitechnique approach for improved understanding ECOSYSTEMS Canadell, J. G., Mooney, H. A., Baldocchi, D. D., Berry, J. A., Ehleringer, J. R., Field, C. B., Gower, S. T., Hollinger, D. Y., Hunt, J. E., Jackson, R. B., Running, S. W., Shaver, G. R., STEFFEN, W., Trumbore, S. E., Valentini, R., Bond, B. Y. 2000; 3 (2): 115-130
  • Diverse mechanisms for CO2 effects on grassland litter decomposition GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Dukes, J. S., Field, C. B. 2000; 6 (2): 145-154
  • Toward an allocation scheme for global terrestrial carbon models GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Friedlingstein, P., Joel, G., Field, C. B., Fung, I. Y. 1999; 5 (7): 755-770
  • Combining satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES DeFries, R. S., Field, C. B., Fung, I., Collatz, G. J., Bounoua, L. 1999; 13 (3): 803-815
  • Increases in early season ecosystem uptake explain recent changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 at high northern latitudes GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Randerson, J. T., Field, C. B., Fung, I. Y., Tans, P. P. 1999; 26 (17): 2765-2768
  • Ecosystem constraints to symbiotic nitrogen fixers: a simple model and its implications BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Vitousek, P. M., Field, C. B. 1999; 46 (1-3): 179-202
  • Linking C-13-based estimates of land and ocean sinks with predictions of carbon storage from CO2 fertilization of plant growth TELLUS SERIES B-CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL METEOROLOGY Randerson, J. T., Thompson, M. V., Field, C. B. 1999; 51 (3): 668-678
  • Fungal root colonization responses in natural grasslands after long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Rillig, M. C., Field, C. B., Allen, M. F. 1999; 5 (5): 577-585
  • Soil biota responses to long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in two California annual grasslands OECOLOGIA Rillig, M. C., Field, C. B., Allen, M. F. 1999; 119 (4): 572-577
  • Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges. Science Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C. B., Norgaard, R. B., Policansky, D. 1999; 284 (5412): 278-282

    Abstract

    In a seminal paper, Garrett Hardin argued in 1968 that users of a commons are caught in an inevitable process that leads to the destruction of the resources on which they depend. This article discusses new insights about such problems and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources. Some of the most difficult challenges concern the management of large-scale resources that depend on international cooperation, such as fresh water in international basins or large marine ecosystems. Institutional diversity may be as important as biological diversity for our long-term survival.

    View details for PubMedID 10195886

  • The effects of chamber pressurization on soil-surface CO2 flux and the implications for NEE measurements under elevated CO2 GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Lund, C. P., Riley, W. J., Pierce, L. L., Field, C. B. 1999; 5 (3): 269-281
  • Interactions between vegetation and climate: Radiative and physiological effects of doubled atmospheric CO2 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Bounoua, L., Collatz, G. J., Sellers, P. J., Randall, D. A., Dazlich, D. A., Los, S. O., Berry, J. A., Fung, I., Tucker, C. J., Field, C. B., Jensen, T. G. 1999; 12 (2): 309-324
  • Influence of fertilization and atmospheric CO2 enrichment on ecosystem CO2 and H2O exchanges in single- and multiple-species grassland microcosms ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY Fredeen, A. L., Koch, G. W., Field, C. B. 1998; 40 (2): 147-157
  • Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components SCIENCE Field, C. B., Behrenfeld, M. J., Randerson, J. T., Falkowski, P. 1998; 281 (5374): 237-240
  • The terrestrial carbon cycle: Implications for the Kyoto Protocol SCIENCE STEFFEN, W., Noble, I., Canadell, J., Apps, M., Schulze, E. D., Jarvis, P. G., Baldocchi, D., Ciais, P., Cramer, W., Ehleringer, J., Farquhar, G., Field, C. B., Ghazi, A., Gifford, R., Heimann, M., Houghton, R., Kabat, P., Korner, C., Lambin, E., Linder, S., Mooney, H. A., Murdiyarso, D., Post, W. M., Prentice, I. C., Raupach, M. R., Schimel, D. S., Shvidenko, A., Valentini, R. 1998; 280 (5368): 1393-1394
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal percent root infection and infection intensity of Bromus hordeaceus grown in elevated atmospheric CO2 MYCOLOGIA Rillig, M. C., Allen, M. F., Klironomos, J. N., Field, C. B. 1998; 90 (2): 199-205
  • Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components Science (New York, N.Y.) Field, C. B., Behrenfeld, M. J., Randerson, J. T., Falkowski, P. 1998; 281 (5374): 237-40

    Abstract

    Integrating conceptually similar models of the growth of marine and terrestrial primary producers yielded an estimated global net primary production (NPP) of 104.9 petagrams of carbon per year, with roughly equal contributions from land and oceans. Approaches based on satellite indices of absorbed solar radiation indicate marked heterogeneity in NPP for both land and oceans, reflecting the influence of physical and ecological processes. The spatial and temporal distributions of ocean NPP are consistent with primary limitation by light, nutrients, and temperature. On land, water limitation imposes additional constraints. On land and ocean, progressive changes in NPP can result in altered carbon storage, although contrasts in mechanisms of carbon storage and rates of organic matter turnover result in a range of relations between carbon storage and changes in NPP.

    View details for PubMedID 9657713

  • Plant species-specific changes in root-inhabiting fungi in a California annual grassland: responses to elevated CO2 and nutrients OECOLOGIA Rillig, M. C., Allen, M. F., Klironomos, J. N., Chiariello, N. R., Field, C. B. 1998; 113 (2): 252-259
  • Disproportional increases in photosynthesis and plant biomass in a Californian grassland exposed to elevated CO2: a simulation analysis FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY Luo, Y., Chen, J. L., Reynolds, J. F., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1997; 11 (6): 696-704
  • The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Randerson, J. T., Thompson, M. V., Conway, T. J., Fung, I. Y., Field, C. B. 1997; 11 (4): 535-560
  • Carbon 13 exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Fung, I., Field, C. B., Berry, J. A., Thompson, M. V., Randerson, J. T., Malmstrom, C. M., Vitousek, P. M., Collatz, G. J., Sellers, P. J., Randall, D. A., Denning, A. S., Badeck, F., John, J. 1997; 11 (4): 507-533
  • Production efficiency in sunflower: The role of water and nitrogen stress REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Joel, G., Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B. 1997; 62 (2): 176-188
  • Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases water availability in a water-limited grassland ecosystem JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION Fredeen, A. L., Randerson, J. T., Holbrook, N. M., Field, C. B. 1997; 33 (5): 1033-1039
  • Assessing photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency of emergent aquatic vegetation from spectral reflectance AQUATIC BOTANY Penuelas, J., Filella, I., Gamon, J. A., Field, C. 1997; 58 (3-4): 307-315
  • Interannual variation in global-scale net primary production: Testing model estimates GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Malmstrom, C. M., Thompson, M. V., Juday, G. P., Los, S. O., Randerson, J. T., Field, C. B. 1997; 11 (3): 367-392
  • The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment NATURE Hungate, B. A., Holland, E. A., Jackson, R. B., Chapin, F. S., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. B. 1997; 388 (6642): 576-579
  • CO2 effects on the water budget of grassland microcosm communities GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Field, C. B., Lund, C. P., Chiariello, N. R., Mortimer, B. E. 1997; 3 (3): 197-206
  • Decomposition of litter produced under elevated CO2: Dependence on plant species and nutrient supply BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Franck, V. M., Hungate, B. A., Chapin, F. S., Field, C. B. 1997; 36 (3): 223-237
  • Virus-induced differences in the response of oat plants to elevated carbon dioxide PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT Malmstrom, C. M., Field, C. B. 1997; 20 (2): 178-188
  • Modeling the exchanges of energy, water, and carbon between continents and the atmosphere SCIENCE Sellers, P. J., Dickinson, R. E., Randall, D. A., Betts, A. K., Hall, F. G., Berry, J. A., Collatz, G. J., Denning, A. S., Mooney, H. A., Nobre, C. A., Sato, N., Field, C. B., Henderson-Sellers, A. 1997; 275 (5299): 502-509
  • Stimulation of grassland nitrogen cycling under carbon dioxide enrichment OECOLOGIA Hungate, B. A., Chapin, F. S., Zhong, H., Holland, E. A., Field, C. B. 1997; 109 (1): 149-153
  • Adapting GePSi (generic plant simulator) for modeling studies in the Jasper Ridge CO2 project ECOLOGICAL MODELLING Luo, Y., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1997; 94 (1): 81-88
  • Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere Science (New York, N.Y.) Sellers, P. J., Dickinson, R. E., Randall, D. A., Betts, A. K., Hall, F. G., Berry, J. A., Collatz, G. J., Denning, A. S., Mooney, H. A., Nobre, C. A., Sato, N., Field, C. B., Henderson-Sellers, A. 1997; 275 (5299): 502-9

    Abstract

    Atmospheric general circulation models used for climate simulation and weather forecasting require the fluxes of radiation, heat, water vapor, and momentum across the land-atmosphere interface to be specified. These fluxes are calculated by submodels called land surface parameterizations. Over the last 20 years, these parameterizations have evolved from simple, unrealistic schemes into credible representations of the global soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer system as advances in plant physiological and hydrological research, advances in satellite data interpretation, and the results of large-scale field experiments have been exploited. Some modern schemes incorporate biogeochemical and ecological knowledge and, when coupled with advanced climate and ocean models, will be capable of modeling the biological and physical responses of the Earth system to global change, for example, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    View details for PubMedID 8999789

  • Substrate limitations for heterotrophs: Implications for models that estimate the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Randerson, J. T., Thompson, M. V., Malmstrom, C. M., Field, C. B., Fung, I. Y. 1996; 10 (4): 585-602
  • Elevated CO2 increases belowground respiration in California grasslands OECOLOGIA Luo, Y. Q., Jackson, R. B., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1996; 108 (1): 130-137
  • Effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on tissue quality of two California annuals OECOLOGIA Chu, C. C., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1996; 107 (4): 433-440
  • VEMAP: Model shootout at the sub-continental corral TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION Field, C. B., Ruimy, A., Luo, Y. Q., Malmstrom, C. M., Randerson, J. T., Thompson, M. V. 1996; 11 (8): 313-314

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UX90900002

    View details for PubMedID 21237858

  • The use of CO2 flux measurements in models of the global terrestrial carbon budget GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Ruimy, A., Kergoat, L., Field, C. B., Saugier, B. 1996; 2 (3): 287-296
  • A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs .1. Model formulation JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Sellers, P. J., Randall, D. A., Collatz, G. J., Berry, J. A., Field, C. B., Dazlich, D. A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G. D., Bounoua, L. 1996; 9 (4): 676-705
  • Comparison of radiative and physiological effects of doubled atmospheric CO2 on climate SCIENCE Sellers, P. J., Bounoua, L., Collatz, G. J., Randall, D. A., Dazlich, D. A., Los, S. O., Berry, J. A., Fung, I., Tucker, C. J., Field, C. B., Jensen, T. G. 1996; 271 (5254): 1402-1406
  • NEGATIVE XYLEM PRESSURES IN PLANTS - A TEST OF THE BALANCING PRESSURE TECHNIQUE SCIENCE Holbrook, N. M., Burns, M. J., Field, C. B. 1995; 270 (5239): 1193-1194
  • MAPPING THE LAND-SURFACE FOR GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE-BIOSPHERE MODELS - TOWARD CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF VEGETATIONS FUNCTIONAL-PROPERTIES JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES DeFries, R. S., Field, C. B., Fung, I., Justice, C. O., Los, S., Matson, P. A., Matthews, E., Mooney, H. A., Potter, C. S., Prentice, K., Sellers, P. J., Townshend, J. R., Tucker, C. J., Ustin, S. L., Vitousek, P. M. 1995; 100 (D10): 20867-20882
  • STOMATAL RESPONSES TO INCREASED CO2 - IMPLICATIONS FROM THE PLANT TO THE GLOBAL-SCALE PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT Field, C. B., Jackson, R. B., Mooney, H. A. 1995; 18 (10): 1214-1225
  • ECOSYSTEM GAS-EXCHANGE IN A CALIFORNIA GRASSLAND - SEASONAL PATTERNS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SCALING ECOLOGY Valentini, R., Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B. 1995; 76 (6): 1940-1952
  • CONTRASTING LEAF AND ECOSYSTEM CO2 AND H2O EXCHANGE IN AVENA-FATUA MONOCULTURE - GROWTH AT AMBIENT AND ELEVATED CO2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESEARCH Fredeen, A. L., Field, C. B. 1995; 43 (3): 263-271
  • RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NDVI, CANOPY STRUCTURE, AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN 3 CALIFORNIAN VEGETATION TYPES ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B., Goulden, M. L., Griffin, K. L., Hartley, A. E., Joel, G., Penuelas, J., Valentini, R. 1995; 5 (1): 28-41
  • GLOBAL NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION - COMBINING ECOLOGY AND REMOTE-SENSING REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Field, C. B., Randerson, J. T., Malmstrom, C. M. 1995; 51 (1): 74-88
  • PREDICTING RESPONSES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ROOT FRACTION TO ELEVATED [CO2](A) - INTERACTIONS AMONG CARBON, NITROGEN, AND GROWTH PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT Luo, Y., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1994; 17 (11): 1195-1204
  • CO2 ALTERS WATER-USE, CARBON GAIN, AND YIELD FOR THE DOMINANT SPECIES IN A NATURAL GRASSLAND OECOLOGIA Jackson, R. B., Sala, O. E., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1994; 98 (3-4): 257-262
  • REFLECTANCE INDEXES ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL-CHANGES IN NITROGEN-LIMITED AND WATER-LIMITED SUNFLOWER LEAVES REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Penuelas, J., Gamon, J. A., Fredeen, A. L., Merino, J., Field, C. B. 1994; 48 (2): 135-146
  • 3 METHODS FOR MONITORING THE GAS-EXCHANGE OF INDIVIDUAL TREE CANOPIES - VENTILATED-CHAMBER, SAP-FLOW AND PENMAN-MONTEITH MEASUREMENTS ON EVERGREEN OAKS FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY Goulden, M. L., Field, C. B. 1994; 8 (1): 125-135
  • TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION - A PROCESS MODEL-BASED ON GLOBAL SATELLITE AND SURFACE DATA GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Potter, C. S., Randerson, J. T., Field, C. B., Matson, P. A., Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Klooster, S. A. 1993; 7 (4): 811-841
  • ASSESSING COMMUNITY TYPE, PLANT BIOMASS, PIGMENT COMPOSITION, AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY OF AQUATIC VEGETATION FROM SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Penuelas, J., Gamon, J. A., Griffin, K. L., Field, C. B. 1993; 46 (2): 110-118
  • PATTERNS OF STEM PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN 2 INVASIVE LEGUMES (SPARTIUM-JUNCEUM, CYTISUS-SCOPARIUS) OF THE CALIFORNIA COASTAL REGION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY Nilsen, E. T., KARPA, D., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. 1993; 80 (10): 1126-1136
  • FUNCTIONAL PATTERNS IN AN ANNUAL GRASSLAND DURING AN AVIRIS OVERFLIGHT REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B., Roberts, D. A., Ustin, S. L., Valentini, R. 1993; 44 (2-3): 239-253
  • ENVIRONMENTAL-EFFECTS OF CIRCADIAN-RHYTHMS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND STOMATAL OPENING PLANTA HENNESSEY, T. L., FREEDEN, A. L., Field, C. B. 1993; 189 (3): 369-376
  • CANOPY REFLECTANCE, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AND TRANSPIRATION .3. A REANALYSIS USING IMPROVED LEAF MODELS AND A NEW CANOPY INTEGRATION SCHEME REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Sellers, P. J., Berry, J. A., Collatz, G. J., Field, C. B., Hall, F. G. 1992; 42 (3): 187-216
  • AMMONIUM AND NITRATE UPTAKE IN GAP, GENERALIST AND UNDERSTORY SPECIES OF THE GENUS PIPER OECOLOGIA Fredeen, A. L., Field, C. B. 1992; 92 (2): 207-214
  • A NARROW-WAVEBAND SPECTRAL INDEX THAT TRACKS DIURNAL CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT Gamon, J. A., Penuelas, J., Field, C. B. 1992; 41 (1): 35-44
  • EVIDENCE OF MULTIPLE CIRCADIAN OSCILLATORS IN BEAN-PLANTS JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS HENNESSEY, T. L., Field, C. B. 1992; 7 (2): 105-113

    Abstract

    Circadian rhythms in stomatal opening and photosynthesis had shorter free-running periods than circadian rhythms in leaflet movement in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transferred from 12-hr photoperiods to constant conditions. The rhythm in leaflet movement had a period close to 27 hr, whereas the rhythm in stomatal opening, measured as conductance to water vapor, had a period close to 24 hr. Photosynthesis, measured as net assimilation of CO2, also oscillated with a period close to 24 hr. The periods of these rhythms did not vary with increasing temperature, demonstrating temperature compensation of the controlling oscillators. The difference in free-running periods displayed by these rhythms is evidence that multiple oscillators with different intrinsic frequencies operate in bean plants.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JA48800002

    View details for PubMedID 1611126

  • RESPONSES OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS TO THE CHANGING ATMOSPHERE - A RESOURCE-BASED APPROACH ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS Field, C. B., Chapin, F. S., Matson, P. A., Mooney, H. A. 1992; 23: 201-235
  • RESPONSES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CARBOHYDRATE-PARTITIONING TO LIMITATIONS IN NITROGEN AND WATER AVAILABILITY IN FIELD-GROWN SUNFLOWER PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT Fredeen, A. L., Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B. 1991; 14 (9): 963-970
  • BIOCHEMICAL CORRELATES OF THE CIRCADIAN-RHYTHM IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN PHASEOLUS-VULGARIS PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Fredeen, A. L., HENNESSEY, T. L., Field, C. B. 1991; 97 (1): 415-419

    Abstract

    A circadian rhythm in photosynthesis occurs in Phaseolus vulgaris after transfer from a natural or artificial light:dark cycle to constant light. The rhythm in photosynthesis persists even when intercellular CO(2) partial pressure is held constant, demonstrating that the rhythm in photosynthesis is not entirely due to stomatal control over the diffusion of CO(2). Experiments were conducted to attempt to elucidate biochemical correlates with the circadian rhythm in photosynthesis. Plants were entrained to a 12-hour-day:12-hour-night light regimen and then monitored or sampled during a subsequent period of constant light. We observed circadian oscillations in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) levels, and to a lesser extent in phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) levels, that closely paralleled oscillations in photosynthesis. However, the enzyme activity and activation state of the enzyme responsible for the conversion of RuBP to PGA, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, showed no discernible circadian oscillation. Hence, we examined the possibility of circadian effects on RuBP regeneration. Neither ribulose-5-phosphate kinase activity nor the level of ATP fluctuated in constant light. Oscillations in triose-phosphate levels were out of phase with those observed for RuBP and PGA.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GJ79300060

    View details for PubMedID 16668402

  • CIRCADIAN-RHYTHMS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS - OSCILLATIONS IN CARBON ASSIMILATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE UNDER CONSTANT CONDITIONS PLANT PHYSIOLOGY HENNESSEY, T. L., Field, C. B. 1991; 96 (3): 831-836

    Abstract

    Net carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance to water vapor oscillated repeatedly in red kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., plants transferred from a natural photoperiod to constant light. In a gas exchange system with automatic regulation of selected environmental and physiological variables, assimilation and conductance oscillated with a free-running period of approximately 24.5 hours. The rhythms in carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance were closely coupled and persisted for more than a week under constant conditions. A rhythm in assimilation occurred when either ambient or intercellular CO(2) partial pressure was held constant, demonstrating that the rhythm in assimilation was not entirely the result of stomatal effects on CO(2) diffusion. Rhythms in assimilation and conductance were not expressed in plants grown under constant light at a constant temperature, demonstrating that the rhythms did not occur spontaneously but were induced by an external stimulus. In plants grown under constant light with a temperature cycle, a rhythm was entrained in stomatal conductance but not in carbon assimilation, indicating that the oscillators driving the rhythms differed in their sensitivity to environmental stimuli.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FX72500024

    View details for PubMedID 16668261

  • LEAF RESPIRATION IN PIPER SPECIES NATIVE TO A MEXICAN RAIN-FOREST PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM Fredeen, A. L., Field, C. B. 1991; 82 (1): 85-92
  • EFFECTS OF LIGHT QUANTITY AND QUALITY AND SOIL-NITROGEN STATUS ON NITRATE REDUCTASE-ACTIVITY IN RAIN-FOREST SPECIES OF THE GENUS PIPER OECOLOGIA Fredeen, A. L., Griffin, K., Field, C. B. 1991; 86 (3): 441-446
  • REMOTE-SENSING OF THE XANTHOPHYLL CYCLE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IN SUNFLOWER LEAVES AND CANOPIES OECOLOGIA Gamon, J. A., Field, C. B., Bilger, W., Bjorkman, O., Fredeen, A. L., Penuelas, J. 1990; 85 (1): 1-7
  • VARIATION IN FOLIAR DELTA-C-13 IN HAWAIIAN METROSIDEROS-POLYMORPHA - A CASE OF INTERNAL RESISTANCE OECOLOGIA Vitousek, P. M., Field, C. B., Matson, P. A. 1990; 84 (3): 362-370
  • LOW AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE LIMITS TO PSII - A SURVEY USING TRANS-PARINARIC ACID, DELAYED LIGHT-EMISSION, AND F0 CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Terzaghi, W. B., FORK, D. C., Berry, J. A., Field, C. B. 1989; 91 (4): 1494-1500

    Abstract

    Many studies have shown that membrane lipids of chilling-sensitive plants begin lateral phase separation (i.e. a minor component begins freezing) at chilling temperatures and that chilling-sensitive plants are often of tropical origin. We tested the hypothesis that membranes of tropical plants begin lateral phase separation at chilling temperatures, and that plants lower the temperature of lateral phase separation as they invade cooler habitats. To do so we studied plant species in one family confined to the tropics (Piperaceae) and in three families with both tropical and temperate representatives (Fabaceae [Leguminosae], Malvaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined lateral phase separation temperatures by measuring the temperature dependence of fluorescence from trans-parinaric acid inserted into liposomes prepared from isolated membrane phospholipids. In all families we detected lateral phase separations at significantly higher temperatures, on average, in species of tropical origin. To test for associated physiological effects we measured the temperature dependence of delayed light emission (DLE) by discs cut from the same leaves used for lipid analysis. We found that the temperature of maximum DLE upon chilling was strongly correlated with lateral phase separation temperatures, but was on average approximately 4 degrees C lower. We also tested the hypothesis that photosystem II (PSII) (the most thermolabile component of photosynthesis) of tropical plants tolerates higher temperatures than PSII of temperate plants, using DLE and F(o) chlorophyll fluorescence upon heating to measure the temperature at which PSII thermally denatured. We found little difference between the two groups in PSII denaturation temperature. We also found that the temperature of maximum DLA upon heating was not significantly different from the critical temperature for F(o) fluorescence. Our results indicate that plants lowered their membrane freezing temperatures as they radiated from their tropical origins. One interpretation is that the tendency for membranes to begin freezing at chilling temperatures is the primitive condition, which plants corrected as they invaded colder habitats. An alternative is that membranes which freeze at temperatures only slightly lower than the minimum growth temperature confer an advantage.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CG37300043

    View details for PubMedID 16667207

  • THE DEPENDENCE OF PLANT-ROOT - SHOOT RATIOS ON INTERNAL NITROGEN CONCENTRATION ANNALS OF BOTANY Levin, S. A., Mooney, H. A., Field, C. 1989; 64 (1): 71-75
  • RELATIONSHIPS AMONG LEAF CONSTRUCTION COST, LEAF LONGEVITY, AND LIGHT ENVIRONMENT IN RAIN-FOREST PLANTS OF THE GENUS PIPER AMERICAN NATURALIST Williams, K., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1989; 133 (2): 198-211
  • LEAF CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF PLANTS FROM A SUBTROPICAL MONSOON FOREST OECOLOGIA Ehleringer, J. R., Lin, Z. F., Field, C. B., Sun, G. C., Kuo, C. Y. 1987; 72 (1): 109-114
  • Midday wilting in a tropical pioneer tree FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY Chiariello, N. R., Field, C. B., Mooney, H. A. 1987; 1 (1): 3-11
  • LEAF CARBON ISOTOPE AND MINERAL-COMPOSITION IN SUBTROPICAL PLANTS ALONG AN IRRADIANCE CLINE OECOLOGIA Ehleringer, J. R., Field, C. B., Lin, Z. F., Kuo, C. Y. 1986; 70 (4): 520-526
  • CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF MEDITERRANEAN-CLIMATE EVERGREEN AND DECIDUOUS LEAVES .2. BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAY ANALYSIS ACTA OECOLOGICA-OECOLOGIA PLANTARUM Merino, J., Field, C., Mooney, H. A. 1984; 5 (3): 211-229
  • COMPROMISES BETWEEN WATER-USE EFFICIENCY AND NITROGEN-USE EFFICIENCY IN 5 SPECIES OF CALIFORNIA EVERGREENS OECOLOGIA Field, C., Merino, J., Mooney, H. A. 1983; 60 (3): 384-389
  • LEAF AGE AND SEASONAL EFFECTS ON LIGHT, WATER, AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY IN A CALIFORNIA SHRUB OECOLOGIA Field, C., Mooney, H. A. 1983; 56 (2-3): 348-355
  • PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS OF A CALIFORNIAN COOL COASTAL ENVIRONMENT OECOLOGIA Mooney, H. A., Field, C., Williams, W. E., Berry, J. A., Bjorkman, O. 1983; 57 (1-2): 38-42
  • PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF SOUTH-AFRICAN SCLEROPHYLLS OECOLOGIA Mooney, H. A., Field, C., GULMON, S. L., Rundel, P., Kruger, F. J. 1983; 58 (3): 398-401
  • ALLOCATING LEAF NITROGEN FOR THE MAXIMIZATION OF CARBON GAIN - LEAF AGE AS A CONTROL ON THE ALLOCATION PROGRAM OECOLOGIA Field, C. 1983; 56 (2-3): 341-347
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN A SHRUB OF THE HUMID TROPICS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Mooney, H. A., Field, C., YANES, C. V., Chu, C. 1983; 80 (5): 1295-1297

    Abstract

    Leaves of Piper hispidum, a shrub native to the lowland tropics of Mexico, have a strong stomatal response to humidity that results in similar rates of water loss under a wide range of leaf-to-air water-vapor concentration gradients. Stomatal conductance of these leaves is insensitive to CO(2) concentration and increases in response to high humidity even in the dark.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QF63600030

    View details for PubMedID 16593286

  • PHOTOCONTROL OF THE FUNCTIONAL COUPLING BETWEEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN THE INTACT LEAF - BLUE-LIGHT AND PAR-DEPENDENT PHOTOSYSTEMS IN GUARD-CELLS PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Zeiger, E., Field, C. 1982; 70 (2): 370-375

    Abstract

    The photocontrol of the functional coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the leaf was investigated in gas exchange experiments using monochromatic light provided by lasers. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured in attached leaves of Malva parviflora L. as a function of photon irradiance at 457.9 and 640.0 nanometers.Photosynthetic rates and quantum yields of photosynthesis were higher under red light than under blue, on an absorbed or incident basis.Stomatal conductance was higher under blue than under red light at all intensities. Based on a calculated apparent photon efficiency of conductance, blue and red light had similar effects on conductance at intensities higher than 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second, but blue light was several-fold more efficient at very low photon irradiances. Red light had no effect on conductance at photon irradiances below 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second. These observations support the hypothesis that stomatal conductance is modulated by two photosystems: a blue light-dependent one, driving stomatal opening at low light intensities and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)-dependent one operating at higher irradiances.When low intensity blue light was used to illuminate a leaf already irradiated with high intensity, 640 nanometers light, the leaf exhibited substantial increases in stomatal conductance. Net photosynthesis changed only slightly. Additional far-red light increased net photosynthesis without affecting stomatal conductance. These observations indicate that under conditions where the PAR-dependent system is driven by high intensity red light, the blue light-dependent system has an additive effect on stomatal conductance.The wavelength dependence of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance demonstrates that these processes are not obligatorily coupled and can be controlled by light, independent of prevailing levels of intercellular CO(2). The blue light-dependent system in the guard cells may function as a specific light sensor while the PAR-dependent system supplies a CO(2)-modulated energy source providing functional coupling between the guard cells and the photosynthesizing mesophyll.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PE11100010

    View details for PubMedID 16662498

  • DETERMINANTS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE IN CALIFORNIA MIMULUS SPECIES AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES OECOLOGIA Field, C., Chiariello, N., Williams, W. E. 1982; 55 (3): 414-420
  • CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF MEDITERRANEAN-CLIMATE EVERGREEN AND DECIDUOUS LEAVES .1. GROWTH AND CO2 EXCHANGE ANALYSIS OECOLOGIA Merino, J., Field, C., Mooney, H. A. 1982; 53 (2): 208-213
  • A PORTABLE SYSTEM FOR MEASURING CARBON-DIOXIDE AND WATER-VAPOR EXCHANGE OF LEAVES PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT Field, C., Berry, J. A., Mooney, H. A. 1982; 5 (2): 179-186
  • PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY IN RELATION TO LEAF POSITION IN DESERT VERSUS OLD-FIELD ANNUALS OECOLOGIA Mooney, H. A., Field, C., GULMON, S. L., Bazzaz, F. A. 1981; 50 (1): 109-112

Books and Book Chapters


  • North America Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Field, C. B., Mortsch, L. D., Brklacich, M., Forbes, D. L., Kovacs, P., Patz, J. A., Running, S. W., Scott , M. J. edited by Parry, O. F., Canziani, J. P., Palutikof, P. J., Linden, v. d., Hanson, C. E. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2007
  • The carbon cycle of North America in a global context The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR)-Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.2, Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Field, C. B., Sarmiento, J., Hales, B. edited by King, A. W., Dilling, L., Zimmerman, G. P., Fairman, D. M., Houghton, R. A., Marland, G., Rose, A. Z., Wilbanks, T. J. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC.. 2007: 21-28

Conference Proceedings


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