Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of California San Francisco (2014)
  • Bachelor of Science, University of California Los Angeles (2004)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications

  • The genetics of splicing in neuroblastoma. Cancer discovery Chen, J., Hackett, C. S., Zhang, S., Song, Y. K., Bell, R. J., Molinaro, A. M., Quigley, D. A., Balmain, A., Song, J. S., Costello, J. F., Gustafson, W. C., Van Dyke, T., Kwok, P. Y., Khan, J., Weiss, W. A. 2015


    Regulation of mRNA splicing, a critical and tightly regulated cellular function, underlies the majority of proteomic diversity, and is frequently disrupted in disease. Using an integrative genomics approach, we combined both genome and exon level transcriptome data in two somatic tissues (cerebella and peripheral ganglia) from a transgenic mouse model of neuroblastoma, a tumor that arises from peripheral neural crest. Here we describe splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) associated with differential splicing across the genome that we use to identify genes with previously unknown functions within the splicing pathway and to define de novo intronic splicing motifs that influence splicing from hundreds of bases away. Our results show that these splicing motifs represent sites for functional recurrent mutations and highlight novel candidate genes in human cancers, including childhood neuroblastoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-0892

    View details for PubMedID 25637275

  • Alternative splicing in cancer: implications for biology and therapy. Oncogene Chen, J., Weiss, W. A. 2014


    Alternative splicing has critical roles in normal development and can promote growth and survival in cancer. Aberrant splicing, the production of noncanonical and cancer-specific mRNA transcripts, can lead to loss-of-function in tumor suppressors or activation of oncogenes and cancer pathways. Emerging data suggest that aberrant splicing products and loss of canonically spliced variants correlate with stage and progression in malignancy. Here, we review the splicing landscape of TP53, BARD1 and AR to illuminate roles for alternative splicing in cancer. We also examine the intersection between alternative splicing pathways and novel therapeutic approaches.Oncogene advance online publication, 20 January 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.570.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2013.570

    View details for PubMedID 24441040

  • Transforming Big Data into Cancer-Relevant Insight: An Initial, Multi-Tier Approach to Assess Reproducibility and Relevance. Molecular cancer research 2016; 14 (8): 675-682


    The Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD(2)) Network was established to accelerate the transformation of "Big Data" into novel pharmacologic targets, lead compounds, and biomarkers for rapid translation into improved patient outcomes. It rapidly became clear in this collaborative network that a key central issue was to define what constitutes sufficient computational or experimental evidence to support a biologically or clinically relevant finding. This article represents a first attempt to delineate the challenges of supporting and confirming discoveries arising from the systematic analysis of large-scale data resources in a collaborative work environment and to provide a framework that would begin a community discussion to resolve these challenges. The Network implemented a multi-tier framework designed to substantiate the biological and biomedical relevance as well as the reproducibility of data and insights resulting from its collaborative activities. The same approach can be used by the broad scientific community to drive development of novel therapeutic and biomarker strategies for cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 14(8); 675-82. ©2016 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0090

    View details for PubMedID 27401613

  • When Deletions Gain Functions: Commandeering Epigenetic Mechanisms CANCER CELL Chen, J., Weiss, W. A. 2014; 26 (2): 160-161


    Recurrent chromosomal deletions in cancer are typically thought to harbor tumor suppressors. In a recent publication in Nature, Northcott and colleagues identify a novel region of structural variation in medulloblastoma that leads to oncogenic activation of GFI1B and GFI1 by repositioning these genes next to super-enhancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2014.07.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340343800005

    View details for PubMedID 25117708

  • Drugging MYCN through an Allosteric Transition in Aurora Kinase A. Cancer cell Gustafson, W. C., Meyerowitz, J. G., Nekritz, E. A., Chen, J., Benes, C., Charron, E., Simonds, E. F., Seeger, R., Matthay, K. K., Hertz, N. T., Eilers, M., Shokat, K. M., Weiss, W. A. 2014; 26 (3): 414?27


    MYC proteins are major drivers of cancer yet are considered undruggable because their DNA binding domains are composed of two extended alpha helices with no apparent surfaces for small-molecule binding. Proteolytic degradation of MYCN protein is regulated in part by a kinase-independent function of Aurora A. We describe a class of inhibitors that disrupts the native conformation of Aurora A and drives the degradation of MYCN protein across MYCN-driven cancers. Comparison of cocrystal structures with structure-activity relationships across multiple inhibitors and chemotypes, coupled with mechanistic studies and biochemical assays, delineates an Aurora A conformation-specific effect on proteolytic degradation of MYCN, rather than simple nanomolar-level inhibition of Aurora A kinase activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2014.07.015

    View details for PubMedID 25175806

  • Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Receptor Pharmacology Implicate Arg1 and the GABA-A Receptor as Therapeutic Targets in Neuroblastoma. Cell reports Hackett, C. S., Quigley, D. A., Wong, R. A., Chen, J., Cheng, C., Song, Y. K., Wei, J. S., Pawlikowska, L., Bao, Y., Goldenberg, D. D., Nguyen, K., Gustafson, W. C., Rallapalli, S. K., Cho, Y. J., Cook, J. M., Kozlov, S., Mao, J. H., Van Dyke, T., Kwok, P. Y., Khan, J., Balmain, A., Fan, Q., Weiss, W. A. 2014; 9 (3): 1034?46


    The development of targeted therapeutics for neuroblastoma, the third most common tumor in children, has been limited by a poor understanding of growth signaling mechanisms unique to the peripheral nerve precursors from which tumors arise. In this study, we combined genetics with gene-expression analysis in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system to implicate arginase 1 and GABA signaling in tumor formation in vivo. In human neuroblastoma cells, either blockade of ARG1 or benzodiazepine-mediated activation of GABA-A receptors induced apoptosis and inhibited mitogenic signaling through AKT and MAPK. These results suggest that ARG1 and GABA influence both neural development and neuroblastoma and that benzodiazepines in clinical use may have potential applications for neuroblastoma therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.09.046

    View details for PubMedID 25437558

  • EGFR Phosphorylates Tumor-Derived EGFRvIll Driving STAT3/5 and Progression in Glioblastoma CANCER CELL Fan, Q., Cheng, C. K., Gustafson, W. C., Charron, E., Zipper, P., Wong, R. A., Chen, J., Lau, J., Knobbe-Thomsen, C., Weller, M., Jura, N., Reifenberger, G., Shokat, K. M., Weiss, W. A. 2013; 24 (4): 438-449


    EGFRvIII, a frequently occurring mutation in primary glioblastoma, results in a protein product that cannot bind ligand, but signals constitutively. Deducing how EGFRvIII causes transformation has been difficult because of autocrine and paracrine loops triggered by EGFRvIII alone or in heterodimers with wild-type EGFR. Here, we document coexpression of EGFR and EGFRvIII in primary human glioblastoma that drives transformation and tumorigenesis in a cell-intrinsic manner. We demonstrate enhancement of downstream STAT signaling triggered by EGFR-catalyzed phosphorylation of EGFRvIII, implicating EGFRvIII as a substrate for EGFR. Subsequent phosphorylation of STAT3 requires nuclear entry of EGFRvIII and formation of an EGFRvIII-STAT3 nuclear complex. Our findings clarify specific oncogenic signaling relationships between EGFR and EGFRvIII in glioblastoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2013.09.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326198500007

    View details for PubMedID 24135280

  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor MK-4827 together with Radiation as a Novel Therapy for Metastatic Neuroblastoma ANTICANCER RESEARCH Mueller, S., Bhargava, S., Molinaro, A. M., Yang, X., Kolkowitz, I., Olow, A., Wehmeijer, N., Orbach, S., Chen, J., Matthay, K. K., Haas-Kogan, D. A. 2013; 33 (3): 755-762


    To assess poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor MK-4827 together with radiation for the treatment of neuroblastoma.Clonogenic survival assays were used to assess MK-4827, radiation and combination thereof in four neuroblastoma cell lines. In vivo efficacy was tested in a murine xenograft model of metastatic neuroblastoma. In vivo targeted inhibition and biological effects included measurement of cleaved caspase-3, ?-H2AX, and Ki 67 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and poly-ADP-ribose by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines reduced clonogenicity and resulted in additive effects with radiation. In vivo treatment with MK-4827 and radiation prolonged survival (p<0.01) compared to single modalities. In vivo superiority of MK-4827 plus radiation was further documented by significant elevations of cleaved caspase-3 and ?-H2AX in tumors from the combination group compared to single modality cohorts.Combination of MK-4827 and radiation might provide effective therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316770400002

    View details for PubMedID 23482742

  • Voltage-gated potassium channel EAG2 controls mitotic entry and tumor growth in medulloblastoma via regulating cell volume dynamics GENES & DEVELOPMENT Huang, X., Dubuc, A. M., Hashizume, R., Berg, J., He, Y., Wang, J., Chiang, C., Cooper, M. K., Northcott, P. A., Taylor, M. D., Barnes, M. J., Tihan, T., Chen, J., Hackett, C. S., Weiss, W. A., James, C. D., Rowitch, D. H., Shuman, M. A., Jan, Y. N., Jan, L. Y. 2012; 26 (16): 1780-1796


    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric CNS malignancy. We identify EAG2 as an overexpressed potassium channel in MBs across different molecular and histological subgroups. EAG2 knockdown not only impairs MB cell growth in vitro, but also reduces tumor burden in vivo and enhances survival in xenograft studies. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that EAG2 protein is confined intracellularly during interphase but is enriched in the plasma membrane during late G2 phase and mitosis. Disruption of EAG2 expression results in G2 arrest and mitotic catastrophe associated with failure of premitotic cytoplasmic condensation. While the tumor suppression function of EAG2 knockdown is independent of p53 activation, DNA damage checkpoint activation, or changes in the AKT pathway, this defective cell volume control is specifically associated with hyperactivation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Inhibition of the p38 pathway significantly rescues the growth defect and G2 arrest. Strikingly, ectopic membrane expression of EAG2 in cells at interphase results in cell volume reduction and mitotic-like morphology. Our study establishes the functional significance of EAG2 in promoting MB tumor progression via regulating cell volume dynamics, the perturbation of which activates the tumor suppressor p38 MAPK pathway, and provides clinical relevance for targeting this ion channel in human MBs.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.193789.112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307884700003

    View details for PubMedID 22855790

  • Distinct Neural Stem Cell Populations Give Rise to Disparate Brain Tumors in Response to N-MYC CANCER CELL Swartling, F. J., Savov, V., Persson, A. I., Chen, J., Hackett, C. S., Northcott, P. A., Grimmer, M. R., Lau, J., Chesler, L., Perry, A., Phillips, J. J., Taylor, M. D., Weiss, W. A. 2012; 21 (5): 601-613


    The proto-oncogene MYCN is mis-expressed in various types of human brain tumors. To clarify how developmental and regional differences influence transformation, we transduced wild-type or mutationally stabilized murine N-myc(T58A) into neural stem cells (NSCs) from perinatal murine cerebellum, brain stem, and forebrain. Transplantation of N-myc(WT) NSCs was insufficient for tumor formation. N-myc(T58A) cerebellar and brain stem NSCs generated medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, whereas forebrain NSCs developed diffuse glioma. Expression analyses distinguished tumors generated from these different regions, with tumors from embryonic versus postnatal cerebellar NSCs demonstrating Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) dependence and SHH independence, respectively. These differences were regulated in part by the transcription factor SOX9, activated in the SHH subclass of human medulloblastoma. Our results demonstrate context-dependent transformation of NSCs in response to a common oncogenic signal.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2012.04.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304214100005

    View details for PubMedID 22624711

  • A Maternally Inherited Chromosome 18q22.1 Deletion in a Male With Late-Presenting Diaphragmatic Hernia and Microphthalmia-Evaluation of DSEL as a Candidate Gene for the Diaphragmatic Defect AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART A Zayed, H., Chao, R., Moshrefi, A., LopezJimenez, N., Delaney, A., Chen, J., Shaw, G. M., Slavotinek, A. M. 2010; 152A (4): 916-923


    Using an Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Human Mapping 100K Set to study a patient with a late-presenting, right-sided diaphragmatic hernia and microphthalmia, we found a maternally inherited deletion that was 2.7 Mb in size at chromosome 18q22.1. Mapping of this deletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed three deleted genes-CDH19, DSEL, and TXNDC10, and one gene that contained the deletion breakpoint, CCDC102B. We selected DSEL for further study in 125 patients with diaphragmatic hernias, as it is involved in the synthesis of decorin, a protein that is required for normal collagen formation and that is upregulated during myogenesis. We found p.Met14Ile in an unrelated patient with a late-presenting, anterior diaphragmatic hernia. In the murine diaphragm, Dsel was only weakly expressed at the time of diaphragm closure and its expression in C2C12 myoblast cells did not change significantly during myoblast differentiation, thus reducing the likelihood that the gene is involved in myogenesis of the diaphragm. Although it is possible that the 18q22.1 deletion and haploinsufficiency for DSEL contributed to the diaphragmatic defect in the patient, a definite role for DSEL and decorin in the formation of the collagen-containing, central tendon of the diaphragm has not yet been established.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.a.33341

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276754000017

    View details for PubMedID 20358601

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2922899

  • Reversing HOXA9 Oncogene Activation by PI3K Inhibition: Epigenetic Mechanism and Prognostic Significance in Human Glioblastoma CANCER RESEARCH Costa, B. M., Smith, J. S., Chen, Y., Chen, J., Phillips, H. S., Aldape, K. D., Zardo, G., Nigro, J., James, C. D., Fridlyand, J., Reis, R. M., Costello, J. F. 2010; 70 (2): 453-462


    HOXA genes encode critical transcriptional regulators of embryonic development that have been implicated in cancer. In this study, we documented functional relevance and mechanism of activation of HOXA9 in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor. Expression of HOXA genes was investigated using reverse transcription-PCR in primary gliomas and glioblastoma cell lines and was validated in two sets of expression array data. In a subset of GBM, HOXA genes are aberrently activated within confined chromosomal domains. Transcriptional activation of the HOXA cluster was reversible by a phosphoinostide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor through an epigenetic mechanism involving histone H3K27 trimethylation. Functional studies of HOXA9 showed its capacity to decrease apoptosis and increase cellular proliferation along with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-including ligand resistance. Notably, aberrant expression of HOXA9 was independently predictive of shorter overall and progression-free survival in two GBM patient sets and improved survival prediction by MGMT promoter methylation. Thus, HOXA9 activation is a novel, independent, and negative prognostic marker in GBM that is reversible through a PI3K-associated epigenetic mechanism. Our findings suggest a transcriptional pathway through which PI3K activates oncogenic HOXA expression with implications for mTOR or PI3K targeted therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2189

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278485500005

    View details for PubMedID 20068170

  • Green Technologies for Room Temperature Nucleic Acid Storage CURRENT ISSUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Wan, E., Akana, M., Pons, J., Chen, J., Musone, S., Kwok, P., Liao, W. 2010; 12: 135-141


    Maintaining the long-term integrity of nucleic acids in the laboratory has traditionally required the use of freezers. However, novel nucleic acid stabilization technologies may allow for the storage of DNA and RNA at room temperature in a cost-effective, environmentally friendly manner. In this study, we evaluated two novel products for room temperature DNA storage: Biomatrica's DNA SampleMatrix technology and GenVault's GenTegra DNA technology. We compared the integrity and quality of DNA stored using these products against DNA stored in a -20 C freezer by performing downstream testing with short range PCR, long range PCR, DNA sequencing, and SNP microarrays. In addition, we tested Biomatrica's RNAstable product for its ability to preserve RNA at room temperature for use in a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273986900002

    View details for PubMedID 19801719

  • Association of common genetic variation in the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway with human longevity AGING CELL Pawlikowska, L., Hu, D., Huntsman, S., Sung, A., Chu, C., Chen, J., Joyner, A. H., Schork, N. J., Hsueh, W., Reiner, A. P., Psaty, B. M., Atzmon, G., Barzilai, N., Cummings, S. R., Browner, W. S., Kwok, P., Ziv, E. 2009; 8 (4): 460-472


    The insulin/IGF1 signaling pathways affect lifespan in several model organisms, including worms, flies and mice. To investigate whether common genetic variation in this pathway influences lifespan in humans, we genotyped 291 common variants in 30 genes encoding proteins in the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway in a cohort of elderly Caucasian women selected from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). The cohort included 293 long-lived cases (lifespan > or = 92 years (y), mean +/- standard deviation (SD) = 95.3 +/- 2.2y) and 603 average-lifespan controls (lifespan < or = 79y, mean = 75.7 +/- 2.6y). Variants were selected for genotyping using a haplotype-tagging approach. We found a modest excess of variants nominally associated with longevity. Nominally significant variants were then replicated in two additional Caucasian cohorts including both males and females: the Cardiovascular Health Study and Ashkenazi Jewish Centenarians. An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism in AKT1, rs3803304, was significantly associated with lifespan in a meta-analysis across the three cohorts (OR = 0.78 95%CI = 0.68-0.89, adjusted P = 0.043); two intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXO3A demonstrated a significant lifespan association among women only (rs1935949, OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.15-1.57, adjusted P = 0.0093). These results demonstrate that common variants in several genes in the insulin/IGF1 pathway are associated with human lifespan.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00493.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268213300011

    View details for PubMedID 19489743

  • Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the T-cell receptor alpha locus NATURE GENETICS Hallmayer, J., Faraco, J., Lin, L., Hesselson, S., Winkelmann, J., Kawashima, M., Mayer, G., Plazzi, G., Nevsimalova, S., Bourgin, P., Hong, S. S., Honda, Y., Honda, M., Hoegl, B., Longstreth, W. T., Montplaisir, J., Kemlink, D., Einen, M., Chen, J., Musone, S. L., Akana, M., Miyagawa, T., Duan, J., Desautels, A., Erhardt, C., Hesla, P. E., Poli, F., Frauscher, B., Jeong, J., Lee, S., Ton, T. G., Kvale, M., Kolesar, L., Dobrovolna, M., Nepom, G. T., Salomon, D., Wichmann, H., Rouleau, G. A., Gieger, C., Levinson, D. F., Gejman, P. V., Meitinger, T., Young, T., Peppard, P., Tokunaga, K., Kwok, P., Risch, N., Mignot, E. 2009; 41 (6): 708-711


    Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4). Following studies in dogs and mice, a 95% loss of hypocretin-producing cells in postmortem hypothalami from narcoleptic individuals was reported. Using genome-wide association (GWA) in Caucasians with replication in three ethnic groups, we found association between narcolepsy and polymorphisms in the TRA@ (T-cell receptor alpha) locus, with highest significance at rs1154155 (average allelic odds ratio 1.69, genotypic odds ratios 1.94 and 2.55, P < 10(-21), 1,830 cases, 2,164 controls). This is the first documented genetic involvement of the TRA@ locus, encoding the major receptor for HLA-peptide presentation, in any disease. It is still unclear how specific HLA alleles confer susceptibility to over 100 HLA-associated disorders; thus, narcolepsy will provide new insights on how HLA-TCR interactions contribute to organ-specific autoimmune targeting and may serve as a model for over 100 other HLA-associated disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.372

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266411700020

    View details for PubMedID 19412176

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2803042

  • Differences in allergic sensitization by self-reported race and genetic ancestry JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Yang, J. J., Burchard, E. G., Choudhry, S., Johnson, C. C., Ownby, D. R., Favro, D., Chen, J., Akana, M., Ha, C., Kwok, P., Krajenta, R., Havstad, S. L., Joseph, C. L., Seibold, M. A., Shriver, M. D., Williams, L. K. 2008; 122 (4): 820-827


    Many allergic conditions occur more frequently in African American patients when compared with white patients; however, it is not known whether this represents genetic predisposition or disparate environmental exposures.We sought to assess the relationship of self-reported race and genetic ancestry to allergic sensitization.We included 601 women enrolled in a population-based cohort study whose self-reported race was African American or white. Genetic ancestry was estimated by using markers that differentiate West African and European ancestry. We assessed the relationship between allergic sensitization (defined as > or =1 allergen-specific IgE results) and both self-reported race and genetic ancestry. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables, environmental exposures, and location of residence.The average proportion of West African ancestry in African American participants was 0.69, whereas the mean proportion of European ancestry in white participants was 0.79. Self-reported African American race was associated with allergic sensitization when compared with those who reported being white (adjusted odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.22-3.93), even after adjusting for other variables. Genetic ancestry was not significantly associated with allergic sensitization after accounting for location of residence (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09 for urban vs suburban residence; 95% CI, 1.32-3.31).Self-reported race and location of residence appeared to be more important predictors of allergic sensitization when compared with genetic ancestry, suggesting that the disparity in allergic sensitization by race might be primarily a result of environmental factors rather than genetic differences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.07.044

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259989000030

    View details for PubMedID 19014772

  • Natural variation in four human collagen genes across an ethnically diverse population GENOMICS Chan, T., Poon, A., Basu, A., Addleman, N. R., Chen, J., Phong, A., Byers, P. H., Klein, T. E., Kwok, P. 2008; 91 (4): 307-314


    Collagens are members of one of the most important families of structural proteins in higher organisms. There are 28 types of collagens encoded by 43 genes in humans that fall into several different functional protein classes. Mutations in the major fibrillar collagen genes lead to osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding the chains of Type I collagen), chondrodysplasias (COL2A1 encoding the chains of Type II collagen), and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (COL3A1 encoding the chains of Type III collagen). Over the past 2 decades, mutations in these collagen genes have been catalogued, in hopes of understanding the molecular etiology of diseases caused by these mutations, characterizing the genotype-phenotype relationships, and developing robust models predicting the molecular and clinical outcomes. To achieve these goals better, it is necessary to understand the natural patterns of variation in collagen genes in human populations. We screened exons, flanking intronic regions, and conserved noncoding regions for variations in COL1A1, COL1A2, COL2A1, and COL3A1 in 48 individuals from each of four ethnically diverse populations. We identified 459 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), more than half of which were novel and not found in public databases. Of the 52 SNPs found in coding regions, 15 caused amino acid substitutions while 37 did not. Although the four collagens have similar gene and protein structures, they have different molecular evolutionary characteristics. For example, COL1A1 appears to have been under substantially stronger negative selection than the rest. Phylogenetic analysis also suggests that the four genes have very different evolutionary histories among the different ethnic groups. Our observations suggest that the study of collagen mutations and their relationships with disease phenotypes should be performed in the context of the genetic background of the subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.12.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255386300001

    View details for PubMedID 18272325

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2737816

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