Doctor of Philosophy, Queens University at Kingston (2012)
Bachelor of Science, University of Alberta (2007)
Large genomic rearrangements involve inversions, deletions and other structural changes that span Megabase segments of the human genome. This category of genetic aberration is the cause of many hereditary genetic disorders and contributes to pathogenesis of diseases like cancer. We developed a new algorithm called ZoomX for analysing barcode-linked sequence reads-these sequences can be traced to individual high molecular weight DNA molecules (>50 kb). To generate barcode linked sequence reads, we employ a library preparation technology (10X Genomics) that uses droplets to partition and barcode DNA molecules. Using linked read data from whole genome sequencing, we identify large genomic rearrangements, typically greater than 200kb, even when they are only present in low allelic fractions. Our algorithm uses a Poisson scan statistic to identify genomic rearrangement junctions, determine counts of junction-spanning molecules and calculate a Fisher's exact test for determining statistical significance for somatic aberrations. Utilizing a well-characterized human genome, we benchmarked this approach to accurately identify large rearrangement. Subsequently, we demonstrated that our algorithm identifies somatic rearrangements when present in lower allelic fractions as occurs in tumors. We characterized a set of complex cancer rearrangements with multiple classes of structural aberrations and with possible roles in oncogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkx1193
View details for PubMedID 29186506
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5829571
Genome rearrangements are critical oncogenic driver events in many malignancies. However, the identification and resolution of the structure of cancer genomic rearrangements remain challenging even with whole genome sequencing.To identify oncogenic genomic rearrangements and resolve their structure, we analyzed linked read sequencing. This approach relies on a microfluidic droplet technology to produce libraries derived from single, high molecular weight DNA molecules, 50 kb in size or greater. After sequencing, the barcoded sequence reads provide long range genomic information, identify individual high molecular weight DNA molecules, determine the haplotype context of genetic variants that occur across contiguous megabase-length segments of the genome and delineate the structure of complex rearrangements. We applied linked read sequencing of whole genomes to the analysis of a set of synchronous metastatic diffuse gastric cancers that occurred in the same individual.When comparing metastatic sites, our analysis implicated a complex somatic rearrangement that was present in the metastatic tumor. The oncogenic event associated with the identified complex rearrangement resulted in an amplification of the known cancer driver gene FGFR2. With further investigation using these linked read data, the FGFR2 copy number alteration was determined to be a deletion-inversion motif that underwent tandem duplication, with unique breakpoints in each metastasis. Using a three-dimensional organoid tissue model, we functionally validated the metastatic potential of an FGFR2 amplification in gastric cancer.Our study demonstrates that linked read sequencing is useful in characterizing oncogenic rearrangements in cancer metastasis.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13073-017-0447-8
View details for PubMedID 28629429
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5477353
DICER1 plays a critical role in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Recurrent somatic "hotspot" mutations at the four metal binding sites within the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 were identified in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumours and have since been described in other paediatric tumours. In this study, we screened the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 in 290 endometrial tumours and identified six cases with hotspot mutations, including two cases affected by an atypical G1809R mutation directly adjacent to a metal binding site. Using Illumina and Sanger targeted resequencing we observed and validated biallelic DICER1 mutations in several cases with hotspot mutations. Through in vitro DICER1 cleavage assays, small RNA deep sequencing, and real-time PCR, we demonstrated that mutations adding a positively charged side chain to residue 1809 have similar detrimental effects on 5p miRNA production to mutations at the metal binding sites. As expected, 5p miRNAs were globally reduced in tumours and cell lines with hotspot mutations. Pathway analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that genes de-repressed due to loss of 5p miRNAs are strongly associated with pathways regulating the cell cycle. Using a Dicer1-null mouse cell line model, we found that expression of DICER1 hotspot mutants promoted cell proliferation whereas wildtype (WT) DICER1 inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, targets of let-7 family miRNAs are enriched among the upregulated genes, suggesting that loss of let-7 may be impacting downstream pathways. Our results reveal that DICER1 hotspot mutations are implicated in common malignancies and may constitute a unique oncogenic pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1002/path.4569
View details for PubMedID 26033159
DICER1, an endoribonuclease required for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, is essential for embryogenesis and the development of many organs including ovaries. We have recently identified somatic hotspot mutations in RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 in half of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, a rare class of sex-cord stromal cell tumors in young women. These hotspot mutations lost IIIb cleavage activity of DICER1 in vitro and failed to produce 5p-derived miRNAs in mouse Dicer1-null ES cells. However, the oncogenic potential of these hotspot DICER1 mutations has not been studied. Here, we further revealed that the global expression of 5p-derived miRNAs was dramatically reduced in ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors carrying DICER1 hotspot mutations compared with those without DICER1 hotspot mutation. The miRNA production defect was associated with the deregulation of genes controlling cell proliferation and the cell fate. Using an immortalized human granulosa cell line, SVOG3e, we determined that the D1709N-DICER1 hotspot mutation failed to produce 5p-derived miRNAs, deregulated the expression of several genes that control gonadal differentiation and cell proliferation, and promoted cell growth. Re-expression of let-7 significantly inhibited the growth of D1709N-DICER1 SVOG3e cells, accompanied by the suppression of key regulators of cell cycle control and ovarian gonad differentiation. Taken together, our data revealed that DICER1 hotspot mutations cause systemic loss of 5p-miRNAs that can both drive pseudodifferentiation of testicular elements and cause oncogenic transformation in the ovary.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neo.2015.08.003
View details for PubMedID 26408257
In previous studies, we demonstrated that miR-193b expression is reduced in melanoma relative to benign nevi, and also that miR-193b represses cyclin D1 and Mcl-1 expression. We suggested that stathmin 1 (STMN1) might be a target of miR-193b. STMN1 normally regulates microtubule dynamics either by sequestering free tubulin heterodimers or by promoting microtubule catastrophe. Increased expression of STMN1 has been observed in a variety of human malignancies, but its association with melanoma is unknown. We now report that STMN1 is upregulated during the progression of melanoma relative to benign nevi, and that STMN1 is directly regulated by miR-193b. Using an experimental cell culture approach, overexpression of miR-193b using synthetic microRNAs repressed STMN1 expression, whereas inhibition of miR-193b with anti-miR oligos increased STMN1 expression in melanoma cells. The use of a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates STMN1 by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of STMN1 mRNA. We further demonstrated that STMN1 is overexpressed in malignant melanoma compared with nevi in two independent melanoma cohorts, and that its level is inversely correlated with miR-193b expression. However, STMN1 expression was not significantly associated with patient survival, Breslow depth, mitotic count or patient age. STMN1 knockdown by small-interfering RNA in melanoma cells drastically repressed cell proliferation and migration potential, whereas ectopic expression of STMN1 using lentivirus increased cell proliferation and migration rates. Subsequent gene expression analysis indicated that interconnected cytoskeletal networks are directly affected following STMN1 knockdown. In addition, we identified deregulated genes associated with proliferation and migration, and revealed that p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip) could be downstream effectors of STMN1 signaling. Taken together, our study suggests that downregulation of miR-193b may contribute to increased STMN1 expression in melanoma, which consequently promotes migration and proliferation of tumor cells.
View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2012.141
View details for Web of Science ID 000316454500013
View details for PubMedID 22665054
MicroRNAs play important roles in gene regulation, and their expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer cells. In a previous study, we reported that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma cells, suggesting that miR-193b could act as a tumor suppressor. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-193b also down-regulates myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) in melanoma cells. MicroRNA microarray profiling revealed that miR-193b is expressed at a significantly lower level in malignant melanoma than in benign nevi. Consistent with this, Mcl-1 is detected at a higher level in malignant melanoma than in benign nevi. In a survey of melanoma samples, the level of Mcl-1 is inversely correlated with the level of miR-193b. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cells represses Mcl-1 expression. Previous studies showed that Mcl-1 knockdown cells are hypersensitive to ABT-737, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Bcl-w. Similarly, overexpression of miR-193b restores ABT-737 sensitivity to ABT-737-resistant cells. Furthermore, the effect of miR-193b on the expression of Mcl-1 seems to be mediated by direct interaction between miR-193b and seed and seedless pairing sequences in the 3' untranslated region of Mcl-1 mRNA. Thus, this study provides evidence that miR-193b directly regulates Mcl-1 and that down-regulation of miR-193b in vivo could be an early event in melanoma progression.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.07.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000298307600005
View details for PubMedID 21893020
Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by > or = 50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3'untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development.
View details for DOI 10.2353/ajpath.2010.091061
View details for Web of Science ID 000280078600046
View details for PubMedID 20304954
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2861116
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that suppress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level via an antisense RNA-RNA interaction. miRNAs used for array-based profiling are generally purified from either snap-frozen or fresh samples. Because tissues found in most pathology departments are available only in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) states, we sought to evaluate miRNA derived from FFPE samples for microarray analysis. In this study, miRNAs extracted from matched snap-frozen and FFPE samples were profiled using the Agilent miRNA array platform (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA). Each miRNA sample was hybridized to arrays containing probes interrogating 470 human miRNAs. Seven cases were compared in either duplicate or triplicate. Intrachip and interchip analyses demonstrated that the processes of miRNA extraction, labeling, and hybridization from both frozen and FFPE samples are highly reproducible and add little variation to the results; technical replicates showed high correlations with one another (Kendall tau, 0.722 to 0.853; Spearman rank correlation coefficient, 0.891 to 0.954). Our results showed consistent high correlations between matched frozen and FFPE samples (Kendall tau, 0.669 to 0.815; Spearman rank correlation coefficient, 0.847 to 0.948), supporting the use of FFPE-derived miRNAs for array-based, gene expression profiling.
View details for DOI 10.2353/jmoldx.2008.080077
View details for Web of Science ID 000260533600008
View details for PubMedID 18832457