2020-21 Courses

Stanford Advisees


All Publications

  • Mechanoresponsive stem cells acquire neural crest fate in jaw regeneration. Nature Ransom, R. C., Carter, A. C., Salhotra, A., Leavitt, T., Marecic, O., Murphy, M. P., Lopez, M. L., Wei, Y., Marshall, C. D., Shen, E. Z., Jones, R. E., Sharir, A., Klein, O. D., Chan, C. K., Wan, D. C., Chang, H. Y., Longaker, M. T. 2018


    During both embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration, changes in chromatin structure driven by master transcription factors lead to stimulus-responsive transcriptional programs. A thorough understanding of how stem cells in the skeleton interpret mechanical stimuli and enact regeneration would shed light on how forces are transduced to the nucleus in regenerative processes. Here we develop a genetically dissectible mouse model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis-which isa process that is used in humans to correct an undersized lower jawthat involves surgically separating the jaw bone, whichelicits new bone growth in the gap. We use this model to show that regions of newly formed bone are clonally derived from stem cells that reside in the skeleton. Using chromatin and transcriptional profiling, we show that these stem-cell populations gain activity within the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signalling pathway, and that inhibiting FAK abolishes new bone formation. Mechanotransduction via FAK in skeletal stem cells during distraction activates a gene-regulatory program and retrotransposons that are normally active in primitive neural crest cells, from which skeletal stem cells arise during development. This reversion to a developmental state underlies the robust tissue growth that facilitates stem-cell-based regeneration of adult skeletal tissue.

    View details for PubMedID 30356216

  • Method of Isolating and Transplanting the Hematopoietic Stem Cell with Its Microenvironment Which Improves Functional Hematopoietic Engraftment Borrelli, M. R., Lopez, M., Gulati, G., Murphy, M. P., Sinha, R., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L., Newman, A. M., Chan, C. K., Sokol, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E224
  • Translational Approach Using Trimodal Manipulation of Resident Skeletal Stem Cells for Articular Cartilage Repair Murphy, M. P., Koepke, L. S., Lopez, M., Ransom, R. C., Brewer, R. E., Borrelli, M. R., Marecic, O., Chan, C. F., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: S213–S214
  • Identification of the Human Skeletal Stem Cell. Cell Chan, C. K., Gulati, G. S., Sinha, R., Tompkins, J. V., Lopez, M., Carter, A. C., Ransom, R. C., Reinisch, A., Wearda, T., Murphy, M., Brewer, R. E., Koepke, L. S., Marecic, O., Manjunath, A., Seo, E. Y., Leavitt, T., Lu, W., Nguyen, A., Conley, S. D., Salhotra, A., Ambrosi, T. H., Borrelli, M. R., Siebel, T., Chan, K., Schallmoser, K., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Goodnough, H., Bishop, J., Gardner, M., Majeti, R., Wan, D. C., Goodman, S., Weissman, I. L., Chang, H. Y., Longaker, M. T. 2018; 175 (1): 43


    Stem cell regulation and hierarchical organization ofhuman skeletal progenitors remain largely unexplored. Here, we report the isolation of a self-renewing and multipotent human skeletal stem cell (hSSC) that generates progenitors of bone, cartilage, and stroma, but not fat. Self-renewing and multipotent hSSCs are present in fetal and adult bones and can also be derived from BMP2-treated human adipose stroma (B-HAS) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Gene expression analysis of individual hSSCs reveals overall similarity between hSSCs obtained from different sources and partially explains skewed differentiation toward cartilage in fetal and iPSC-derived hSSCs. hSSCs undergo local expansion in response to acute skeletal injury. In addition, hSSC-derived stroma can maintain human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) in serum-free culture conditions. Finally, we combine gene expression and epigenetic data of mouse skeletal stem cells (mSSCs) and hSSCs to identify evolutionarily conserved and divergent pathways driving SSC-mediated skeletogenesis. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

    View details for PubMedID 30241615

  • Isolation and functional assessment of mouse skeletal stem cell lineage NATURE PROTOCOLS Gulati, G. S., Murphy, M. P., Marecic, O., Lopez, M., Brewer, R. E., Koepke, L. S., Manjunath, A., Ransom, R. C., Salhotra, A., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T., Chan, C. F. 2018; 13 (6): 1294–1309


    There are limited methods available to study skeletal stem, progenitor, and progeny cell activity in normal and diseased contexts. Most protocols for skeletal stem cell isolation are based on the extent to which cells adhere to plastic or whether they express a limited repertoire of surface markers. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based approach that does not require in vitro selection and that uses eight surface markers to distinguish and isolate mouse skeletal stem cells (mSSCs); bone, cartilage, and stromal progenitors (mBCSPs); and five downstream differentiated subtypes, including chondroprogenitors, two types of osteoprogenitors, and two types of hematopoiesis-supportive stroma. We provide instructions for the optimal mechanical and chemical digestion of bone and bone marrow, as well as the subsequent flow-cytometry-activated cell sorting (FACS) gating schemes required to maximally yield viable skeletal-lineage cells. We also describe a methodology for renal subcapsular transplantation and in vitro colony-formation assays on the isolated mSSCs. The isolation of mSSCs can be completed in 9 h, with at least 1 h more required for transplantation. Experience with flow cytometry and mouse surgical procedures is recommended before attempting the protocol. Our system has wide applications and has already been used to study skeletal response to fracture, diabetes, and osteoarthritis, as well as hematopoietic stem cell-niche interactions in the bone marrow.

    View details for PubMedID 29748647

  • Improving immune-vascular crosstalk for cancer immunotherapy NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY Huang, Y., Kim, B. S., Chan, C. K., Hahn, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Jiang, W. 2018; 18 (3): 195–203


    The vasculature of tumours is highly abnormal and dysfunctional. Consequently, immune effector cells have an impaired ability to penetrate solid tumours and often exhibit compromised functions. Normalization of the tumour vasculature can enhance tissue perfusion and improve immune effector cell infiltration, leading to immunotherapy potentiation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the stimulation of immune cell functions can also help to normalize tumour vessels. In this Opinion article, we propose that the reciprocal regulation between tumour vascular normalization and immune reprogramming forms a reinforcing loop that reconditions the tumour immune microenvironment to induce durable antitumour immunity. A deeper understanding of these pathways could pave the way for identifying new biomarkers and developing more effective combination treatment strategies for patients with cancer.

    View details for PubMedID 29332937

  • Where Hematopoietic Stem Cells Live: The Bone Marrow Niche ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Szade, K., Gulati, G. S., Chan, C. F., Kao, K. S., Miyanishi, M., Marjon, K. D., Sinha, R., George, B. M., Chen, J. Y., Weissman, I. L. 2018


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can sustain the production of blood throughout one's lifetime. However, for proper self-renewal of its own population and differentiation to blood, the HSC requires a specialized microenvironment called the "niche." Recent Advances: Recent studies using novel mouse models have shed new light on the cellular architecture and function of the HSC niche. Here, we review the different cells that constitute the HSC niche and the molecular mechanisms that underlie HSC and niche interaction. We discuss the evidence and potential features that distinguish the HSC niche from other microenvironments in the bone marrow. The relevance of the niche in malignant transformation of the HSCs and harboring cancer metastasis to the bone is also outlined. In addition, we address how the niche may regulate reactive oxygen species levels surrounding the HSCs. Critical Issues and Future Directions: We propose future directions and remaining challenges in investigating the niche of HSCs. We discuss how a better understanding of the HSC niche may help in restoring an aged hematopoietic system, fighting against malignancies, and transplanting purified HSCs safely and effectively into patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

    View details for PubMedID 29113449

  • Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris. Nature 2018; 562 (7727): 367–72


    Here we present a compendium of single-cell transcriptomic data from the model organism Mus musculus that comprises more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues. These data represent a new resource for cell biology, reveal gene expression in poorly characterized cell populations and enable the direct and controlled comparison of gene expression in cell types that are shared between tissues, such as T lymphocytes and endothelial cells from different anatomical locations. Two distinct technical approaches were used for most organs: one approach, microfluidic droplet-based 3'-end counting, enabled the survey of thousands of cells at relatively low coverage, whereas the other, full-length transcript analysis based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting, enabled the characterization of cell types with high sensitivity and coverage. The cumulative data provide the foundation for an atlas of transcriptomic cell biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-018-0590-4

    View details for PubMedID 30283141

  • Prolonged survival of transplanted stem cells after ischaemic injury via the slow release of pro-survival peptides from a collagen matrix Nature Biomedical Engineering Lee, A. S., Inayathullah, ., Lijkwan, . A., Zhao, X., Sun, W., Park, S., Hong, W. X., Parekh, M. B., Malkovskiy, A. V., Lau, E., Qin, X., Pothineni,, . R., Sanchez-Freire, ., Kooreman, N. G., Ebert, A. D., Chan, C. K., Nguyen, P. K., Rajadas, J., Wu, J. C. 2018; 2 (2): 104–13


    Stem-cell-based therapies hold considerable promise for regenerative medicine. However, acute donor-cell death within several weeks after cell delivery remains a critical hurdle for clinical translation. Co-transplantation of stem cells with pro-survival factors can improve cell engraftment, but this strategy has been hampered by the typically short half-lives of the factors and by the use of Matrigel and other scaffolds that are not chemically defined. Here, we report a collagen-dendrimer biomaterial crosslinked with pro-survival peptide analogues that adheres to the extracellular matrix and slowly releases the peptides, significantly prolonging stem cell survival in mouse models of ischaemic injury. The biomaterial can serve as a generic delivery system to improve functional outcomes in cell-replacement therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41551-018-0191-4

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5927627

  • Prrx1 Labels the Fibrogenic Fibroblast in the Ventral Dermis Hu, M., Leavitt, T., Garcia, J., Ransom, R., Litzenburger, U., Walmsley, G., Marshall, C., Moore, A., Mascharak, S., Chan, C., Wan, D., Lorenz, P., Chang, H., Longaker, M. WILEY. 2018: A4
  • Fibroblasts become fat to reduce scarring. Science Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T. 2017; 355 (6326): 693-694

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aam6748

    View details for PubMedID 28209860

  • Breaking Down the Barriers to Precision Cancer Nanomedicine TRENDS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY von Roemeling, C., Jian, W., Chan, C. K., Weissman, I. L., Kim, B. Y. 2017; 35 (2): 159-171


    Nanomedicine offers unique advantages in treating human cancers. However, physiological and pathological barriers within normal and disease tissues, which are highly variable among individuals, often hinder its effectiveness. The body possesses specific innate responses to nanoparticles (NPs), which when combined with unique pathophysiological signatures in the tumor microenvironment, can severely limit the utility of nanomedicine in the oncological setting. Furthermore, with the successes of cancer immunotherapies, understanding nanoimmune interactions and developing immune-smart cancer nanomedicine that can take advantage of the body's immune functions will increasingly become clinically relevant. Therefore, a better understanding of the important native and acquired biological processes that dictate the fate of nanomedicine is integral to developing more effective individualized platforms for treating cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tibtech.2016.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393261300009

  • Pharmacological rescue of diabetic skeletal stem cell niches. Science translational medicine Tevlin, R., Seo, E. Y., Marecic, O., McArdle, A., Tong, X., Zimdahl, B., Malkovskiy, A., Sinha, R., Gulati, G., Li, X., Wearda, T., Morganti, R., Lopez, M., Ransom, R. C., Duldulao, C. R., Rodrigues, M., Nguyen, A., Januszyk, M., Maan, Z., Paik, K., Yapa, K., Rajadas, J., Wan, D. C., Gurtner, G. C., Snyder, M., Beachy, P. A., Yang, F., Goodman, S. B., Weissman, I. L., Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T. 2017; 9 (372)


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease frequently associated with impaired bone healing. Despite its increasing prevalence worldwide, the molecular etiology of DM-linked skeletal complications remains poorly defined. Using advanced stem cell characterization techniques, we analyzed intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of mouse skeletal stem cell (mSSC) function to identify specific mSSC niche-related abnormalities that could impair skeletal repair in diabetic (Db) mice. We discovered that high serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α directly repressed the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in mSSCs and in their downstream skeletogenic progenitors in Db mice. When hedgehog signaling was inhibited during fracture repair, injury-induced mSSC expansion was suppressed, resulting in impaired healing. We reversed this deficiency by precise delivery of purified Ihh to the fracture site via a specially formulated, slow-release hydrogel. In the presence of exogenous Ihh, the injury-induced expansion and osteogenic potential of mSSCs were restored, culminating in the rescue of Db bone healing. Our results present a feasible strategy for precise treatment of molecular aberrations in stem and progenitor cell populations to correct skeletal manifestations of systemic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag2809

    View details for PubMedID 28077677

  • A Novel Method of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Isolation with Resultant Increased Cell Yield PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Tevlin, R., McArdle, A., Brett, E., Chung, M. T., Paik, K., Seo, E. Y., Walmsley, G. G., Duldulao, C. R., Atashroo, D., Zielins, E., Vistnes, S., Chan, C. K., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2016; 138 (6): 983E-996E


    The authors have developed a novel protocol for isolating adipose-derived stem cells from human lipoaspirate. In this study, they compare their new method to a previously published standard protocol.Human adipose-derived stem cell isolation was performed using two methods to compare cell yield, cell viability, cell proliferation, and regenerative potential. The new and conventional isolation methods differ in two key areas: the collagenase digestion buffer constituents and the use of an orbital shaker. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of adipose-derived stem cells isolated using both protocols was assessed in vitro, and gene expression analysis was performed. To assess the ability of the isolated cells to generate bone in vivo, the authors created critical-size calvarial defects in mice, which were treated with adipose-derived stem cells loaded onto hydroxyapatite-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds. To test the ability of the isolated cells to enhance adipogenesis, the cells were added to lipoaspirate and placed beneath the scalp of immunocompromised mice. Fat graft volume retention was subsequently assessed by serial computed tomographic volumetric scanning.The new method resulted in a 10-fold increased yield of adipose-derived stem cells compared with the conventional method. Cells harvested using the new method demonstrated significantly increased cell viability and proliferation in vitro (p < 0.05). New method cells also demonstrated significantly enhanced osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity in vitro (p < 0.05) in comparison with the conventional method cells. Both cell groups demonstrated equivalent osteogenic and adipogenic regenerative potential in mice.The authors have developed a protocol that maximizes the yield of adipose-derived stem cells derived from lipoaspirate. The new method cells have increased osteogenic and adipogenic potential in vitro and are not inferior to conventional method cells in terms of their ability to generate bone and fat in vivo.Therapeutic, V.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002790

    View details for PubMedID 27537222

  • Enrichment of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for BMPR1A Facilitates Enhanced Adipogenesis TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A Zielins, E. R., Paik, K., Ransom, R. C., Brett, E. A., Blackshear, C. P., Luan, A., Walmsley, G. G., Atashroo, D. A., Senarath-Yapa, K., Momeni, A., Rennert, R., Sorkin, M., Seo, E. Y., Chan, C. K., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2016; 22 (3-4): 214-221


    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects has traditionally relied on the use of grafts and flaps, which may be associated with variable resorption and/or significant donor site morbidity. Cell-based strategies employing adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), found within the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue, may offer an alternative strategy for soft tissue reconstruction. In this study, we investigated the potential of a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A)(+) subpopulation of ASCs to enhance de novo adipogenesis.Human lipoaspirate was enzymatically digested to isolate SVF and magnetic-activated cell separation was utilized to obtain BMPR1A(+) and BMPR1A(-) cells. These cells, along with unenriched cells, were expanded in culture and evaluated for adipogenic gene expression and in vitro adipocyte formation. Cells from each group were also labeled with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) lentivirus and transplanted into the inguinal fat pads, an adipogenic niche, of immunocompromised mice to determine their potential for de novo adipogenesis. Confocal microscopy along with staining of lipid droplets and vasculature was performed to evaluate the formation of mature adipocytes by transplanted cells.In comparison to BMPR1A(-) and unenriched ASCs, BMPR1A(+) cells demonstrated significantly enhanced adipogenesis when cultured in an adipogenic differentiation medium, as evidenced by increased staining with Oil Red O and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). BMPR1A(+) cells also formed significantly more adipocytes in vivo, as demonstrated by quantification of GFP+ adipocytes. Minimal formation of mature adipocytes was appreciated by BMPR1A(-) cells.BMPR1A(+) ASCs show an enhanced ability for adipogenesis in vitro, as shown by gene expression and histological staining. Furthermore, within an adipogenic niche, BMPR1A(+) cells possessed an increased capacity to generate de novo fat compared to BMPR1A(-) and unenriched cells. This suggests utility for the BMPR1A(+) subpopulation in cell-based strategies for soft tissue reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2015.0278

    View details for PubMedID 26585335

  • Local and Circulating Endothelial Cells Undergo Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EndMT) in Response to Musculoskeletal Injury. Scientific reports Agarwal, S., Loder, S., Cholok, D., Peterson, J., Li, J., Fireman, D., Breuler, C., Hsieh, H. S., Ranganathan, K., Hwang, C., Drake, J., Li, S., Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T., Levi, B. 2016; 6: 32514-?


    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been implicated in a variety of aberrant wound healing conditions. However, unambiguous evidence of EndMT has been elusive due to limitations of in vitro experimental designs and animal models. In vitro experiments cannot account for the myriad ligands and cells which regulate differentiation, and in vivo tissue injury models may induce lineage-independent endothelial marker expression in mesenchymal cells. By using an inducible Cre model to mark mesenchymal cells (Scx-creERT/tdTomato + ) prior to injury, we demonstrate that musculoskeletal injury induces expression of CD31, VeCadherin, or Tie2 in mesenchymal cells. VeCadherin and Tie2 were expressed in non-endothelial cells (CD31-) present in marrow from uninjured adult mice, thereby limiting the specificity of these markers in inducible models (e.g. VeCadherin- or Tie2-creERT). However, cell transplantation assays confirmed that endothelial cells (ΔVeCadherin/CD31+/CD45-) isolated from uninjured hindlimb muscle tissue undergo in vivo EndMT when transplanted directly into the wound without intervening cell culture using PDGFRα, Osterix (OSX), SOX9, and Aggrecan (ACAN) as mesenchymal markers. These in vivo findings support EndMT in the presence of myriad ligands and cell types, using cell transplantation assays which can be applied for other pathologies implicated in EndMT including tissue fibrosis and atherosclerosis. Additionally, endothelial cell recruitment and trafficking are potential therapeutic targets to prevent EndMT.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep32514

    View details for PubMedID 27616463

  • Identification and characterization of an injury-induced skeletal progenitor PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Marecic, O., Tevlin, R., McArdle, A., Seo, E. Y., Wearda, T., Duldulao, C., Walmsley, G. G., Nguyen, A., Weissman, I. L., Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 112 (32): 9920-9925


    The postnatal skeleton undergoes growth, remodeling, and repair. We hypothesized that skeletal progenitor cells active during these disparate phases are genetically and phenotypically distinct. We identified a highly potent regenerative cell type that we term the fracture-induced bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor (f-BCSP) in the fracture callus of adult mice. The f-BCSP possesses significantly enhanced skeletogenic potential compared with BCSPs harvested from uninjured bone. It also recapitulates many gene expression patterns involved in perinatal skeletogenesis. Our results indicate that the skeletal progenitor population is functionally stratified, containing distinct subsets responsible for growth, regeneration, and repair. Furthermore, our findings suggest that injury-induced changes to the skeletal stem and progenitor microenvironments could activate these cells and enhance their regenerative potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1513066112

    View details for PubMedID 26216955

  • Assessment of the Radiation Effects of Cardiac CT Angiography Using Protein and Genetic Biomarkers JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Nguyen, P. K., Lee, W. H., Li, Y. F., Hong, W. X., Hu, S., Chan, C., Liang, G., Nguyen, I., Ong, S., Churko, J., Wang, J., Altman, R. B., Fleischmann, D., Wu, J. C. 2015; 8 (8): 873-884

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2015.04.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359895400001

    View details for PubMedID 26210695

  • The role and regulation of osteoclasts in normal bone homeostasis and in response to injury. Plastic and reconstructive surgery McArdle, A., Marecic, O., Tevlin, R., Walmsley, G. G., Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2015; 135 (3): 808-816


    Bone is a dynamic tissue, with a range of diverse functions, including locomotion, protection of internal organs, and hematopoiesis. Optimum treatment of fractures and/or bone defects requires knowledge of the complex cellular interactions involved with bone healing and remodeling. Emerging data have underscored the importance of osteoclasts in this process, playing a key role both in normal bone turnover and in facilitating bone regeneration. In this review, the authors discuss the basic principles of osteoclast biology, including its cellular origins, its function, and key regulatory mechanisms, in addition to conditions that arise when osteoclast function is altered.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000963

    View details for PubMedID 25719699

  • Identification and specification of the mouse skeletal stem cell. Cell Chan, C. K., Seo, E. Y., Chen, J. Y., Lo, D., McArdle, A., Sinha, R., Tevlin, R., Seita, J., Vincent-Tompkins, J., Wearda, T., Lu, W., Senarath-Yapa, K., Chung, M. T., Marecic, O., Tran, M., Yan, K. S., Upton, R., Walmsley, G. G., Lee, A. S., Sahoo, D., Kuo, C. J., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 160 (1-2): 285-298


    How are skeletal tissues derived from skeletal stem cells? Here, we map bone, cartilage, and stromal development from a population of highly pure, postnatal skeletal stem cells (mouse skeletal stem cells, mSSCs) to their downstream progenitors of bone, cartilage, and stromal tissue. We then investigated the transcriptome of the stem/progenitor cells for unique gene-expression patterns that would indicate potential regulators of mSSC lineage commitment. We demonstrate that mSSC niche factors can be potent inducers of osteogenesis, and several specific combinations of recombinant mSSC niche factors can activate mSSC genetic programs in situ, even in nonskeletal tissues, resulting in de novo formation of cartilage or bone and bone marrow stroma. Inducing mSSC formation with soluble factors and subsequently regulating the mSSC niche to specify its differentiation toward bone, cartilage, or stromal cells could represent a paradigm shift in the therapeutic regeneration of skeletal tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2014.12.002

    View details for PubMedID 25594184

  • Epigenetic and in vivo comparison of diverse MSC sources reveals an endochondral signature for human hematopoietic niche formation. Blood Reinisch, A., Etchart, N., Thomas, D., Hofmann, N. A., Fruehwirth, M., Sinha, S., Chan, C. K., Senarath-Yapa, K., Seo, E., Wearda, T., Hartwig, U. F., Beham-Schmid, C., Trajanoski, S., Lin, Q., Wagner, W., Dullin, C., Alves, F., Andreeff, M., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T., Schallmoser, K., Majeti, R., Strunk, D. 2015; 125 (2): 249-260


    In the last decade there has been a rapid expansion in clinical trials using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from a variety of tissues. However, despite similarities in morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation behavior in vitro, MSCs sourced from distinct tissues do not necessarily have equivalent biological properties. We performed a genome-wide methylation, transcription and in vivo evaluation of MSCs from human bone marrow (BM), white adipose tissue, umbilical cord and skin cultured in humanized media. Surprisingly, only BM-derived MSCs spontaneously formed a bone marrow cavity through a vascularized cartilage intermediate in vivo that was progressively replaced by hematopoietic tissue and bone. Only BM-derived MSCs exhibited a chondrogenic transcriptional program with hypomethylation and increased expression of RUNX3, RUNX2, BGLAP, MMP13 and ITGA10 consistent with a latent and primed skeletal developmental potential. The humanized MSC-derived microenvironment permitted homing and maintenance of long-term murine SLAM(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as human CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD90(+)/CD45RA(+) HSCs after cord blood transplantation. These studies underscore the profound differences in developmental potential between MSC sources independent of donor age with implications for their clinical use. We also demonstrate a tractable human niche model for studying homing and engraftment of human hematopoietic cells in normal and neoplastic states.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2014-04-572255

    View details for PubMedID 25406351

  • Positive Selection for Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type-IB Promotes Differentiation and Specification of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Toward an Osteogenic Lineage TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A McArdle, A., Chung, M. T., Paik, K. J., Duldulao, C., Chan, C., Rennert, R., Walmsley, G. G., Senarath-Yapa, K., Hu, M., Seo, E., Lee, M., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2014; 20 (21-22): 3031-3040


    Adipose tissue represents an abundant and easily accessible source of multipotent cells that may serve as an excellent building block for tissue engineering. However, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a heterogeneous group and subpopulations may be identified with enhanced osteogenic potential.Human ASC subpopulations were prospectively isolated based on expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-IB (BMPR-IB). Unsorted, BMPR-IB(+), and BMPR-IB(-) cells were analyzed for their osteogenic capacity through histological staining and gene expression. To evaluate their in vivo osteogenic potential, critical-sized calvarial defects were created in immunocompromised mice and treated with unsorted, BMPR-IB(+), or BMPR-IB(-) cells. Healing was assessed using microcomputed tomography and pentachrome staining of specimens at 8 weeks.Increased osteogenic differentiation was noted in the BMPR-IB(+) subpopulation, as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase staining at day 7 and extracellular matrix mineralization with Alizarin red staining at day 14. This was also associated with increased expression for osteocalcin, a late marker of osteogenesis. Radiographic analysis demonstrated significantly enhanced healing of critical-sized calvarial defects treated with BMPR-IB(+) ASCs compared with unsorted or BMPR-IB(-) cells. This was confirmed through pentachrome staining, which revealed more robust bone regeneration in the BMPR-IB(+) group.BMPR-IB(+) human ASCs have an enhanced ability to form bone both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that positive selection for BMPR-IB(+) and manipulation of the BMP pathway in these cells may yield a highly osteogenic subpopulation of cells for bone tissue engineering.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2014.0101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344592600021

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4229710

  • Abstract 161: identification of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and differentially regulated genetic pathways responsible for the age-related functional decline in aged skeletal stem cells. Plastic and reconstructive surgery McArdle, A., Chan, C., Seita, J., Senarath-Yapa, K., Hu, M., Walmsley, G. G., Zielins, E., Atashroo, D., Tevlin, R., Weissman, I., Longaker, M. T. 2014; 133 (3): 178-?

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0000444990.75431.f1

    View details for PubMedID 25942271

  • Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Tevlin, R., McArdle, A., Chan, C. K., Pluvinage, J., Walmsley, G. G., Wearda, T., Marecic, O., Hu, M. S., Paik, K. J., Senarath-Yapa, K., Atashroo, D. A., Zielins, E. R., Wan, D. C., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2014

    View details for DOI 10.3791/52056

    View details for PubMedID 25407120

  • BLT-humanized C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)gamma(-/-)(c)CD47(-/-) mice are resistant to GVHD and develop B- and T-cell immunity to HIV infection BLOOD Lavender, K. J., Pang, W. W., Messer, R. J., Duley, A. K., Race, B., Phillips, K., Scott, D., Peterson, K. E., Chan, C. K., Dittmer, U., Dudek, T., Allen, T. M., Weissman, I. L., Hasenkrug, K. J. 2013; 122 (25): 4013-4020


    The use of C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice as recipients for xenotransplantation with human immune systems (humanization) has been problematic because C57BL/6 SIRPα does not recognize human CD47, and such recognition is required to suppress macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We show that genetic inactivation of CD47 on the C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) background negates the requirement for CD47-signal recognition protein α (SIRPα) signaling and induces tolerance to transplanted human HSCs. These triple-knockout, bone marrow, liver, thymus (TKO-BLT) humanized mice develop organized lymphoid tissues including mesenteric lymph nodes, splenic follicles and gut-associated lymphoid tissue that demonstrate high levels of multilineage hematopoiesis. Importantly, these mice have an intact complement system and showed no signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) out to 29 weeks after transplantation. Sustained, high-level HIV-1 infection was observed via either intrarectal or intraperitoneal inoculation. TKO-BLT mice exhibited hallmarks of human HIV infection including CD4(+) T-cell depletion, immune activation, and development of HIV-specific B- and T-cell responses. The lack of GVHD makes the TKO-BLT mouse a significantly improved model for long-term studies of pathogenesis, immune responses, therapeutics, and vaccines to human pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-06-506949

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329739100009

    View details for PubMedID 24021673

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3862274

  • Clonal precursor of bone, cartilage, and hematopoietic niche stromal cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chan, C. K., Lindau, P., Jiang, W., Chen, J. Y., Zhang, L. F., Chen, C., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Kim, J., Lee, A., Park, S., Nag, D., Gong, Y., Kulkarni, S., Luppen, C. A., Theologis, A. A., Wan, D. C., DeBoer, A., Seo, E. Y., Vincent-Tompkins, J. D., Loh, K., Walmsley, G. G., Kraft, D. L., Wu, J. C., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (31): 12643-12648


    Organs are composites of tissue types with diverse developmental origins, and they rely on distinct stem and progenitor cells to meet physiological demands for cellular production and homeostasis. How diverse stem cell activity is coordinated within organs is not well understood. Here we describe a lineage-restricted, self-renewing common skeletal progenitor (bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor; BCSP) isolated from limb bones and bone marrow tissue of fetal, neonatal, and adult mice. The BCSP clonally produces chondrocytes (cartilage-forming) and osteogenic (bone-forming) cells and at least three subsets of stromal cells that exhibit differential expression of cell surface markers, including CD105 (or endoglin), Thy1 [or CD90 (cluster of differentiation 90)], and 6C3 [ENPEP glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A)]. These three stromal subsets exhibit differential capacities to support hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem and progenitor cells. Although the 6C3-expressing subset demonstrates functional stem cell niche activity by maintaining primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) renewal in vitro, the other stromal populations promote HSC differentiation to more committed lines of hematopoiesis, such as the B-cell lineage. Gene expression analysis and microscopic studies further reveal a microenvironment in which CD105-, Thy1-, and 6C3-expressing marrow stroma collaborate to provide cytokine signaling to HSCs and more committed hematopoietic progenitors. As a result, within the context of bone as a blood-forming organ, the BCSP plays a critical role in supporting hematopoiesis through its generation of diverse osteogenic and hematopoietic-promoting stroma, including HSC supportive 6C3(+) niche cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1310212110

    View details for PubMedID 23858471

  • Do pluripotent stem cells exist in adult mice as very small embryonic stem cells? Stem cell reports Miyanishi, M., Mori, Y., Seita, J., Chen, J. Y., Karten, S., Chan, C. K., Nakauchi, H., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 1 (2): 198-208


    Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) have been reported to be pluripotent. Given their nonembryonic source, they could replace blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells in research and medicine. However, their multiple-germ-layer potential has been incompletely studied. Here, we show that we cannot find VSELs in mouse BM with any of the reported stem cell potentials, specifically for hematopoiesis. We found that: (1) most events within the "VSEL" flow-cytometry gate had little DNA and the cells corresponding to these events (2) could not form spheres, (3) did not express Oct4, and (4) could not differentiate into blood cells. These results provide a failure to confirm the existence of pluripotent VSELs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2013.07.001

    View details for PubMedID 24052953

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3757755

  • In vivo directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for skeletal regeneration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Levi, B., Hyun, J. S., Montoro, D. T., Lo, D. D., Chan, C. K., Hu, S., Sun, N., Lee, M., Grova, M., Connolly, A. J., Wu, J. C., Gurtner, G. C., Weissman, I. L., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2012; 109 (50): 20379-20384


    Pluripotent cells represent a powerful tool for tissue regeneration, but their clinical utility is limited by their propensity to form teratomas. Little is known about their interaction with the surrounding niche following implantation and how this may be applied to promote survival and functional engraftment. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an osteogenic microniche consisting of a hydroxyapatite-coated, bone morphogenetic protein-2-releasing poly-L-lactic acid scaffold placed within the context of a macroenvironmental skeletal defect to guide in vivo differentiation of both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this setting, we found de novo bone formation and participation by implanted cells in skeletal regeneration without the formation of a teratoma. This finding suggests that local cues from both the implanted scaffold/cell micro- and surrounding macroniche may act in concert to promote cellular survival and the in vivo acquisition of a terminal cell fate, thereby allowing for functional engraftment of pluripotent cells into regenerating tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1218052109

    View details for PubMedID 23169671

  • VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma leads to up-regulation of CUB domain-containing protein 1 to stimulate PKC delta-driven migration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Razorenova, O. V., Finger, E. C., Colavitti, R., Chernikova, S. B., Boiko, A. D., Chan, C. K., Krieg, A., Bedogni, B., LaGory, E., Weissman, I. L., Broome-Powell, M., Giaccia, A. J. 2011; 108 (5): 1931-1936


    A common genetic mutation found in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) is the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, which results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) was shown to promote metastasis in scirrhous and lung adenocarcinomas as well as in prostate cancer. In this study, we established a molecular mechanism linking VHL loss to induction of the CDCP1 gene through the HIF-1/2 pathway in renal cancer. Also, we report that Fyn, which forms a complex with CDCP1 and mediates its signaling to PKCδ, is a HIF-1 target gene. Mechanistically, we found that CDCP1 specifically regulates phosphorylation of PKCδ, but not of focal adhesion kinase or Crk-associated substrate. Signal transduction from CDCP1 to PKCδ leads to its activation, increasing migration of CC-RCC. Furthermore, patient survival can be stratified by CDCP1 expression at the cell surface of the tumor. Taken together, our data indicates that CDCP1 protein might serve as a therapeutic target for CC-RCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1011777108

    View details for PubMedID 21233420

  • Anti-CD47 Antibody Synergizes with Rituximab to Promote Phagocytosis and Eradicate Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma CELL Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Tang, C., Myklebust, J. H., Varghese, B., Gill, S., Jan, M., Cha, A. C., Chan, C. K., Tan, B. T., Park, C. Y., Zhao, F., Kohrt, H. E., Malumbres, R., Briones, J., Gascoyne, R. D., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2010; 142 (5): 699-713


    Monoclonal antibodies are standard therapeutics for several cancers including the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab and other antibodies are not curative and must be combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy for clinical benefit. Here we report the eradication of human NHL solely with a monoclonal antibody therapy combining rituximab with a blocking anti-CD47 antibody. We identified increased expression of CD47 on human NHL cells and determined that higher CD47 expression independently predicted adverse clinical outcomes in multiple NHL subtypes. Blocking anti-CD47 antibodies preferentially enabled phagocytosis of NHL cells and synergized with rituximab. Treatment of human NHL-engrafted mice with anti-CD47 antibody reduced lymphoma burden and improved survival, while combination treatment with rituximab led to elimination of lymphoma and cure. These antibodies synergized through a mechanism combining Fc receptor (FcR)-dependent and FcR-independent stimulation of phagocytosis that might be applicable to many other cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.044

    View details for PubMedID 20813259

  • Endochondral ossification is required for haematopoietic stem-cell niche formation NATURE Chan, C. K., Chen, C., Luppen, C. A., Kim, J., DeBoer, A. T., Wei, K., Helms, J. A., Kuo, C. J., Kraft, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 457 (7228): 490-U9


    Little is known about the formation of niches, local micro-environments required for stem-cell maintenance. Here we develop an in vivo assay for adult haematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) niche formation. With this assay, we identified a population of progenitor cells with surface markers CD45(-)Tie2(-)alpha(V)(+)CD105(+)Thy1.1(-) (CD105(+)Thy1(-)) that, when sorted from 15.5 days post-coitum fetal bones and transplanted under the adult mouse kidney capsule, could recruit host-derived blood vessels, produce donor-derived ectopic bones through a cartilage intermediate and generate a marrow cavity populated by host-derived long-term reconstituting HSC (LT-HSC). In contrast, CD45(-)Tie2(-)alpha(V)(+)CD105(+)Thy1(+) (CD105(+)Thy1(+)) fetal bone progenitors form bone that does not contain a marrow cavity. Suppressing expression of factors involved in endochondral ossification, such as osterix and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inhibited niche generation. CD105(+)Thy1(-) progenitor populations derived from regions of the fetal mandible or calvaria that do not undergo endochondral ossification formed only bone without marrow in our assay. Collectively, our data implicate endochondral ossification, bone formation that proceeds through a cartilage intermediate, as a requirement for adult HSC niche formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07547

    View details for PubMedID 19078959

  • Elucidation of the phenotypic, functional, and molecular topography of a myeloerythroid progenitor cell hierarchy CELL STEM CELL Pronk, C. J., Rossi, D. J., Mansson, R., Attema, J. L., Norddahl, G. L., Chan, C. K., Sigvardsson, M., Weissman, I. L., Bryder, D. 2007; 1 (4): 428-442


    The major myeloid blood cell lineages are generated from hematopoietic stem cells by differentiation through a series of increasingly committed progenitor cells. Precise characterization of intermediate progenitors is important for understanding fundamental differentiation processes and a variety of disease states, including leukemia. Here, we evaluated the functional in vitro and in vivo potentials of a range of prospectively isolated myeloid precursors with differential expression of CD150, Endoglin, and CD41. Our studies revealed a hierarchy of myeloerythroid progenitors with distinct lineage potentials. The global gene expression signatures of these subsets were consistent with their functional capacities, and hierarchical clustering analysis suggested likely lineage relationships. These studies provide valuable tools for understanding myeloid lineage commitment, including isolation of an early erythroid-restricted precursor, and add to existing models of hematopoietic differentiation by suggesting that progenitors of the innate and adaptive immune system can separate late, following the divergence of megakaryocytic/erythroid potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.07.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251055300012

    View details for PubMedID 18371379

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