Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Family Medicine

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Stanford University (2007 - Present)
  • Clinical Instructor, University of Washington (2004 - 2007)
  • Research Scientist, University of Washington (2000 - 2002)
  • Senior Research Fellow, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (1999 - 2000)
  • Senior Research Associate, ICF Consulting, Inc., Seattle, WA (1998 - 2002)
  • Research Fellow, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (1995 - 1999)
  • Visiting Scientist, National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, NC (1995 - 1995)
  • Visiting Scholar, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA (1994 - 1994)

Honors & Awards


  • Research Fellowship, National Institute for Dental & Craniofacial Research (1999-2000)
  • Interdisciplinary Cancer Research Fellowship, National Cancer Institute (1998-1999)
  • Cancer Epidemiology and Biostatistics Research Fellowship, National Cancer Institute (1995-1998)
  • Member, Phi Kappa Phi (1990)
  • Member, Phi Beta Kappa (1990)
  • Special Honors, Plan II Honors Program, University of Texas at Austin (1990)
  • Highest Honors Graduate, University of Texas at Austin (1990)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Family Medicine, American Board of Family Medicine (2004)
  • Residency:University of Washington (2004) WA
  • Internship:Hennepin County Medical Center (1995) MN
  • Medical Education:Tulane University School of Medicine (1994) LA
  • Ph.D., University of Washington, Epidemiology (1998)
  • M.S., University of Washington, Biostatistics (1998)
  • M.D., Tulane University, Medicine (1994)
  • M.P.H. & T.M., Tulane University, Public Health (1994)
  • M.A.T., Fuller Theological Seminary, Seattle, WA, Biblical Studies and Theology (2005)
  • B.A., University of Texas, Austin, TX, Plan II Honors Program (1990)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Casey Crump'’s research focuses on identifying clinical and social determinants of health to enable better prevention, detection, and treatment of disease. His current work includes a new collaborative initiative between Stanford University and Lund University in Sweden to identify perinatal, hereditary, and environmental determinants of health using Swedish national health data. The following NIH-supported studies are ongoing:

1) Long-term health outcomes of preterm birth

Due to the growing number and improved survival of preterm infants in recent decades, their health outcomes in later life are becoming increasingly important. Dr. Crump is studying the long-term effects of preterm birth in a national cohort of more than 630,000 individuals born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979. More than 27,000 individuals who were born preterm are being followed in young adulthood for multiple health outcomes including cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and immune disorders. The results will advance our understanding of the influence of perinatal factors on health in later life, and ultimately may lead to earlier interventions to prevent disease.

2) Hereditary and environmental influences on psychosocial conditions

This collaborative study investigates the relative contributions of hereditary and environmental factors on substance use, psychiatric disorders, and crime using multigenerational family data from 11.2 million people in Sweden. The results will help elucidate the etiologic mechanisms underlying these conditions which in turn may lead to more effective prevention, treatment, and public policy.

3) Neighborhood-level contextual effects on health

Dr. Crump is studying the contextual effects of neighborhood environment on mental and physical health. Recent work uses hierarchical models to examine the effects of neighborhood deprivation on depression, anxiety, and psychotic disorders in a Swedish cohort of 7 million adults. The results of this study will advance our understanding of the influence of neighborhood environment on health, and help inform public policy toward creating healthier communities.

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Mental disorders and vulnerability to homicidal death: Swedish nationwide cohort study BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2013; 346

    Abstract

    To determine the risk of people with mental disorders being victims of homicide.National cohort study.Sweden.Entire adult population (n = 7,253,516).Homicidal death during eight years of follow-up (2001-08); hazard ratios for the association between mental disorders and homicidal death, with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders; potential modifying effect of comorbid substance use.615 homicidal deaths occurred in 54.4 million person years of follow-up. Mortality rates due to homicide (per 100,000 person years) were 2.8 among people with mental disorders compared with 1.1 in the general population. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, any mental disorder was associated with a 4.9-fold (95% confidence interval 4.0 to 6.0) risk of homicidal death, relative to people without mental disorders. Strong associations were found irrespective of age, sex, or other sociodemographic characteristics. Although the risk of homicidal death was highest among people with substance use disorders (approximately ninefold), the risk was also increased among those with personality disorders (3.2-fold), depression (2.6-fold), anxiety disorders (2.2-fold), or schizophrenia (1.8-fold) and did not seem to be explained by comorbid substance use. Sociodemographic risk factors included male sex, being unmarried, and low socioeconomic status.In this large cohort study, people with mental disorders, including those with substance use disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, or schizophrenia, had greatly increased risks of homicidal death. Interventions to reduce violent death among people with mental disorders should tackle victimisation and homicidal death in addition to suicide and accidents, which share common risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.f557

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315997600031

    View details for PubMedID 23462204

  • Perinatal and Family Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Early Life: A Swedish National Cohort Study JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sieh, W., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2012; 104 (12): 923-930

    Abstract

    The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in early life has increased in recent decades, but the relevant risk factors remain largely unknown. We examined perinatal and family risk factors for NHL in childhood through young adulthood.We conducted a national cohort study of 3 571 574 individuals born in Sweden in 1973-2008 who were followed for incidence of NHL through 2009 (ages 0-37 years). Detailed information on perinatal and family characteristics and NHL diagnoses were obtained from national birth and cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between perinatal and family variables and NHL; P values are from two-sided tests.There were 936 NHL case patients identified in 66.3 million person-years of follow-up. Independent risk factors for NHL included family history of NHL in either a sibling (adjusted HR = 9.84; 95% CI = 2.46 to 39.41; P = .001) or parent (adjusted HR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.38; P = .007); high fetal growth (for ? 2 SDs relative to 0 to <1 SD from the mean: adjusted HR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.25; P = .002); older maternal age (adjusted HR for each 5-year increment = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.19; P (trend) = .004); low birth order (adjusted HR for each increment of one birth = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.99; P (trend) = .02); and male sex (adjusted HR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.38 to 1.80; P < .001). Male sex was associated with onset of NHL before 15 years of age but not with later-onset NHL, whereas the other risk factors did not vary by age at diagnosis. No association was found between gestational age at birth, twinning, paternal age, or parental education and NHL.In this large national cohort study, family history of NHL, high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and male sex were independent risk factors for NHL in early life.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jnci/djs225

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306067700009

    View details for PubMedID 22623506

  • Prematurity and mortality in childhood and early adulthood JAMA Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J. 2012; 307 (1): 32-33
  • Preterm birth and risk of epilepsy in Swedish adults NEUROLOGY Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2011; 77 (14): 1376-1382

    Abstract

    To determine whether preterm birth is associated with epilepsy in a national cohort of adults aged 25-37 years.We conducted a national cohort study of 630,090 infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979, including 27,953 born preterm (<37 weeks), followed from 2005 to 2009 for 1) hospitalization for epilepsy and 2) outpatient and inpatient prescription of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy diagnoses and medication data were obtained from all hospitals and pharmacies throughout Sweden.We found a strong association between preterm birth and epilepsy that increased by earlier gestational age. After adjusting for fetal growth and potential confounders, odds ratios for hospitalization for epilepsy were 4.98 (95%confidence interval [CI] 2.87-8.62) for those born at 23-31 weeks, 1.98 (95% CI 1.26-3.13) for those born at 32-34 weeks, and 1.76 (95% CI 1.30-2.38) for those born at 35-36 weeks, relative to those born full-term (37-42 weeks). A similar but slightly weaker trend was observed for the association between preterm birth and antiepileptic drug prescription. These associations persisted after excluding individuals with cerebral palsy, inflammatory diseases of the CNS, cerebrovascular disease, and brain tumors.These findings suggest that preterm birth, including late preterm birth, is strongly associated with epilepsy in Swedish adults aged 25-37 years. This association was independent of fetal growth and was not mediated by cerebral palsy or other comorbidities.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318231528f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295539000014

    View details for PubMedID 21968843

  • Gestational Age at Birth and Mortality in Young Adulthood JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A. 2011; 306 (11): 1233-1240

    Abstract

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant mortality in developed countries, but the association between gestational age at birth and mortality in adulthood remains unknown.To examine the association between gestational age at birth and mortality in young adulthood.National cohort study of 674,820 individuals born as singletons in Sweden in 1973 through 1979 who survived to age 1 year, including 27,979 born preterm (gestational age <37 weeks), followed up to 2008 (ages 29-36 years).All-cause and cause-specific mortality.A total of 7095 deaths occurred in 20.8 million person-years of follow-up. Among individuals still alive at the beginning of each age range, a strong inverse association was found between gestational age at birth and mortality in early childhood (ages 1-5 years: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for each additional week of gestation, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94; P < .001), which disappeared in late childhood (ages 6-12 years: aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03; P = .61) and adolescence (ages 13-17 years: aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03; P = .64) and then reappeared in young adulthood (ages 18-36 years: aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.97; P < .001). In young adulthood, mortality rates (per 1000 person-years) by gestational age at birth were 0.94 for 22 to 27 weeks, 0.86 for 28 to 33 weeks, 0.65 for 34 to 36 weeks, 0.46 for 37 to 42 weeks (full-term), and 0.54 for 43 or more weeks. Preterm birth was associated with increased mortality in young adulthood even among individuals born late preterm (34-36 weeks, aHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13-1.50; P < .001), relative to those born full-term. In young adulthood, gestational age at birth had the strongest inverse association with mortality from congenital anomalies and respiratory, endocrine, and cardiovascular disorders and was not associated with mortality from neurological disorders, cancer, or injury.After excluding earlier deaths, low gestational age at birth was independently associated with increased mortality in early childhood and young adulthood.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295033500024

    View details for PubMedID 21934056

  • Risk of Asthma in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm: A Swedish National Cohort Study PEDIATRICS Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J., Sundquist, K. 2011; 127 (4): E913-E920

    Abstract

    Preterm birth is associated with asthma-like symptoms in childhood and possibly in adolescence, but the longer-term risk of asthma is unknown and increasingly relevant as larger numbers of these individuals enter adulthood. Our objective was to evaluate whether those who were born preterm are more likely to be prescribed asthma medications in young adulthood than those who were born term.We conducted a national cohort study of all singleton infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 (n = 622 616), followed to ages 25.5 to 35.0 years to determine whether asthma medications were prescribed in 2005-2007. Asthma medication data were obtained from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies throughout Sweden. To improve the positive predictive value for asthma, the outcome was defined as prescription of (1) both a ?-2 agonist inhalant and a glucocorticoid inhalant or (2) a combination inhalant containing a ?-2 agonist and other drugs for obstructive airway diseases.Young adults who were born extremely preterm (23-27 weeks' gestation) were 2.4 times more likely (adjusted 95% CI: 1.41-4.06) to be prescribed asthma medications than those who were born term. No association was found between later preterm birth (28-32 or 33-36 weeks' gestation) and asthma medications in young adulthood.This is the first study with sufficient statistical power to evaluate the risk of asthma beyond adolescence in individuals who were born extremely preterm. The results suggest that extreme preterm birth (23-27 weeks' gestation), but not later preterm birth, is associated with an increased risk of asthma at least into young adulthood.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-2603

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289074800008

    View details for PubMedID 21422091

  • A Controlled Evaluation of a High School Biomedical Pipeline Program: Design and Methods JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY Winkleby, M. A., Ned, J., Ahn, D., Koehler, A., Fagliano, K., Crump, C. 2014; 23 (1): 138-144
  • Perinatal risk factors for Wilms tumor in a Swedish national cohort. European journal of epidemiology Crump, C., Sundquist, J., Sieh, W., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, K. 2014

    Abstract

    Perinatal risk factors including high birth weight have been associated with Wilms tumor in case-control studies. However, these findings have seldom been examined in large cohort studies, and the specific contributions of gestational age at birth and fetal growth remain unknown. We conducted the largest population-based cohort study to date consisting of 3,571,574 persons born in Sweden in 1973-2008, followed up for Wilms tumor incidence through 2009 to examine perinatal risk factors. There were 443 Wilms tumor cases identified in 66.3 million person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for gestational age and other perinatal factors, high fetal growth was associated with increased risk of Wilms tumor among girls (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD), 1.36; 95 % CI 1.20-1.54; P < 0.001), but not boys (1.10; 95 % CI 0.97-1.25; P = 0.14) (P interaction = 0.02). Among girls, high fetal growth was associated with disease onset before age 5 years (odds ratio per 1 SD, 1.47; 95 % CI 1.28-1.69; P < 0.001), but not beyond (1.00; 95 % CI 0.76-1.31; P = 0.99). No clear associations were found for gestational age at birth or other perinatal factors. In this large cohort study, high fetal growth was associated with Wilms tumor before age 5 years among girls. These findings suggest that early-life growth factor pathways for Wilms tumor may be more common among girls than boys. Further elucidation of these mechanisms may reveal better targets for prevention or treatment of specific subtypes of Wilms tumor.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10654-014-9880-9

    View details for PubMedID 24510487

  • Sociodemographic, psychiatric and somatic risk factors for suicide: a Swedish national cohort study. Psychological medicine Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A. 2014; 44 (2): 279-289

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: More effective prevention of suicide requires a comprehensive understanding of sociodemographic, psychiatric and somatic risk factors. Previous studies have been limited by incomplete ascertainment of these factors. We conducted the first study of this issue using sociodemographic and out-patient and in-patient health data for a national population. Method We used data from a national cohort study of 7140589 Swedish adults followed for 8 years for suicide mortality (2001-2008). Sociodemographic factors were identified from national census data, and psychiatric and somatic disorders were identified from all out-patient and in-patient diagnoses nationwide. RESULTS: There were 8721 (0.12%) deaths from suicide during 2001-2008. All psychiatric disorders were strong risk factors for suicide among both women and men. Depression was the strongest risk factor, with a greater than 15-fold risk among women or men and even higher risks (up to 32-fold) within the first 3 months of diagnosis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer, spine disorders, asthma and stroke were significant risk factors among both women and men (1.4-2.1-fold risks) whereas diabetes and ischemic heart disease were modest risk factors only among men (1.2-1.4-fold risks). Sociodemographic risk factors included male sex, unmarried status or non-employment; and low education or income among men. CONCLUSIONS: All psychiatric disorders, COPD, cancer, spine disorders, asthma, stroke, diabetes, ischemic heart disease and specific sociodemographic factors were independent risk factors for suicide during 8 years of follow-up. Effective prevention of suicide requires a multifaceted approach in both psychiatric and primary care settings, targeting mental disorders (especially depression), specific somatic disorders and indicators of social support.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291713000810

    View details for PubMedID 23611178

  • Season of birth and other perinatal risk factors for melanoma. International journal of epidemiology Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sieh, W., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2014

    Abstract

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the main risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), but its specific effect in infancy is unknown. We examined whether season of birth, a proxy for solar UVR exposure in the first few months of life, is associated with CMM in childhood through young adulthood.National cohort study of 3 571 574 persons born in Sweden in 1973-2008, followed up for CMM incidence through 2009 (maximum age 37 years) to examine season of birth and other perinatal factors.There were 1595 CMM cases in 63.9 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in CMM risk by season of birth (P = 0.006), with peak risk corresponding to birthdates in spring (March-May). Adjusted odds ratios for CMM by season of birth were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.39; P = 0.008] for spring, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.92-1.24; P = 0.40) for summer and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.29; P = 0.14) for winter, relative to fall. Spring birth was associated with superficial spreading subtype of CMM (P = 0.02), whereas there was no seasonal association with nodular subtype (P = 0.26). Other CMM risk factors included family history of CMM in a sibling (>6-fold) or parent (>3-fold), female gender, high fetal growth and high paternal education level.In this large cohort study, persons born in spring had increased risk of CMM in childhood through young adulthood, suggesting that the first few months of life may be a critical period of UVR susceptibility. Sun avoidance in early infancy may play an important role in the prevention of CMM in high-risk populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dyt277

    View details for PubMedID 24453238

  • Intrauterine Factors and Risk of Nonepithelial Ovarian Cancers. Gynecologic oncology Sieh, W., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A., Crump, C. 2014

    Abstract

    The majority of ovarian tumors in girls and young women are nonepithelial in origin. The etiology of nonepithelial ovarian tumors remains largely unknown, and intrauterine exposures may play an important role. We examined the association of perinatal factors with risk of nonepithelial ovarian tumors in girls and young women.National cohort study of 1,536,057 women born in Sweden during 1973-2004 and followed for diagnoses of nonepithelial ovarian tumors through 2009 (attained ages 5-37years). Perinatal and maternal characteristics, and cancer diagnoses were ascertained using nationwide health registry data.147 women were diagnosed with nonepithelial ovarian tumors in 31.6 million person-years of follow-up, including 94 with germ cell tumors and 53 with sex-cord stromal tumors. Women born preterm (<37weeks of gestation) had significantly increased risk of developing nonepithelial ovarian tumors (adjusted hazard ratio 1.86, 95% CI 1.03-3.37; p=0.04). Histological subgroup analyses showed that preterm birth was associated with increased risk of sex-cord stromal tumors (4.39, 2.12-9.10; p<0.001), but not germ cell tumors (0.68, 0.21-2.15; p=0.51). No significant associations were found with fetal growth, birth order, and maternal age at birth.This large cohort study provides the first evidence that preterm birth is a risk factor for developing sex cord-stromal tumors. Ovarian hyperstimulation in response to high gonadotropin levels in preterm girls could mediate disease risk through the proliferative and steroidogenic effects of FSH and LH on granulosa and theca cells, from which most sex-cord stromal tumors are derived.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.02.007

    View details for PubMedID 24530563

  • Mental disorders and risk of accidental death BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2013; 203 (4): 297-302

    Abstract

    Little is known about accidental death risks among psychiatric patients.To examine this issue in the most comprehensive study to date.National cohort study of all Swedish adults (n = 6 908 922) in 2001-2008.There were 22 419 (0.3%) accidental deaths in the total population, including 5933 (0.9%) accidental deaths v. 3731 (0.6%) suicides among psychiatric patients (n = 649 051). Of persons who died from accidents, 26.0% had any psychiatric diagnosis v. 9.4% in the general population. Accidental death risk was four- to sevenfold among personality disorders, six- to sevenfold among dementia, and two- to fourfold among schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression or anxiety disorders, and was not fully explained by comorbid substance use. Strong associations were found irrespective of sociodemographic characteristics, and for different types of accidental death (especially poisoning or falls).All mental disorders were strong independent risk factors for accidental death, which was substantially more common than suicide.

    View details for DOI 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.123992

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325597800011

    View details for PubMedID 23969485

  • Mortality in persons with mental disorders is substantially overestimated using inpatient psychiatric diagnoses. Journal of psychiatric research Crump, C., Ioannidis, J. P., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2013; 47 (10): 1298-1303

    Abstract

    Mental disorders are associated with premature mortality, and the magnitudes of risk have commonly been estimated using hospital data. However, psychiatric patients who are hospitalized have more severe illness and do not adequately represent mental disorders in the general population. We conducted a national cohort study using outpatient and inpatient diagnoses for the entire Swedish adult population (N = 7,253,516) to examine the extent to which mortality risks are overestimated using inpatient diagnoses only. Outcomes were all-cause and suicide mortality during 8 years of follow-up (2001-2008). There were 377,339 (5.2%) persons with any inpatient psychiatric diagnosis, vs. 680,596 (9.4%) with any inpatient or outpatient diagnosis, hence 44.6% of diagnoses were missed using inpatient data only. When including and accounting for prevalent psychiatric cases, all-cause mortality risk among persons with any mental disorder was overestimated by 15.3% using only inpatient diagnoses (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.89; 95% CI, 5.85-5.92) vs. both inpatient and outpatient diagnoses (aHR, 5.11; 95% CI, 5.08-5.14). Suicide risk was overestimated by 18.5% (aHRs, 23.91 vs. 20.18), but this varied widely by specific disorders, from 4.4% for substance use to 49.1% for anxiety disorders. The sole use of inpatient diagnoses resulted in even greater overestimation of all-cause or suicide mortality risks when prevalent cases were unidentified (∼20-30%) or excluded (∼25-40%). However, different methods for handling prevalent cases resulted in only modest variation in risk estimates when using both inpatient and outpatient diagnoses. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of hospital-based studies and the design of future studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.034

    View details for PubMedID 23806577

  • Comorbidities and mortality in bipolar disorder: a Swedish national cohort study. JAMA psychiatry Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2013; 70 (9): 931-939

    Abstract

    IMPORTANCE Bipolar disorder is associated with premature mortality, but the specific causes and underlying pathways are unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine the physical health effects of bipolar disorder using outpatient and inpatient data for a national population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National cohort study of 6 587 036 Swedish adults, including 6618 with bipolar disorder. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical comorbidities diagnosed in any outpatient or inpatient setting nationwide and mortality (January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009). RESULTS Women and men with bipolar disorder died 9.0 and 8.5 years earlier on average than the rest of the population, respectively. All-cause mortality was increased 2-fold among women (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.34; 95% CI, 2.16-2.53) and men (aHR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.85-2.23) with bipolar disorder, compared with the rest of the population. Patients with bipolar disorder had increased mortality from cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), influenza or pneumonia, unintentional injuries, and suicide for both women and men and cancer for women only. Suicide risk was 10-fold among women (aHR, 10.37; 95% CI, 7.36-14.60) and 8-fold among men (aHR, 8.09; 95% CI, 5.98-10.95) with bipolar disorder, compared with the rest of the population. Substance use disorders contributed only modestly to these findings. The association between bipolar disorder and mortality from chronic diseases (ischemic heart disease, diabetes, COPD, or cancer) was weaker among persons with a prior diagnosis of these conditions (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.26-1.56) than among those without a prior diagnosis (aHR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.95-2.90; Pinteraction = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this large national cohort study, patients with bipolar disorder died prematurely from multiple causes, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, COPD, influenza or pneumonia, unintentional injuries, and suicide. However, chronic disease mortality among those with more timely medical diagnosis approached that of the general population, suggesting that better provision of primary medical care may effectively reduce premature mortality among persons with bipolar disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1394

    View details for PubMedID 23863861

  • Chronic health conditions and school performance among children and youth ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Rivera, D., London, R., Landau, M., Erlendson, B., Rodriguez, E. 2013; 23 (4): 179-184

    Abstract

    Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance.This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments.Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P < .001) for ELA and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.18-1.38; P < .001) for math, relative to students without reported health conditions. Further adjustment for absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes.Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.01.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316976200004

    View details for PubMedID 23415278

  • Early-term Birth (37-38 Weeks) and Mortality in Young Adulthood EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2013; 24 (2): 270-276

    Abstract

    Early-term birth (gestational age, 37-38 weeks) has been associated with increased infant mortality relative to later-term birth, but mortality beyond infancy has not been studied. We examined the association between early-term birth and mortality through young adulthood.We conducted a national cohort study of 679,981 singleton births in Sweden in 1973-1979, followed up for all-cause and cause-specific mortality through 2008 (ages 29-36 years).There were 10,656 deaths in 21.5 million person-years of follow-up. Among those still alive at the beginning of each age range, early-term birth relative to those born at 39-42 weeks was associated with increased mortality in the neonatal period (0-27 days: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.51]), postneonatal period (28-364 days: 1.66 [1.44-1.92]), early childhood (1-5 years: 1.29 [1.10-1.51]), and young adulthood (18-36 years: 1.14 [1.05-1.24]), but not in late childhood/adolescence (6-17 years: 0.97 [0.84-1.12]). In young adulthood, early-term birth was strongly associated with death from congenital anomalies and endocrine disorders, especially diabetes (2.89 [1.54-5.43]).In this large national cohort study, early-term birth was independently associated with increased mortality in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. Lowest short-term and long-term mortality was among those born at 39-42 weeks.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/EDE.0b013e318280da0f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314728000015

    View details for PubMedID 23337240

  • Comorbidities and Mortality in Persons With Schizophrenia: A Swedish National Cohort Study AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J. 2013; 170 (3): 324-333

    Abstract

    Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality, but the specific causes and pathways are unclear. The authors used outpatient and inpatient data for a national population to examine the association between schizophrenia and mortality and comorbidities.This was a national cohort study of 6,097,834 Swedish adults, including 8,277 with schizophrenia, followed for 7 years (2003-2009) for mortality and comorbidities diagnosed in any outpatient or inpatient setting nationwide.On average, men with schizophrenia died 15 years earlier, and women 12 years earlier, than the rest of the population, and this was not accounted for by unnatural deaths. The leading causes were ischemic heart disease and cancer. Despite having twice as many health care system contacts, schizophrenia patients had no increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease or cancer diagnoses, but they had an elevated mortality from ischemic heart disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women, 3.33 [95% CI=2.73-4.05]; for men, 2.20 [95% CI=1.83-2.65]) and cancer (adjusted hazard ratio for women, 1.71 [95% CI=1.38-2.10; for men, 1.44 [95% CI=1.15-1.80]). Among all people who died from ischemic heart disease or cancer, schizophrenia patients were less likely than others to have been diagnosed previously with these conditions (for ischemic heart disease, 26.3% compared with 43.7%; for cancer, 73.9% compared with 82.3%). The association between schizophrenia and mortality was stronger among women and the employed. Lack of antipsychotic treatment was also associated with elevated mortality.Schizophrenia patients had markedly premature mortality, and the leading causes were ischemic heart disease and cancer, which appeared to be underdiagnosed. Preventive interventions should prioritize primary health care tailored to this population, including more effective risk modification and screening for cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12050599

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315473800013

    View details for PubMedID 23318474

  • Perinatal and Family Risk Factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma in Childhood Through Young Adulthood AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sieh, W., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J. 2012; 176 (12): 1147-1158

    Abstract

    The incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma has increased among adolescents and young adults in recent decades, but the relevant risk factors in early life are still unknown. A national cohort study was conducted of 3,571,574 individuals born in Sweden in 1973-2008 and followed up for Hodgkin lymphoma incidence through 2009, to examine perinatal and family risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood through young adulthood (ages 0-37 years). There were 943 Hodgkin lymphoma cases identified in 66.3 million person-years of follow-up. High fetal growth was associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma after adjustment for gestational age at birth and other potential confounders (P(trend) = 0.005). Family history of Hodgkin lymphoma in a sibling or parent also was strongly associated with an increased risk, with adjusted hazard ratios = 8.83 (95% confidence interval: 3.67, 21.30) and 7.19 (95% confidence interval: 3.58, 14.44), respectively. No association was found between gestational age at birth, birth order, twinning, parental age, or parental education and Hodgkin lymphoma. These findings did not vary by age at Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis. Similar associations were found for nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity subtypes. These findings suggest that perinatal factors including possible growth factor pathways may contribute to the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood through young adulthood.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kws212

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312634900011

    View details for PubMedID 23171883

  • Gestational age at birth and risk of testicular cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Winkleby, M. A., Sieh, W., Sundquist, J. 2012; 131 (2): 446-451

    Abstract

    Most testicular germ cell tumors originate from carcinoma in situ cells in fetal life, possibly related to sex hormone imbalances in early pregnancy. Previous studies of association between gestational age at birth and testicular cancer have yielded discrepant results and have not examined extreme preterm birth. Our objective was to determine whether low gestational age at birth is independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. We conducted a national cohort study of 354,860 men born in Sweden in 1973-1979, including 19,214 born preterm (gestational age < 37 weeks) of whom 1,279 were born extremely preterm (22-29 weeks), followed for testicular cancer incidence through 2008. A total of 767 testicular cancers (296 seminomas and 471 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors) were identified in 11.2 million person-years of follow-up. Extreme preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard ratio = 3.95; 95% confidence interval = 1.67-9.34) after adjusting for other perinatal factors, family history of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism. Only five cases (three seminomas and two nonseminomas) occurred among men born extremely preterm, limiting the precision of risk estimates. No association was found between later preterm birth, post-term birth or low or high fetal growth and testicular cancer. These findings suggest that extreme but not later preterm birth may be independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. They are based on a small number of cases and will need confirmation in other large cohorts. Elucidation of the key prenatal etiologic factors may potentially lead to preventive interventions in early life.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ijc.26371

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304350600036

    View details for PubMedID 22314417

  • Gestational Age at Birth and Risk of Gastric Acid-Related Disorders in Young Adulthood ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J., Sundquist, K. 2012; 22 (4): 233-238

    Abstract

    Preterm birth is associated with gastric acid-related disorders in infancy, but no investigators have examined this association beyond early childhood. We used antisecretory medication data to explore whether preterm birth is associated with gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.We conducted a national cohort study of 626,811 individuals born in Sweden in 1973 to 1979, followed up for antisecretory (proton pump inhibitor and H2-receptor antagonist) medication prescriptions from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies nationwide from 2005 to 2009 (ages 25.5-37.0 years). We excluded individuals with congenital anomalies, and examined potential confounding by other comorbidities identified on the basis of oral anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid medication prescription.Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with antisecretory medication prescription in young adulthood. Adjusted odds ratios for ?1 antisecretory medication prescription/year were 3.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.73-6.62) for individuals born at 22-27 weeks, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.19-1.60) for those born at 28-34 weeks, and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.32) for those born at 35-36 weeks, relative to those born full-term (37-42 weeks). Exclusion of individuals who were prescribed oral anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid medications (?1/year) had little effect on these results.These findings suggest that low gestational age at birth may be independently associated with an increased risk of gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.02.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302510100002

    View details for PubMedID 22382080

  • Preterm birth and risk of medically treated hypothyroidism in young adulthood CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, J., Sundquist, K. 2011; 75 (2): 255-260

    Abstract

    Previous studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in later life, but the potential effect of preterm birth, independent of foetal growth, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether preterm birth is independently associated with medically treated hypothyroidism in young adulthood.National cohort study of 629,806 individuals born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979, including 27,935 born preterm (<37 weeks).Thyroid hormone prescription during 2005-2009 (ages 25·5-37·0 years), obtained from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies throughout Sweden.Preterm birth was associated with increased relative odds of thyroid hormone prescription in young adulthood, after adjusting for foetal growth and other potential confounders. This association appeared stronger among twins than singletons (P = 0·04 for the interaction). Twins had increased relative odds across the full range of preterm gestational ages, whereas singletons had increased relative odds only if born very preterm (23-31 weeks). Among twins and singletons, respectively, adjusted odds ratios for individuals born preterm (<37 weeks) were 1·54 (95% CI, 1·11-2·14) and 1·08 (95% CI, 0·98-1·19), and for individuals born very preterm (23-31 weeks) were 2·62 (95% CI, 1·30-5·27) and 1·59 (95% CI, 1·18-2·14), relative to full-term births.This national cohort study suggests that preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of medically treated hypothyroidism in young adulthood. This association was independent of foetal growth and appeared stronger among twins than singletons. Additional studies are needed to confirm these new findings in other populations and to elucidate the mechanisms.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04034.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292465400019

    View details for PubMedID 21521303

  • Associations of CYP2A6 genotype with smoking behaviors in southern China ADDICTION Liu, T., David, S. P., Tyndale, R. F., Wang, H., Zhou, Q., Ding, P., He, Y., Yu, X., Chen, W., Crump, C., Wen, X., Chen, W. 2011; 106 (5): 985-994

    Abstract

    To investigate the association of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms with smoking-related phenotypes in Chinese smokers.Case-only genetic association study.Southern China.A total of 1328 Han Chinese smokers who participated in a community-based chronic disease screening project in Guangzhou and Zhuhai from 2006 to 2007.All participants answered a structured questionnaire about socio-demographic status and smoking behaviors and informative alleles were genotyped for the cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) gene (CYP2A6*4,*5,*7,*9 and *10).The frequencies of CYP2A6*4, *5, *7, *9 and *10 alleles were 8.5, 1.2, 6.3, 13.5 and 2.4%, which corresponded to 48.9, 15.4, 24.2 and 11.5% of participants being classified as normal, intermediate, slow and poor metabolizers, respectively. Multivariate analyses in male smokers demonstrated that compared with normal metabolizers, poor metabolizers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32-0.76], started smoking regularly later in life (adjusted OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.06-2.26) and, among former smokers, reported smoking for a shorter duration prior to quitting (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.12-0.94). However, poor metabolizers were less likely to quit smoking and remain abstinent than normal metabolizers (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.86). Conclusions: Reduced metabolism function of cytochrome P450 2A6 in smokers appears to be associated with fewer cigarettes smoked, later initiation of smoking regularly, shorter smoking duration and lower likelihood of smoking cessation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03353.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289296900035

    View details for PubMedID 21205058

  • Gestational age at birth and risk of allergic rhinitis in young adulthood JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A. 2011; 127 (5): 1173-1179

    Abstract

    Previous studies of the association between gestational age or birth weight and allergic rhinitis in later life have had various limitations, including the inability to estimate risk among subjects born extremely preterm or to examine specific contributions of gestational age and fetal growth.We sought to determine whether gestational age at birth independent of fetal growth is associated with allergic rhinitis medication prescription in a national cohort of young adults.We conducted a national cohort study of 630,090 infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 including 27,953 born preterm (<37 weeks) and followed for prescription of nasal corticosteroids and oral antihistamines in 2005-2009 (age, 25.5-37.0 years). Medication data were obtained from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies throughout Sweden.The overall prevalence of nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine prescription was 16.3% and 16.8%, respectively, which is similar to the reported prevalence of allergic rhinitis in this population. Low gestational age at birth was associated with a decreased risk of nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine prescription in young adulthood after adjusting for fetal growth and other potential confounders. For subjects born extremely preterm (23-28 weeks), adjusted odds ratios were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.51-0.96) for nasal corticosteroid prescription and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.27-0.76) for both nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine prescription relative to those born at full term.These findings suggest that low gestational age at birth independent of fetal growth is associated with a decreased risk of allergic rhinitis in young adulthood, possibly because of a protective effect of earlier exposure to pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.02.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290018600011

    View details for PubMedID 21439628

  • Risk of Diabetes Among Young Adults Born Preterm in Sweden DIABETES CARE Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J. 2011; 34 (5): 1109-1113

    Abstract

    Previous studies have suggested that preterm birth is associated with diabetes later in life. These studies have shown inconsistent results for late preterm births and have had various limitations, including the inability to evaluate diabetic outpatients or to estimate risk across the full range of gestational ages. Our objective was to determine whether preterm birth is associated with diabetes medication prescription in a national cohort of young adults.This was a national cohort study of 630,090 infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 (including 27,953 born preterm, gestational age <37 weeks), followed for diabetes medication prescription in 2005-2009 (ages 25.5-37.0 years). Medication data were obtained from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies throughout Sweden.Individuals born preterm, including those born late preterm (gestational age 35-36 weeks), had modestly increased odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes medication prescription relative to those born full term, after adjusting for fetal growth and other potential confounders. Insulin and/or oral diabetes medications were prescribed to 1.5% of individuals born preterm compared with 1.2% of those born full term (adjusted OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.02-1.26]). Insulin without oral diabetes medications was prescribed to 1.0% of individuals born preterm compared with 0.8% of those born full term (1.22 [1.08-1.39]).Preterm birth, including late preterm birth, is associated with a modestly increased risk of diabetes in young Swedish adults. These findings have important public health implications given the increasing number of preterm births and the large disease burden of diabetes, particularly when diagnosed in young adulthood.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc10-2108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290419200010

    View details for PubMedID 21411504

  • Risk of Hypertension Among Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm: A Swedish National Study of 636,000 Births AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J. 2011; 173 (7): 797-803

    Abstract

    Previous studies have reported an association between preterm birth and elevated blood pressure in adolescence and young adulthood. These studies were based on single-day blood pressure measurements and had limited ability to estimate risk of hypertension measured over a longer period and across the full range of gestational ages. The authors conducted a national cohort study of all infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 (n = 636,552), including 28,220 born preterm (<37 weeks), followed to ages 25.5-37.0 years to determine whether individuals born preterm were more likely to be prescribed antihypertensive medications in 2005-2009 than those born full term. Antihypertensive medication data were obtained from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies throughout Sweden. Young adults who were born preterm had an increased relative rate of antihypertensive medication prescription that increased monotonically by earlier gestational age and that was independent of fetal growth. The adjusted odds ratio for ?1 antihypertensive medications/year ranged from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.39) for those born near term (35-36 weeks) to 2.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 5.68) for those born extremely preterm (23-27 weeks) relative to those born full term. These findings suggest that preterm birth is strongly associated with hypertension in young adulthood, including an increased risk among those born near term.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwq440

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289301200011

    View details for PubMedID 21320866

  • Neighborhood Deprivation and Psychiatric Medication Prescription: A Swedish National Multilevel Study ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A. 2011; 21 (4): 231-237

    Abstract

    Previous studies of neighborhood deprivation and mental disorders have yielded mixed results, possibly because they were based on different substrata of the population. We conducted a national multilevel study to determine whether neighborhood deprivation is independently associated with psychiatric medication prescription in a national population.Nationwide outpatient and inpatient psychiatric medication data were analyzed for all Swedish adults (N = 6,998,075) after 2.5 years of follow-up. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation (index of education, income, unemployment, and welfare assistance) and prescription of psychiatric medications (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics/sedatives), after adjusting for broadly measured individual-level sociodemographic characteristics.For each psychiatric medication class, a monotonic trend of increasing prescription was observed by increasing level of neighborhood deprivation. The strongest associations were found for antipsychotics and anxiolytics, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.44) and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.22-1.27), respectively, comparing the highest- to the lowest-deprivation neighborhood quintiles.These findings suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with psychiatric medication prescription independent of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation may affect mental health and to identify the most susceptible groups in the population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.01.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288295900001

    View details for PubMedID 21376269

  • Preterm birth and psychiatric medication prescription in young adulthood: a Swedish national cohort study INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Winkleby, M. A., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J. 2010; 39 (6): 1522-1530

    Abstract

    Recent studies suggest an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes among young adults who were born preterm. These studies have been based mainly on hospital data, thus missing large numbers of mental health problems that do not require inpatient treatment. We used national outpatient and inpatient pharmacy data to evaluate whether individuals who were born preterm were more likely to be prescribed psychiatric medications during young adulthood than individuals who were born full term.A national cohort of all infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 [N?=?635,933, including 28,799 who were born preterm (<37 weeks)] was followed to ages 25.5-34.0 years to determine whether psychotropic medications (antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics/sedatives and/or psychostimulants) were prescribed in 2005-06.A trend of increasing rate of prescriptions for antipsychotics, antidepressants and hypnotics/sedatives in young adulthood was observed by earlier gestational age at birth. Young adults who were extremely preterm at birth (23-27 weeks) were 3.1 times more likely to be prescribed antipsychotics [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66-5.93], 1.8 times more likely to be prescribed antidepressants (95% CI 1.26-2.64) and 1.8 times more likely to be prescribed hypnotics/sedatives (95% CI 1.15-2.96) than individuals who were full term at birth, after adjusting for potential confounders.This national cohort study, using outpatient and inpatient pharmacy data, suggests that preterm birth has important independent effects on mental health that extend at least into young adulthood.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dyq103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284952700020

    View details for PubMedID 20570995

  • Venous Thromboembolism Following Vigorous Deep Tissue Massage PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE Crump, C., Paluska, S. A. 2010; 38 (4): 136-139

    Abstract

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an increasing public health concern, in part because of lack of awareness among patients and physicians. Nonpenetrating trauma to the legs may be an under-recognized potential risk factor for VTE. We report a case of VTE following vigorous deep tissue massage in a previously healthy 67-year-old man with no other identifiable risk factors. The etiology, risk factors, and implications for the prevention and detection of VTE are reviewed. There are few other published reports of VTE associated with massage, but under-reporting seems likely. Vigorous massage or any equivalent trauma to the legs should be considered and evaluated as a possible risk factor for VTE, especially in older adults. Additional research is needed to clarify the risks associated with nonpenetrating trauma to the legs in older adults and other susceptible groups. Improved awareness of VTE, including its risk factors and symptoms, is an urgent priority for more effective prevention, detection, and treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.3810/psm.2010.12.1836

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290630900025

    View details for PubMedID 21150153

  • Dose-response and risk assessment of airborne hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality. Risk Anal. Crump C, Crump K, Hack E, Luippold R, Mundt K, Liebig E, Panko J, Paustenbach D, Proctor D. 2003; 23(6): 1147-63
  • Renal insufficiency as a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in elderly individuals. J. Am. Coll. Cardiology. Fried, LF., Shlipak, MG., Crump, C., Bleyer, AJ., Gottdiener, JS., Kronmal, RA., Kuller, LH., Newman, AB. 2003: 41(8):1364-72
  • A case-control study of endoscopy and mortality from adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastric cardia in persons with GERD. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Kearney, DJ., Crump, C., Maynard, C., Boyko, EJ. 2003: 57(7):823-29
  • Lung cancer mortality among chromate production workers. Occup. Environ. Med. Luippold RS, Mundt KA, Austin RP, Liebig E, Panko J, Crump C, Crump K, Proctor D. 2003; 60(6): 451-57
  • Elevations of inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers in elderly persons with renal insufficiency. Circulation Shlipak MG, Fried LF, Crump C, Bleyer AJ, Manolio TA, Tracy RP, Furberg CD, Psaty BM. 2003; 107(1): 87-92
  • The effect of a Helicobacter pylori treatment strategy on health care expenditures in patients with peptic ulcer disease and dyspepsia. Am. J. Gastroenterol. Kearney DJ, Liu CF, Crump C, Brousal A. 2003; 98(9): 1952-62
  • Lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium. The toxicologist Luippold, RS., Mundt, KA., Panko, JM., Liebig, EW., Crump, C., Crump, KS., Paustenbach, DJ., Proctor, D. 2002: 66(1-S):159
  • Cardiovascular disease risk status in elderly persons with renal insufficiency. Kidney Int. Shlipak MG, Fried LF, Crump C, Bleyer AJ, Manolio TA, Tracy RP, Furberg CD, Psaty BM. 2002; 62(3): 997-1004
  • Dose-response assessment for lung cancer mortality of an occupational cohort exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium. The toxicologist Crump, C., Hack, E., Crump, KS., Panko, JM., Liebig, EW., Paustenbach, DJ., Proctor, DM. 2002: 66(1-S):159
  • Cerebrovascular disease and evolution of depressive symptoms in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke Steffens DC, Krishnan KRR, Crump C, Burke GL. 2002; 33(6): 1636-44
  • Methods and conclusions of the Arizona perchlorate study. J. Occup. Environ. Med. Crump C, Weiss NS 2001; 43: 307-08
  • Ovarian cancer tumor marker behavior in asymptomatic healthy women: implications for screening. Cancer Epidem., Biomarkers & Prev. Crump, C., McIntosh, MW., Urban, N., Anderson, G., Karlan, KY. 2000: 9:1107-11
  • Is thyroid function suppressed among neonates or young school children with perchlorate in their drinking water supply? Teratology Gibbs, JP.,, Crump, C., Michaud, P., Tellez, R., Reyes, C., Gonzalez, G., Montgomery, EL., Crump, KS., Lobo, G., Becerra, C. 2000: 61:521-22
  • Health effects of arsenic in drinking water: re-analysis of the Millard County, Utah, mortality cohort. EPA Contract No. 68-C-98-195. Work Assignment No. B-36 Crump, C., Clewell, H., Crump, KS., Calderon, R. 2000; February
  • Does perchlorate in drinking water affect thyroid function in newborns or school-age children? J. Occup. Environ. Med. Crump C, Michaud P, Téllez R, Reyes C, Gonzalez G, Montgomery EL, Crump KS, Lobo G, Becerra C, Gibbs JP. 2000; 42: 603-12
  • Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) gene deletion and risk of acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Epidem., Biomarkers & Prev. Crump, C., Chen, C., Appelbaum, F., Kopecky, KJ., Schwartz, SM., Willman, CL., Slovak, ML., Weiss, NS. 2000: 9:457-60
  • Adverse birth outcomes among Mexican-Americans: are U.S.-born women at greater risk than Mexico-born women? Ethnicity & Health Crump, C., Lipsky, S., Mueller, BA. 1999: 4:29-34
  • A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. JAMA Schneider E, Hajjeh RA, Spiegel RA, Jibson RW, Harp EL, Marshall GA, Gunn RA, McNeil NM, Pinner RW, Baron RC, Burger RC, Hutwagner LC, Crump C, Kaufman L, Reef SE, Feldman GM, Pappagianis D, Werner SB. 1997; 277: 904-08
  • Mercury exposure in high school chemistry teachers. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. Crump C, Bearer CF, Paschal DC, Rodenbaugh D, Etzel RA. 1996; 31: 206-09
  • Climate Change and Human Health. Environmental Contaminants, Ecosystems and Human Health. Crump, C., Etzel, RA. 1995: 182-97

Stanford Medicine Resources: