Bio

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Scientific Scholar Award, Marsha Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer Research (2014-2015)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., University of Lille II, France, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2009)
  • M.S., University of Lille II, France, Biological Science (2005)
  • B.S., University of Lyon I, France, Cellular Biology and Physiology, Genetics (2003)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Chromatin regulators are highly altered in diseases. Of interest, these proteins are easily targetable by drugs. Furthermore, the plasticity of epigenetic events makes them a powerful target for new therapeutic strategies and reversion of disease phenotype. Histone and DNA modifications influence many processes including transcription, replication, genomic stability and cell division, which are altered in diseases. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of chromatin modifiers in both normal and pathological cells could help us frame new potential biomarkers and targeted therapies.

My long-term interest lies in understanding the impact chromatin modifiers have on disease development and progression so that more optimal therapeutic opportunities can be achieved. My laboratory explores the direct molecular impact of chromatin-modifying enzymes during cell cycle progression, and characterizes the unappreciated and unconventional roles that these chromatin factors have on cytoplasmic function such as protein synthesis. By gaining molecular understanding into the mechanism of action of chromatin modifiers in normal and pathological cells, we will improve our basic knowledge and provide needed insights into new potential targeted therapies in diseases.

Teaching

2017-18 Courses


Stanford Advisees


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • E2F/DP Prevents Cell-Cycle Progression in Endocycling Fat Body Cells by Suppressing dATM Expression. Developmental cell Guarner, A., Morris, R., Korenjak, M., Boukhali, M., Zappia, M. P., Van Rechem, C., Whetstine, J. R., Ramaswamy, S., Zou, L., Frolov, M. V., Haas, W., Dyson, N. J. 2017; 43 (6): 689–703.e5

    Abstract

    To understand the consequences of the complete elimination of E2F regulation, we profiled the proteome of Drosophila dDP mutants that lack functional E2F/DP complexes. The results uncovered changes in the larval fat body, a differentiated tissue that grows via endocycles. We report an unexpected mechanism of E2F/DP action that promotes quiescence in this tissue. In the fat body, dE2F/dDP limits cell-cycle progression by suppressing DNA damage responses. Loss of dDP upregulates dATM, allowing cells to sense and repair DNA damage and increasing replication of loci that are normally under-replicated in wild-type tissues. Genetic experiments show that ectopic dATM is sufficient to promote DNA synthesis in wild-type fat body cells. Strikingly, reducing dATM levels in dDP-deficient fat bodies restores cell-cycle control, improves tissue morphology, and extends animal development. These results show that, in some cellular contexts, dE2F/dDP-dependent suppression of DNA damage signaling is key for cell-cycle control and needed for normal development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 29233476

  • Hypoxia drives transient site-specific copy gain and drug-resistant gene expression GENES & DEVELOPMENT Black, J. C., Atabakhsh, E., Kim, J., Biette, K. M., Van Rechem, C., Ladd, B., Burrowes, P. D., Donado, C., Mattoo, H., Kleinstiver, B. P., Song, B., Andriani, G., Joung, J. K., Iliopoulos, O., Montagna, C., Pillai, S., Getz, G., Whetstine, J. R. 2015; 29 (10): 1018-1031

    Abstract

    Copy number heterogeneity is a prominent feature within tumors. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity remains poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia induces transient site-specific copy gains (TSSGs) in primary, nontransformed, and transformed human cells. Hypoxia-driven copy gains are not dependent on HIF1α or HIF2α; however, they are dependent on the KDM4A histone demethylase and are blocked by inhibition of KDM4A with a small molecule or the natural metabolite succinate. Furthermore, this response is conserved at a syntenic region in zebrafish cells. Regions with site-specific copy gain are also enriched for amplifications in hypoxic primary tumors. These tumors exhibited amplification and overexpression of the drug resistance gene CKS1B, which we recapitulated in hypoxic breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that hypoxia provides a biological stimulus to create transient site-specific copy alterations that could result in heterogeneity within tumors and cell populations. These findings have major implications in our understanding of copy number heterogeneity and the emergence of drug resistance genes in cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.259796.115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354875500004

    View details for PubMedID 25995187

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4441050

  • A Coding Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Lysine Demethylase KDM4A Associates with Increased Sensitivity to mTOR Inhibitors CANCER DISCOVERY Van Rechem, C., Black, J. C., Greninger, P., Zhao, Y., Donado, C., Burrowes, P. D., Ladd, B., Christiani, D. C., Benes, C. H., Whetstine, J. R. 2015; 5 (3): 245-254

    Abstract

    SNPs occur within chromatin-modulating factors; however, little is known about how these variants within the coding sequence affect cancer progression or treatment. Therefore, there is a need to establish their biochemical and/or molecular contribution, their use in subclassifying patients, and their impact on therapeutic response. In this report, we demonstrate that coding SNP-A482 within the lysine tridemethylase gene KDM4A/JMJD2A has different allelic frequencies across ethnic populations, associates with differential outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and promotes KDM4A protein turnover. Using an unbiased drug screen against 87 preclinical and clinical compounds, we demonstrate that homozygous SNP-A482 cells have increased mTOR inhibitor sensitivity. mTOR inhibitors significantly reduce SNP-A482 protein levels, which parallels the increased drug sensitivity observed with KDM4A depletion. Our data emphasize the importance of using variant status as candidate biomarkers and highlight the importance of studying SNPs in chromatin modifiers to achieve better targeted therapy.This report documents the first coding SNP within a lysine demethylase that associates with worse outcome in patients with NSCLC. We demonstrate that this coding SNP alters the protein turnover and associates with increased mTOR inhibitor sensitivity, which identifies a candidate biomarker for mTOR inhibitor therapy and a therapeutic target for combination therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1159

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352371900021

    View details for PubMedID 25564517

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4355226

  • Lysine Demethylase KDM4A Associates with Translation Machinery and Regulates Protein Synthesis CANCER DISCOVERY Van Rechem, C., Black, J. C., Boukhali, M., Aryee, M. J., Graeslund, S., Haas, W., Benes, C. H., Whetstine, J. R. 2015; 5 (3): 255-263

    Abstract

    Chromatin-modifying enzymes are predominantly nuclear; however, these factors are also localized to the cytoplasm, and very little is known about their role in this compartment. In this report, we reveal a non-chromatin-linked role for the lysine-specific demethylase KDM4A. We demonstrate that KDM4A interacts with the translation initiation complex and affects the distribution of translation initiation factors within polysome fractions. Furthermore, KDM4A depletion reduced protein synthesis and enhanced the protein synthesis suppression observed with mTOR inhibitors, which paralleled an increased sensitivity to these drugs. Finally, we demonstrate that JIB-04, a JmjC demethylase inhibitor, suppresses translation initiation and enhances mTOR inhibitor sensitivity. These data highlight an unexpected cytoplasmic role for KDM4A in regulating protein synthesis and suggest novel potential therapeutic applications for this class of enzyme.This report documents an unexpected cytoplasmic role for the lysine demethylase KDM4A. We demonstrate that KDM4A interacts with the translation initiation machinery, regulates protein synthesis and, upon coinhibition with mTOR inhibitors, enhances the translation suppression and cell sensitivity to these therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1326

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352371900022

    View details for PubMedID 25564516

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4355328

  • Examining the impact of gene variants on histone lysine methylation BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-GENE REGULATORY MECHANISMS Van Rechem, C., Whetstine, J. R. 2014; 1839 (12): 1463-1476

    Abstract

    In recent years, there has been a boom in the amount of genome-wide sequencing data that has uncovered important and unappreciated links between certain genes, families of genes and enzymatic processes and diseases such as cancer. Such studies have highlighted the impact that chromatin modifying enzymes could have in cancer and other genetic diseases. In this review, we summarize characterized mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs), histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) and histones. We primarily focus on variants with strong disease correlations and discuss how they could impact histone lysine methylation dynamics and gene regulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.05.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347129100012

    View details for PubMedID 24859469

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4752941

  • KDM4A Lysine Demethylase Induces Site-Specific Copy Gain and Rereplication of Regions Amplified in Tumors CELL Black, J. C., Manning, A. L., Van Rechem, C., Kim, J., Ladd, B., Cho, J., Pineda, C. M., Murphy, N., Daniels, D. L., Montagna, C., Lewis, P. W., Glass, K., Allis, C. D., Dyson, N. J., Getz, G., Whetstine, J. R. 2013; 154 (3): 541-555

    Abstract

    Acquired chromosomal instability and copy number alterations are hallmarks of cancer. Enzymes capable of promoting site-specific copy number changes have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that H3K9/36me3 lysine demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2A overexpression leads to localized copy gain of 1q12, 1q21, and Xq13.1 without global chromosome instability. KDM4A-amplified tumors have increased copy gains for these same regions. 1q12h copy gain occurs within a single cell cycle, requires S phase, and is not stable but is regenerated each cell division. Sites with increased copy number are rereplicated and have increased KDM4A, MCM, and DNA polymerase occupancy. Suv39h1/KMT1A or HP1γ overexpression suppresses the copy gain, whereas H3K9/K36 methylation interference promotes gain. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of a chromatin modifier results in site-specific copy gains. This begins to establish how copy number changes could originate during tumorigenesis and demonstrates that transient overexpression of specific chromatin modulators could promote these events.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322629900009

    View details for PubMedID 23871696

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3832053

  • Identification of p21 (CIP1/WAF1) as a direct target gene of HIC1 (Hypermethylated In Cancer 1) BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Dehennaut, V., Loison, I., Boulay, G., Van Rechem, C., Leprince, D. 2013; 430 (1): 49-53

    Abstract

    The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (Hypermethylated In Cancer 1) encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in the regulation of growth control and DNA damage response. We previously demonstrated that p57Kip2; a member of the CIP/KIP family of CDK (cyclin dependent kinase) inhibitors (CKI); is a direct target gene of HIC1 in quiescent cells. Here we show that ectopic expression of HIC1 in MDA-MB-231 cells or its overexpression in BJ-Tert fibroblasts induces decreased mRNA and protein expression of p21 (CIP1/WAF1) another member of this CKI family that plays essential roles in the p53-mediated DNA damage response. Conversely, knock-down of endogenous HIC1 in BJ-Tert through RNA interference up-regulates p21 in basal conditions and further potentiates this CKI in response to apoptotic etoposide-induced DNA damage. Through promoter luciferase activity and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we demonstrate that HIC1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of p21. Thus, our results further demonstrate that HIC1 is a key player in the regulation of the DNA damage response.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.11.045

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314320700009

    View details for PubMedID 23178572

  • Histone Lysine Methylation Dynamics: Establishment, Regulation, and Biological Impact MOLECULAR CELL Black, J. C., Van Rechem, C., Whetstine, J. R. 2012; 48 (4): 491-507

    Abstract

    Histone lysine methylation has emerged as a critical player in the regulation of gene expression, cell cycle, genome stability, and nuclear architecture. Over the past decade, a tremendous amount of progress has led to the characterization of methyl modifications and the lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and lysine demethylases (KDMs) that regulate them. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of the KMTs and KDMs and the methyl modifications they regulate. We discuss the localization of the KMTs and KDMs as well as the distribution of lysine methylation throughout the genome. We highlight how these data have shaped our view of lysine methylation as a key determinant of complex chromatin states. Finally, we discuss the regulation of KMTs and KDMs by proteasomal degradation, posttranscriptional mechanisms, and metabolic status. We propose key questions for the field and highlight areas that we predict will yield exciting discoveries in the years to come.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311919500004

    View details for PubMedID 23200123

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3861058

  • Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) Recruits Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to a Subset of Its Target Genes through Interaction with Human Polycomb-like (hPCL) Proteins JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Boulay, G., Dubuissez, M., Van Rechem, C., Forget, A., Helin, K., Ayrault, O., Leprince, D. 2012; 287 (13): 10509-10524

    Abstract

    HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced or deleted in many human cancers. HIC1 is involved in regulatory loops modulating p53- and E2F1-dependent cell survival, growth control, and stress responses. HIC1 is also essential for normal development because Hic1-deficient mice die perinatally and exhibit gross developmental defects throughout the second half of development. HIC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor with five C(2)H(2) zinc fingers mediating sequence-specific DNA binding and two repression domains: an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and a central region recruiting CtBP and NuRD complexes. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified the Polycomb-like protein hPCL3 as a novel co-repressor for HIC1. Using multiple biochemical strategies, we demonstrated that HIC1 interacts with hPCL3 and its paralog PHF1 to form a stable complex with the PRC2 members EZH2, EED, and Suz12. Confirming the implication of HIC1 in Polycomb recruitment, we showed that HIC1 shares some of its target genes with PRC2, including ATOH1. Depletion of HIC1 by siRNA interference leads to a partial displacement of EZH2 from the ATOH1 promoter. Furthermore, in vivo, ATOH1 repression by HIC1 is associated with Polycomb activity during mouse cerebellar development. Thus, our results identify HIC1 as the first transcription factor in mammals able to recruit PRC2 to some target promoters through its interaction with Polycomb-like proteins.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.320234

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302167200077

    View details for PubMedID 22315224

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3323039

  • Loss of Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) in Breast Cancer Cells Contributes to Stress-induced Migration and Invasion through beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor (ADRB2) Misregulation JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Boulay, G., Malaquin, N., Loison, I., Foveau, B., Van Rechem, C., Rood, B. R., Pourtier, A., Leprince, D. 2012; 287 (8): 5379-5389

    Abstract

    The transcriptional repressor HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers including breast carcinomas. In this study, we show that HIC1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of β-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2). Through promoter luciferase activity, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP experiments, we demonstrate that ADRB2 is a direct target gene of HIC1, endogenously in WI-38 cells and following HIC1 re-expression in breast cancer cells. Agonist-mediated stimulation of ADRB2 increases the migration and invasion of highly malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but these effects are abolished following HIC1 re-expression or specific down-regulation of ADRB2 by siRNA treatment. Our results suggest that early inactivation of HIC1 in breast carcinomas could predispose to stress-induced metastasis through up-regulation of the β-2 adrenergic receptor.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.304287

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300638000019

    View details for PubMedID 22194601

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3285317

  • The Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphA2 Is a Direct Target Gene of Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Foveau, B., Boulay, G., Pinte, S., Van Rechem, C., Rood, B. R., Leprince, D. 2012; 287 (8): 5366-5378

    Abstract

    The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1), which encodes a transcriptional repressor, is epigenetically silenced in many human tumors. Here, we show that ectopic expression of HIC1 in the highly malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line severely impairs cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In parallel, infection of breast cancer cell lines with a retrovirus expressing HIC1 also induces decreased mRNA and protein expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP experiments demonstrate that endogenous HIC1 proteins are bound, together with the MTA1 corepressor, to the EphA2 promoter in WI38 cells. Taken together, our results identify EphA2 as a new direct target gene of HIC1. Finally, we observe that inactivation of endogenous HIC1 through RNA interference in normal breast epithelial cells results in the up-regulation of EphA2 and is correlated with increased cellular migration. To conclude, our results involve the tumor suppressor HIC1 in the transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2, whose ligand ephrin-A1 is also a HIC1 target gene. Thus, loss of the regulation of this Eph pathway through HIC1 epigenetic silencing could be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of epithelial cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.329466

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300638000018

    View details for PubMedID 22184117

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3285316

  • The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia GENOME BIOLOGY Yusuf, D., Butland, S. L., Swanson, M. I., Bolotin, E., Ticoll, A., Cheung, W. A., Zhang, X. Y., Dickman, C. T., Fulton, D. L., Lim, J. S., Schnabl, J. M., Ramos, O. H., Vasseur-Cognet, M., de Leeuw, C. N., Simpson, E. M., Ryffel, G. U., Lam, E. W., Kist, R., Wilson, M. S., Marco-Ferreres, R., Brosens, J. J., Beccari, L. L., Bovolenta, P., Benayoun, B. A., Monteiro, L. J., Schwenen, H. D., Grontved, L., Wederell, E., Mandrup, S., Veitia, R. A., Chakravarthy, H., Hoodless, P. A., Mancarelli, M. M., Torbett, B. E., Banham, A. H., Reddy, S. P., Cullum, R. L., Liedtke, M., Tschan, M. P., Vaz, M., Rizzino, A., Zannini, M., Frietze, S., Farnham, P. J., Eijkelenboom, A., Brown, P. J., Laperriere, D., Leprince, D., de Cristofaro, T., Prince, K. L., Putker, M., del Peso, L., Camenisch, G., Wenger, R. H., Mikula, M., Rozendaal, M., Mader, S., Ostrowski, J., Rhodes, S. J., Van Rechem, C., Boulay, G., Olechnowicz, S. W., Breslin, M. B., Lan, M. S., Nanan, K. K., Wegner, M., Hou, J., Mullen, R. D., Colvin, S. C., Noy, P. J., Webb, C. F., Witek, M. E., Ferrell, S., Daniel, J. M., Park, J., Waldman, S. A., Peet, D. J., Taggart, M., Jayaraman, P., Karrich, J. J., Blom, B., Vesuna, F., O'Geen, H., Sun, Y., Gronostajski, R. M., Woodcroft, M. W., Hough, M. R., Chen, E., Europe-Finner, G. N., Karolczak-Bayatti, M., Bailey, J., Hankinson, O., Raman, V., LeBrun, D. P., Biswal, S., Harvey, C. J., DeBruyne, J. P., Hogenesch, J. B., Hevner, R. F., Heligon, C., Luo, X. M., Blank, M. C., Millen, K. J., Sharlin, D. S., Forrest, D., Dahlman-Wright, K., Zhao, C., Mishima, Y., Sinha, S., Chakrabarti, R., Portales-Casamar, E., Sladek, F. M., Bradley, P. H., Wasserman, W. W. 2012; 13 (3)

    Abstract

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/gb-2012-13-3-r24

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308544200009

    View details for PubMedID 22458515

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3439975

  • The SKP1-Cul1-F-box and Leucine-rich Repeat Protein 4 (SCF-FbxL4) Ubiquitin Ligase Regulates Lysine Demethylase 4A (KDM4A)/Jumonji Domain-containing 2A (JMJD2A) Protein JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Van Rechem, C., Black, J. C., Abbas, T., Allen, A., Rinehart, C. A., Yuan, G., Dutta, A., Whetstine, J. R. 2011; 286 (35): 30462-30470

    Abstract

    Chromatin-modifying enzymes play a fundamental role in regulating chromatin structure so that DNA replication is spatially and temporally coordinated. For example, the lysine demethylase 4A/Jumonji domain-containing 2A (KDM4A/JMJD2A) is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Overexpression of JMJD2A leads to altered replication timing and faster S phase progression. In this study, we demonstrate that degradation of JMJD2A is regulated by the proteasome. JMJD2A turnover is coordinated through the SKP1-Cul1-F-box ubiquitin ligase complex that contains cullin 1 and the F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (FbxL4). This complex interacted with JMJD2A. Ubiquitin overexpression restored turnover and blocked the JMJD2A-dependent faster S phase progression in a cullin 1-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased ubiquitin levels decreased JMJD2A occupancy and BrdU incorporation at target sites. This study highlights a finely tuned mechanism for regulating histone demethylase levels and emphasizes the need to tightly regulate chromatin modifiers so that the cell cycle occurs properly.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.273508

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294283600025

    View details for PubMedID 21757720

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3162406

  • Conserved Antagonism between JMJD2A/KDM4A and HP1 gamma during Cell Cycle Progression MOLECULAR CELL Black, J. C., Allen, A., Van Rechem, C., Forbes, E., Longworth, M., Tschoep, K., Rinehart, C., Quiton, J., Walsh, R., Smallwood, A., Dyson, N. J., Whetstine, J. R. 2010; 40 (5): 736-748

    Abstract

    The KDM4/JMJD2 family of histone demethylases is amplified in human cancers. However, little is known about their physiologic or tumorigenic roles. We have identified a conserved and unappreciated role for the JMJD2A/KDM4A H3K9/36 tridemethylase in cell cycle progression. We demonstrate that JMJD2A protein levels are regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner and that JMJD2A overexpression increased chromatin accessibility, S phase progression, and altered replication timing of specific genomic loci. These phenotypes depended on JMJD2A enzymatic activity. Strikingly, depletion of the only C. elegans homolog, JMJD-2, slowed DNA replication and increased ATR/p53-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, overexpression of HP1γ antagonized JMJD2A-dependent progression through S phase, and depletion of HPL-2 rescued the DNA replication-related phenotypes in jmjd-2(-/-) animals. Our findings describe a highly conserved model whereby JMJD2A regulates DNA replication by antagonizing HP1γ and controlling chromatin accessibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2010.11.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285405800008

    View details for PubMedID 21145482

  • Differential Regulation of HIC1 Target Genes by CtBP and NuRD, via an Acetylation/SUMOylation Switch, in Quiescent versus Proliferating Cells MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY Van Rechem, C., Boulay, G., Pinte, S., Stankovic-Valentin, N., Guerardel, C., Leprince, D. 2010; 30 (16): 4045-4059

    Abstract

    The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating P53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival, growth control, and stress responses. Despite its importance, few HIC1 corepressors and target genes have been characterized thus far. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identify MTA1, a subunit of the NuRD complex, as a new HIC1 corepressor. This interaction is regulated by two competitive posttranslational modifications of HIC1 at lysine 314, promotion by SUMOylation, and inhibition by acetylation. Consistent with the role of HIC1 in growth control, we demonstrate that HIC1/MTA1 complexes bind on two new target genes, Cyclin D1 and p57KIP2 in quiescent but not in growing WI38 cells. In addition, HIC1/MTA1 and HIC1/CtBP complexes differentially bind on two mutually exclusive HIC1 binding sites (HiRE) on the SIRT1 promoter. SIRT1 transcriptional activation induced by short-term serum starvation coincides with loss of occupancy of the distal sites by HIC1/MTA1 and HIC1/CtBP. Upon longer starvation, both complexes are found but on a newly identified proximal HiRE that is evolutionarily conserved and specifically enriched with repressive histone marks. Our results decipher a mechanistic link between two competitive posttranslational modifications of HIC1 and corepressor recruitment to specific genes, leading to growth control.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.00582-09

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280344700011

    View details for PubMedID 20547755

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2916445

  • HIC1 interacts with a specific subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, ARID1A/BAF250A BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Van Rechem, C., Boulay, G., Leprince, D. 2009; 385 (4): 586-590

    Abstract

    HIC1, a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in many human cancers encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. HIC1 is also implicated in growth control since it recruits BRG1, one of the two alternative ATPases (BRM or BRG1) of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to repress transcription of E2F1 in quiescent fibroblasts. Here, through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify ARID1A/BAF250A, as a new HIC1 partner. ARID1A/BAF250A is one of the two mutually exclusive ARID1-containing subunits of SWI/SNF complexes which define subsets of complexes endowed with anti-proliferative properties. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in WI38 fibroblasts and in BRG1-/- SW13 cells showed that endogenous HIC1 and ARID1A proteins interact in a BRG1-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HIC1 does not interact with BRM. Finally, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-reChIP) experiments demonstrated that HIC1 represses E2F1 through the recruitment of anti-proliferative SWI/SNF complexes containing ARID1A.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.05.115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267396500019

    View details for PubMedID 19486893

  • Scavenger Chemokine (CXC Motif) Receptor 7 (CXCR7) Is a Direct Target Gene of HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Van Rechem, C., Rood, B. R., Touka, M., Pinte, S., Jenal, M., Guerardel, C., Ramsey, K., Monte, D., Begue, A., Tschan, M. P., Stephan, D. A., Leprince, D. 2009; 284 (31): 20927-20935

    Abstract

    The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) that is epigenetically silenced in many human tumors and is essential for mammalian development encodes a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor. The few genes that have been reported to be directly regulated by HIC1 include ATOH1, FGFBP1, SIRT1, and E2F1. HIC1 is thus involved in the complex regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. We performed genome-wide expression profiling analyses to identify new HIC1 target genes, using HIC1-deficient U2OS human osteosarcoma cells infected with adenoviruses expressing either HIC1 or GFP as a negative control. These studies identified several putative direct target genes, including CXCR7, a G-protein-coupled receptor recently identified as a scavenger receptor for the chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12. CXCR7 is highly expressed in human breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we demonstrated that CXCR7 was repressed in U2OS cells overexpressing HIC1. Inversely, inactivation of endogenous HIC1 by RNA interference in normal human WI38 fibroblasts results in up-regulation of CXCR7 and SIRT1. In silico analyses followed by deletion studies and luciferase reporter assays identified a functional and phylogenetically conserved HIC1-responsive element in the human CXCR7 promoter. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP upon ChIP experiments demonstrated that endogenous HIC1 proteins are bound together with the C-terminal binding protein corepressor to the CXCR7 and SIRT1 promoters in WI38 cells. Taken together, our results implicate the tumor suppressor HIC1 in the transcriptional regulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR7, a key player in the promotion of tumorigenesis in a wide variety of cell types.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M109.022350

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268316100056

    View details for PubMedID 19525223

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2742858

  • HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) epigenetic silencing in tumors INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY Fleuriel, C., Touka, M., Boulay, G., Guerardel, C., Rood, B. R., Leprince, D. 2009; 41 (1): 26-33

    Abstract

    HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1), as it name implied, was originally isolated as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene located at 17p13.3 because it resides in a CpG island that is hypermethylated in many types of human cancers. HIC1 encodes a transcription factor associating an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain to five C-terminal Krüppel-like C(2)H(2) zinc finger motifs. In this review, we will begin by providing an overview of the current knowledge on HIC1 function, mainly gained from in vitro studies, as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor interacting with a still growing range of HDAC-dependent and HDAC-independent corepressor complexes. We will then summarize the studies that have demonstrated frequent hypermethylation changes or losses of heterozygosity of the HIC1 locus in human cancers. Next, we will review animal models which have firmly established HIC1 as a bona fide tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced and functionally cooperating notably with p53 within a complex HIC1-p53-SIRT1 regulatory loop. Finally, we will discuss how this epigenetic inactivation of HIC1 might "addict" cancer cells to altered survival and signaling pathways or to lineage-specific transcription factors during the early stages of tumorigenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.05.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262620400007

    View details for PubMedID 18723112

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2631403