Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer
  • Phyllodes Tumor
  • Cancer > Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer - Medical Oncology
  • Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer
  • Oncology
  • Locally Advanced Breast Cancer
  • Metastatic Breast Cancer
  • Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, Guggenheim Foundation (1983)
  • Fellow, AAAS (1999)
  • AAP, American Association of Physicians (1976)
  • ASCI, American Society for Clinic Investigation (1974)
  • Elected, Best Doctors in America (2006-2014)

Professional Education


  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (1967) CA
  • Medical Education:University of Pennsylvania (1963) PA
  • Internship:University Hospitals of Cleveland (1964) OH
  • Fellowship, National Institutes of Health (1966)
  • A.B., Yale University, Zoology (1958)
  • Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Anatomy (1963)
  • M.D., University of Pennsylvania, Medicine (1963)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


The focus of the research program are clinical trials in breast cancer. Clinical trials aim to investigate treatments for women with breast cancer who are newly diagnosed or have had a recurrence of breast cancer. Trials include participation in the national breast cancer study groups, ECOG and NSABP, as well as the development of new chemotherapy programs. Of particular interest are adjuvant therapy, treatment of metastatic disease, methods for treatment of locally advanced breast cancer and inflammatory breast cancer. Laboratory work has centered on the mechanisms of how cells acquire specific fates during growth and development , providing insights into normal and abnormal mechanisms of growth control.

Clinical Trials


  • Comparison of Two Combination Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Women With Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, work in different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. It is not yet known which combination chemotherapy regimen is more effective in treating breast cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying two combination chemotherapy regimens to compare how well they work in treating women who have undergone surgery for breast cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Marilyn Florero, (650) 724 - 1953.

    View full details

  • A Study of AC Followed by a Combination of Paclitaxel Plus Trastuzumab or Lapatinib or Both Given Before Surgery to Patients With Operable HER2 Positive Invasive Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether breast cancer tumors respond (as measured by pathologic complete response: the absence of microscopic evidence of invasive tumor cells in the breast) to combined chemotherapy of AC(doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) followed by paclitaxel plus trastuzumab or lapatinib or both given before surgery to patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab will also be given to all patients after surgery. The study will also evaluate the toxic effects of the chemotherapy combination, including effects on the heart, and will determine survival and progression-free survival 5 years after treatment. Also, the study will look at whether there are gene expression profiles in the tumor tissue that can predict pathologic complete response.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Marilyn Florero, (650) 724 - 1953.

    View full details

  • S0307 Zoledronate, Clodronate, or Ibandronate in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Zoledronate, clodronate, or ibandronate may delay or prevent bone metastases in patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. It is not yet known whether zoledronate is more effective than clodronate or ibandronate in treating breast cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying zoledronate to see how well it works compared to clodronate or ibandronate in treating women who have undergone surgery for stage I, stage II, or stage III breast cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Mary Chen, (650) 723 - 8686.

    View full details

  • Management of Insomnia in Breast Cancer Patients Not Recruiting

    Primary Objective: 1. To provide preliminary data on the effects of armodafinil and Brief Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (BBT-I) (alone or in combination) on insomnia in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Secondary Objectives: 1. To provide preliminary data on the influence of armodafinil and BBT-I (alone or in combination) on cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. 2. To provide preliminary data on the influence of armodafinil and BBT-I (alone or in combination) on QOL in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. 3. To provide preliminary data on influence of armodafinil and BBT-I (alone or in combination) on endocrine and inflammatory physiological markers (measured by cortisol and inflammatory cytokines markers)

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Oxana Palesh, PhD, MPH, 650-725-7011.

    View full details

  • Radiation Therapy (WBI Versus PBI) in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery For Ductal Carcinoma In Situ or Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Giving radiation therapy in different ways may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery. It is not yet known whether whole breast radiation therapy is more effective than partial breast radiation therapy in treating breast cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying whole breast radiation therapy to see how well it works compared to partial breast radiation therapy in treating women who have undergone surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ or stage I or stage II breast cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Marilyn Florero, (650) 724 - 1953.

    View full details

  • A Safety and Immunology Study of a Modified Vaccinia Vaccine for HER-2(+) Breast Cancer After Adjuvant Therapy Not Recruiting

    The current trial, BNIT-BR-003, will evaluate the safety and biological activity of a fixed dose of MVA-BN®-HER2 following adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer. The intent of vaccination is to induce a combined antibody and T-cell anti-HER-2 immune response, which is intended to target HER-2-expressing tumor cells, and may induce tumor regression or slow progression of disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Mary Chen, (650) 723 - 8686.

    View full details

  • Anastrozole & ZD1839 Compared With Fulvestrant & ZD1839 in Postmenopausal Women w/ Metastatic Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is studying how well giving gefitinib together with anastrozole works compared to giving gefitinib together with fulvestrant in treating postmenopausal women with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Estrogen can stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells. Hormone therapy using anastrozole and fulvestrant may fight breast cancer by blocking the use of estrogen. Gefitinib (ZD1839) may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking the enzymes necessary for their growth. It is not yet known whether gefitinib is more effective when combined with anastrozole or fulvestrant in treating breast cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Nancy Mori, (650) 724 - 0201.

    View full details

  • Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer Recruiting

    This randomized phase III clinical trial is studying chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab after surgery to see how well they work in treating women with invasive breast cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) and giving chemotherapy after surgery may kill more tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab, can block cancer growth in different ways. Some block the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Others find cancer cells and help kill them or carry cancer-killing substances to them. It is not yet known whether combination chemotherapy is more effective with trastuzumab in treating breast cancer.

    View full details

  • Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Resection for Relapsed Breast Cancer; Chemotherapy as Adjuvant for LOcally Recurrent Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy is effective in treating women who have undergone surgery and radiation therapy for relapsed breast cancer. PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in treating women who have undergone resection for local and/or regional relapsed breast cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Marilyn Florero, (650) 724 - 1953.

    View full details

  • Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Lymph Node-Positive or High-Risk, Lymph Node-Negative Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial studies doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel to see how well they work with or without bevacizumab in treating patients with lymph node-positive or high-risk, lymph node-negative breast cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Bevacizumab may also stop the growth of breast cancer by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Giving chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery. It is not yet known whether doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel are more effective with or without bevacizumab in treating breast cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Pei-Jen Chang, (650) 725 - 0866.

    View full details

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Single Cell Profiling of Circulating Tumor Cells: Transcriptional Heterogeneity and Diversity from Breast Cancer Cell Lines PLOS ONE Powell, A. A., Talasaz, A. H., Zhang, H., Coram, M. A., Reddy, A., Deng, G., Telli, M. L., Advani, R. H., Carlson, R. W., Mollick, J. A., Sheth, S., Kurian, A. W., Ford, J. M., Stockdale, F. E., Quake, S. R., Pease, R. F., Mindrinos, M. N., Bhanot, G., Dairkee, S. H., Davis, R. W., Jeffrey, S. S. 2012; 7 (5)

    Abstract

    To improve cancer therapy, it is critical to target metastasizing cells. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells found in the blood of patients with solid tumors and may play a key role in cancer dissemination. Uncovering CTC phenotypes offers a potential avenue to inform treatment. However, CTC transcriptional profiling is limited by leukocyte contamination; an approach to surmount this problem is single cell analysis. Here we demonstrate feasibility of performing high dimensional single CTC profiling, providing early insight into CTC heterogeneity and allowing comparisons to breast cancer cell lines widely used for drug discovery.We purified CTCs using the MagSweeper, an immunomagnetic enrichment device that isolates live tumor cells from unfractionated blood. CTCs that met stringent criteria for further analysis were obtained from 70% (14/20) of primary and 70% (21/30) of metastatic breast cancer patients; none were captured from patients with non-epithelial cancer (n = 20) or healthy subjects (n = 25). Microfluidic-based single cell transcriptional profiling of 87 cancer-associated and reference genes showed heterogeneity among individual CTCs, separating them into two major subgroups, based on 31 highly expressed genes. In contrast, single cells from seven breast cancer cell lines were tightly clustered together by sample ID and ER status. CTC profiles were distinct from those of cancer cell lines, questioning the suitability of such lines for drug discovery efforts for late stage cancer therapy.For the first time, we directly measured high dimensional gene expression in individual CTCs without the common practice of pooling such cells. Elevated transcript levels of genes associated with metastasis NPTN, S100A4, S100A9, and with epithelial mesenchymal transition: VIM, TGFß1, ZEB2, FOXC1, CXCR4, were striking compared to cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that profiling CTCs on a cell-by-cell basis is possible and may facilitate the application of 'liquid biopsies' to better model drug discovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0033788

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305335000005

    View details for PubMedID 22586443

  • Stimulation of natural killer cells with a CD137-specific antibody enhances trastuzumab efficacy in xenotransplant models of breast cancer JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Kohrt, H. E., Houot, R., Weiskopf, K., Goldstein, M. J., Scheeren, F., Czerwinski, D., Colevas, A. D., Weng, W., Clarke, M. F., Carlson, R. W., Stockdale, F. E., Mollick, J. A., Chen, L., Levy, R. 2012; 122 (3): 1066-1075

    Abstract

    Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as HER-2/neu), is indicated for the treatment of women with either early stage or metastatic HER2(+) breast cancer. It kills tumor cells by several mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Strategies that enhance the activity of ADCC effectors, including NK cells, may improve the efficacy of trastuzumab. Here, we have shown that upon encountering trastuzumab-coated, HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, human NK cells become activated and express the costimulatory receptor CD137. CD137 activation, which was dependent on NK cell expression of the Fc?RIII receptor, occurred both in vitro and in the peripheral blood of women with HER2-expressing breast cancer after trastuzumab treatment. Stimulation of trastuzumab-activated human NK cells with an agonistic mAb specific for CD137 killed breast cancer cells (including an intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant cell line) more efficiently both in vitro and in vivo in xenotransplant models of human breast cancer, including one using a human primary breast tumor. The enhanced cytotoxicity was restricted to antibody-coated tumor cells. This sequential antibody strategy, combining a tumor-targeting antibody with a second antibody that activates the host innate immune system, may improve the therapeutic effects of antibodies against breast cancer and other HER2-expressing tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI61226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301021500029

    View details for PubMedID 22326955

  • Carbonylation of myosin heavy chains in rat heart during diabetes BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY Shao, C., Rozanski, G. J., Nagai, R., Stockdale, F. E., Patel, K. P., Wang, M., Singh, J., Mayhan, W. G., Bidasee, K. R. 2010; 80 (2): 205-217

    Abstract

    Cardiac inotropy progressively declines during diabetes mellitus. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect remain incompletely characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that ventricular myosin heavy chains (MHC) undergo carbonylation by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) during diabetes and these modifications contribute to the inotropic decline. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later the animals were divided into two groups: one group was treated with the RCS blocker aminoguanidine for 6 weeks, while the other group received no treatment. After 8 weeks of diabetes, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening, left ventricular pressure development (+dP/dt) and myocyte shortening were decreased by 9%, 16%, 34% and 18%, respectively. Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-actomyosin ATPase activities and peak actomyosin syneresis were also reduced by 35%, 28%, and 72%. MHC-alpha to MHC-beta ratio was 12:88. Mass spectrometry and Western blots revealed the presence of carbonyl adducts on MHC-alpha and MHC-beta. Aminoguanidine treatment did not alter MHC composition, but it blunted formation of carbonyl adducts and decreases in actomyosin Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity, syneresis, myocyte shortening, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening and +dP/dt induced by diabetes. From these new data it can be concluded that in addition to isozyme switching, modification of MHC by RCS also contributes to the inotropic decline seen during diabetes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.03.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277939300007

    View details for PubMedID 20359464

  • New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients BMC CANCER Kohrt, H. E., Olshen, R. A., Bermas, H. R., Goodson, W. H., Wood, D. J., Henry, S., Rouse, R. V., Bailey, L., Philben, V. J., Dirbas, F. M., Dunn, J. J., Johnson, D. L., Wapnir, I. L., Carlson, R. W., Stockdale, F. E., Hansen, N. M., Jeffrey, S. S. 2008; 8

    Abstract

    Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model.We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University.285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic invasion and size of SLN metastasis, and the product of tumor size and square of SLN metastasis size.We present a new model developed from a community-based SLN database that uses only three rather than eight variables to achieve higher accuracy than the Nomogram for predicting NSLN status in two different datasets.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2407-8-66

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255935500001

    View details for PubMedID 18315887

  • Cost-effectiveness of screening BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast magnetic resonance imaging JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Plevritis, S. K., Kurian, A. W., Sigal, B. M., Daniel, B. L., Ikeda, D. M., Stockdale, F. E., Garber, A. M. 2006; 295 (20): 2374-2384

    Abstract

    Women with inherited BRCA1/2 mutations are at high risk for breast cancer, which mammography often misses. Screening with contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects cancer earlier but increases costs and results in more false-positive scans.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with mammography plus breast MRI compared with mammography alone.A computer model that simulates the life histories of individual BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, incorporating the effects of mammographic and MRI screening was used. The accuracy of mammography and breast MRI was estimated from published data in high-risk women. Breast cancer survival in the absence of screening was based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database of breast cancer patients diagnosed in the prescreening period (1975-1981), adjusted for the current use of adjuvant therapy. Utilization rates and costs of diagnostic and treatment interventions were based on a combination of published literature and Medicare payments for 2005.The survival benefit, incremental costs, and cost-effectiveness of MRI screening strategies, which varied by ages of starting and stopping MRI screening, were computed separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Screening strategies that incorporate annual MRI as well as annual mammography have a cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained ranging from less than 45,000 dollars to more than 700,000 dollars, depending on the ages selected for MRI screening and the specific BRCA mutation. Relative to screening with mammography alone, the cost per QALY gained by adding MRI from ages 35 to 54 years is 55,420 dollars for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 130,695 dollars for BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 98,454 dollars for BRCA2 mutation carriers who have mammographically dense breasts.Breast MRI screening is more cost-effective for BRCA1 than BRCA2 mutation carriers. The cost-effectiveness of adding MRI to mammography varies greatly by age.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237734400023

    View details for PubMedID 16720823

  • Cells of all somitic compartments are determined with respect to segmental identity DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS Fomenou, M. D., Scaal, M., Stockdale, F. E., Christ, B., Huang, R. J. 2005; 233 (4): 1386-1393

    Abstract

    Development of somite cells is orchestrated by two regulatory processes. Differentiation of cells from the various somitic compartments into different anlagen and tissues is regulated by extrinsic signals from neighboring structures such as the notochord, neural tube, and surface ectoderm. Morphogenesis of these anlagen to form specific structures according to the segmental identity of each somite is specified by segment-specific positional information, based on the Hox-code. It has been shown that following experimental rotation of presomitic mesoderm or newly formed somites, paraxial mesodermal cells adapt to the altered signaling environment and differentiate according to their new orientation. In contrast, presomitic mesoderm or newly formed somites transplanted to different segmental levels keep their primordial segmental identity and form ectopic structures according to their original position. To determine whether all cells of a segment, including the dorsal and ventral compartment, share the same segmental identity, presomitic mesoderm or newly formed somites were rotated and transplanted from thoracic to cervical level. These experiments show that cells from all compartments of a segment are able to interpret extrinsic local signals correctly, but form structures according to their original positional information and maintain their original Hox expression in the new environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/dvdy.20464

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230518000018

    View details for PubMedID 15973735

  • Phase I trial of uracil-ftorafur, leucovorin, and etoposide: an active all-oral regimen for metastatic breast cancer BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT Hartman, A. R., Grekowicz, A., Lum, B. L., Carlson, R. W., Schurman, C., Sikic, B. I., Shapiro, R., Stockdale, F. E. 2003; 82 (1): 61-69

    Abstract

    To determine the maximum tolerated doses, toxicities, and therapeutic effect of an oral chemotherapy regimen consisting of uracil-ftorafur, etoposide, and leucovorin for metastatic breast cancer.The regimen consists of 28-day cycles of uracil-ftorafur, etoposide, and leucovorin administered orally on days 1-14. The dose of etoposide was fixed at 50 mg/m2/day, and uracil-ftorafur was escalated in 50 mg/m2/day increments from 200 to 350 mg/m2. Leucovorin, was used at a dose of 90 mg/day. Eligibility criteria required prior treatment with a taxane or anthracycline.A total of 23 patients were enrolled. Twenty patients are assessable for toxicity and 16 patients are assessable for response. All non-hematologic toxicities were grade 1 or 2. Three hematologic dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed. Partial responses were seen in 6 of 16 (37.5%, 95% confidence interval 15%, 85%) of assessable patients with durations ranging from 4 to 20 months. Stable disease was observed in 4 of 16 (25%) of patients with durations from 4 to 12 months. Median time to progression was 10.5 months. An intent to treat analysis revealed a response of 26%.The recommended dose and schedule of this combination is uracil-ftorafur 350 mg/m2, leucovorin 90 mg/day, and etoposide 50 mg/m2 for two consecutive weeks in a 4-week cycle. This all-oral regimen is well tolerated and demonstrates encouraging efficacy in a cohort of heavily pretreated patient with metastatic breast cancer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186609000008

    View details for PubMedID 14672404

  • Regulation of myosin expression during myotome formation DEVELOPMENT Sacks, L. D., Cann, G. M., Nikovits, W., Conlon, S., Espinoza, N. R., Stockdale, F. E. 2003; 130 (15): 3391-3402

    Abstract

    The first skeletal muscle fibers to form in vertebrate embryos appear in the somitic myotome. PCR analysis and in situ hybridization with isoform-specific probes reveal differences in the temporal appearance and spatial distribution of fast and slow myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts within myotomal fibers. Embryonic fast myosin heavy chain was the first isoform expressed, followed rapidly by slow myosin heavy chains 1 and 3, with slow myosin heavy chain 2 appearing several hours later. Neonatal fast myosin heavy chain is not expressed in myotomal fibers. Although transcripts of embryonic fast myosin heavy chain were always distributed throughout the length of myotomal fibers, the mRNA for each slow myosin heavy chain isoform was initially restricted to the centrally located myotomal fiber nuclei. As development proceeded, slow myosin heavy chain transcripts spread throughout the length of myotomal fibers in order of their appearance. Explants of segments from embryos containing neural tube, notochord and somites 7-10, when incubated overnight, become innervated by motor neurons from the neural tube and express all four myosin heavy chain genes. Removal of the neural tube and/or notochord from explants prior to incubation or addition of d-tubocurare to intact explants prevented expression of slow myosin chain 2 but expression of genes encoding the other myosin heavy chain isoforms was unaffected. Thus, expression of slow myosin heavy chain 2 is dependent on functional innervation, whereas expression of embryonic fast and slow myosin heavy chain 1 and 3 are innervation independent. Implantation of sonic-hedgehog-soaked beads in vivo increased the accumulation of both fast and slow myosin heavy chain transcripts, as well as overall myotome size and individual fiber size, but had no effect on myotomal fiber phenotype. Transcripts encoding embryonic fast myosin heavy chain first appear ventrolaterally in the myotome, whereas slow myosin heavy chain transcripts first appear in fibers positioned midway between the ventrolateral and dorsomedial lips of the myotome. Therefore, models of epaxial myotome formation must account for the positioning of the oldest fibers in the more ventral-lateral region of the myotome and the youngest fibers in the dorsomedial region.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.00541

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184830700004

    View details for PubMedID 12810587

  • Ventral axial organs regulate expression of myotomal Fgf-8 that influences rib development DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Huang, R. J., Stolte, D., Kurz, H., Ehehalt, F., Cann, G. M., Stockdale, F. E., Patel, K., Christ, B. 2003; 255 (1): 30-47

    Abstract

    Fgf-8 encodes a secreted signaling molecule mediating key roles in embryonic patterning. This study analyzes the expression pattern, regulation, and function of this growth factor in the paraxial mesoderm of the avian embryo. In the mature somite, expression of Fgf-8 is restricted to a subpopulation of myotome cells, comprising most, but not all, epaxial and hypaxial muscle precursors. Following ablation of the notochord and floor plate, Fgf-8 expression is not activated in the somites, in either the epaxial or the hypaxial domain, while ablation of the dorsal neural tube does not affect Fgf-8 expression in paraxial mesoderm. Contrary to the view that hypaxial muscle precursors are independent of regulatory influences from axial structures, these findings provide the first evidence for a regulatory influence of ventral, but not dorsal axial structures on the hypaxial muscle domain. Sonic hedgehog can substitute for the ventral neural tube and notochord in the initiation of Fgf-8 expression in the myotome. It is also shown that Fgf-8 protein leads to an increase in sclerotomal cell proliferation and enhances rib cartilage development in mature somites, whereas inhibition of Fgf signaling by SU 5402 causes deletions in developing ribs. These observations demonstrate: (1) a regulatory influence of the ventral axial organs on the hypaxial muscle compartment; (2) regulation of epaxial and hypaxial expression of Fgf-8 by Sonic hedgehog; and (3) independent regulation of Fgf-8 and MyoD in the hypaxial myotome by ventral axial organs. It is postulated that the notochord and ventral neural tube influence hypaxial expression of Fgf-8 in the myotome and that, in turn, Fgf-8 has a functional role in rib formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0012-1606(02)00051-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181577400003

    View details for PubMedID 12618132

  • Control of muscle size during embryonic, fetal, and adult life. Results and problems in cell differentiation Patel, K., Christ, B., Stockdale, F. E. 2002; 38: 163-186

    View details for PubMedID 12132394

  • Slow myosins in muscle development. Results and problems in cell differentiation Stockdale, F. E., Nikovits, W., Espinoza, N. R. 2002; 38: 199-214

    Abstract

    Myogenesis has been a system central to investigations on mechanisms of diversification within groups of differentiating cells. Diversity among cell types has been well described in striated muscle tissue at the protein and enzymatic-function levels for decades, but it is only in recent years that some understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for this diversity has begun to emerge. Study of the expression of the slow isoforms of the myosin heavy chain has contributed to our understanding of how cell diversity arises within skeletal and cardiac muscle. Slow MyHc isoforms are developmentally responsive to a number of cues provided by the nervous systems, the endocrine system and, later in development, to functional demands on these developing tissues. Perhaps most informative have been studies on the mechanism for regulation of slow MyHc expression in mammals and birds where studies on the calcineurin-NF-AT pathways and nuclear hormone action have been shown to control MyHC gene expression in skeletal muscle and in the developing heart. The mechanisms involved in cell diversification in myogenesis are undoubtedly more varied and complex than those currently offered to explain cell diversification, but these recent studies have broadened our understanding of the interplay between the nervous system, the endocrine system and cell lineages in controlling cell diversification. Greater focus on the first fibers and cardiomyocytes to form in the embryo are likely to bring additional insights into the mechanism crucial for establishing the patterns of diversity required for successful formation of embryonic tissues.

    View details for PubMedID 12132396

  • Irx4 forms an inhibitory complex with the vitamin D and retinoic X receptors to regulate cardiac chamber-specific slow MyHC3 expression JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Wang, G. F., Nikovits, W., Bao, Z. Z., Stockdale, F. E. 2001; 276 (31): 28835-28841

    Abstract

    The slow myosin heavy chain 3 gene (slow MyHC3) is restricted in its expression to the atrial chambers of the heart. Understanding its regulation provides a basis for determination of the mechanisms controlling chamber-specific gene expression in heart development. The observed chamber distribution results from repression of slow MyHC3 gene expression in the ventricles. A binding site, the vitamin D response element (VDRE), for a heterodimer of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) within the slow MyHC3 promoter mediates chamber-specific expression of the gene. Irx4, an Iroquois family homeobox gene whose expression is restricted to the ventricular chambers at all stages of development, inhibits AMHC1, the chick homolog of quail slow MyHC3, gene expression within developing ventricles. Repression of the slow MyHC3 gene in ventricular cardiomyocytes by Irx4 requires the VDRE. Unlike VDR and RXR alpha, Irx4 does not bind directly to the VDRE. Instead two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays show that Irx4 interacts with the RXR alpha component of the VDR/RXR alpha heterodimer and that the amino terminus of the Irx4 protein is required for its inhibitory action. These observations indicate that the mechanism of atrial chamber-specific expression requires the formation of an inhibitory protein complex composed of VDR, RXR alpha, and Irx4 that binds at the VDRE inhibiting slow MyHC3 expression in the ventricles.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170346000028

    View details for PubMedID 11382777

  • Patterning of fast and slow fibers within embryonic muscles is established independently of signals from the surrounding mesenchyme DEVELOPMENT Nikovits, W., Cann, G. M., Huang, R. J., Christ, B., Stockdale, F. E. 2001; 128 (13): 2537-2544

    Abstract

    During embryonic development, and before functional innervation, a highly stereotypic pattern of slow- and fast-contracting primary muscle fibers is established within individual muscles of the limbs, from distinct populations of myoblasts. A difference between the fiber-type pattern found within chicken and quail pectoral muscles was exploited to investigate the contributions of somite-derived myogenic precursors and lateral plate-derived mesenchymal stroma to the establishment of muscle fiber-type patterns. Chimeric chicken/quail embryos were constructed by reciprocal transplantation of somites or lateral plate mesoderm at stages prior to muscle formation. Muscle fibers derived from quail myogenic precursors that had migrated into chicken stroma showed a quail pattern of mixed fast- and slow-contracting muscle fibers. Conversely, chicken myogenic precursors that had migrated into quail stroma showed a chicken pattern of nearly exclusive fast muscle fiber formation. These results demonstrate in vivo an intrinsic commitment to fiber-type on the part of the myoblast, independent of extrinsic signals it receives from the mesenchymal stroma in which it differentiates.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169968800011

    View details for PubMedID 11493570

  • Paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis: radiographic and CT findings. AJR. American journal of roentgenology Wong, P., Leung, A. N., Berry, G. J., Atkins, K. A., Montoya, J. G., Ruoss, S. J., Stockdale, F. E. 2001; 176 (3): 718-720

    View details for PubMedID 11222212

  • Locally advanced breast cancer: is surgery necessary? breast journal Favret, A. M., Carlson, R. W., Goffinet, D. R., Jeffrey, S. S., Dirbas, F. M., Stockdale, F. E. 2001; 7 (2): 131-137

    Abstract

    A retrospective analysis of the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) was undertaken at Stanford Medical Center to assess the outcome of patients who did not undergo surgical removal of their tumors. Between 1981 and 1998, 64 patients with locally advanced breast cancer were treated with induction chemotherapy, radiation with or without breast surgery, and additional chemotherapy. Sixty-two (97%) patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) induction chemotherapy. Induction chemotherapy was followed by local radiotherapy in 59 (92%) patients. Based on the clinical response to chemotherapy and patient preference, 44 (69%) patients received no local breast surgery. Radiotherapy was followed by an additional, non-doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy in all patients. The mean age of patients was 49 years. Of the 65 locally advanced breast cancers in 64 patients, 26 (41%) were stage IIIA, 35 (55%) were stage IIIB, and 4 (6%) were stage IV (supraclavicular lymph nodes only). Response to induction chemotherapy was seen in 59 patients (92%), with 29 (45%) achieving a complete clinical response and 30 (47%) a partial clinical response. With a mean follow-up of 51 months (range 7-187 months), 43 patients (67.2%) have no evidence of recurrent disease. Eight (12.5%) have recurred locally, and 21 (32.8%) have recurred with distant metastasis. Actuarial 5-year survival is 75%, disease-free survival is 58%, and local control rate is 87.5%. These data indicate that the routine inclusion of breast surgery in a combined modality treatment program for LABC does not appear necessary for the majority of patients who experience a response to induction chemotherapy.

    View details for PubMedID 11328324

  • Molecular and cellular biology of avian somite development DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS Stockdale, F. E., Nikovits, W., Christ, B. 2000; 219 (3): 304-321

    Abstract

    Much of our understanding of early vertebrate embryogenesis derives from experimental work done with the chick embryo. Studies of the avian somite have played a key role in elucidating the developmental history of this important structure, the source of most muscle and bone in the organism. Here we review the development of the avian somite including morphological and molecular data on the origin of paraxial mesoderm, maturation of the segmental plate, specification and formation of somite compartments, and somite cell differentiation into cartilage and skeletal muscle.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165122200003

    View details for PubMedID 11066088

  • Sonic hedgehog enhances somite cell viability and formation of primary slow muscle fibers in avian segmented mesoderm ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY Cann, G. M., Lee, J. W., Stockdale, F. E. 1999; 200 (3): 239-252

    Abstract

    Primary skeletal muscle fibers first form in the segmented portions of paraxial mesoderm called somites. Although the neural tube and notochord are recognized as crucial in patterning myogenic cell lineages during avian and mammalian somitic myogenesis, the source, identities, and actions of the signals governing this process remain controversial. It has been shown that signals emanating from the ventral neural tube and/or notochord alone or Shh alone serve to activate MyoD expression in somites. However, beyond a role in initiating MyoD expression, little is known about the effects of Shh on primary muscle fiber formation in somites of higher vertebrates. The studies reported here investigate how the ventral neural tube promotes myogenesis and compare the effects of the ventral neural tube with those of purified Shh protein on fiber formation in somites. We show that purified Shh protein mimics actions of the ventral neural tube on somites including initiation of muscle fiber formation, enhancement of numbers of primary muscle fibers, and particularly, the formation of primary fibers that express slow myosin. There is a marked increase in slow myosin expression in fibers in response to Shh as somites mature. The effects of ventral neural tube on fiber formation can be blocked by disrupting the Shh signaling pathway by increasing the activity of somitic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that apoptosis is a dominant fate of somite cells, but not somitic muscle fibers, when cultured in the absence of the neural tube, and that application of Shh protein to somites reduced apoptosis. The block to apoptosis by Shh is a manifestation of the maturity of the somite with a progressive increase in the block as somites are displaced rostrally from somite III forward. We conclude that purified Shh protein in mimicking the effects of the ventral neural tube on segmented mesoderm can exert pleiotropic effects during primary myogenesis, including: control of the proliferative expansion of myogenic progenitor cells, antagonism of cell death pathways within the precursors to muscle fibers, and during the crucial process of primary myogenesis, can exert an effect on diversification of muscle fiber types.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081840300001

    View details for PubMedID 10463340

  • A retinoic acid-inducible transgenic marker of sino-atrial development in the mouse heart DEVELOPMENT Xavier-Neto, J., Neville, C. M., Shapiro, M. D., Houghton, L., Wang, G. F., Nikovits, W., Stockdale, F. E., Rosenthal, N. 1999; 126 (12): 2677-2687

    Abstract

    To study the specification of inflow structures in the heart we generated transgenic animals harboring the human alkaline phosphatase (HAP) gene driven by the proximal 840 bp of a quail SMyHC3 promoter. In transgenic mice, the SMyHC3-HAP reporter was expressed in posterior heart precursors at 8.25 dpc, in sinus venosa and in the atrium at 8.5 and 9.0 dpc, and in the atria from 10.5 dpc onwards. SMyHC3-HAP transgene expression overlapped synthesis and endogenous response to retinoic acid (RA) in the heart, as determined by antibodies directed against a key RA synthetic enzyme and by staining of RAREhsplacZ transgenic animals. A single pulse of all-trans RA administered to pregnant mice at 7.5, but not after 8.5, dpc induced cardiac dismorphology, ranging from complete absence of outflow tract and ventricles to hearts with reduced ventricles expressing both SMyHC3-HAP and ventricular markers. Blockade of RA synthesis with disulfiram inhibited RA-induced transcription and produced hearts lacking the atrial chamber. This study defines a novel marker for atrial-restricted transcription in the developing mouse heart. It also suggests that atrial-specific gene expression is controlled by localized synthesis of RA, and that exclusion of RA from ventricular precursors is essential for correct specification of the ventricles.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081366200010

    View details for PubMedID 10331979

  • A positive GATA element and a negative vitamin D receptor-like element control atrial chamber-specific expression of a slow myosin heavy-chain gene during cardiac morphogenesis MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY Wang, G. F., Nikovits, W., Schleinitz, M., Stockdale, F. E. 1998; 18 (10): 6023-6034

    Abstract

    We have used the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) 3 gene to study the molecular mechanisms that control atrial chamber-specific gene expression. Initially, slow MyHC 3 is uniformly expressed throughout the tubular heart of the quail embryo. As cardiac development proceeds, an anterior-posterior gradient of slow MyHC 3 expression develops, culminating in atrial chamber-restricted expression of this gene following chamberization. Two cis elements within the slow MyHC 3 gene promoter, a GATA-binding motif and a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-like binding motif, control chamber-specific expression. The GATA element of the slow MyHC 3 is sufficient for expression of a heterologous reporter gene in both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and expression of GATA-4, but not Nkx2-5 or myocyte enhancer factor 2C, activates reporter gene expression in fibroblasts. Equivalent levels of GATA-binding activity were found in extracts of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from embryonic chamberized hearts. These observations suggest that GATA factors positively regulate slow MyHC 3 gene expression throughout the tubular heart and subsequently in the atria. In contrast, an inhibitory activity, operating through the VDR-like element, increased in ventricular cardiomyocytes during the transition of the heart from a tubular to a chambered structure. Overexpression of the VDR, acting via the VDR-like element, duplicates the inhibitory activity in ventricular but not in atrial cardiomyocytes. These data suggest that atrial chamber-specific expression of the slow MyHC 3 gene is achieved through the VDR-like inhibitory element in ventricular cardiomyocytes at the time distinct atrial and ventricular chambers form.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075980900041

    View details for PubMedID 9742119

  • Both myoblast lineage and innervation determine fiber type and are required for expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY DiMario, J. X., Stockdale, F. E. 1997; 188 (1): 167-180

    Abstract

    Skeletal muscle fibers express members of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene family in a fiber-type-specific manner. In avian skeletal muscle it is the expression of the slow MyHC isoforms that most clearly distinguishes slow- from fast-contracting fiber types. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain fiber-type-specific expression of distinct MyHC genes during development-an intrinsic mechanism based on the formation of different myogenic lineage(s) and an extrinsic, innervation-dependent mechanism. We developed a cell culture model system in which both mechanisms were evaluated during fetal muscle development. Myoblasts isolated from prospective fast (pectoralis major) or slow (medial adductor) fetal chick muscles formed muscle fibers in cell culture, none of which expressed slow MyHC genes. By contrast, when muscle fibers formed from myoblasts derived from the slow muscle were cocultured with neural tube, the muscle fibers expressed a slow MyHC gene, while muscle fibers formed from myoblasts of fast muscle origin continued to express only fast MyHC. Motor endplates formed on the fibers derived from myoblasts of both fast and slow muscle origin in cocultures, and slow MyHC gene expression did not occur when neuromuscular transmission or depolarization was blocked. We have cloned the slow MyHC gene that is expressed in response to innervation and identified it as the slow MyHC 2 gene, the predominant adult slow isoform. cDNAs encoding portions of the three slow myosin heavy chain genes (MyHC1, slow MyHC 2, and slow MyHC 3) were isolated. Only slow MyHC 2 mRNA was demonstrated to be abundant in the cocultures of neural tube and muscle fibers derived from myoblasts of slow muscle origin. Thus, expression of the slow MyHC 2 gene in this in vitro system indicates that formation of slow muscle fiber types is dependent on both myoblast lineage (intrinsic mechanisms) and innervation (extrinsic mechanisms), and suggests neither mechanism alone is sufficient to explain formation of muscle fibers of different types during fetal development.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XQ25100014

    View details for PubMedID 9245520

  • Atrial chamber-specific expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 3 gene in the embryonic heart JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Wang, G. F., Nikovits, W., Schleinitz, M., Stockdale, F. E. 1996; 271 (33): 19836-19845

    Abstract

    The quail slow myosin heavy chain 3 (slow MyHC 3) gene is expressed in the developing heart and in slow muscles of the developing limb. It is first expressed in the pulsatile cardiac tube in the embryo, and as the heart chamberizes its expression becomes restricted to the atria. To identify regulatory elements responsible for atrial-specific expression, the 5' upstream region of slow MyHC 3 gene was investigated. An atrial regulatory domain (ARD1) between -840 and -680 acts as an atrial cell-specific enhancer in primary cardiocyte cultures. ARD1 also specifies atrial-specific expression in vivo when the ARD1/heterologous promoter was introduced into developing chick embryos by a replication-competent retroviral vector. ARD1 is the first atrial cell-specific enhancer to be identified. Fine deletion and mutation analysis within ARD1 defined a 40-base pair vitamin D3 receptor-like element that controls atrial cell-specific expression of the slow MyHC 3 gene by inhibiting its expression in ventricular cardiocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VC66900034

    View details for PubMedID 8702693

  • Isolation and characterization of an avian slow myosin heavy chain gene expressed during embryonic skeletal muscle fiber formation JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Nikovits, W., Wang, G. F., Feldman, J. L., MILLER, J. B., Wade, R., Nelson, L., Stockdale, F. E. 1996; 271 (29): 17047-17056

    Abstract

    We have isolated and begun characterization of the quail slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) 3 gene, the first reported avian slow MyHC gene. Expression of slow MyHC 3 in skeletal muscle is restricted to the embryonic period of development, when the fiber pattern of future fast and slow muscle is established. In embryonic hindlimb development, slow MyHC 3 gene expression coincides with slow muscle fiber formation as distinguished by slow MyHC-specific antibody staining. In addition to expression in embryonic appendicular muscle, slow MyHC 3 is expressed continuously in the atria. Transfection of slow MyHC 3 promoter-reporter constructs into embryonic myoblasts that form slow MyHC-expressing fibers identified two regions regulating expression of this gene in skeletal muscle. The proximal promoter, containing potential muscle-specific regulatory motifs, permits expression of a reporter gene in embryonic slow muscle fibers, while a distal element, located greater than 2600 base pairs upstream, further enhances expression 3-fold. The slow muscle fiber-restricted expression of slow MyHC 3 during embryonic development, and expression of slow MyHC 3 promoter-reporter constructs in embryonic muscle fibers in vitro, makes this gene a useful marker to study the mechanism establishing the slow fiber lineage in the embryo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UX94300013

    View details for PubMedID 8663323

  • THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LUMPECTOMY SURGICAL MARGIN STATUS IN LONG-TERM RESULTS OF BREAST-CONSERVATION CANCER Smitt, M. C., Nowels, K. W., ZDEBLICK, M. J., JEFFREY, S., Carlson, R. W., Stockdale, F. E., Goffinet, D. R. 1995; 76 (2): 259-267

    Abstract

    The impact of the surgical margin status on long-term local control rates for breast cancer in women treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy is unclear.The records of 289 women with 303 invasive breast cancers who were treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy from 1972 to 1992 were reviewed. The surgical margin was classified as positive (transecting the inked margin), close (less than or equal to 2 mm from the margin), negative, or indeterminate, based on the initial biopsy findings and reexcision specimens, as appropriate. Various clinical and pathologic factors were analyzed as potential prognostic factors for local recurrence in addition to the margin status, including T classification, N classification, age, histologic features, and use of adjuvant therapy. The mean follow-up was 6.25 years.The actuarial probability of freedom from local recurrence for the entire group of patients at 5 and 10 years was 94% and 87%, respectively. The actuarial probability of local control at 10 years was 98% for those patients with negative surgical margins versus 82% for all others (P = 0.007). The local control rate at 10 years was 97% for patients who underwent reexcision and 84% for those who did not. Reexcision appears to convey a local control benefit for those patients with close, indeterminate, or positive initial margins, when negative final margins are attained (P = 0.0001). Final margin status was the most significant determinant of local recurrence rates in univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, the final margin status and use of adjuvant chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors.The attainment of negative surgical margins, initially or at the time of reexcision, is the most significant predictor of local control after breast-conserving treatment with lumpectomy and radiation therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RH15100015

    View details for PubMedID 8625101

  • MYOGENIC SPECIFICATION OF SOMITES IS MEDIATED BY DIFFUSIBLE FACTORS DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY BUFFINGER, N., Stockdale, F. E. 1995; 169 (1): 96-108

    Abstract

    Specification of myogenesis in early chicken somites and segmental plate was studied using transfilter explant cultures to determine if myogenic specification by axial structures is mediated by cell-cell contact. Formation of muscle fibers that express myosin heavy chain was assessed in somites transfilter from neural tube and notochord. Either the neural tube or the notochord from early chick embryos (ED 2) induces myogenesis in unspecified somites (Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stages 11-14) when these tissues are separated by a 0.2- or a 0.05-micron pore filter. The ventral neural tube is found to be a strong inducer of myogenesis, while the dorsal neural tube is found to have low inducing activity. The reduced myogenic inducing activity of the dorsal neural tube is associated with an activity that inhibits myogenic differentiation in specified somites, somites containing cells already committed to myogenesis. Only 6-8 hr of transfilter exposure to neural tube is required to initiate somite myogenesis that is sustained in the absence of neural tube. Other tissues such as specified somites, heart, or ectoderm from the same aged embryo do not induce myogenesis in unspecified somites. Removal of the prospective floor plate of the caudal neural plate at HH stage 8 or 9 does not eliminate the inducing activity of the neurectoderm on unspecified somites (HH stage 11-14). Recombination of somites with neural tube or spinal cord from progressively older embryos (ED 4-20) showed myogenesis inducing activity at all ages, though the activity waned as development proceeded. Paraxial mesoderm need not segment into somites to respond to the inducing activity of the neural tube. We conclude that induction of myogenesis in somites does not require cell-cell contact between either the neural tube or the notochord and therefore induction is mediated by diffusible factor(s); that the inducing activity is localized principally to the notochord and ventral half of the neural tube, but not necessarily to the floor plate; that the myogenic response is specific to neural tube and notochord; and that the dorsal neural tube weakly induces myogenesis and contains an activity that inhibits myogenic cells from differentiating.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QY79400010

    View details for PubMedID 7750661

  • DIFFERENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL FATE OF CULTURED AND NONCULTURED MYOBLASTS WHEN TRANSPLANTED INTO EMBRYONIC LIMBS EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH DiMario, J. X., Stockdale, F. E. 1995; 216 (2): 431-442

    Abstract

    Myoblasts from embryonic, fetal, and adult quail and chick muscles were transplanted into limb buds of chick embryos to determine if myoblasts can form muscle fibers in heterochronic limbs and to define the conditions that affect the ability of transplanted cells to populate newly developing limb musculature. Myoblasts from each developmental stage were either freshly isolated and transplanted or were cultured prior to transplantation into limb buds of 4- to 5-day (ED4-5) chick embryos. Transplanted myoblasts, regardless of the age of the donor from which they were derived, formed muscle fibers within embryonic limb muscles. Transplanted cloned myoblasts formed muscle fibers, although there was little evidence that the number of transplanted myoblasts significantly increased following transplantation or that they migrated any distance from the site of injection. The fibers that formed from transplanted clonal myoblasts often did not persist in the host limb muscles until ED10. Diminished fiber formation from myoblasts transplanted into host limbs was observed whether myoblasts were cloned or cultured at high density. However, when freshly isolated myoblasts were transplanted, the fibers they formed were numerous, widely dispersed within the limb musculature, and persisted in the muscles until at least ED10. These results indicate that transplanted myoblasts of embryonic, fetal, and adult origin are capable of forming fibers during early limb muscle formation. They also indicate that even in an embryonic chick limb where proliferation of endogenous myoblasts and muscle fiber formation is rapidly progressing, myoblasts that are cultured in vitro do not substantially contribute to long-term muscle fiber formation after they are transplanted into developing limbs. However, when the same myoblasts are freshly isolated and transplanted without prior cell culture, substantial numbers of fibers form and persist after transplantation into developing limbs. Thus, these studies demonstrate that the extent to which transplanted myoblasts fuse to form fibers which persist in host musculature depends upon whether donor myoblasts are freshly isolated or maintained in vitro prior to injection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QG01400019

    View details for PubMedID 7843288

  • MAMMOGRAPHY, NEEDLE-BIOPSY, AND TUMOR SPREAD JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Stockdale, F. E. 1994; 272 (11): 895-896

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PG18200033

    View details for PubMedID 8078171

  • MYOGENESIS - EMBRYOLOGY TO GENE-THERAPY TRENDS IN GENETICS Stockdale, F. E. 1994; 10 (9): 301-302

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PE11800001

    View details for PubMedID 7974740

  • MYOGENIC SPECIFICATION IN SOMITES - INDUCTION BY AXIAL STRUCTURES DEVELOPMENT BUFFINGER, N., Stockdale, F. E. 1994; 120 (6): 1443-1452

    Abstract

    Specification of the myogenic phenotype in somites was examined in the early chick embryo using organotypic explant cultures stained with monoclonal antibodies to myosin heavy chain. It was found that myogenic specification (formation of muscle fibers in explants of somites or segmental plates cultured alone) does not occur until Hamburger and Hamilton stage 11 (12-14 somites). At this stage, only the somites in the rostral half of the embryo are myogenically specified. By Hamburger and Hamilton stage 12 (15-17 somites), the three most caudal somites were not specified to be myogenic while most or all of the more rostral somites are specified to myogenesis. Somites from older embryos (stage 13-15, 18-26 somites) showed the same pattern of myogenic specification--all but the three most caudal somites were specified. We investigated the effects of the axial structures, the notochord and neural tube, on myogenic specification. Both the notochord and neural tube were able to induce myogenesis in unspecified somites. In contrast, the neural tube, but not the notochord, was able to induce myogenesis in explants of segmental plate, a structure which is not myogenic when cultured alone. When explants of specified somites were stained with antibodies to slow or fast MyHC, it was found that myofiber diversity (fast and fast slow fibers) was established very early in development (as early as Hamburger and Hamilton stage 11). We also found fiber diversity in explants of unspecified somites (the three most caudal somites from stage 11 to 15) when they were recombined with notochord or neural tube. We conclude that myogenic specification in the embryo results in diverse fiber types and is an inductive process which is mediated by factors produced by the neural tube and notochord.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NT55500009

    View details for PubMedID 8050355

  • MYOBLASTS TRANSFERRED TO THE LIMBS OF EMBRYOS ARE COMMITTED TO SPECIFIC FIBER FATES NATURE DiMario, J. X., Fernyak, S. E., Stockdale, F. E. 1993; 362 (6416): 165-167

    Abstract

    In the limb bud of the 5-day-old avian embryo, when primary muscle fibre formation is beginning and before specific muscles appear, differences in the expression of fast and slow myosin heavy chain genes can be detected among primary fibres of the premuscle masses. Myoblasts that form colonies of fibres of specific types can be isolated from these limb buds. To assess the role of myoblast commitment in specifying fibre types during embryonic development, we cloned myoblasts of specific types from embryonic and adult muscles, transfected them with a reporter gene, and transferred them into developing limb buds. After transfer, cloned myoblasts formed fibres in the limb with the same patterns of myosin heavy chain gene expression as the fibres they formed in cell culture. These results demonstrate that initial skeletal muscle fibre type diversity during avian limb development can originate, in part, from the commitment of distinct myoblast types to the formation of specific fibre types.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KR02800062

    View details for PubMedID 8383807

  • Developmental appearance of adult myoblasts (satellite cells): studies of adult myoblasts in culture and adult myoblast transfer into embryonic avian limbs. Progress in clinical and biological research Feldman, J. L., DiMario, J. X., Stockdale, F. E. 1993; 383B: 563-574

    View details for PubMedID 8115373

  • MYOGENIC CELL LINEAGES DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Stockdale, F. E. 1992; 154 (2): 284-298

    Abstract

    For many years the mechanisms by which skeletal muscles in higher vertebrates come to be composed of diverse fiber types distributed in distinctive patterns has interested cell and developmental biologists. The fiber composition of skeletal muscles varies from class to class and from muscle to muscle within the vertebrates. The developmental basis for these events is the subject of this review. Because an individual multinucleate vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber is formed by the fusion of many individual myoblasts, more attention, in recent times, has been directed toward the origins and differences among myoblasts, and more emphasis has been placed on the lineal relationship of myoblasts to fibers. This is a review of studies related to the concepts of myogenic cell lineage in higher vertebrate development with emphases on some of the most challenging problems of myogenesis including the embryonic origins of myogenic precursor cells, the mechanisms of fiber type diversity and patterning, the distinctions among myoblasts during myogenesis, and the current hypotheses of how a variety of factors, intrinsic and extrinsic to the myoblast, determine the definitive phenotype of a muscle fiber.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JZ08100006

    View details for PubMedID 1426639

  • DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED EXPRESSION OF 3 SLOW ISOFORMS OF MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN - DIVERSITY AMONG THE 1ST FIBERS TO FORM IN AVIAN MUSCLE DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Page, S., MILLER, J. B., DiMario, J. X., Hager, E. J., Moser, A., Stockdale, F. E. 1992; 154 (1): 118-128

    Abstract

    At least three slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were expressed in skeletal muscles of the developing chicken hindlimb, and differential expression of these slow MHC isoforms produced distinct fiber types from the outset of skeletal muscle myogenesis. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated differences in MHC content among the fibers of the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses and distinctions among fibers before splitting of the premuscle masses into individual muscles (Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 25). Immunoblot analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of myosin extracted from the hindlimb demonstrated the presence throughout development of different mobility classes of MHCs with epitopes associated with slow MHC isoforms. Immunopeptide mapping showed that one of the MHCs expressed in the embryonic limb was the same slow MHC isoform, slow MHC1 (SMHC1), that is expressed in adult slow muscles. SMHC1 was expressed in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, embryonic, fetal, and some neonatal and adult hindlimb muscles. In the embryo and fetus SMHC1 was expressed in future fast, as well as future slow muscles, whereas in the adult only the slow muscles retained expression of SMHC1. Those embryonic muscles destined in the adult to contain slow fibers or mixed fast/slow fibers not only expressed SMHC1, but also an additional slow MHC not previously described, designated as slow MHC3 (SMHC3). Slow MHC3 was shown by immunopeptide mapping to contain a slow MHC epitope (reactive with mAb S58) and to be structurally similar to a MHC expressed in the atria of the adult chicken heart. SMHC3 was designated as a slow MHC isoform because (i) it was expressed only in those muscles destined to be of the slow type in the adult, (ii) it was expressed only in primary fibers of muscles that subsequently are of the slow type, and (iii) it had an epitope demonstrated to be present on other slow, but not fast, isoforms of avian MHC. This study demonstrates that a difference in phenotype between fibers is established very early in the chicken embryo and is based on the fiber type-specific expression of three slow MHC isoforms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JW69000012

    View details for PubMedID 1426621

  • TEMPORAL APPEARANCE OF SATELLITE CELLS DURING MYOGENESIS DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Feldman, J. L., Stockdale, F. E. 1992; 153 (2): 217-226

    Abstract

    In this study, differences between fetal and adult myoblasts in clonal and high density culture have been used to determine when adult myoblasts can first be detected during avian development. The results indicate that avian adult myoblasts are apparent as a distinct population of myoblasts during the midfetal stage of development. Three different criteria were used to differentiate fetal and adult myoblasts and demonstrate when adult myoblasts become a major proportion of the myoblast population: (1) differences in slow myosin heavy chain 1 (MHC1) isoform expression, (2) initiation of DNA synthetic activity, and (3) average myoblast length. Fetal chicken (ED10-12) pectoralis muscle (PM) myoblasts form myotubes that express slow MHC1 after prolonged culture, while adult chicken PM myoblasts do not. Fetal avian myoblasts were active in DNA synthesis and large when first isolated, reaching peak rates of synthesis by 24 hr in culture, while adult myoblasts were inactive in DNA synthesis and small when first isolated, only reaching peak rates of DNA synthesis and size at 3 days of incubation. A dramatic decrease in the percentage of muscle colonies with fibers that expressed slow MHC1 was observed between the midfetal stage and hatching in the chicken, along with a corresponding decrease in myoblast DNA synthetic activity and average length during this same period in both the chicken and the quail. Myoblast activity and average length increased again 3-4 days posthatch and a small transient increase in the number of slow MHC1-expressing clones was also associated with the massive growth of muscle that occurs in the neonatal bird. We conclude that adult myoblasts are present as a distinct population of myoblasts at least as early as the midfetal stages of avian development.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JR32700004

    View details for PubMedID 1397679

  • SKELETAL-MUSCLE SATELLITE CELL DIVERSITY - SATELLITE CELLS FORM FIBERS OF DIFFERENT TYPES IN CELL-CULTURE DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Feldman, J. L., Stockdale, F. E. 1991; 143 (2): 320-334

    Abstract

    Following skeletal muscle injury, new fibers form from resident satellite cells which reestablish the fiber composition of the original muscle. We have used a cell culture system to analyze satellite cells isolated from adult chicken and quail pectoralis major (PM; a fast muscle) and anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD; a slow muscle) to determine if satellite cells isolated from fast or slow muscles produce one or several types of fibers when they form new fibers in vitro in the absence of innervation or a specific extracellular milieu. The types of fibers formed in satellite cell cultures were determined using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for avian fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. We found that satellite cells were of different types and that fast and slow muscles differed in the percentage of each type they contained. Primary satellite cells isolated from the PM formed only fast fibers, while up to 25% of those isolated from ALD formed fibers that were both fast and slow (fast/slow fibers), the remainder being fast only. Fast/slow fibers formed from chicken satellite cells expressed slow MHC1, while slow MHC2 predominated in fast/slow fibers formed from quail satellite cells. Prolonged primary culture did not alter the relative proportions of fast to fast/slow fibers in high density cultures of either chicken or quail satellite cells. No change in commitment was observed in fibers formed from chicken satellite cell progeny repeatedly subcultured at high density, while fibers formed from subcultured quail satellite cell progeny demonstrated increasing commitment to fast/slow fiber type formation. Quail satellite cells cloned from high density cultures formed colonies that demonstrated a similar change in commitment from fast to fast/slow, as did serially subcloned individual satellite cell progeny, indicating that the observed change from fast to fast/slow differentiation resulted from intrinsic changes within a satellite cell. Thus satellite cells freshly isolated from adult chicken and quail are committed to form fibers of at least two types, satellite cells of these two types are found in different proportions in fast and slow muscles, and repeated cell proliferation of quail satellite cell progeny may alter satellite cell progeny to increasingly form fibers of a single type.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV51200013

    View details for PubMedID 1991555

  • MYOBLAST DIVERSITY AND THE FORMATION OF THE EARLY LIMB MUSCULATURE CELL LINEAGES IN DEVELOPMENT Stockdale, F. E. 1990; 599: 111-118
  • EVOLUTIONARILY CONSERVED SEQUENCES OF STRIATED-MUSCLE MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN ISOFORMS - EPITOPE MAPPING BY CDNA EXPRESSION JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY MILLER, J. B., Teal, S. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1989; 264 (22): 13122-13130

    Abstract

    A cDNA expression strategy was used to localize amino acid sequences which were specific for fast, as opposed to slow, isoforms of the chicken skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and which were conserved in vertebrate evolution. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), termed F18, F27, F30, F47, and F59, were prepared that reacted with all of the known chicken fast MHC isoforms but did not react with any of the known chicken slow nor with smooth muscle MHC isoforms. The epitopes recognized by mAbs F18, F30, F47, and F59 were on the globular head fragment of the MHC, whereas the epitope recognized by mAb F27 was on the helical tail or rod fragment. Reactivity of all five mAbs also was confined to fast MHCs in the rat, with the exception of mAb F59, which also reacted with the beta-cardiac MHC, the single slow MHC isoform common to both the rat heart and skeletal muscle. None of the five epitopes was expressed on amphioxus, nematode, or Dictyostelium MHC. The F27 and F59 epitopes were found on shark, electric ray, goldfish, newt, frog, turtle, chicken, quail, rabbit, and rat MHCs. The epitopes recognized by these mAbs were conserved, therefore, to varying degrees through vertebrate evolution and differed in sequence from homologous regions of a number of invertebrate MHCs and myosin-like proteins. The sequence of those epitopes on the head were mapped using a two-part cDNA expression strategy. First, Bal31 exonuclease digestion was used to rapidly generate fragments of a chicken embryonic fast MHC cDNA that were progressively deleted from the 3' end. These cDNA fragments were expressed as beta-galactosidase/MHC fusion proteins using the pUR290 vector; the fusion proteins were tested by immunoblotting for reactivity with the mAbs; and the approximate locations of the epitopes were determined from the sizes of the cDNA fragments that encoded a particular epitope. The epitopes were then precisely mapped by expression of overlapping cDNA fragments of known sequence that covered the approximate location of the epitopes. With this method, the epitope recognized by mAb F59 was mapped to amino acids 211-231 of the chicken embryonic fast MHC and the three distinct epitopes recognized by mAbs F18, F30, and F47 were mapped to amino acids approximately 65-92. Each of these epitope sequences is at or near the ATPase active site.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AH61400059

    View details for PubMedID 2473986

  • A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF REASONING FROM THE CLINICAL LITERATURE AI MAGAZINE Rennels, G. D., Shortliffe, E. H., Stockdale, F. E., Miller, P. L. 1989; 10 (1): 49-57
  • DEVELOPMENTAL AND MUSCLE-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN METHYLATION OF THE MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN LC1F AND LC3F PROMOTERS DURING AVIAN MYOGENESIS DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Lamson, G., Stockdale, F. E. 1989; 132 (1): 62-68

    Abstract

    The fast alkali myosin light chains LC1f and LC3f are two contractile protein isoforms encoded for by a single gene complex. Expression of these two isoforms is dependent upon differential initiation of transcription at either of two promoters encoding unique 5' exons for isoform-specific amino termini of these light chains. Studies of protein expression have shown that the two isoforms are first expressed at different stages of development and in the case of the LC3f isoform only in fast twitch muscle fiber types. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the differential transcription of the gene complex are unknown. Experiments reported here demonstrated the direct correlation of isoform protein and mRNA expression with the undermethylation of the DNA in the promoter regions of the gene for each of the expressed myosin light chain isoforms. We find that fast and slow muscles have different patterns of undermethylation of the two promoter regions of the gene. Moreover, changes in methylation of the promoter regions were shown to occur specifically in skeletal muscle tissue, to be developmentally regulated, and to only occur in the LC3f promoter of those muscle groups that express LC3f protein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T373800006

    View details for PubMedID 2917697

  • DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS OF EXPRESSION AND COEXPRESSION OF MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAINS IN ATRIA AND VENTRICLES OF THE AVIAN HEART DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Evans, D., MILLER, J. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1988; 127 (2): 376-383

    Abstract

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the molecular properties of cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and the regions of the developing chicken heart in which they were expressed. Adult atria expressed three electrophoretically distinct MHCs that reacted specifically with mAbs F18, F59, or S58. During embryonic Days 2-4, when the atrial and ventricular chambers are forming, MHCs that reacted with mAbs F18, F59, or S58 were expressed in both the atria and ventricles. The atria continued to express MHCs that reacted with mAbs F18, F59, or S58 at all stages of development and in the adult. In the ventricles, expression of the MHCs reacting with these mAbs was found to be developmentally regulated. By embryonic Day 16, MHC(s) reacting with mAb F18 had disappeared from the developing ventricles, whereas MHCs reacting with S58 and F59 continued to be expressed throughout the ventricles. As development continued, MHC(s) reacting with S58 in the ventricle became restricted to expression in only the ventricular conducting system. MHC(s) reacting with F59 were expressed in both the ventricular myocytes and the ventricular conducting system throughout development and in the adult. Thus, in contrast to the embryonic chicken heart where at least three MHC isoforms were expressed in both the atria and ventricles, we found in the adult chicken heart that-at a minimum-three MHC isoforms were expressed in the atria, two MHC isoforms were expressed in the ventricular conducting system, and one MHC isoform in the ventricular myocardium. MHC isoform expression in the developing avian heart appears to be more complex than previously recognized.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P244500014

    View details for PubMedID 3378670

  • THE CLINICAL BIOLOGY OF BREAST-CANCER ANNUAL REVIEW OF MEDICINE Carlson, R. W., Stockdale, F. E. 1988; 39: 453-464

    Abstract

    Breast cancers present as a spectrum of neoplasms. The natural histories of the neoplasms are tied to the biological properties of the neoplastic cells that compose them. We review the histological, cytological, kinetic, and other parameters that best characterize the clinical biology of breast cancer.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M825500037

    View details for PubMedID 2835930

  • THE CELLULAR BASIS OF MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN ISOFORM EXPRESSION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF AVIAN SKELETAL-MUSCLES DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Stockdale, F. E., MILLER, J. B. 1987; 123 (1): 1-9

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J842700001

    View details for PubMedID 3305110

  • WHAT MUSCLE-CELLS KNOW THAT NERVES DONT TELL THEM TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES MILLER, J. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1987; 10 (8): 325-329
  • COMBINED MODALITY THERAPY OF LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST-CANCER - ONE INSTITUTIONS EXPERIENCE AND A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ANTICANCER RESEARCH Hu, E., Stockdale, F. E., Turner, B., Carlson, R. W., Levine, J., KUSHLAN, P. 1987; 7 (4): 733-736

    Abstract

    Fourteen patients with locally advanced breast cancer were treated at Stanford University Medical Center with a combined modality approach. Treatment consisted of an initial 5 day course of cyclophosphamide followed by three cycles of combination chemotherapy (CAF or CMF). Patients subsequently received radiation therapy to the involved breast and regional nodal areas, followed by mastectomy if resistant disease was present following irradiation. Additional chemotherapy (CMF) was administered for 6 cycles. With a median follow up of 42 months, all fourteen patients are free of local disease. Five out of the fourteen patients have experienced distant relapses and two patients died. We conclude that an aggressive combined modality approach to treatment of locally advanced breast cancer can result in excellent local control and survival even in poor prognosis patients. A review of pertinent studies on multimodality treatment for locally advanced breast cancer confirms our findings.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K599800011

  • IDENTIFICATION OF SARCOLEMMA-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS WITH DIFFERENTIAL DISTRIBUTIONS ON FAST AND SLOW SKELETAL-MUSCLE FIBERS JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY Schafer, D. A., Stockdale, F. E. 1987; 104 (4): 967-979

    Abstract

    We have identified three sarcolemma-associated antigens, including two antigens that are differentially distributed on skeletal muscle fibers of the fast, fast/slow, and slow types. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared using partially purified membranes of adult chicken skeletal muscles as immunogens and were used to characterize three antigens associated with the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. Immunofluorescence staining of cryosections of adult and embryonic chicken muscles showed that two of the three antigens differed in expression by fibers depending on developmental age and whether the fibers were of the fast, fast/slow, or slow type. Fiber type was assigned by determining the content of fast and slow myosin heavy chain. MSA-55 was expressed equally by fibers of all types. In contrast, MSA-slow and MSA-140 differed in their expression by muscle fibers depending on fiber type. MSA-slow was detected exclusively at the periphery of fast/slow and slow fibers, but was not detected on fast fibers. MSA-140 was detected on all fibers but fast/slow and slow fibers stained more intensely suggesting that these fiber types contain more MSA-140 than fast fibers. These sarcolemma-associated antigens were developmentally regulated in ovo and in vitro. MSA-55 and MSA-140 were detected on all primary muscle fibers by day 8 in ovo of embryonic development, whereas MSA-slow was first detected on muscle fibers just before hatching. Those antigens expressed by fast fibers (MSA-55 and MSA-140) were expressed only after myoblasts differentiated into myotubes, but were not expressed by fibroblasts in cell culture. Each antigen was also detected in one or more nonskeletal muscle cell types: MSA-55 and MSA-slow in cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle of gizzard (but not vascular structures) and MSA-140 in cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle of vascular structures. MSA-55 was identified as an Mr 55,000, nonglycosylated, detergent-soluble protein, and MSA-140 was an Mr 140,000, cell surface protein. The Mr of MSA-slow could not be determined by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation techniques. These findings indicate that muscle fibers of different physiological function differ in the components associated with the sarcolemma. While the function of these sarcolemma-associated antigens is unknown, their regulated appearance during development in ovo and as myoblasts differentiate in culture suggests that they may be important in the formation, maturation, and function of fast, fast/slow, and slow muscle fibers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G733400019

    View details for PubMedID 3549741

  • REASONING FROM THE CLINICAL LITERATURE - A DISTANCE METRIC BULLETIN DU CANCER Rennels, G. D., Shortliffe, E. H., Stockdale, F. E., Miller, P. L. 1987; 74 (2): 215-220

    Abstract

    There has been little or no integration of specific studies from the clinical literature with computer-based medical advice systems. This paper reports preliminary results of a research project designed to model reasoning from the clinical literature. The program, named "Roundsman", draws upon structured representations of the clinical literature in order to critique plans for medical management. This paper discusses the need for a clinical "distance" metric to use in mapping from studies to treatment choices. The design of one such metric is outlined, and the results of its incorporation in Roundsman are shown in a sample output from the program. The application domain for this program is the management of primary breast cancer, but the research goals are to identify general issues which arise in diverse medical management domains.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H794300012

    View details for PubMedID 3607304

  • A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF REASONING FROM THE CLINICAL LITERATURE COMPUTER METHODS AND PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICINE Rennels, G. D., Shortliffe, E. H., Stockdale, F. E., Miller, P. L. 1987; 24 (2): 139-149

    Abstract

    This paper explores the premise that a formalized representation of empirical studies can play a central role in computer-based decision support. The specific motivations underlying this research include the following propositions: Reasoning from experimental evidence contained in the clinical literature is central to the decisions physicians make in patient care. A computational model, based upon a declarative representation for published reports of clinical studies, can drive a computer program that selectively tailors knowledge of the clinical literature as it is applied to a particular case. The development of such a computational model is an important first step toward filling a void in computer-based decision support systems. Furthermore, the model may help us better understand the general principles of reasoning from experimental evidence both in medicine and other domains. Roundsman is a developmental computer system which draws upon structured representations of the clinical literature in order to critique plans for the management of primary breast cancer. Roundsman is able to produce patient-specific analyses of breast cancer management options based on the 24 clinical studies currently encoded in its knowledge base. The Roundsman system is a first step in exploring how the computer can help to bring a critical analysis of the relevant literature to the physician, structured around a particular patient and treatment decision.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H421200007

    View details for PubMedID 3297479

  • MILK PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND DUCTAL MORPHOGENESIS IN THE MAMMARY-GLAND INVITRO - HORMONE-DEPENDENT AND HORMONE-INDEPENDENT PHASES OF ADIPOCYTE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL-CELL INTERACTION DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Wiens, D., Park, C. S., Stockdale, F. E. 1987; 120 (1): 245-258

    Abstract

    Epithelial cell differentiation frequently occurs in situ in conjunction with supporting mesenchyme or connective tissue. In embryonic development the importance of the supporting mesenchyme for cytodifferentiation and morphogenesis has been demonstrated in several epithelial tissues, but the importance of epithelial-connective tissue interactions is less well studied in adult epithelial organs. We have investigated the interaction of adult mammary epithelial cells with adipocytes, which compose the normal supporting connective tissue in the mammary gland. Mammary epithelial cells from mice in various physiological states were cultured on cellular substrates of adipocytes formed from cells of the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line. We found that there were two distinct phases to the interaction of epithelial cells with adipocytes. Cytodifferentiation of the epithelial cells and milk protein production were dependent on lactogenic hormones (insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin), whereas ductal morphogenesis was lactogenic hormone independent. When cultured on preadipocytes or adipocytes, mammary epithelial cells from never pregnant, pregnant, lactating, and involuting mice responded to lactogenic hormones rapidly by producing and secreting large amounts of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-casein and alpha-lactalbumin. This response was seen in individual as well as in clusters of epithelial cells, but was not seen if the same cells were cultured on tissue culture dishes without adipocytes, on fibroblasts (human newborn foreskin fibroblasts) or in the presence of adipocytes but in the absence of lactogenic hormones. Continued incubation of mammary epithelial cells on adipocytes in the presence or absence of lactogenic hormones resulted in the formation of a branching ductal system. Mammary epithelial cells in ducts that formed in the absence of lactogenic hormones produced no casein, but rapidly synthesized casein when subsequently exposed to these hormones. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the formation of a basement membrane occurs only in co-cultures of mammary epithelium with adipocytes or preadipocytes. Ultrastructural changes associated with secretion occurred only in the presence of lactogenic hormones. We propose that growth and formation of a ductal system in vitro can occur in the absence of lactogenic hormones, but that certain environment-associated events must occur if the epithelium is to become responsive to lactogenic hormones and undergo the cytodifferentiation associated with lactation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G235700025

    View details for PubMedID 3817293

  • CELL DIVERSIFICATION WITHIN THE MYOGENIC LINEAGE - INVITRO GENERATION OF 2 TYPES OF MYOBLASTS FROM A SINGLE MYOGENIC PROGENITOR-CELL CELL Schafer, D. A., MILLER, J. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1987; 48 (4): 659-670

    Abstract

    We show that a single myogenic progenitor cell in vitro generates two types of myoblasts committed to two distinct myogenic cell lineages. Using fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform content to define myotube type, we found that myogenic cells from fetal quail (day 10 in ovo) formed two types of myotubes in vitro: fast and mixed fast/slow. Clonal analysis showed that these two types of myotubes were formed from two types of myoblasts committed to distinct fast and fast/slow lineages. Serial subcloning demonstrated that the initial myoblast progeny of an individual myogenic progenitor cell were in the fast lineage, whereas later progeny were in the fast/slow lineage. Fast and slow myosin expression within particular myotubes reflects the genetic processes underlying myoblast commitment to diverse myogenic lineages.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G303400012

    View details for PubMedID 3545495

  • DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION OF THE MULTIPLE MYOGENIC CELL LINEAGES OF THE AVIAN EMBRYO JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY MILLER, J. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1986; 103 (6): 2197-2208

    Abstract

    The developmental regulation of myoblasts committed to fast, mixed fast/slow, and slow myogenic cell lineages was determined by analyzing myotube formation in high density and clonal cultures of myoblasts isolated from chicken and quail embryos of different ages. To identify cells of different myogenic lineages, myotubes were analyzed for content of fast and slow classes of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting using specific monoclonal antibodies. Myoblasts from the hindlimb bud, forelimb bud, trunk, and pectoral regions of the early chicken embryo and hindlimb bud of the early quail embryo (days 3-6 in ovo) were committed to three distinct lineages with 60-90% of the myoblasts in the fast lineage, 10-40% in the mixed fast/slow lineage, and 0-3% in the slow lineage depending on the age and species of the myoblast donor. In contrast, 99-100% of the myoblasts in the later embryos (days 9-12 in ovo) were in the fast lineage. Serial subculturing from a single myoblast demonstrated that commitment to a particular lineage was stably inherited for over 30 cell doublings. When myoblasts from embryos of the same age were cultured, the percentage of muscle colonies of the fast, fast/slow, and slow types that formed in clonal cultures was the same as the percentage of myotubes of each of these types that formed in high density cultures, indicating that intercellular contact between myoblasts of different lineages did not affect the type of myotube formed. An analysis in vivo showed that three types of primary myotubes--fast, fast/slow, and slow--were also found in the chicken thigh at day 7 in ovo and that synthesis of both the fast and slow classes of MHC isoforms was concomitant with the formation of primary myotubes. On the basis of these results, we propose that in the avian embryo, there is an early phase of muscle fiber formation in which primary myotubes with differing MHC contents are formed from myoblasts committed to three intrinsically different primary myogenic lineages independent of innervation and a later phase in which secondary myotubes are formed from myoblasts in a single, secondary myogenic lineage with maturation and maintenance of fiber diversity dependent on innervation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F162900015

    View details for PubMedID 3782296

  • THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAM OF FAST MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN EXPRESSION IN AVIAN SKELETAL-MUSCLES DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Crow, M. T., Stockdale, F. E. 1986; 118 (2): 333-342

    Abstract

    We have examined the types of fast myosin heavy chains (MHCs) expressed in a number of different developing chicken skeletal muscles by combining peptide mapping and immunoblotting to identify fast MHC-specific peptides among the total mixture of MHC digestion products. Using this technique, we have identified three different fast MHC patterns among the different fast and mixed (i.e., fast and slow) fiber type muscles of the adult. While the different muscles all underwent sequential changes in fast MHC isoform expression during their development, the exact sequence of these changes and the isoform patterns expressed varied from muscle to muscle. During late embryonic or fetal development, all muscles expressed a similar fast MHC pattern (designated here as the fetal pattern) which was replaced shortly after hatching with a different fast MHC pattern (the neonatal pattern). During the transition from the neonatal to the adult state that occurred sometime in the first year after hatching, many of the muscles underwent additional changes in fast MHC isoform expression. In muscles such as the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor, a new fast MHC isoform pattern was seen in the adult so that the developmental program of isoform switching in these muscles involved the sequential appearance of distinct fetal, neonatal, and adult fast MHCs. Other muscles, such as the sartorius and posterior latissimus dorsi, underwent a qualitatively different program of isoform switching and expressed as an adult a fast MHC pattern that was indistinguishable from that expressed during fetal development. Finally, in some muscles, such as the superficial biceps, no change in isoform pattern was detected during the neonatal to adult transition--in these muscles, expression of the neonatal MHC isoform pattern apparently persisted into the adult state. These data indicate that no single scheme or program of fast MHC isoform switching can describe all the developmental changes that occur in fast MHC isoform expression in the chicken and that at least three different programs of isoform switching and expression can be identified.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F299200002

    View details for PubMedID 3539659

  • DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGINS OF SKELETAL-MUSCLE FIBERS - CLONAL ANALYSIS OF MYOGENIC CELL LINEAGES BASED ON EXPRESSION OF FAST AND SLOW MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAINS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA MILLER, J. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1986; 83 (11): 3860-3864

    Abstract

    A clonal analysis was used to show that skeletal muscle myoblasts are committed to distinct cell lineages during development. Myoblasts taken from embryonic chicken hindlimb muscles of different ages were cultured at clonal density. The content of fast and slow classes of the myosin heavy chain isoforms in the myotubes of the resulting muscle colonies was determined immunocytochemically with specific monoclonal antibodies that served as markers for the different fiber types. The muscle colonies formed by cloning myoblasts from early hindlimbs (days 4-6 in ovo) were of three types: the most numerous type, in which all myotubes in a colony contained only the fast class of myosin heavy chain; a less numerous type, in which all myotubes in a colony contained both the fast and slow classes of myosin heavy chain isoforms; and a rare type, in which all myotubes in a colony contained only the slow class of myosin heavy chain. The muscle colonies formed by cloning myoblasts from later hindlimbs (days 10-12 in ovo) were, however, all of one type, in which every myotube in a colony contained only fast myosin heavy chain. Thus, myoblasts in the early embryo (days 4-6 in ovo) were a heterogeneous population committed to three myogenic lineages: fast, mixed fast/slow, and slow, whereas myoblasts from the later embryo (days 10-12 in ovo) were only in the fast myogenic lineage. These results suggest that muscle fiber formation is rooted in two developmental phases--an early phase in which diverse fiber types are formed from intrinsically diverse populations of myoblasts and a later phase in which fibers are formed from a single population of myoblasts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C590700063

    View details for PubMedID 3520558

  • MYOSIN EXPRESSION AND SPECIALIZATION AMONG THE EARLIEST MUSCLE-FIBERS OF THE DEVELOPING AVIAN LIMB DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Crow, M. T., Stockdale, F. E. 1986; 113 (1): 238-254

    Abstract

    Monoclonal antibodies specific to the light- and heavy-chain subunits of chicken skeletal muscle myosin have been used to identify fast and slow myosin-containing fibers in the thigh muscles of embryonic and adult chickens and to determine when in development diversification of muscle fiber types first occurs. Primary generation fibers which expressed different MLC and MHC types were evident within the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses and in the first muscles to form in the limb. These early embryonic muscle fiber types became distributed among and within the individual muscles of the thigh in a characteristic spatial pattern which served as a "blueprint" for guiding future muscle development and predicting the future fiber composition of the muscle. Despite the continuous addition of muscle fibers to the limb throughout development, the pattern remained unchanged. Neither the time of appearance, initial specialization, nor characteristic distribution of these primary fiber types within the limb was altered during the early embryonic period by chronic neuromuscular paralysis induced by D-tubocurarine. In contrast, muscles at later stages of embryonic development were markedly affected by such treatments and underwent atrophy and loss of differential staining characteristics. These results demonstrate that diversification of fibers in terms of myosin content is one of the earliest events in the formation of these muscles and suggest that the development of avian muscles be divided into two phases: an embryonic phase during which fibers of differing myosin content appear independently of innervation to become distributed in a specific topographic pattern within each muscle as it forms, followed by a fetal phase during which innervation becomes essential for maintaining this pattern and modulating the myosin content of its fibers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986AYP5100025

    View details for PubMedID 3943663

  • Cell-cell interactions in the mediation of hormone dependent differentiation of mammary epithelium. Progress in clinical and biological research Stockdale, F. E., Wiens, D. J., Levine, J. F. 1986; 217B: 417-424

    View details for PubMedID 3529124

  • SLOW AND FAST MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN CONTENT DEFINES 3 TYPES OF MYOTUBES IN EARLY MUSCLE-CELL CULTURES JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY MILLER, J. B., Crow, M. T., Stockdale, F. E. 1985; 101 (5): 1643-1650

    Abstract

    We prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for fast or slow classes of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the chicken and used them to probe myosin expression in cultures of myotubes derived from embryonic chicken myoblasts. Myosin heavy chain expression was assayed by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting of extracted myosin and by immunostaining of cultures of myotubes. Myotubes that formed from embryonic day 5-6 pectoral myoblasts synthesized both a fast and a slow class of myosin heavy chain, which were electrophoretically and immunologically distinct, but only the fast class of myosin heavy chain was synthesized by myotubes that formed in cultures of embryonic day 8 or older myoblasts. Furthermore, three types of myotubes formed in cultures of embryonic day 5-6 myoblasts: one that contained only a fast myosin heavy chain, a second that contained only a slow myosin heavy chain, and a third that contained both a fast and a slow heavy chain. Myotubes that formed in cultures of embryonic day 8 or older myoblasts, however, were of a single type that synthesized only a fast class of myosin heavy chain. Regardless of whether myoblasts from embryonic day 6 pectoral muscle were cultured alone or mixed with an equal number of myoblasts from embryonic day 12 muscle, the number of myotubes that formed and contained a slow class of myosin was the same. These results demonstrate that the slow class of myosin heavy chain can be synthesized by myotubes formed in cell culture, and that three types of myotubes form in culture from pectoral muscle myoblasts that are isolated early in development, but only one type of myotube forms from older myoblasts; and they suggest that muscle fiber formation probably depends upon different populations of myoblasts that co-exist and remain distinct during myogenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ATG7400002

    View details for PubMedID 3902852

  • CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS PROMOTE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL-CELL DIFFERENTIATION JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY Levine, J. F., Stockdale, F. E. 1985; 100 (5): 1415-1422

    Abstract

    Mammary epithelium differentiates in a stromal milieu of adipocytes and fibroblasts. To investigate cell-cell interactions that may influence mammary epithelial cell differentiation, we developed a co-culture system of murine mammary epithelium and adipocytes and other fibroblasts. Insofar as caseins are specific molecular markers of mammary epithelial differentiation, rat anti-mouse casein monoclonal antibodies were raised against the three major mouse casein components to study this interaction. Mammary epithelium from mid-pregnant mice was plated on confluent irradiated monolayers of 3T3-L1 cells, a subclone of the Swiss 3T3 cell line that differentiates into adipocytes in monolayer culture and other cell monolayers (3T3-C2 cells, Swiss 3T3 cells, and human foreskin fibroblasts). Casein was synthesized by mammary epithelium only in the presence of co-cultured cells and the lactogenic hormone combination of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin. Synthesis and accumulation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-mouse casein within the epithelium was shown by immunohistochemical staining of cultured cells with anti-casein monoclonal antibodies, and the specificity of the immunohistochemical reaction was demonstrated using immunoblots. A competitive immunoassay was used to measure the amount of casein secreted into the culture medium. In a 24-h period, mammary epithelium co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells secreted 12-20 micrograms beta-casein per culture dish. There was evidence of specificity in the cell-cell interaction that mediates hormone-dependent casein synthesis. Swiss 3T3 cells, newborn foreskin fibroblasts, substrate-attached material ("extracellular matrix"), and tissue culture plastic did not support casein synthesis, whereas monolayers of 3T3-L1 and 3T3-C2 cells, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells that does not undergo adipocyte differentiation, did. We conclude that interaction between mammary epithelium and other specific nonepithelial cells markedly influences the acquisition of hormone sensitivity of the epithelium and hormone-dependent differentiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AGW2800009

    View details for PubMedID 3886667

  • 3T3-L1 ADIPOCYTES PROMOTE THE GROWTH OF MAMMARY EPITHELIUM EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH Levine, J. F., Stockdale, F. E. 1984; 151 (1): 112-122

    Abstract

    Murine mammary epithelium grows in association with predominantly adipocyte stroma in vivo. To investigate potential growth-promoting effects of adipocytes on mammary epithelium, we developed a co-culture system of mammary epithelium and adipocytes by taking advantage of the 3T3-L1 cell line. These cells undergo adipocyte differentiation when the culture reaches confluence and growth ceases. Mid-pregnant murine mammary epithelium was plated on lethally irradiated feeder layers of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells, 3T3-C2 fibroblasts (a subclone of 3T3 cells that does not undergo adipocyte differentiation), or tissue culture plastic. Mammary epithelial colony size on adipocyte feeder layers was 2-fold larger than colonies on 3T3-C2 cells and 4-fold larger than colonies on tissue culture plastic. Measurement of tritiated thymidine [3H]TdR incorporation and labelling index in mammary cells was significantly higher on adipocytes than on other feeder layers or plastic. There was a 6-fold increase in mammary cell number after 5 days in culture when mammary epithelium was plated on substrate-attached material ('extracellular matrix') derived from 3T3-L1 cells and a 4-fold increase in cell number when plated on plastic in conditioned medium derived from 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with growth on plastic in unconditioned medium. We conclude that interaction of mammary epithelium with adipocytes results in a marked increase in proliferation of mammary epithelium and that extracellular components may mediate this effect.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SF73800013

    View details for PubMedID 6698114

  • THE EFFECT OF POSTOPERATIVE AND PRIMARY RADIATION-THERAPY ON DELIVERED DOSE OF ADJUVANT CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, METHOTREXATE, AND 5-FLUOROURACIL (CMF) CHEMOTHERAPY IN BREAST-CANCER CANCER Levine, J. F., Coleman, C. N., Cox, R. S., Ray, G. R., ROGOWAY, W. M., Martinez, A., Stockdale, F. E. 1984; 53 (2): 237-241

    Abstract

    The dose of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer may be an important factor in the success of the treatment program. In a retrospective analysis, the authors determined whether patients who were irradiated either postoperatively (N = 29) or as part of primary treatment (N = 13) received a lower dose of adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) chemotherapy than patients who were not irradiated (N = 42). The 84 evaluable patients received either cyclical or weekly CMF. Radiation therapy included the chest wall or breast and regional lymph nodes. The mean percentage of maximum chemotherapy dose delivered (59.9% versus 73.5%; P less than 0.001), mean percent prescribable or theoretical maximum dose (83.1% versus 91.3%; P less than 0.001), and mean leukocyte count (3.9 versus 4.5; P less than 0.01) during therapy were statistically significantly lower in irradiated patients. The lower delivered chemotherapy dose in irradiated patients was not related to the radiation dose to the thoracic spine. The authors conclude that radiation therapy to the chest wall or breast and regional lymph nodes reduces the dose of adjuvant CMF that can be delivered.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984RZ06400008

    View details for PubMedID 6546300

  • REGULATION OF MEMBRANE-TRANSPORT SITES FOR AMINO-ACIDS IN MYOGENIC CELLS - A DIFFERENTIATION DEPENDENT PHENOMENON DIFFERENTIATION GROVE, B. K., Stockdale, F. E. 1983; 24 (1): 48-54

    Abstract

    Myoblasts from 12-day chick embryos in cell culture transport the nonmetabolizable amino acid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) two to three-fold more rapidly than multinucleated myotubes which form from them. This decrease in transport is due to a relative decrease in the number of transport sites per unit area of cell surface suggesting a compositional change in the plasma membrane during myogenesis. In studies reported here, AIB transport was monitored throughout myogenesis and correlated with other aspects of differentiation. During myogenesis the number of amino acid transport sites remains constant per myotube nucleus. As myogenesis proceeds, there is a marked increase in cellular protein and cell surface without a commensurate increase in amino acid transport sites. The net consequence of the surface area change is fewer amino acid transport sites per unit area of myotube membrane surface. The decrease in membrane transport sites for AIB per unit area of membrane is not a result of length of time in culture per se, medium depletion, or cell density, but is a result of differentiation, since blocking myoblast fusion by deprivation of calcium delays the decrease in AIB transport sites per unit cell surface area while reversal of the calcium deprivation block is accompanied by a rapid decrease in the number of AIB transport sites per unit cell surface area. Thus, the decrease in AIB transport sites is an aspect of differentiation which accompanies the marked elaboration of surface membrane during myogenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QU25800008

    View details for PubMedID 6873522

  • REDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY OF DOXORUBICIN DELIVERED ON A WEEKLY SCHEDULE - ASSESSMENT BY ENDOMYOCARDIAL BIOPSY ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Torti, F. M., Bristow, M. R., HOWES, A. E., Aston, D., Stockdale, F. E., Carter, S. K., Kohler, M., Brown, B. W., Billingham, M. E. 1983; 99 (6): 745-749

    Abstract

    Endomyocardial biopsy was done 119 times in 98 patients receiving doxorubicin therapy once every 3 weeks and 41 times in 27 patients receiving doxorubicin therapy weekly. Factors contributing to the degree of anthracycline-induced endomyocardial injury were evaluated. Neither age, sex, type of malignancy, concomitant use of other chemotherapeutic agents including cyclophosphamide, nor history of cardiac disease or hypertension influenced the extent of the endomyocardial injury. The dose of doxorubicin (p = 0.0001) and the schedule (weekly versus 3 weekly) (p = 0.0020) independently predicted the degree of endomyocardial damage in multivariate analyses. Previous cardiac irradiation had borderline significance (p = 0.074) in predicting endomyocardial damage in this analysis. Doxorubicin therapy administered on a weekly schedule is associated with less anthracycline-induced cardiac damage than is doxorubicin therapy delivered in the conventional, 3-weekly schedule.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RU40300001

    View details for PubMedID 6651020

  • MYOSIN LIGHT-CHAIN EXPRESSION DURING AVIAN MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY Crow, M. T., Olson, P. S., Stockdale, F. E. 1983; 96 (3): 736-744

    Abstract

    Monoclonal antibodies to adult chicken myosin light chains were generated and used to quantitate the types of myosin light-chain (MLC) isoforms expressed during development of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD), and medial adductor (MA) muscles of the chicken. These are muscles which, in the adult, are composed predominantly of fast, slow, and a mixture of fiber types, respectively. Three distinct phases of MLC expression characterized the development of the PM and MA muscles. The first identifiable pase occurred during the period of 5-7 d of incubation in ovo. Extracts of muscles from the pectoral region (which included the presumptive PM muscle) contained only fast MLC isoforms. This period of exclusive fast light-chain synthesis was followed by a phase (8- 12 d of incubation in ovo) in which coexpression of both fast and slow MLC isoforms was apparent in both PM and MA muscles. During the period, the composition of both fast and slow MLC isoforms in the PM and MA muscles was identical. Beginning at day 12 in ovo, the ALD was also subjected to immunochemical analyses. The proportion of fast and slow MLCs in this muscle at day 12 was similar to that present in the other muscles studied. The third development phase of MLC expression began at approximately 12 d of incubation in ovo and encompassed the transition in MLC composition to the isoform patterns incubation in ovo and encompassed the transition in MLC composition to the isoform patterns typical of adult muscle. During this period, the relative proportion of slow MLC rose in both the MA and ALD and fell in the PM. By day 16, the third fast light chain, LC(3f), was apparent in extracts of both the PM and MA. These results show that there is a developmental progression in the expression of MLC in the two avian muscles studied from day 5 in ovo; first, only fast MLCs are accumulated, then both fast and slow MLC isoforms are expressed. Only during the latter third of development in ovo is the final MLC isoform pattern characteristic of a particular muscle type expressed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QD79700019

    View details for PubMedID 6339522

  • BEHAVIOR OF CANCER-PATIENTS - A RANDOMIZED STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF EDUCATION AND PEER SUPPORT GROUPS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Jacobs, C., Ross, R. D., Walker, I. M., Stockdale, F. E. 1983; 6 (3): 347-350

    Abstract

    Two prospective, controlled studies were conducted to determine if psychological and social functioning could be enhanced in patients with Hodgkin's disease by either education or participation in a peer support therapy group. Eighty-one patients were evaluated with the Cancer Patient Behavior Scale prior to and following intervention. Following education, patients experienced significant improvement in the frequency of Anxiety, Treatment Problems, Depression, and Life Disruption (p less than or equal to 0.1) compared to a control group. Following participation in peer support groups, patients showed no improvement in any of 10 areas of life functioning. Thus education represents an effective, efficient, and inexpensive means of improving psychological and social behavior in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Participation in this peer support therapy group did not result in significant behavior change.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QN78100016

    View details for PubMedID 6342360

  • MAMMARY SERUM FACTOR INITIATES CELL-GROWTH IN 3T3-CELL VARIANTS WHICH ARE NONRESPONSIVE TO EGF EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH PORZIG, E. F., Stockdale, F. E. 1982; 141 (1): 47-52

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PK68600006

    View details for PubMedID 6214417

  • Myosin light chain expression in the developing avian hindlimb. Progress in clinical and biological research Crow, M. T., Olson, P. S., CONLON, S. B., Stockdale, F. E. 1982; 110: 417-428

    View details for PubMedID 7167589

  • GROWTH EFFECTS OF LITHIUM-CHLORIDE IN BALB/C 3T3 FIBROBLASTS AND MADIN-DARBY CANINE KIDNEY EPITHELIAL-CELLS EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH RYBAK, S. M., Stockdale, F. E. 1981; 136 (2): 263-270

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MY04600004

    View details for PubMedID 6171441

  • QUANTITATION OF CHANGES IN CELL-SURFACE DETERMINANTS DURING SKELETAL-MUSCLE CELL-DIFFERENTIATION USING MONOSPECIFIC ANTIBODY JOURNAL OF SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY GROVE, B. K., Schwartz, G., Stockdale, F. E. 1981; 17 (2): 147-152

    Abstract

    The differentiation of skeletal muscle is characterized by recognition, alignment, and subsequent fusion of myoblast cells at their surfaces to form large, multinucleated myotubes. Monoclonal antibodies were used to investigate antigenic changes in the cell surface membrane specific for various stages of myogenesis. Chick embryonic skeletal muscle cells were cultured in vitro to the desired stage of differentiation and then injected into BALB/c mice. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were hybridized with NS-1 or P3 8653 mouse myeloma cells. Hybrid cell clones were selected in HAT medium and screened using an indirect radioimmunoassay for the production of monoclonal antibodies specific to myogenic cell surfaces. Target cells for the radioimmunoassay included three stages of myogenesis (myoblasts, midfusion, myoblasts, and myotubes) and chick lung cells as a control for polymorphic antigens. Sixty-one clones were obtained which produced antibodies specific for myogenic cells. Thirty-five of these clones were generated from mice immunized with midfusion myoblast stages of myogenesis and 26 were obtained from mice immunized with the later myotube stage of myogenesis. Quantitative measurements by RIA of myogenic determinants per cell surface area on each target cell type revealed that most of the determinants decrease during myogenesis when midfusion myoblasts are used as the immunogen. When myotube stages are used as the immunogen, more determinants increase with cell differentiation. Therefore, the most common pattern of determinant change is for them to be present at all stages of myogenesis but to vary quantitatively through development. There are determinants unique to each stage of myogenesis and marked quantitative differences within a cell stage for each determinant.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MW67700004

    View details for PubMedID 6172592

  • MYOSIN LIGHT-CHAINS AND THE DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGIN OF FAST MUSCLE PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Stockdale, F. E., Raman, N., Baden, H. 1981; 78 (2): 931-935

    Abstract

    Physiological characteristics of embryonic and fetal fast muscle function are similar to those of adult slow muscles, whereas most biochemical data suggest that embryonic and fetal fast muscles contain only fast muscle myosin. In the studies reported here, myofibrillar preparations from developing avian pectoral muscle (fast muscle) were isolated and analyzed for myosin light-chain type and synthesis. These analyses show that early in development avian fast muscle synthesizes and assembles myofibrils with light chains of both slow and fast myosins. Later in development, fast muscle no longer assembles myofibrils containing slow myosin light chains due to the cessation of synthesis of slow myosin light chains in mid-development. These in vivo studies indicate that the more developmentally primitive type of skeletal muscle is one that synthesizes both slow and fast myosin light chains independent of its anatomic location, and an event(s) late in fast muscle development results in the repression of synthesis of slow myosin light chains.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LF67000048

    View details for PubMedID 6940158

  • INITIATION OF DNA-SYNTHESIS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIUM AND MAMMARY-TUMORS BY LITHIUM IONS JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY PTASHNE, K., Stockdale, F. E., Conlon, S. 1980; 103 (1): 41-46

    Abstract

    The growth promoting effects of lithium and insulin on cultures of mammary gland epithelium and CZF mouse mammary tumor cells were investigated. Lithium chloride exerts a 450-fold increase in the rate of DNA synthesis in mammary epithelium from mid-pregnant mice in organ culture or monolayer culture. There is an increase in both the percentage of cells initiating DNA synthesis and the net accumulation of DNA. The most effective lithium concentration is 10 mM, and the maximally effective rate of stimulation is reached 48 hours after addition. The magnitude of response to lithium varies with the physiological state of the mammary epithelial cell donor: epithelium from non-pregnant or lactating mice is less responsive than that from mid-pregnant mice. In combination, insulin and lithium produce either a synergistic or an additive effect on the growth of epithelium dependent upon the physiological state of the donor animal. Lithium also promotes the growth of mammary tumor cells in the absence or serum or other mitogens. The action of lithium on DNA synthesis appears to be a direct effect on the epithelial cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JY46100006

    View details for PubMedID 7000799

  • DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALPHA-HCG IN THE SERUM AND TUMOR CYTOSOL OF PATIENTS WITH BREAST-CANCER INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER Shindelman, J. E., ORTMEYER, A. E., Wada, H. G., STOCKDALE, F., Sussman, H. H. 1980; 25 (5): 599-604

    Abstract

    Serum and tumor tissue from breast cancer patients were evaluated for the presence of alpha subunit of hCG, by means of the specific radioimmunoassay. Elevated serum levels occurred in 0/50 (0%) of normal female controls, 1/17 (6%) of patients with benign breast disease, 3/53 (6%) of patients with primary breast cancer, and 12/84 (14%) of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Cytosols from 10/56 (18%) primary tumors and 10/37 (28%) metastatic tumors were found to contain the alpha subunit. Comparison of serum and tumor cytosol levels in nine patients with metastatic disease showed a correspondence between elevated cytosol levels and elevated serum levels. No similar correspondence in 25 patients with primary disease was observed. Alpha subunit was isolated from one tumor cytosol and was characterized with respect to its immunochemical cross-reactivity and molecular weight as compared with native alpha subunit from hCG. For both parameters, the native and ectopic alpha subunit were found to be identical.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JT56000007

    View details for PubMedID 6768680

  • PARTIAL-PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAMMARY STIMULATING FACTOR, A PROTEIN WHICH PROMOTES PROLIFERATION OF MAMMARY EPITHELIUM BIOCHEMISTRY PTASHNE, K., HSUEH, H. W., Stockdale, F. E. 1979; 18 (16): 3533-3539

    Abstract

    This report describes the partial purification and characterization of mammary stimulating factor (MSF), a mitogenic peptide isolated from serum which initiates growth in mouse mammary epithelium. By using ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing, MSF was purified 250-fold from porcine serum. It is a heat-stable protein of molecular weight 10,100--10,400 with an isoelectric point of 5.5--6.0. MSF initiates DNA synthesis in vitro in mammary epithelium to a greater extent than in mouse mammary tumor cells (CZF), 3T3 cells, or chick embryo cells. Comparison of the biological, physical, and immunological properties of MSF with other established growth-promoting peptides suggests that MSF is a unique serum factor.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HF72800015

    View details for PubMedID 476066

  • MEMBRANE-FUNCTION IN DIFFERENTIATING SKELETAL-MUSCLE CELLS .1. KINETIC-ANALYSIS OF AMINO-ACID TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY GROVE, B. K., Stockdale, F. E. 1978; 66 (1): 142-150

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FP11300013

    View details for PubMedID 751833

  • MYOSIN SYNTHESIS INCREASED BY ELECTRICAL-STIMULATION OF SKELETAL-MUSCLE CELL-CULTURES SCIENCE Brevet, A., Pinto, E., Peacock, J., Stockdale, F. E. 1976; 193 (4258): 1152-1154

    Abstract

    When cultures of skeletal muscle cells of the chick embryo are subjected to repetitive, electrical stimulation, the contractions increase the amount of protein produced by these cells. The increase is greater for contractile proteins such as myosin heavy chain than for total cellular protein. This demonstrates that in a culture system of skeletal muscle cells that have differentiated in the absence of innervation, one can elicit the protein synthetic response associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976CC91600034

    View details for PubMedID 959833

  • SEARCH FOR PREFERENTIAL SYNTHESIS OF SPECIFIC NUCLEAR DNAS DURING MAMMARY-GLAND DEVELOPMENT BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Cummins, E. P., Stockdale, F. E. 1975; 65 (2): 472-477

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AJ85300004

    View details for PubMedID 1148004

  • EFFECTS OF SERUM ON MAMMARY EPITHELIAL PROLIFERATION INVITRO DURING MAMMARY-GLAND DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY HSUEH, H. W., Stockdale, F. E. 1975; 66 (2): 243-250

    Abstract

    The proliferative response of mammary gland epithelium from nonpregnant, pregnant, and lactating mice to mammary serum factor and insulin was studied in vitro. Mammary gland epiithelium from nonpregnant and lactating animals has a delayed proliferative response to mammary serum factor and insulin when compared to the response of epithelium from pregnant animals. The results show that as the animals go through pregnancy into lactation the mammary gland epithelium becomes less responsive to mammary serum factor while it retains its responsiveness to insulin. The concentration of mammary serum factor in sera from animals at various physiological stages is constant. Sera from hypophysectomized rats, on the other hand, show a 50% drop in mammary serum factor activity. This loss of activity cannot be reversed by injecting prolactin, 17-beta-estradiol, or growth hormone into the hypophysectomized animals. A hypothesis that the mammary gland is composed of two proliferative epithelial populations is developed, and the possible role of prolactin in stimulating DNA synthesis is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AL33000003

    View details for PubMedID 1170177

Conference Proceedings


  • Predicting non-sentinel lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients. Kohrt, H. E., Olshen, R. A., Goodson, W. H., Rouse, R. V., Bailey, L., Philben, V., Dirbas, F. M., Stockdale, F. E., Carlson, R. W., Jeffrey, S. S. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2006: 10S-10S
  • Mechanisms of formation of muscle fiber types Stockdale, F. E. JAPAN SOC CELL BIOLOGY. 1997: 37-43

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WU88500007

    View details for PubMedID 9113388

  • EXPRESSION OF THE QUAIL SLOW MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN-3 GENE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SLOW SKELETAL-MUSCLE CELL LINEAGE Nikovits, W., Wang, G. F., Stockdale, F. E. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 1994: 502-502
  • ECLIPSE OF THE IDENTIFIABLE MYOBLAST Stockdale, F. E. COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD. 1992: 1-7

    Abstract

    During development of the limb musculature there is an eclipse of the myoblasts from the time first formed until the limb musculature begins to develop. The formation of the muscles of the limb is from cells of somite origin that migrate into the forming limb bud. While it is possible to identify myogenic cells in the somite prior to when migration occurs, and to determine the time frame during which migration occurs, there is a hiatus of about 34 hours during which it is difficult to identify or culture myogenic cells from the limb. In part this is because it is difficult to distinguish myogenic cells that migrate from those that do not. There are no markers that distinguish the myogenic cells of the somite that form the axial muscles and therefore stay in place, and from the myogenic cells that migrate to form the peripheral muscles of the body. Thus it unclear if the cell commitment to different myogenic fates occurs during somite formation, or during their sojourn to the limb bud.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992BX82U00001

    View details for PubMedID 1341029

  • THE MYOGENIC LINEAGE - EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE CELLULAR PRECURSORS DURING AVIAN LIMB DEVELOPMENT Stockdale, F. E. BLACKWELL SCIENCE INC. 1990: 71-75

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DY43900002

    View details for PubMedID 2190235

  • MYOBLASTS, SATELLITE CELLS, AND MYOBLAST TRANSFER Stockdale, F. E., Hager, E. J., Fernyak, S. E., DiMario, J. X. PLENUM PRESS DIV PLENUM PUBLISHING CORP. 1990: 7-11

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990BR89S00002

    View details for PubMedID 2248157

  • MITOGENIC EFFECTS OF MAMMARY STIMULATING FACTOR ON 3T3 CELL VARIANTS LACKING EGF RECEPTORS PORZIG, E. F., Stockdale, F. E. ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS. 1980: A156-A156

Footer Links:

Stanford Medicine Resources: