Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Professor (Teaching), Department of Pediatrics, and Center for Education in Family and Community Medicine (2006 - Present)
  • Evaluator, Stanford Geriatric Education Center (2008 - 2010)

Professional Education


  • Dr.PH, U.C. Berkeley, Public Health (1991)
  • MPH, U.C. Berkeley, Behavioral Sciences, PH (1987)

Community and International Work


  • Putting Healthcare Back into Schools: Evaluation of a Five-year Nurse Demonstration Project, San Jose

    Topic

    The role of School Nurses in Under-Served Schools

    Partnering Organization(s)

    San Jose Unified School District

    Populations Served

    Children in low-income/high-need schools, mostly of Hispanic origin

    Location

    California

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • HealthyU: A Health Science Learning Journey, Redwood City

    Topic

    Health education

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Redwood City Schools

    Populations Served

    Under-served school children

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • Employment trajectories, social benefits and health in Germany and the US, US and Germany

    Topic

    Unemployment, Employment Instability, social programs and health outcomes

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Institute for Social Research (WZB), Berlin, Germany

    Populations Served

    Unemployed and under-employed

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Current program of teaching and research has a focus on health disparities and social epidemiology, within the broader area of public health, and program evaluation, as a synthesis of theory and methods applied to the evaluation of health and social programs. See current research on school health issues at: http://schoolhealtheval.stanford.edu/

In Evaluation research my interest lies in the use and exploration of mixed methods, and in Social Epidemiology my interest lies in the study of the social programs and policies that may have an impact on health, well-being, and social reintegration. My focus is not on health care policies per se but on the social and economic programs and policies which may have an impact on health through their influence on social conditions and the psychological effects of social environments. My research has implications for work and unemployment policies, health care systems, and welfare reform.

My current teaching and research plans contribute to the mission of providing "interdisciplinary education and research opportunities for students, residents and health professionals and primary care for individuals and families with particular reference to the different health needs of diverse communities.”

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Chronic health conditions and school performance among children and youth ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Rivera, D., London, R., Landau, M., Erlendson, B., Rodriguez, E. 2013; 23 (4): 179-184

    Abstract

    Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance.This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments.Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P < .001) for ELA and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.18-1.38; P < .001) for math, relative to students without reported health conditions. Further adjustment for absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes.Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.01.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316976200004

    View details for PubMedID 23415278

  • Maternal unemployment and childhood overweight: is there a relationship? JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Stewart, L., Liu, Y., Rodriguez, E. 2012; 66 (7): 641-646

    Abstract

    Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored.A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2-16 at baseline, were included in the analysis.As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups.Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/jech.2010.110718

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304922600027

    View details for PubMedID 21422027

  • School Health: A Way to the Future?? Research in Political Sociology Rodriguez, E., Austria, D, Landau, M. 2011; 19: 27-42
  • The impact of education on care practices: an exploratory study of the influence of "action plans" on the behavior of health professionals INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOGERIATRICS Rodriguez, E., Marquett, R., Hinton, L., McBride, M., Gallagher-Thompson, D. 2010; 22 (6): 897-908

    Abstract

    There has been limited focus on evaluation of continuing education (CEU) and continuing medical education (CME) in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics. The increasing elderly population combined with the limited clinical workforce highlights the need for more effective methods of continuing education. Traditionally, outcomes of CEU and CME programs relied on self-report measures of satisfaction with the scope and quality of the training, but more recent efforts in this area have focused on outcomes indicating level of improved skills and attitudinal changes of medical and allied health professionals towards working with elderly patients in need of assistance.This study focused on the use of "Action Plans" as a tool to stimulate changes in clinical programs following training, along with attempting to determine typical barriers to change and how to deal with them. More than 600 action plans were obtained from participants attending various continuing education classes providing training on care of patients with dementia (PWD) and their families. Both qualitative and quantitative methods, including logistic regression models were used to analyze the data.Three months following training 366 participants reported whether they were successful in implementing their action plans and identified factors that either facilitated or hindered their goal to make changes outlined in their action plans. Despite the low response rate of program participants, the "action plan" (with follow up to determine degree of completion) appeared to stimulate effective behavioral changes in clinicians working with dementia patients and their family members. Seventy three percent of the respondents reported at least some level of success in implementing specific changes. Specific details about barriers to change and how to overcome them are discussed.Our results support that developing and writing action plans can be a useful tool to self- monitor behavioral change among trainees over time.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1041610210001031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282078000006

    View details for PubMedID 20594385

  • Smoking, drinking and body weight after re-employment: does unemployment experience and compensation make a difference? BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Bolton, K. L., Rodriguez, E. 2009; 9

    Abstract

    The impact of unemployment on behaviours such as smoking, drinking and body weight has been extensively researched. However, little is known about the possible protective effects of social assistance programs on these behavioural changes. This study examines the impact of unemployment periods on smoking, drinking and body weight changes among re-employed individuals and investigates whether the receipt of unemployment benefits influences these behaviours.This study used panel data provided by the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Logistic regression models were used to analyze whether a period of unemployment in 2000 resulted in an increase in smoking and drinking or fluctuations in body weight among 2001 re-employed individuals in comparison with 1999 baseline levels. A total of 3,451 respondents who had been initially healthy and who had been continuously employed between 1998 and 1999 were included in the analysis.Compared to stably employed respondents, those who had experienced periods of unemployment in 2000 and did not receive unemployment benefits were more likely than continuously employed individuals to report an increase in alcohol consumption (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.1) and a decrease in body weight (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8) when they were already re-employed in 2001.Our findings suggest that the receipt of unemployment benefits confers a protective effect on health behavioural changes following periods of unemployment. These findings underscore the need to monitor the impact of unemployment assistance programs on health, particularly in light of the rapidly changing structure of employment and unemployment benefits.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-9-77

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268084400001

    View details for PubMedID 19267893

  • Provincial income inequality and self-reported health status in China during 1991-7 JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Pei, X., Rodriguez, E. 2006; 60 (12): 1065-1069

    Abstract

    The relationship between income inequality and health has been widely explored. Today there is some evidence suggesting that good health is inversely related to income inequality. After the economic reforms initiated in the early 1980s, China experienced one of the fastest-growing income inequalities in the world. The state of China in the 1990s is focussed on and possible effects of provincial income inequality on individual health status are explored.A multilevel regression model is used to analyse the data collected in 1991, 1993 and 1997 from nine provinces included in the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The effects of provincial Gini coefficients on self-rated health in each year are evaluated by two logistic regressions estimating the odds ratios of reporting poor or fair health. The patterns of this effect are compared among the survey years and also among different demographic groups.The analyses show an independent effect of income inequality on self-reported health after adjusting for individual and household variables. Furthermore, the effect of income distribution is not attenuated when household income and provincial gross domestic product per capita are included in the model. The results show that there is an increased risk of about 10-15% on average for fair or poor health for people living in provinces with greater income inequalities compared with provinces with modest income inequalities.In China, societal income inequality appears to be an important determinant of population health during 1991-7.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/jech.2005.043539

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242048000012

    View details for PubMedID 17108303

  • Alcohol, employment status, and social benefits: One more piece of the puzzle AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE Rodriguez, E., Chandra, P. 2006; 32 (2): 237-259

    Abstract

    To examine the role of employment status and the receipt of social benefits in the prediction of alcohol use.Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) 1987-88 and 1991-92. A total of 7,599 respondents who were older than 16 years of age in 1987 and did not have a physical or mental condition were included in the analysis. The alcohol measures were (a) total number of drinks in the past 30 days; and (b) having 5 or more drinks in a day, 4 or more days in the past 30 days.Employed welfare recipient women have a greater likelihood of heavy drinking than other full-time employed. We do not find evidence of an association between not being employed (with or without benefits) and greater likelihood of engaging in heavy drinking behaviors. Alcohol drinking among other employment groups is not significantly different, with the exception of retired men who drink less.It is important to focus attention on women working while receiving welfare, and who may need help maintaining their jobs.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/00952990500479571

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237164400007

    View details for PubMedID 16595326

  • Types of provincial structure and population health SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Young, F. W., Rodriguez, E. 2005; 60 (1): 87-95

    Abstract

    This paper explores the potential of using large administrative units for studies of population health within a country. The objective is to illustrate a new way of defining structural dimensions and to use them in examining variation in life expectancy rates. We use data from the 50 provinces of Spain as a case study. A factor analysis of organizational items such as schools, hotels and medical personnel is employed to define and generate "collective" measures for well-known provincial types, in this case: urban, commercial, industrial and tourist provinces. The scores derived from the factor analysis are then used in a regression model to predict life expectancy. The City-centered and Commercial provinces showed positive correlations with life expectancy while those for the Tourist provinces were negative. The industrial type was nonsignificant. Explanations of these correlations are proposed and the advantages and disadvantages of this exploratory technique are reviewed. The use of this technique for generating an overview of social organization and population health is discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224945300008

    View details for PubMedID 15482869

  • Marginal employment and health in Britain and Germany: does unstable employment predict health? SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Rodriguez, E. 2002; 55 (6): 963-979

    Abstract

    This study examines the possible health impact of marginal employment, including both temporary and part-time employment schemes. It addresses three research questions: (1) Are employed people with a fixed-term contract or no contract more likely to report poor health than those who hold jobs with permanent contracts? (2) Are part-time employed respondents (even when they hold jobs with permanent contracts) more likely to report poor health than full-time workers? (3) Does change in employment stability (i.e., from employment with permanent contract to fixed-term or no contract employment and vice-versa) have an impact on health status? Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data from Britain and Germany (1991-1993), available in the Household Panel Comparability Project data base. We included 10,104 respondents from Germany and 7988 from Britain. A single measure of perceived health status was used as the dependent variable. Controlling for background characteristics, the health status of part-time workers with permanent contracts is not significantly different from those who are employed full-time. In contrast, fulltime employed people with fixed-term contracts in Germany are about 42 per cent more likely to report poor health than those who have permanent work contracts. In Britain, only part-time work with no contract is associated with poor health, but the difference is not statistically significant. We conclude that monitoring the possible health effects of the increasing number of marginal employment arrangements should be given priority on the social welfare research agenda.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177577500007

    View details for PubMedID 12220097

  • Keeping the unemployed healthy: The effect of means-tested and entitlement benefits in Britain, Germany, and the United States AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Rodriguez, E. 2001; 91 (9): 1403-1411

    Abstract

    Although considerable evidence about the health effects of unemployment exists, little is known about the possible protective effects of various social interventions. This study examined the role that means-tested and entitlement programs could have in ameliorating the health impact of unemployment in Britain, Germany, and the United States.Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data from Britain (1991-1993), Germany (1991-1993), and the United States (1985-1987) available in the Household Panel Comparability Project database. The analysis included 8,726 respondents from Britain, 11,086 from Germany, and 11,668 from the United States. The health-dependent variable used was a single measure of perceived health status.Evidence was found of differences in perceived health status between groups of unemployed people characterized by the types of benefits they receive. When socioeconomic characteristics and previous health and employment status are controlled for, means-tested benefits do not seem sufficient to reduce the impact of unemployment on health.Monitoring the possible health effects of changes in public assistance benefits should be given priority in the research and political agenda.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170650400026

    View details for PubMedID 11527771

  • The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States (Reprinted) WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Rodriguez, E., Lasch, K. E., Chandra, P., Lee, J. 2001; 174 (5): 317-323

    Abstract

    To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease.Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168299500015

    View details for PubMedID 11342506

  • Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation? JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Rodriguez, E., Lasch, K. E., Chandra, P., Lee, J. 2001; 55 (3): 172-178

    Abstract

    This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167000500009

    View details for PubMedID 11160171

  • Do social programmes contribute to mental well-being? The long-term impact of unemployment on depression in the United States INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Rodriguez, E., Frongillo, E. A., Chandra, P. 2001; 30 (1): 163-170

    Abstract

    Important evidence about the mental health effects of unemployment exist; however, little is known about the possible protective effects of various social interventions or about their long-term impact. This study examines the long-term consequences that different types of social programmes, i.e. entitlement and means-tested benefits, might have as regards ameliorating a negative mental health impact of unemployment among women and men.Multiple regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. In all 8029 individuals interviewed in both 1987 and 1992 were included in the analysis. A depression index was created from the responses to 15 items from the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale-D (CES-D) which were included in the survey.The receipt of government entitlement benefits by unemployed women is associated with a reduction of depression symptoms in the long term. Men and women not working and receiving means-tested or welfare benefits are more likely to report depression in both the short and long term.The study underscores the need for monitoring the impact of welfare reform on mental health.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167587300040

    View details for PubMedID 11171879

  • Evaluating Injury Prevention in Public Housing: Do Insurance Incentives Work? Housing and Society. Rodriguez, E., . RoMead J.PS., Laquatra J., Chandra PR. 2000; 25 (3): 23
  • Social Benefits and the Life-Cycle: Understanding the Predictors of Part-time versus Full-time Employment Research in the Sociology of Work Rodriguez, E. 2000; 8: 165
  • Unemployment, Depression, and Health: A Look at the African American Community Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Rodriguez, E., Allen JA, Frongillo EA, Jr., Chandra PR 1999; 53 (6): 335
  • New Developments and Challenges in Health Status Measurement Evaluation Rodriguez, E., Bowen, KS 1999; 4 (1): 25
  • Sharing Lessons with Newly Industrialized Countries: the Experience of the Spanish Health Care System Health Policy and Planning Rodriguez, E., Gallo, P., Jovell, A. 1999; 14 (2): 164
  • New Developments and Challenges in Health Status Measurement Evaluation Rodriguez, E., Bowen, K 1998; 4 (1): 25
  • A Theory-oriented Approach to the Evaluation of Community Based Primary Care Programs Evaluation and Program Planning Rodriguez, E., Mead, J 1997; 20 (2)
  • The Potential Role of Unemployment Benefits in Shaping the Mental Health Impact of Unemployment International Journal of Health Services Rodriguez, E., Lasch, Mead 1997; 27 (4): 217
  • Global Environmental Change: Preventive Measures to Reduce the Impact on Human Health Health Promotion International Rodriguez 1995; 10 (3): 239
  • Health Consequences of Unemployment in Barcelona European Journal of Public Health Rodriguez, E. 1994; 4: 245
  • Impact of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for Psychiatrists' Services". Advances Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, Dorwart, R., Rodriguez E, Causino N 1993; 14: 139
  • Measuring the Determinants of Work for Psychiatrists' Services in the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale Study American Journal of Psychiatry Dorwart, R., Rodriguez, E., Dernburg, J., Braun, P 1992; 149 (12)
  • Results and Impacts of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scales Medical Care Hsiao W, Braun, Becker et al. 1992; 30 (11): Supplement

Footer Links:

Stanford Medicine Resources: