Tumor-induced Osteomalacia in a 3-Year-Old With Unresectable Central Giant Cell Lesions.
Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
Analysis of Kidney Ultrasound Dimensions by Body Habitus and Position.
journal of urology
2016; 196 (3): 943-949
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare cause of hypophosphatemia involving overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23. TIO has been described largely in adults with small mesenchymal tumors. We report a case of TIO in a child who presented with knee pain and radiographic findings concerning for rickets, and was found to have maxillomandibular giant cell lesions. The patient was treated with oral phosphorus and calcitriol, surgical debulking, and intralesional corticosteroids, which resulted in tumor regression and normalization of serum fibroblast growth factor 23and phosphorus. This case illustrates the occurrence of this rare paraneoplastic syndrome in children and adds to our knowledge about clinical manifestations and pathologic findings associated with pediatric TIO.
View details for PubMedID 27820122
Added Value of Radiologist Consultation for Pediatric Ultrasound: Implementation and Survey Assessment
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
2015; 205 (4): 822-826
Renal dimensions are an important assessment of the genitourinary tract used to evaluate critical aspects of renal growth and development. Understanding the effect of patient position is important to use and interpret these parameters. In this prospective study we determined the effect of patient position and general body habitus on renal length and parenchymal area in children undergoing renal ultrasound.Between October 2010 and January 2011 children underwent renal ultrasound while prone and supine. Bilateral renal length and renal parenchymal area were measured. Pearson and Bland-Altman statistical analyses were used to examine correlations, measurement bias and the degree of agreement between methods.Renal length measurements in both positions were complete for 201 right and 196 left kidneys. Parenchymal area measurements were complete for both kidneys in 177 children. When compared individually, supine and prone measures of renal length and parenchymal area highly correlated on Pearson analysis (greater than 0.96 and greater than 0.89, respectively). When compared by method, Bland-Altman analyses of differences vs means showed greater than 50% variance, representing wide limits of agreement with poor interrelation. Neither persistent systematic bias nor body habitus influenced results.While Pearson analysis showed high correlation for supine and prone renal measurements, Bland-Altman analysis of renal length and parenchymal area demonstrated wide limits of agreement, not allowing interchangeable use of prone and supine measurements. As such, renal ultrasound should specify standardized positions and benchmarks. These results provide guidance to standardize renal ultrasound measurements when renal size is used as an indicator of kidney health.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2016.02.044
View details for PubMedID 26874315
Meconium in Perinatal Imaging: Associations and Clinical Significance
SEMINARS IN ULTRASOUND CT AND MRI
2015; 36 (2): 161-177
The purpose of this study was to determine whether radiologist-parent (guardian) consultation sessions for pediatric ultrasound with immediate disclosure of examination results if desired increases visit satisfaction, decreases anxiety, and increases understanding of the radiologist's role.Parents chaperoning any outpatient pediatric ultrasound were eligible and completed surveys before and after ultrasound examinations. Before the second survey, parents met with a pediatric radiologist on a randomized basis but could opt out and request or decline the consultation. Differences in anxiety and understanding of the radiologist's role before and after the examination were compared, and overall visit satisfaction measures were tabulated.Seventy-seven subjects participated, 71 (92%) of whom spoke to a radiologist, mostly on request. In the consultation group, the mean score (1, lowest; 4, highest) for overall experience was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SD), consultation benefit was 3.7 ± 0.6, and radiologist interaction was 3.7 ± 0.6. Demographics were not predictive of satisfaction with statistical significance in a multivariate model. Forty-six of 68 (68%) respondents correctly described the radiologist's role before consultation. The number increased to 60 (88%) after consultation, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant decrease in mean anxiety score from 2.0 ± 1.0 to 1.5 ± 0.8 after consultation (p < 0.001). Sixty-four of 70 (91%) respondents indicated that they would prefer to speak with a radiologist during every visit.Radiologist consultation is well received among parents and associated with decreased anxiety and increased understanding of the radiologist's role. The results of this study support the value of routine radiologist-parent interaction for pediatric ultrasound.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.15.14542
View details for Web of Science ID 000361847300033
View details for PubMedID 26397331
The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child Part 1: recommendations from the SPR Thoracic Imaging Committee regarding characterization, significance and follow-up
2015; 45 (5): 628-633
An abnormal location, distribution, volume, or appearance of meconium is associated with a spectrum of bowel abnormalities, including atresia, obstruction, perforation, fistula, aganglionosis, immaturity, and absorptive dysfunction. This review discusses the fetal and perinatal imaging of these entities, their differential diagnoses, clinical significance, and appropriate imaging workup. Understanding the spectrum of normal and abnormal, specific and nonspecific appearances of meconium and its associated abnormalities on imaging will provide a practical, useful framework for performing and interpreting imaging studies and guiding clinical management.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.sult.2015.01.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000355575300006
Radiologist Compliance With California CT Dose Reporting Requirements: A Single-Center Review of Pediatric Chest CT
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
2015; 204 (4): 810-816
No guidelines are in place for the follow-up and management of pulmonary nodules that are incidentally detected on CT in the pediatric population. The Fleischner guidelines, which were developed for the older adult population, do not apply to children. This review summarizes the evidence collected by the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) Thoracic Imaging Committee in its attempt to develop pediatric-specific guidelines.Small pulmonary opacities can be characterized as linear or as ground-glass or solid nodules. Linear opacities and ground-glass nodules are extremely unlikely to represent an early primary or metastatic malignancy in a child. In our review, we found a virtual absence of reported cases of a primary pulmonary malignancy presenting as an incidentally detected small lung nodule on CT in a healthy immune-competent child.Because of the lack of definitive information on the clinical significance of small lung nodules that are incidentally detected on CT in children, the management of those that do not have the typical characteristics of an intrapulmonary lymph node should be dictated by the clinical history as to possible exposure to infectious agents, the presence of an occult immunodeficiency, the much higher likelihood that the nodule represents a metastasis than a primary lung tumor, and ultimately the individual preference of the child's caregiver. Nodules appearing in children with a history of immune deficiency, malignancy or congenital pulmonary airway malformation should not be considered incidental, and their workup should be dictated by the natural history of these underlying conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-014-3267-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000353234800002
View details for PubMedID 25655369
Congenital Peribronchial Myofibroblastic Tumor: Case Report of an Asymptomatic Infant with a Rapidly Enlarging Pulmonary Mass and Review of the Literature
ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY SCIENCE
2015; 45 (1): 83-89
Effective July 1, 2012, CT dose reporting became mandatory in California. We sought to assess radiologist compliance with this legislation and to determine areas for improvement.We retrospectively reviewed reports from all chest CT examinations performed at our institution from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, for errors in documentation of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and phantom size. Reports were considered as legally compliant if both CTDIvol and DLP were documented accurately and as institutionally compliant if phantom size was also documented accurately. Additionally, we tracked reports that did not document dose in our standard format (phantom size, CTDIvol for each series, and total DLP).Radiologists omitted CTDIvol, DLP, or both in nine of 664 examinations (1.4%) and inaccurately reported one or both of them in 56 of the remaining 655 examinations (8.5%). Radiologists omitted phantom size in 11 of 664 examinations (1.7%) and inaccurately documented it in 20 of the remaining 653 examinations (3.1%). Of 664 examinations, 599 (90.2%) met legal reporting requirements, and 583 (87.8%) met institutional requirements. In reporting dose, radiologists variably used less decimal precision than available, summed CTDIvol, included only series-level DLP, and specified dose information from the scout topogram or a nonchest series for combination examinations.Our institutional processes, which primarily rely on correct human performance, do not ensure accurate dose reporting and are prone to variation in dose reporting format. In view of this finding, we are exploring higher-reliability processes, including better-defined standards and automated dose reporting systems, to improve compliance.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.14.13693
View details for Web of Science ID 000351614700037
Cystic Lung Lesions in Newborns and Young Children: Differential Considerations and Imaging
SEMINARS IN ULTRASOUND CT AND MRI
2014; 35 (6): 571-587
Cystic lung lesions in newborns and young children: differential considerations and imaging.
Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
2014; 35 (6): 571-587
Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor (CPMT) is a rare, benign lung tumor of infants, with only 19 reported cases worldwide. It is often diagnosed by prenatal imaging or in the immediate postnatal period due to co-morbidities like polyhydramnios, fetal hydrops, respiratory distress, and heart failure.We report the oldest known infant (8 weeks old) diagnosed with CPMT, and present his clinical course including the relevant radiographic and histopathologic findings.CPMT is a rare tumor that should be considered among other primary lung tumors of infancy (developmental, benign, and malignant) even if not detected prenatally or in the immediate postnatal period.
View details for Web of Science ID 000349872900014
View details for PubMedID 25696016
Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program
2014; 44: 519-524
Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program.
2014; 44: 519-524
Numerous diverse entities produce cystic lung changes in neonates and young children. This review provides an evidence-based, age-appropriate, differential diagnostic framework to use when confronted with pulmonary cystic changes. The categories of diseases that have been discussed include congenital cystic bronchopulmonary malformations, neoplastic conditions, infections, collagen or soft tissue abnormalities, and mimics of cystic lung disease. An understanding of the pathophysiology, imaging appearance, and demographics of these entities is essential in guiding optimal care. Important educational points include differentiating bronchopulmonary malformations from neoplasms and the management and surveillance of lung cysts in young children.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.sult.2014.07.001
View details for PubMedID 25454053
Perforated appendicitis: an underappreciated mimic of intussusception on ultrasound
2014; 44 (5): 535-541
Modern CT is a powerful yet increasingly complex technology that continues to rapidly evolve; optimal clinical implementation as well as appropriate quality management and improvement in CT are challenging but attainable. This article outlines the organizational structure on which a CT quality management and improvement program can be built, followed by a discussion of common as well as pediatric-specific challenges. Organizational elements of a CT quality management and improvement program include the formulation of clear objectives; definition of the roles and responsibilities of key personnel; implementation of a technologist training, coaching and feedback program; and use of an efficient and accurate monitoring system. Key personnel and roles include a radiologist as the CT director, a qualified CT medical physicist, as well as technologists with specific responsibilities and adequate time dedicated to operation management, CT protocol management and CT technologist education. Common challenges in managing a clinical CT operation are related to the complexity of newly introduced technology, of training and communication and of performance monitoring. Challenges specific to pediatric patients include the importance of including patient size in protocol and dose considerations, a lower tolerance for error in these patients, and a smaller sample size from which to learn and improve.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-014-3039-4
View details for PubMedID 25304715
Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation
2014; 44 (5): 542-551
We encountered multiple cases in which the US appearance of ruptured appendicitis mimicked intussusception, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic delay and multiple additional imaging studies.To explore the clinical and imaging discriminatory features between the conditions.Initial US images in six children (age 16 months to 8 years; 4 boys, 2 girls) were reviewed independently and by consensus by three pediatric radiologists. These findings were compared and correlated with the original reports and subsequent US, fluoroscopic, and CT images and reports.All initial US studies demonstrated a multiple-ring-like appearance (target sign, most apparent on transverse views) with diagnostic consensus supportive of intussusception. In three cases, US findings were somewhat discrepant with clinical concerns. Subsequently, four of the six children had contrast enemas; two were thought to have partial or complete intussusception reduction. Three had a repeat US examination, with recognition of the correct diagnosis. None of the US examinations demonstrated definite intralesional lymph nodes or mesenteric fat, but central echogenicity caused by debris/appendicolith was misinterpreted as fat. All showed perilesional hyperechogenicity that, in retrospect, represented inflamed fat "walling off" of the perforated appendix. There were four CTs, all of which demonstrated a double-ring appearance that correlated with the US target appearance, with inner and outer rings representing the dilated appendix and walled-off appendiceal rupture, respectively. All six children had surgical confirmation of perforated appendicitis.Contained perforated appendicitis can produce US findings closely mimicking intussusception. Clinical correlation and careful multiplanar evaluation should allow for sonographic suspicion of perforated appendicitis, which can be confirmed on CT if necessary.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-014-2873-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000334513800004
View details for PubMedID 24463638
Chest CT in children: anesthesia and atelectasis
2014; 44 (2): 164-172
Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial.To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management.Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings.Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review.We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-013-2861-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000334513800005
View details for PubMedID 24419494
Comparison of Different Methods of Calculating CT Radiation Effective Dose in Children
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
2012; 199 (2): W232-W239
There has been an increasing tendency for anesthesiologists to be responsible for providing sedation or anesthesia during chest CT imaging in young children. Anesthesia-related atelectasis noted on chest CT imaging has proven to be a common and troublesome problem, affecting image quality and diagnostic sensitivity.To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a standardized anesthesia, lung recruitment, controlled-ventilation technique developed at our institution to prevent atelectasis for chest CT imaging in young children.Fifty-six chest CT scans were obtained in 42 children using a research-based intubation, lung recruitment and controlled-ventilation CT scanning protocol. These studies were compared with 70 non-protocolized chest CT scans under anesthesia taken from 18 of the same children, who were tested at different times, without the specific lung recruitment and controlled-ventilation technique. Two radiology readers scored all inspiratory chest CT scans for overall CT quality and atelectasis. Detailed cardiorespiratory parameters were evaluated at baseline, and during recruitment and inspiratory imaging on 21 controlled-ventilation cases and 8 control cases.Significant differences were noted between groups for both quality and atelectasis scores with optimal scoring demonstrated in the controlled-ventilation cases where 70% were rated very good to excellent quality scans compared with only 24% of non-protocol cases. There was no or minimal atelectasis in 48% of the controlled ventilation cases compared to 51% of non-protocol cases with segmental, multisegmental or lobar atelectasis present. No significant difference in cardiorespiratory parameters was found between controlled ventilation and other chest CT cases and no procedure-related adverse events occurred.Controlled-ventilation infant CT scanning under general anesthesia, utilizing intubation and recruitment maneuvers followed by chest CT scans, appears to be a safe and effective method to obtain reliable and reproducible high-quality, motion-free chest CT images in children.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-013-2800-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000330987900005
View details for PubMedID 24202432
Pulmonary reperfusion injury after the unifocalization procedure for tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries
JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
2012; 144 (1): 184-189
CT radiation dose is a subject of intense interest and concern, especially in children. Effective dose, a summation of whole-body exposure weighted by specific organ sensitivities, is most often used to compute and compare radiation dose; however, there is little standardization, and there are numerous different methods of calculating effective dose. This study compares five such methods in a group of children undergoing routine chest CT and explores their advantages and pitfalls.Patient data from 120 pediatric chest CT examinations were retrospectively used to calculate effective dose: two scanner dose-length product (DLP) methods using published sets of conversion factors by Shrimpton and Deak, the imaging performance and assessment of CT (ImPact) calculator method, the Alessio online calculator, and the Huda method.The Huda method mean effective dose (4.4 ± 2.2 mSv) and Alessio online calculator (5.2 ± 2.8 mSv) yielded higher mean numbers for effective dose than both DLP calculations (Shrimpton, 3.65 ± 1.8 mSv, and Deak, 3.2 ± 1.5 mSv) as well as the ImPact calculator effective dose (3.4 ± 1.7 mSv). Mean differences ranged from 10.2% ± 10.1% lower to 28% ± 37.3% higher than the Shrimpton method (used as the standard for comparison). Differences were more marked at 120 kVp than at 80 or 100 kVp and varied at different ages. Concordance coefficients relative to the Shrimpton DLP method were Deak DLP, 0.907; Alessio online calculator, 0.735; ImPact calculator, 0.926; and Huda, 0.777.Different methods of computing effective dose for pediatric CT produce varying results. The method used must be clearly described to allay confusion about documenting and communicating dose for archiving as well as comparative research purposes.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.10.5895
View details for Web of Science ID 000306686200012
View details for PubMedID 22826426
Reply to commentary - CT radiation dose reduction: can we do harm by doing good?
2012; 42 (4): 399-401
Combined respiratory and cardiac triggering improves blood pool contrast-enhanced pediatric cardiovascular MRI
2011; 41 (12): 1536-1544
The aims of our study are to describe the incidence, clinical profile, and risk factors for pulmonary reperfusion injury after the unifocalization procedure for tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. We hypothesized the following: (1) Pulmonary reperfusion injury is more likely to occur after unifocalization procedures in which a septated circulation is not achieved, (2) pulmonary reperfusion injury is directly related to the severity of stenosis in major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, and (3) pulmonary reperfusion injury leads to longer intubation time and longer hospitalization.Consecutive patients with tetralogy of Fallot/pulmonary atresia/major aortopulmonary collateral arteries who underwent unifocalization procedures over a 5-year period were identified in our institutional database. Chest radiographs before the unifocalization procedure, from postoperative days 0 to 4, and from 2 weeks after the unifocalization procedure or at discharge were evaluated by a pediatric radiologist for localized pulmonary edema. Determination of stenosis severity was based on review of preoperative angiograms. Statistical analyses using multivariate repeated-measures analyses were performed with generalized estimating equations.Pulmonary reperfusion injury was present after 42 of 65 (65%) unifocalization procedures. In 36 of 42 cases of reperfusion injury, unilateral injury was present. Risk factors for the development of reperfusion injury included bilateral unifocalization (P = .01) and degree of stenosis (P = .03). We did not identify an association between pulmonary reperfusion injury and time to tracheal extubation or hospital discharge.Pulmonary reperfusion injury is common after the unifocalization procedure for tetralogy of Fallot/pulmonary atresia/major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Severity of stenosis and bilateral unifocalization are associated with the development of reperfusion injury.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.12.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000305412200031
View details for PubMedID 22244564
Pause and Pulse: Radiation Dose in Pediatric Fluoroscopy
PEDIATRICS IN REVIEW
2011; 32 (9): E83-E90
Ultrasound body applications in children.
2011; 41: 555-561
Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRA suffers from cardiac motion artifacts and often requires a breath-hold.This work develops and evaluates a blood pool contrast-enhanced combined respiratory- and ECG-triggered MRA method.An SPGR sequence was modified to enable combined cardiac and respiratory triggering on a 1.5-T scanner. Twenty-three consecutive children referred for pediatric heart disease receiving gadofosveset were recruited in HIPAA-compliant fashion with IRB approval and informed consent. Children underwent standard non-triggered contrast-enhanced MRA with or without suspended respiration. Additionally, a free-breathing-triggered MRA was acquired. Triggered and non-triggered studies were presented in blinded random order independently to two radiologists twice. Anatomical structure delineation was graded for each triggered and non-triggered acquisition and the visual quality on triggered MRA was compared directly to that on non-triggered MRA.Triggered images received higher scores from each radiologist for all anatomical structures on each of the two reading sessions (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P?0.05). In direct comparison, triggered images were preferred over non-triggered images for delineating cardiac structures, with most comparisons reaching statistical significance (binomial test, P?0.05).Combined cardiac and respiratory triggering, enabled by a blood pool contrast agent, improves delineation of most anatomical structures in pediatric cardiovascular MRA.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-011-2196-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000297621800005
View details for PubMedID 21786125
Pneumonia in Normal and Immunocompromised Children: An Overview and Update
RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
2011; 49 (5): 895-?
A major goal of imaging is to obtain the correct examination to answer the clinical questions with the lowest possible radiation exposure. While CT examination provides essential information in many cases, other modalities that do not entail ionizing radiation exposure may be appropriate substitutes either as an initial screening study or as an alternative to CT. US has become a valuable imaging tool in children encompassing many different clinical scenarios. This manuscript highlights some of the less well-accepted applications of US as the first imaging study in pediatric patients, especially in the emergency room environment. These include evaluation of suspected appendicitis, abdominal mass, pleural effusion/empyema, thymic abnormality vs. mediastinal mass and extremity soft-tissue mass or vessel patency. Adoption of US imaging as a problem-solving tool for issues such as these requires appropriate allocation of resources to ensure high-quality performance and interpretation of pediatric US studies around the clock.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-011-2107-2
View details for PubMedID 21847738
Point/counterpoint: dose-related issues in cardiac CT imaging.
2011; 41: 528-533
Pneumonia is an infection of the lung parenchyma caused by a wide variety of organisms in pediatric patients. The role of imaging is to detect the presence of pneumonia, and determine its location and extent, exclude other thoracic causes of respiratory symptoms, and show complications such as effusion/empyema and suppurative lung changes. The overarching goal of this article is to review cause, role of imaging, imaging techniques, and the spectrum of acute and chronic pneumonias in children. Pneumonia in the neonate and immunocompromised host is also discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rcl.2011.06.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000295387500006
View details for PubMedID 21889014
Thoracic Neoplasms in Children
RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
2011; 49 (4): 633-?
This manuscript reviews some of the more controversial dose-related issues in cardiac CT imaging. Discussion covers the relative merits of cardiac CT versus MR, advantages and concerns regarding gated versus nongated cardiac CT and advantages and concerns regarding the use of breast shields in girls undergoing cardiac CT imaging.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-011-2153-9
View details for PubMedID 21847735
Effectiveness of a Staged US and CT Protocol for the Diagnosis of Pediatric Appendicitis: Reducing Radiation Exposure in the Age of ALARA
2011; 259 (1): 231-239
This article presents an overview of the benign and malignant neoplasms that affect the chest in children and their imaging characteristics. The relative roles of plain film, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, MR imaging, and nuclear imaging in assessing these lesions are reviewed. Areas covered include the mediastinum, heart, lungs, airway, pleura, and chest wall.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rcl.2011.05.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000294371900005
View details for PubMedID 21807166
Development and Validation of Automated 2D-3D Bronchial Airway Matching to Track Changes in Regional Bronchial Morphology Using Serial Low-Dose Chest CT Scans in Children with Chronic Lung Disease
JOURNAL OF DIGITAL IMAGING
2010; 23 (6): 744-754
To evaluate the effectiveness of a staged ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) imaging protocol for the accurate diagnosis of suspected appendicitis in children and the opportunity for reducing the number of CT examinations and associated radiation exposure.This retrospective study was compliant with HIPAA, and a waiver of informed consent was approved by the institutional review board. This study is a review of all imaging studies obtained in children suspected of having appendicitis between 2003 and 2008 at a suburban pediatric emergency department. A multidisciplinary staged US and CT imaging protocol for the diagnosis of appendicitis was implemented in 2003. In the staged protocol, US was performed first in patients suspected of having appendicitis; follow-up CT was recommended when US findings were equivocal. Of 1228 pediatric patients who presented to the emergency department for suspected appendicitis, 631 (287 boys, 344 girls; age range, 2 months to 18 years; median age, 10 years) were compliant with the imaging pathway. The sensitivity, specificity, negative appendectomy rate (number of appendectomies with normal pathologic findings divided by the number of surgeries performed for suspected appendicitis), missed appendicitis rate, and number of CT examinations avoided by using the staged protocol were analyzed.The sensitivity and specificity of the staged protocol were 98.6% and 90.6%, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate was 8.1% (19 of 235 patients), and the missed appendicitis rate was less than 0.5% (one of 631 patients). CT was avoided in 333 of the 631 patients (53%) in whom the protocol was followed and in whom the US findings were definitive.A staged US and CT imaging protocol in which US is performed first in children suspected of having acute appendicitis is highly accurate and offers the opportunity to substantially reduce radiation.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.10100984
View details for Web of Science ID 000288848800028
View details for PubMedID 21324843
Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt associated with heterotaxy and polysplenia
2010; 40 (7): 1222-1230
To address potential concern for cumulative radiation exposure with serial spiral chest computed tomography (CT) scans in children with chronic lung disease, we developed an approach to match bronchial airways on low-dose spiral and low-dose high-resolution CT (HRCT) chest images to allow serial comparisons. An automated algorithm matches the position and orientation of bronchial airways obtained from HRCT slices with those in the spiral CT scan. To validate this algorithm, we compared manual matching vs automatic matching of bronchial airways in three pediatric patients. The mean absolute percentage difference between the manually matched spiral CT airway and the index HRCT airways were 9.4 ± 8.5% for the internal diameter measurements, 6.0 ± 4.1% for the outer diameter measurements, and 10.1 ± 9.3% for the wall thickness measurements. The mean absolute percentage difference between the automatically matched spiral CT airway measurements and index HRCT airway measurements were 9.2 ± 8.6% for the inner diameter, 5.8 ± 4.5% for the outer diameter, and 9.9 ± 9.5% for the wall thickness. The overall difference between manual and automated methods was 2.1 ± 1.2%, which was significantly less than the interuser variability of 5.1 ± 4.6% (p<0.05). Tests of equivalence had p<0.05, demonstrating no significant difference between the two methods. The time required for matching was significantly reduced in the automated method (p<0.01) and was as accurate as manual matching, allowing efficient comparison of airways obtained on low-dose spiral CT imaging with low-dose HRCT scans.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10278-009-9199-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000284163300011
View details for PubMedID 19756866
Evaluation of a Radiation Dose Reduction Strategy for Pediatric Chest CT
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
2010; 194 (5): 1188-1193
Heterotaxy with polysplenia is associated with many cardiovascular anomalies including the occasional occurrence of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEPS). Missing this anomaly can lead to inappropriate and ineffective therapy.To emphasize the importance and associated anatomy of CEPS in conjunction with heterotaxy with polysplenia.Review of three young children who presented with cyanosis and pulmonary hypertension without a cardiac etiology. They were known (1) or discovered (2) to have heterotaxy with polysplenia.There was absence of the intrahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos or hemiazygos continuation in all three cases. In spite of normal liver function, they were discovered to have large portosystemic shunts, splenorenal in location, along with diffuse peripheral pulmonary arterial dilatation suggestive of CEPS (Abernethy malformation) with hepatopulmonary or, more accurately, portopulmonary syndrome. All CEPS were ipsilateral to the spleens. Patency of the portal veins in these cases allowed for percutaneous shunt closure with resolution of cyanosis.CEPS is associated with heterotaxy with polysplenia and can be symptomatic because of pulmonary arteriovenous (AV) shunting. Portal and hepatic vein patency are critical for determining feasibility of CEPS closure.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-009-1508-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000278582300007
View details for PubMedID 20069288
Rudhe syndrome: reversible right middle lobe emphysema in infants with left-to-right shunts-an historical review
2010; 40 (5): 762-765
The purpose of our study was to quantify the effect of changes made to the CT chest protocol on patient dose, image quality, and image noise when using a kilovoltage (kVp)-lowering strategy.We retrospectively selected 120 children who underwent chest CT: 60 in 2006 and 60 in 2008. In each group there were 30 children weighing less than 15 kg and 30 between 15 and 60 kg. In 2006 the CT protocol was 120 kVp and the reference current (mAs) was 65. In 2008, the kVp was 80 for < 15 kg and 100 for 15-60 kg, with reference mAs of 55. For each examination, the volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated using the DLP method. Image noise was measured. Overall image quality was subjectively evaluated.For a weight < 15.0 kg, the CTDI(vol), DLP, and ED were reduced by 73%, 75%, and 73%, respectively (p < 0.05). For the weight range 15-60 kg, the CTDI(vol), DLP, and ED were reduced by 45%, 44%, and 48%, respectively (p < 0.05). Measured noise increased by 55% in the younger children and 41% in the older group (p < 0.05). All studies were considered diagnostically adequate.Significant radiation dose reduction can be achieved for routine pediatric chest CT by weight-based decreases in kVp in addition to low mAs. Increased noise was considered an acceptable trade-off for decreased dose, and image quality was acceptable.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.09.3726
View details for Web of Science ID 000276906400005
View details for PubMedID 20410401
Left Pulmonary Artery Sling-Anatomy and Imaging
SEMINARS IN ULTRASOUND CT AND MRI
2010; 31 (2): 158-170
In 1971, the Swedish radiologist Ulf Rudhe wrote a provocative paper on right middle lobe emphysema in infants with left-to-right shunts in which he suggested cardiac surgery rather than lung resection. At the time, this was counter to accepted medical practice. Earlier diagnosis and better medical management of ventricular septal defect in infants has proved Rudhe correct. However, two current cases of large left-to-right shunts in infants with emphysema of the right middle lobe prompt this historical review of what seemed a closed-episode in pediatric cardiac surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-009-1530-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000276149500016
View details for PubMedID 20135111
A pitfall of radioisotope quantification of the ratio of pulmonary blood flow to systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) in a patient with severe postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction
CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE
2008; 33 (8): 521-524
Distinctive imaging findings are present when the left pulmonary artery (LPA) arises from the right pulmonary artery and forms a sling around the airway passing between airway and esophagus to reach the left lung. It is important to recognize the 2 distinct types of pulmonary sling. The less complex type I is associated with tracheobronchomalacia and is often managed successfully by LPA reimplantation. The more common and more complex type II is strongly associated with long segment tracheal stenosis. Appropriate management needs to address the airway abnormality in addition to the aberrant LPA. Both types, especially type II, are associated with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and other abnormalities that also need to be considered in therapeutic decisions. The role of imaging is to identify, define, and display the relevant anatomic relationships to facilitate appropriate management. Recent surgical advances have increased the likelihood of success of surgical correction of long segment airway stenosis.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.sult.2010.01.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000276295500009
View details for PubMedID 20304323
We report a case with initial misinterpretation of the radionuclide angiocardiographic study that was obtained in a child with persistent tachypnea and concern for residual left to right shunt after prior repair of total anomalous pulmonary veins and an atrial septal defect.Ultrasound, radionuclide angiocardiogram, and magnetic resonance imaging studies were obtained.The radionuclide study was ordered after an unremarkable ultrasound. Unsuspected severely reduced left pulmonary arterial flow associated with high-grade ipsilateral pulmonary venous obstruction led to misinterpretation of the radionuclide study as a large residual shunt. Later replotting of the graphic data using each lung separately corrected the error. Magnetic resonance played a key role in making the correct diagnosis.Significant asymmetric pulmonary flow due to vascular obstruction is an important additional potential pitfall to recognize in interpreting radionuclide angiocardiographic studies.
View details for Web of Science ID 000258941600001
View details for PubMedID 18645367