Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Hematology-Oncology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford University (1987 - Present)
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford University (1977 - 1987)
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School (1974 - 1977)
  • Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School (1973 - 1974)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1982)
  • Fellowship:Children's Hospital Boston (1974) MA
  • Residency:Children's Hospital Boston (1973) MA
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, American Board of Pediatrics (1982)
  • Board Certification: Hematology, American Board of Pathology (1983)
  • Internship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1969) CA
  • Medical Education:Northwestern University Medical School (1968) IL
  • BA, Northwestern University, Philosophy (1961)
  • PhD, University of Illinois, Physiology (1967)
  • MD, Northwestern University, Medicine (1968)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Hematology/Oncology, biology, and treatment of bone marrow failure disorders, hereditary coagulation disorders-clinical trials.

Clinical Trials


  • Pilot Lenalidomide in Adult Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Patients w/ RBC Transfusion-Dependent Anemia Recruiting

    This is a single-center, single arm, open-label study of oral lenalidomide monotherapy administered to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion dependent adult subjects with Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA). Primary Objective: To evaluate the erythroid response rate as measured by rate of red blood cell transfusion independence (MDS IWG 2000 Criteria will be applied) Secondary Objective: 1)To evaluate the tolerability and safety profile of lenalidomide in patients with DBA and other inherited marrow failure syndromes 2) To correlate response to lenalidomide with biologic surrogates of DBA including ribosomal protein mutation status, ex vivo erythroid colony growth, and microarray gene expression

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Novel deletion of RPL15 identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization in Diamond-Blackfan anemia HUMAN GENETICS Landowski, M., O'Donohue, M., Buros, C., Ghazvinian, R., Montel-Lehry, N., Vlachos, A., Sieff, C. A., Newburger, P. E., Niewiadomska, E., Matysiak, M., Glader, B., Atsidaftos, E., Lipton, J. M., Beggs, A. H., Gleizes, P., Gazda, H. T. 2013; 132 (11): 1265-1274

    Abstract

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited red blood cell aplasia that usually presents during the first year of life. The main features of the disease are normochromic and macrocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and nearly absent erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow. The patients also present with growth retardation and craniofacial, upper limb, heart and urinary system congenital malformations in ~30-50 % of cases. The disease has been associated with point mutations and large deletions in ten ribosomal protein (RP) genes RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL35A, RPL5, RPL11, RPS7, RPS10, RPS26, and RPL26 and GATA1 in about 60-65 % of patients. Here, we report a novel large deletion in RPL15, a gene not previously implicated to be causative in DBA. Like RPL26, RPL15 presents the distinctive feature of being required both for 60S subunit formation and for efficient cleavage of the internal transcribed spacer 1. In addition, we detected five deletions in RP genes in which mutations have been previously shown to cause DBA: one each in RPS19, RPS24, and RPS26, and two in RPS17. Pre-ribosomal RNA processing was affected in cells established from the patients bearing these deletions, suggesting a possible molecular basis for their pathological effect. These data identify RPL15 as a new gene involved in DBA and further support the presence of large deletions in RP genes in DBA patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00439-013-1326-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325706500007

    View details for PubMedID 23812780

  • Multiple clinical forms of dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis arise from mutations in PIEZO1 BLOOD Andolfo, I., Alper, S. L., De Franceschi, L., Auriemma, C., Russo, R., De Falco, L., Vallefuoco, F., Esposito, M. R., Vandorpe, D. H., Shmukler, B. E., Narayan, R., Montanaro, D., D'Armiento, M., Vetro, A., Limongelli, I., Zuffardi, O., Glader, B. E., Schrier, S. L., Brugnara, C., Stewart, G. W., Delaunay, J., Iolascon, A. 2013; 121 (19): 3925-3935

    Abstract

    Autosomal dominant dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt) usually presents as a compensated hemolytic anemia with macrocytosis and abnormally shaped red blood cells (RBCs). DHSt is part of a pleiotropic syndrome that may also exhibit pseudohyperkalemia and perinatal edema. We identified PIEZO1 as the disease gene for pleiotropic DHSt in a large kindred by exome sequencing analysis within the previously mapped 16q23-q24 interval. In 26 affected individuals among 7 multigenerational DHSt families with the pleiotropic syndrome, 11 heterozygous PIEZO1 missense mutations cosegregated with disease. PIEZO1 is expressed in the plasma membranes of RBCs and its messenger RNA, and protein levels increase during in vitro erythroid differentiation of CD34(+) cells. PIEZO1 is also expressed in liver and bone marrow during human and mouse development. We suggest for the first time a correlation between a PIEZO1 mutation and perinatal edema. DHSt patient red cells with the R2456H mutation exhibit increased ion-channel activity. Functional studies of PIEZO1 mutant R2488Q expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated changes in ion-channel activity consistent with the altered cation content of DHSt patient red cells. Our findings provide direct evidence that R2456H and R2488Q mutations in PIEZO1 alter mechanosensitive channel regulation, leading to increased cation transport in erythroid cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-02-482489

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321870900023

    View details for PubMedID 23479567

  • Frameshift mutation in p53 regulator RPL26 is associated with multiple physical abnormalities and a specific pre-ribosomal RNA processing defect in diamond-blackfan anemia HUMAN MUTATION Gazda, H. T., Preti, M., Sheen, M. R., O'Donohue, M., Vlachos, A., Davies, S. M., Kattamis, A., Doherty, L., Landowski, M., Buros, C., Ghazvinian, R., Sieff, C. A., Newburger, P. E., Niewiadomska, E., Matysiak, M., Glader, B., Atsidaftos, E., Lipton, J. M., Gleizes, P., Beggs, A. H. 2012; 33 (7): 1037-1044

    Abstract

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited form of pure red cell aplasia that usually presents in infancy or early childhood and is associated with congenital malformations in ?30-50% of patients. DBA has been associated with mutations in nine ribosomal protein (RP) genes in about 53% of patients. We completed a large-scale screen of 79 RP genes by sequencing 16 RP genes (RPL3, RPL7, RPL8, RPL10, RPL14, RPL17, RPL19, RPL23A, RPL26, RPL27, RPL35, RPL36A, RPL39, RPS4X, RPS4Y1, and RPS21) in 96 DBA probands. We identified a de novo two-nucleotide deletion in RPL26 in one proband associated with multiple severe physical abnormalities. This mutation gives rise to a remarkable ribosome biogenesis defect that affects maturation of both the small and the large subunits. We also found a deletion in RPL19 and missense mutations in RPL3 and RPL23A, which may be variants of unknown significance. Together with RPL5, RPL11, and RPS7, RPL26 is the fourth RP regulating p53 activity that is linked to DBA.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/humu.22081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304815100005

    View details for PubMedID 22431104

  • Adenovirus-Associated Virus Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer in Hemophilia B NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Nathwani, A. C., Tuddenham, E. G., Rangarajan, S., Rosales, C., McIntosh, J., Linch, D. C., Chowdary, P., Riddell, A., Pie, A. J., Harrington, C., O'Beirne, J., Smith, K., Pasi, J., Glader, B., Rustagi, P., Ng, C. Y., Kay, M. A., Zhou, J., Spence, Y., Morton, C. L., Allay, J., Coleman, J., Sleep, S., Cunningham, J. M., Srivastava, D., Basner-Tschakarjan, E., Mingozzi, F., High, K. A., Gray, J. T., Reiss, U. M., Nienhuis, A. W., Davidoff, A. M. 2011; 365 (25): 2357-2365

    Abstract

    Hemophilia B, an X-linked disorder, is ideally suited for gene therapy. We investigated the use of a new gene therapy in patients with the disorder.We infused a single dose of a serotype-8-pseudotyped, self-complementary adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing a codon-optimized human factor IX (FIX) transgene (scAAV2/8-LP1-hFIXco) in a peripheral vein in six patients with severe hemophilia B (FIX activity, <1% of normal values). Study participants were enrolled sequentially in one of three cohorts (given a high, intermediate, or low dose of vector), with two participants in each group. Vector was administered without immunosuppressive therapy, and participants were followed for 6 to 16 months.AAV-mediated expression of FIX at 2 to 11% of normal levels was observed in all participants. Four of the six discontinued FIX prophylaxis and remained free of spontaneous hemorrhage; in the other two, the interval between prophylactic injections was increased. Of the two participants who received the high dose of vector, one had a transient, asymptomatic elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, which was associated with the detection of AAV8-capsid-specific T cells in the peripheral blood; the other had a slight increase in liver-enzyme levels, the cause of which was less clear. Each of these two participants received a short course of glucocorticoid therapy, which rapidly normalized aminotransferase levels and maintained FIX levels in the range of 3 to 11% of normal values.Peripheral-vein infusion of scAAV2/8-LP1-hFIXco resulted in FIX transgene expression at levels sufficient to improve the bleeding phenotype, with few side effects. Although immune-mediated clearance of AAV-transduced hepatocytes remains a concern, this process may be controlled with a short course of glucocorticoids without loss of transgene expression. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00979238.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1108046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298320200002

    View details for PubMedID 22149959

  • Reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage and p53 activation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome BLOOD McGowan, K. A., Pang, W. W., Bhardwaj, R., Perez, M. G., Pluvinage, J. V., Glader, B. E., Malek, R., Mendrysa, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Park, C. Y., Barsh, G. S. 2011; 118 (13): 3622-3633

    Abstract

    Reduced gene dosage of ribosomal protein subunits has been implicated in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome and Diamond Blackfan anemia, but the cellular and pathophysiologic defects associated with these conditions are enigmatic. Using conditional inactivation of the ribosomal protein S6 gene in laboratory mice, we found that reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage recapitulates cardinal features of the 5q- syndrome, including macrocytic anemia, erythroid hypoplasia, and megakaryocytic dysplasia with thrombocytosis, and that p53 plays a critical role in manifestation of these phenotypes. The blood cell abnormalities are accompanied by a reduction in the number of HSCs, a specific defect in late erythrocyte development, and suggest a disease-specific ontogenetic pathway for megakaryocyte development. Further studies of highly purified HSCs from healthy patients and from those with myelodysplastic syndrome link reduced expression of ribosomal protein genes to decreased RBC maturation and suggest an underlying and common pathophysiologic pathway for additional subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-11-318584

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295359300028

    View details for PubMedID 21788341

  • Functional characterization and modified rescue of novel AE1 mutation R730C associated with overhydrated cation leak stomatocytosis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY Stewart, A. K., Kedar, P. S., Shmukler, B. E., Vandorpe, D. H., Hsu, A., Glader, B., Rivera, A., Brugnara, C., Alper, S. L. 2011; 300 (5): C1034-C1046

    Abstract

    We report the novel, heterozygous AE1 mutation R730C associated with dominant, overhydrated, cation leak stomatocytosis and well-compensated anemia. Parallel elevations of red blood cell cation leak and ouabain-sensitive Na(+) efflux (pump activity) were apparently unaccompanied by increased erythroid cation channel-like activity, and defined ouabain-insensitive Na(+) efflux pathways of nystatin-treated cells were reduced. Epitope-tagged AE1 R730C at the Xenopus laevis oocyte surface exhibited severely reduced Cl(-) transport insensitive to rescue by glycophorin A (GPA) coexpression or by methanethiosulfonate (MTS) treatment. AE1 mutant R730K preserved Cl(-) transport activity, but R730 substitution with I, E, or H inactivated Cl(-) transport. AE1 R730C expression substantially increased endogenous oocyte Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-mediated (86)Rb(+) influx, but ouabain-insensitive flux was minimally increased and GPA-insensitive. The reduced AE1 R730C-mediated sulfate influx did not exhibit the wild-type pattern of stimulation by acidic extracellular pH (pH(o)) and, unexpectedly, was partially rescued by exposure to sodium 2-sulfonatoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) but not to 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate hydrobromide (MTSEA) or 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET). AE1 R730E correspondingly exhibited acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake at rates exceeding those of wild-type AE1 and AE1 R730K, whereas mutants R730I and R730H were inactive and pH(o) insensitive. MTSES-treated oocytes expressing AE1 R730C and untreated oocytes expressing AE1 R730E also exhibited unprecedented stimulation of Cl(-) influx by acid pH(o). Thus recombinant cation-leak stomatocytosis mutant AE1 R730C exhibits severely reduced anion transport unaccompanied by increased Rb(+) and Li(+) influxes. Selective rescue of acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake and conferral of acid pH(o)-stimulated Cl(-) influx, by AE1 R730E and MTSES-treated R730C, define residue R730 as critical to selectivity and regulation of anion transport by AE1.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpcell.00447.2010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289884300011

    View details for PubMedID 21209359

  • Development of Antibodies to Human Thrombin and Factor V in a Patient Exposed to Topical Bovine Thrombin PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER Lo, C. Y., Jones, C., Glader, B., Zehnder, J. L. 2010; 55 (6): 1195-1197

    Abstract

    Bovine topical thrombin is commonly used for local hemostasis in pediatric surgery. Acquired inhibitors to coagulation factors, particularly to factor V and bovine thrombin, have been infrequently reported in the pediatric population. We report a 3-year-old male who developed a coagulopathy and clinical bleeding after cardiothoracic surgery, during which bovine topical thrombin was used for local hemostasis. Laboratory tests revealed elevated prothrombin, partial thromboplastin, and thrombin times, and a low factor V activity level. He was found to have both human-thrombin and factor V inhibitors, among the first reported cases of these combined inhibitors secondary to bovine topical thrombin. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids with a rapid and durable response.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.22699

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283757600028

    View details for PubMedID 20979176

  • Adrenal and renal corticomedullary junction iron deposition in red cell aplasia PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY Rakow-Penner, R., Glader, B., Yu, H., Vasanawala, S. 2010; 40 (12): 1955-1957

    Abstract

    Iron deposition can occur in the kidneys as a result of hemolysis or extensive iron overload from transfusions. With T2* MRI, renal iron deposition can be visualized. In this report, renal corticomedullary junction iron deposition is noted using T2* MRI in a boy with red cell aplasia. The renal corticomedullary junction iron deposition is an indication of the severity of his iron overload. This is an unusual finding and brings clinical attention to the boy's renal function for further evaluation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-010-1824-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284375300013

    View details for PubMedID 20852855

  • Ribosomal Protein Genes RPS10 and RPS26 Are Commonly Mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Doherty, L., Sheen, M. R., Vlachos, A., Choesmel, V., O'Donohue, M., Clinton, C., Schneider, H. E., Sieff, C. A., Newburger, P. E., Ball, S. E., Niewiadomska, E., Matysiak, M., Glader, B., Arceci, R. J., Farrar, J. E., Atsidaftos, E., Lipton, J. M., Gleizes, P., Gazda, H. T. 2010; 86 (2): 222-228

    Abstract

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by anemia that usually presents before the first birthday or in early childhood, is associated with birth defects and an increased risk of cancer. Although anemia is the most prominent feature of DBA, the disease is also characterized by growth retardation and congenital malformations, in particular craniofacial, upper limb, heart, and urinary system defects that are present in approximately 30%-50% of patients. DBA has been associated with mutations in seven ribosomal protein (RP) genes, RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL35A, RPL5, RPL11, and RPS7, in about 43% of patients. To continue our large-scale screen of RP genes in a DBA population, we sequenced 35 ribosomal protein genes, RPL15, RPL24, RPL29, RPL32, RPL34, RPL9, RPL37, RPS14, RPS23, RPL10A, RPS10, RPS12, RPS18, RPL30, RPS20, RPL12, RPL7A, RPS6, RPL27A, RPLP2, RPS25, RPS3, RPL41, RPL6, RPLP0, RPS26, RPL21, RPL36AL, RPS29, RPL4, RPLP1, RPL13, RPS15A, RPS2, and RPL38, in our DBA patient cohort of 117 probands. We identified three distinct mutations of RPS10 in five probands and nine distinct mutations of RPS26 in 12 probands. Pre-rRNA analysis in lymphoblastoid cells from patients bearing mutations in RPS10 and RPS26 showed elevated levels of 18S-E pre-rRNA. This accumulation is consistent with the phenotype observed in HeLa cells after knockdown of RPS10 or RPS26 expression with siRNAs, which indicates that mutations in the RPS10 and RPS26 genes in DBA patients affect the function of the proteins in rRNA processing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.12.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274637200011

    View details for PubMedID 20116044

  • Monthly recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administration to implantable central venous access devices decreases infections in children with haemophilia HAEMOPHILIA Jeng, M. R., O'Brien, M., Wong, W., Zoland, J., Lea, J., Tang, N., Glader, B. 2009; 15 (6): 1272-1280

    Abstract

    Central venous access devices (CVAD) have been effectively used in the care of haemophilia patients. This is particularly true in children, who often have difficult venous access. CVAD complications (infection and thrombosis), risk factors, and complication rates, have been well-documented. However, effective interventions which decrease complication rates have not been identified. In this study, we review our experience with the use of monthly recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) administration in haemophilia patients with fully implanted CVADs. Data on 19 haemophilia patients with 24 CVADs were available for analysis, with a total of 24 520 CVAD days. An infection rate of 0.04 infections per 1000 CVAD days and a thrombosis rate of 0.04 thrombi per 1000 CVAD days was observed. The observed infectious complication rate is at least one logarithm lower than many published CVAD infection rates in haemophilia patients who have not received rtPA administration. No bleeding complications were noted. Monthly rtPA is safe and appears to be effective in decreasing CVAD infection rates. Larger, randomized controlled studies are indicated to validate this finding.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2009.02063.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271187500014

    View details for PubMedID 19601989

  • One Year Follow-Up of Children and Adolescents With Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Treated With Rituximab PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER Mueller, B. U., Bennett, C. M., Feldman, H. A., Bussel, J. B., Abshire, T. C., Moore, T. B., Sawaf, H., Loh, M. L., Rogers, Z. R., Glader, B. E., McCarthy, M. C., Mahoney, D. H., Olson, T. A., Feig, S. A., Lorenzana, A. N., Mentzer, W. C., Buchanan, G. R., Neufeld, E. J. 2009; 52 (2): 259-262

    Abstract

    We previously showed in a prospective study that rituximab appears to be effective in some children and adolescents with severe chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Eleven of 36 patients achieved and maintained platelet counts over 50,000/mm(3) within the first 12 weeks. These patients were followed for the next year.Platelet counts were monitored monthly and all subsequent bleeding manifestations and need for further treatment was noted.Eight of the 11 initial responders maintained a platelet count over 150,000/mm(3) without further treatment intervention. Three patients had a late relapse. One initial non-responder achieved a remission after 16 weeks, and two additional patients maintained platelet counts around 50,000/mm(3) without the need for further intervention.Rituximab resulted in sustained efficacy with platelet counts of 50,000/mm(3) or higher in 11 of 36 patients (31%).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.21757

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261796000025

    View details for PubMedID 18937333

  • Ribosomal Protein L5 and L11 Mutations Are Associated with Cleft Palate and Abnormal Thumbs in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Patients AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Gazda, H. T., Sheen, M. R., Vlachos, A., Choesmel, V., O'Donohue, M., Schneider, H., Darras, N., Hasman, C., Sieff, C. A., Newburger, P. E., Ball, S. E., Niewiadomska, E., Matysiak, M., Zaucha, J. M., Glader, B., Niemeyer, C., Meerpohl, J. J., Atsidaftos, E., Lipton, J. M., Gleizes, P., Beggs, A. H. 2008; 83 (6): 769-780

    Abstract

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a congenital bone-marrow-failure syndrome, is characterized by red blood cell aplasia, macrocytic anemia, clinical heterogeneity, and increased risk of malignancy. Although anemia is the most prominent feature of DBA, the disease is also characterized by growth retardation and congenital anomalies that are present in approximately 30%-50% of patients. The disease has been associated with mutations in four ribosomal protein (RP) genes, RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, and RPL35A, in about 30% of patients. However, the genetic basis of the remaining 70% of cases is still unknown. Here, we report the second known mutation in RPS17 and probable pathogenic mutations in three more RP genes, RPL5, RPL11, and RPS7. In addition, we identified rare variants of unknown significance in three other genes, RPL36, RPS15, and RPS27A. Remarkably, careful review of the clinical data showed that mutations in RPL5 are associated with multiple physical abnormalities, including craniofacial, thumb, and heart anomalies, whereas isolated thumb malformations are predominantly present in patients carrying mutations in RPL11. We also demonstrate that mutations of RPL5, RPL11, or RPS7 in DBA cells is associated with diverse defects in the maturation of ribosomal RNAs in the large or the small ribosomal subunit production pathway, expanding the repertoire of ribosomal RNA processing defects associated with DBA.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261822100012

    View details for PubMedID 19061985

  • Diagnosing and treating Diamond Blackfan anaemia: results of an international clinical consensus conference BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Vlachos, A., Ball, S., Dahl, N., Alter, B. P., Sheth, S., Ramenghi, U., Meerpohl, J., Karlsson, S., Liu, J. M., Leblanc, T., Paley, C., Kang, E. M., Leder, E. J., Atsidaftos, E., Shimamura, A., Bessler, M., Glader, B., Lipton, J. M. 2008; 142 (6): 859-876

    Abstract

    Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a rare, genetically and clinically heterogeneous, inherited red cell aplasia. Classical DBA affects about seven per million live births and presents during the first year of life. However, as mutated genes have been discovered in DBA, non-classical cases with less distinct phenotypes are being described in adults as well as children. In caring for these patients it is often difficult to have a clear understanding of the treatment options and their outcomes because of the lack of complete information on the natural history of the disease. The purpose of this document is to review the criteria for diagnosis, evaluate the available treatment options, including corticosteroid and transfusion therapies and stem cell transplantation, and propose a plan for optimizing patient care. Congenital anomalies, mode of inheritance, cancer predisposition, and pregnancy in DBA are also reviewed. Evidence-based conclusions will be made when possible; however, as in many rare diseases, the data are often anecdotal and the recommendations are based upon the best judgment of experienced clinicians. The recommendations regarding the diagnosis and management described in this report are the result of deliberations and discussions at an international consensus conference.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07269.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258604200001

    View details for PubMedID 18671700

  • Cold agglutinin syndrome in pediatric liver transplant recipients PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Wong, W., Merker, J. D., Nguyen, C., Berquist, W., Jeng, M., Viele, M., Glader, B., Fontaine, M. J. 2007; 11 (8): 931-936

    Abstract

    Anemia is a common finding in post-liver transplant patients. Causes for the anemia include nutritional deficiencies, red cell aplasia as well as immune-mediated hemolysis. One of the immunologic causes of hemolytic anemia is drug-induced hemolysis. Tacrolimus is a common immunosuppressant used in post-liver transplant patients to prevent graft rejection. There have been reports of tacrolimus-associated hemolytic anemia secondary to hemolytic uremic syndrome as well as autoimmune hemolysis. There are also case-reports of severe hemolytic anemia related to cold agglutinin production in post-liver transplant patients. We described in this paper three cases of severe cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia in three pediatric liver transplant patients. Steroid therapy, plasmapheresis and withdrawal of tacrolimus led to resolution of the severe hemolytic process in each case. Whether the immune-mediated hemolysis is related to tacrolimus is not clear and needs to be characterized further.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00795.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250520100016

    View details for PubMedID 17976131

  • Ribosomal protein S24 gene is mutated in diamond-blackfan anemia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Gazda, H. T., Grabowska, A., Merida-Long, L. B., Latawiec, E., Schneider, H. E., Lipton, J. M., Vlachos, A., Atsidaftos, E., Ball, S. E., Orfali, K. A., Niewiadomska, E., Da Costa, L., Tchernia, G., Niemeyer, C., Meerpohl, J. J., Stahl, J., Schratt, G., Glader, B., Backer, K., Wong, C., Nathan, D. G., Beggs, A. H., Sieff, C. A. 2006; 79 (6): 1110-1118

    Abstract

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital red-cell aplasia characterized by anemia, bone-marrow erythroblastopenia, and congenital anomalies and is associated with heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) S19 gene (RPS19) in approximately 25% of probands. We report identification of de novo nonsense and splice-site mutations in another RP, RPS24 (encoded by RPS24 [10q22-q23]) in approximately 2% of RPS19 mutation-negative probands. This finding strongly suggests that DBA is a disorder of ribosome synthesis and that mutations in other RP or associated genes that lead to disrupted ribosomal biogenesis and/or function may also cause DBA.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242131600013

    View details for PubMedID 17186470

  • Prospective phase 1/2 study of rituximab in childhood and adolescent chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura BLOOD Bennett, C. M., Rogers, Z. R., Kinnamon, D. D., Bussel, J. B., Mahoney, D. H., Abshire, T. C., Sawaf, H., Moore, T. B., Loh, M. L., Glader, B. E., McCarthy, M. C., Mueller, B. U., Olson, T. A., Lorenzana, A. N., Mentzer, W. C., Buchanan, G. R., Feldman, H. A., Neufeld, E. J. 2006; 107 (7): 2639-2642

    Abstract

    We assessed safety and efficacy of rituximab in a prospective study of 36 patients, age 2.6 to 18.3 years, with severe chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The primary outcome of sustained platelets above 50 x 10(9)/L (50,000/mm3) during 4 consecutive weeks, starting in weeks 9 to 12, was achieved by 11 of 36 patients (31%, confidence interval [CI], 16% to 48%). Median response time was 1 week (range, 1 to 7 weeks). Attainment of the primary outcome was not associated with age, prior pharmacologic responses, prior splenectomy, ITP duration, screening platelet count, refractoriness, or IgM reduction. First-dose, infusion-related toxicity was common (47%) despite premedication. Significant drug-related toxicities included third-dose hypotension (n = 1) and serum sickness (n = 2). Peripheral B cells were depleted in all subjects. IgM decreased 3.4% per week, but IgG did not significantly decrease. Rituximab was well tolerated, with manageable infusion-related side effects, but 6% of subjects developed serum sickness. Rituximab is beneficial for some pediatric patients with severe, chronic ITP.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236656900019

    View details for PubMedID 16352811

  • Successful transduction of liver in hemophilia by AAV-factor IX and limitations imposed by the host immune response NATURE MEDICINE Manno, C. S., Arruda, V. R., Pierce, G. F., Glader, B., Ragni, M., Rasko, J., Ozelo, M. C., Hoots, K., Blatt, P., Konkle, B., Dake, M., Kaye, R., Razavi, M., Zajko, A., Zehnder, J., Nakai, H., Chew, A., Leonard, D., Wright, J. F., Lessard, R. R., Sommer, J. M., TIGGES, M., Sabatino, D., Luk, A., Jiang, H. Y., Mingozzi, F., Couto, L., Ertl, H. C., High, K. A., Kay, M. A. 2006; 12 (3): 342-347

    Abstract

    We have previously shown that a single portal vein infusion of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) expressing canine Factor IX (F.IX) resulted in long-term expression of therapeutic levels of F.IX in dogs with severe hemophilia B. We carried out a phase 1/2 dose-escalation clinical study to extend this approach to humans with severe hemophilia B. rAAV-2 vector expressing human F.IX was infused through the hepatic artery into seven subjects. The data show that: (i) vector infusion at doses up to 2 x 10(12) vg/kg was not associated with acute or long-lasting toxicity; (ii) therapeutic levels of F.IX were achieved at the highest dose tested; (iii) duration of expression at therapeutic levels was limited to a period of approximately 8 weeks; (iv) a gradual decline in F.IX was accompanied by a transient asymptomatic elevation of liver transaminases that resolved without treatment. Further studies suggested that destruction of transduced hepatocytes by cell-mediated immunity targeting antigens of the AAV capsid caused both the decline in F.IX and the transient transaminitis. We conclude that rAAV-2 vectors can transduce human hepatocytes in vivo to result in therapeutically relevant levels of F.IX, but that future studies in humans may require immunomodulation to achieve long-term expression.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm1358

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235802900035

    View details for PubMedID 16474400

  • AAV-mediated factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in patients with severe hemophilia B BLOOD Manno, C. S., Chew, A. J., Hutchison, S., Larson, P. J., Herzog, R. W., Arruda, V. P., Tai, S. J., Ragni, M. V., Thompson, A., Ozelo, M., Couto, L. B., Leonard, D. G., Johnson, F. A., McClelland, A., Scallan, C., Skarsgard, E., Flake, A. W., Kay, M. A., High, K. A., Glader, B. 2003; 101 (8): 2963-2972

    Abstract

    Hemophilia B is an X-linked coagulopathy caused by absence of functional coagulation factor IX (F.IX). Previously, we established an experimental basis for gene transfer as a method of treating the disease in mice and hemophilic dogs through intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector expressing F.IX. In this study we investigated the safety of this approach in patients with hemophilia B. In an open-label dose-escalation study, adult men with severe hemophilia B (F.IX < 1%) due to a missense mutation were injected at multiple intramuscular sites with an rAAV vector. At doses ranging from 2 x 10(11) vector genomes (vg)/kg to 1.8 x 10(12) vg/kg, there was no evidence of local or systemic toxicity up to 40 months after injection. Muscle biopsies of injection sites performed 2 to 10 months after vector administration confirmed gene transfer as evidenced by Southern blot and transgene expression as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining. Pre-existing high-titer antibodies to AAV did not prevent gene transfer or expression. Despite strong evidence for gene transfer and expression, circulating levels of F.IX were in all cases less than 2% and most were less than 1%. Although more extensive transduction of muscle fibers will be required to develop a therapy that reliably raises circulating levels to more than 1% in all subjects, these results of the first parenteral administration of rAAV demonstrate that administration of AAV vector by the intramuscular route is safe at the doses tested and effects gene transfer and expression in humans in a manner similar to that seen in animals.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-10-3296

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182101400015

    View details for PubMedID 12515715

  • Approach to the bleeding child PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Allen, G. A., Glader, B. 2002; 49 (6): 1239-?

    Abstract

    Because bruising and bleeding are normal events of childhood, the pediatrician must be able to determine whether a child's symptoms are normal or perhaps indicative of a defective hemostasis. A thorough medical history and physical examination should enable the clinician to choose those patients warranting further evaluation. Rather than referral to a hematologist at that point in time, pediatricians should be quite capable of performing the initial laboratory evaluation and making the correct diagnosis in a majority of cases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180724600006

    View details for PubMedID 12580364

  • Resolution of severe Donath-Landsteiner autoimmune hemolytic anemia temporally associated with institution of plasmapheresis CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Roy-Burman, A., Glader, B. E. 2002; 30 (4): 931-934

    Abstract

    To report a case of severe postinfectious autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) owing to the Donath-Landsteiner (DL) antibody resolving with plasmapheresis, and to review the pathophysiology of this underrecognized cause of pediatric AIHA and its potential susceptibility to plasmapheresis therapy.Descriptive case report.A pediatric intensive care unit in a university children's hospital.A 5-yr-old Hispanic female had gastroenteritis followed by progressive intravascular hemolysis, initially attributed to acute postinfectious cold hemagglutinin (immunoglobulin M) disease.With no slowing in the rate of hemolysis, a continued need for frequent transfusions, and a lack of response to corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, a 3-day course of plasmapheresis was administered.The patient presented to an emergency department with an initial hematocrit of 22%, which fell to 12% by hospital admission. She received nine transfusions over 7 days, with her hematocrit reaching a nadir of 11% on the 5th day of hospitalization. Once plasmapheresis was initiated, she required no further transfusion. Analysis of serum from initial presentation demonstrated biphasic hemolysis, confirming the presence of the DL antibody.In AIHA, in which the direct antiglobulin test detects primarily C3 rather than immunoglobulin G, especially in children, the DL antibody must be considered. Confirming the diagnosis rapidly may be critical, especially in cases of severe hemolysis, because this may help direct therapy. A low titer of DL antibody can mediate severe intravascular hemolysis given its propensity to sensitize, detach, and rebind erythrocytes with changes in temperature in the microcirculation. However, given the transient and relatively brief production of the DL antibody in postviral illness, early clearance of the offending antibody may be possible with plasmapheresis, without the expectation for significant rebound antibody production, potentially decreasing the length of hospital stay and the need for transfusions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174957500039

    View details for PubMedID 11940774

  • Bilateral microtia and cleft palate in cousins with Diamond-Blackfan anemia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Gripp, K. W., McDonald-McGinn, D. M., La Rossa, D., McGain, D., Federman, N., Vlachos, A., Glader, B. E., McKenzie, S. E., Lipton, J. M., Zackai, E. H. 2001; 101 (3): 268-274

    Abstract

    We report on maternal first cousins with bilateral microtia, micrognathia, cleft palate and hematologic findings of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). The similarity of findings shared between our cases and a female reported by Hasan and Inoue [1993] suggests that this is a distinctive syndrome, rather than a chance association. DBA is a heterogeneous disorder, caused in about 25% of cases by heterozygous mutations in the RPS19 gene (DBA1). Mutation analysis in our cases did not show an RPS19 mutation, and 2 alleles were present in each. Segregation analysis for DBA1 on chromosome 19 and DBA2 on 8p23 was not consistent with linkage. We conclude that this syndrome of microtia, cleft palate and DBA is not allelic to known DBA loci.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169475600014

    View details for PubMedID 11424144

  • Evidence for linkage of familial Diamond-Blackfan anemia to chromosome 8p23.3-p22 and for non-19q non-8p disease BLOOD Gazda, H., Lipton, J. M., Willig, T. N., Ball, S., Niemeyer, C. M., Tchernia, G., Mohandas, N., Daly, M. J., Ploszynska, A., Orfali, K. A., Vlachos, A., Glader, B. E., Rokicka-Milewska, R., Ohara, A., Baker, D., Pospisilova, D., Webber, A., Viskochil, D. H., Nathan, D. G., Beggs, A. H., Sieff, C. A. 2001; 97 (7): 2145-2150

    Abstract

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy and is inherited in 10% to 20% of cases. Linkage analysis has shown that DBA in many of both dominant and recessive DBA families mapped to chromosome 19q13.2 leading to the cloning of a gene on chromosome 19q13.2 that encodes a ribosomal protein, RPS19. However, subsequently, mutations of the RPS19 gene have only been identified in 25% of all patients with DBA. This study analyzed 14 multiplex DBA families, 9 of which had 19q13.2 haplotypes inconsistent with 19q linkage. A genome-wide search for linked loci suggested the presence of a second DBA locus in a 26.4-centimorgan (cM) interval on human chromosome 8p. Subsequently, 24 additional DBA families were ascertained and all 38 families were analyzed with additional polymorphic markers on chromosome 8p. In total, 18 of 38 families were consistent with linkage to chromosome 8p with a maximal LOD score with heterogeneity of 3.55 at D8S277 assuming 90% penetrance. The results indicate the existence of a second DBA gene in the 26.4-cM telomeric region of human chromosome 8p23.3-p22, most likely within an 8.1-cM interval flanked by D8S518 and D8S1825. Seven families were inconsistent with linkage to 8p or 19q and did not reveal mutations in the RPS19 gene, suggesting further genetic heterogeneity. (Blood. 2001;97:2145-2150)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168516000034

    View details for PubMedID 11264183

  • Evidence for gene transfer and expression of factor IX in haemophilia B patients treated with an AAV vector NATURE GENETICS Kay, M. A., Manno, C. S., Ragni, M. V., Larson, P. J., Couto, L. B., McClelland, A., Glader, B., Chew, A. J., Tai, S. J., Herzog, R. W., Arruda, V., Johnson, F., Scallan, C., Skarsgard, E., Flake, A. W., High, K. A. 2000; 24 (3): 257-261

    Abstract

    Pre-clinical studies in mice and haemophilic dogs have shown that introduction of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector encoding blood coagulation factor IX (FIX) into skeletal muscle results in sustained expression of F.IX at levels sufficient to correct the haemophilic phenotype. On the basis of these data and additional pre-clinical studies demonstrating an absence of vector-related toxicity, we initiated a clinical study of intramuscular injection of an AAV vector expressing human F.IX in adults with severe haemophilia B. The study has a dose-escalation design, and all patients have now been enrolled in the initial dose cohort (2 x 10(11) vg/kg). Assessment in the first three patients of safety and gene transfer and expression show no evidence of germline transmission of vector sequences or formation of inhibitory antibodies against F.IX. We found that the vector sequences are present in muscle by PCR and Southern-blot analyses of muscle biopsies and we demonstrated expression of F.IX by immunohistochemistry. We observed modest changes in clinical endpoints including circulating levels of F.IX and frequency of FIX protein infusion. The evidence of gene expression at low doses of vector suggests that dose calculations based on animal data may have overestimated the amount of vector required to achieve therapeutic levels in humans, and that the approach offers the possibility of converting severe haemophilia B to a milder form of the disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085590600015

    View details for PubMedID 10700178

  • Hemolytic anemia in children CLINICS IN LABORATORY MEDICINE Glader, B. E. 1999; 19 (1): 87-?

    Abstract

    This article provides an overview of hemolytic anemia in children. Main focus areas include acquired immune-mediated hemolysis, hemolytic anemia due to hereditary RBC disorders, hereditary hemolytic disorders caused by enzyme abnormalities, and hereditary hemolytic anemia due to hemoglobin abnormalities.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080605900005

    View details for PubMedID 10403076

  • Home treatment of mild to moderate bleeding episodes using recombinant factor VIIa (Novoseven) in haemophiliacs with inhibitors THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS Key, N. S., Aledort, L. M., BEARDSLEY, D., Cooper, H. A., Davignon, G., Ewenstein, B. M., Gilchrist, G. S., Gill, J. C., Glader, B., Hoots, W. K., Kisker, C. T., Lusher, J. M., Rosenfield, C. G., Shapiro, A. D., Smith, H., Taft, E. 1998; 80 (6): 912-918

    Abstract

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a fixed dose of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven) in the home setting for mild to moderately severe joint, muscle; and mucocutaneous bleeding episodes in patients with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors.Multicentre, open-label, single arm, phase III study of one year duration. METHODS; Patients or their caregivers administered up to three doses of rFVIIa (90 microg/kg i.v.) at 3 h intervals within 8 h of the onset of a mild to moderate bleeding episode. Once the subject considered that rFVIIa had been "effective" with regard to haemostasis (after 1-3 injections), one further (maintenance) dose of rFVIIa was administered.Of 60 patients enrolled, 56 experienced at least one bleed, and 46 completed the one year study. 614 of 877 bleeds (70%) were evaluable according to protocol definitions. Haemostasis was rated as "effective" in 92% (566/614) of evaluable bleeds after a mean of 2.2 injections. For successfully treated episodes, the time from onset of bleeding until administration of the first injection was 1.1+/-2.0 h (mean+/-SD). Twenty-four hours after initial successful response, haemostasis was reported as having been maintained in 95% of cases. Efficacy was comparable for muscle, joint and target joint, and mucocutaneous bleeding episodes. In an intent-to-treat analysis of all 877 bleeding events, efficacy outcomes were equivalent to the evaluable bleeds, with an effective response in 88% of treated episodes. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 32 (3% of all) bleeding episodes and consisted of re-bleeds/new bleeds in more than 50% (18/32) of these events. A single episode of superficial thrombophlebitis was the only thrombotic complication encountered, and there were no patient withdrawals due to adverse events. Development of FVII(a) antibodies could not be detected, and hypersensitivity reactions to rFVIIa were not reported.rFVIIa is effective and well tolerated when used in the home setting to treat mild to moderate bleeding episodes in patients with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077403200010

    View details for PubMedID 9869160

  • Bone marrow transplant in thalassemia - A role for radiation? COOLEYS ANEMIA Lee, Y. S., Kristovich, K. M., Ducore, J. M., Vichinsky, E., Crouse, V. L., Glader, B. E., Amylon, M. D. 1998; 850: 503-505

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074933900078

    View details for PubMedID 9668596

  • Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura - Management in childhood BLOOD Buchanan, G. R., deAlarcon, P. A., Feig, S. A., Gilchrist, G. S., Lukens, J. N., Moertel, C. L., Cohen, A. R., Dickerman, J. D., Forman, E. N., Glader, B. E., Lusher, J. M. 1997; 89 (4): 1464-1465

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WG79700043

    View details for PubMedID 9028973

  • Loss of elbow and wrist motion in hemophilia CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Gamble, J. G., Vallier, H., Rossi, M., Glader, B. 1996: 94-101

    Abstract

    The longitudinal changes in elbow and wrist motion for 48 patients with hemophilia were reviewed to determine the effect of recurrent hemarthroses. The average age of the patients at the time of followup was 23 years 9 months. The average duration of followup was 10.8 years. The patients were divided into 3 age groups: younger than age 15 years (14 patients), age 15 to 25 years (11 patients), and older than age 25 years (23 patients). For patients older than age 25 years, pronation, supination, elbow flexion and extension, wrist flexion and extension, and ulnar deviation were significantly decreased relative to patients younger than age 15 years. Pronation was the first motion to show a significant change, decreasing by 19% in patients age 15 to 25 years and by 31% in patients older than age 25 years. Loss of elbow extension showed the greatest change. In cases of severe hemophilic arthropathy of the elbow, synovectomy and radial head excision decreased elbow pain and bleeding episodes and improved supination and pronation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UV55600017

    View details for PubMedID 8653985

  • Hematologic disorders in children from Southeast Asia PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Glader, B. E., Look, K. A. 1996; 43 (3): 665-?

    Abstract

    The overall laboratory features of the common RBC disorders occurring in Southeast Asians is summarized in Table 4. These erythrocyte disorders will continue to be important public health issues, and it has been predicted that most new cases of thalassemia in the United States will occur in this population group. The fertility rate in Southeast Asian families is very high, with an average of more than five children delivered by each married woman. This number of children is consistent with perceptions of ideal family size, and, to date, no evidence suggests any change in the size of Southeast Asian families who now reside in the United States. Moreover, attitudes about health care, reasons why one seeks medical attention, and a variety of other cultural issues may impair the effectiveness of genetic counseling and other preventive measures designed to reduce the incidence of serious blood diseases. Genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis clearly have led to a markedly decreased incidence of homozygous thalassemia disorders in high-risk Mediterranean populations throughout the world. With further assimilation into Western culture, a similar disease may occur in the Southeast Asian population also.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UP90300006

    View details for PubMedID 8649904

  • FREQUENCY OF INHIBITOR DEVELOPMENT IN HEMOPHILIACS TREATED WITH LOW-PURITY FACTOR-VIII LANCET Addiego, J., Kasper, C., Abildgaard, C., Hilgartner, M., Lusher, J., Glader, B., Aledort, L. 1993; 342 (8869): 462-464

    Abstract

    Clinical studies evaluating highly purified monoclonal-antibody-derived and recombinant-DNA-derived clotting factor concentrates in previously untreated (PUPS) severe factor VIII (FVIII) deficient haemophilia patients, have documented an increased frequency of inhibitors compared with that seen in patients who have received less pure products. However, a valid comparison of inhibitor frequency in patients treated with pure and less pure products has not been possible because appropriate studies have not been done in PUPS treated with the less pure products. To determine the frequency of inhibitor development in PUPS treated solely with less pure plasma-derived products (specific activities < 5 FVIII U/mg protein), we reviewed the records of all haemophilia patients born between 1975 and 1985 and treated with such products at any of seven centres. 89 patients with severe FVIII deficiency (< 1%) were observed and tested for inhibitors from birth to 5 years old or until 30 bleeding episodes had been treated. 25 of the 89 patients developed inhibitors (28%), and 21 of these 25 were high-titre responders (> 5 Bethesda units). This frequency of inhibitor development is greater than that reported in patients treated with monoclonal FVIII products, but the latter patients may not have been followed as long as the patients in our report. Our data may make possible a meaningful comparison with the frequency of inhibitor development in PUPS treated solely with recombinant-DNA-derived FVIII.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LU07500010

    View details for PubMedID 8102429

  • LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS PRESENTING WITH THE SUPERIOR VENA-CAVA SYNDROME - A CASE-REPORT MEDICAL AND PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY Mogul, M., HARTMAN, G., Donaldson, S., Gelb, A., Link, M., Amylon, M., Glader, B. 1993; 21 (6): 456-459

    Abstract

    A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis confined to the mediastinum and presenting with de novo superior cava syndrome is reported. The causes of superior vena cava syndrome in childhood are discussed as is the importance of obtaining pathologic diagnosis prior to initiating therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LK60200013

    View details for PubMedID 8515729

  • ARTHROPATHY OF THE ANKLE IN HEMOPHILIA JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Gamble, J. G., BELLAH, J., Rinsky, L. A., Glader, B. 1991; 73A (7): 1008-1015

    Abstract

    Seventy-five patients who had hemophilia were followed clinically and roentgenographically to assess the prevalence of hemarthrosis and the prevalence and severity of arthropathy of the ankle. The mean age of the patients at the time of follow-up was twenty-two years and seven months. The patients were divided into four age-groups: less than ten years (eleven patients), ten to nineteen years (twenty-one patients), twenty to thirty years (twenty-four patients), and more than thirty years (nineteen patients). Intra-articular bleeding occurred more frequently in the joints of the lower extremities than in the joints of the upper extremities. During the second decade of life, hemarthroses occurred more often in the ankle than in the knee. A history of recurrent bleeding into the ankle joint, chronic synovitis, and overgrowth of the medial portion of the distal tibial epiphysis was associated with an early onset of arthropathy. In older patients, compression arthrodesis of the ankle joint was helpful in eliminating pain, recurrent bleeding, and equinus deformity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GC97300007

  • CRYPTOCOCCUS INFECTION IN A 9-YEAR-OLD CHILD WITH HEMOPHILIA AND THE ACQUIRED-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-SYNDROME PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Ting, S. F., Glader, B. E., Prober, C. G. 1991; 10 (1): 76-77

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991ER58000015

    View details for PubMedID 2003061

  • TREATMENT OF NEUTROPENIA ASSOCIATED WITH DYSKERATOSIS CONGENITA WITH GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR LANCET Russo, C. L., Glader, B. E., Israel, R. J., Galasso, F. 1990; 336 (8717): 751-752

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DZ62400046

    View details for PubMedID 1975922

  • RED-BLOOD-CELL APLASIAS IN CHILDREN PEDIATRIC ANNALS Glader, B. E. 1990; 19 (3): 168-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CU35600002

    View details for PubMedID 2157189

  • CONGENITAL HYPOPLASTIC (DIAMOND-BLACKFAN) ANEMIA IN 7 MEMBERS OF ONE KINDRED AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Viskochil, D. H., Carey, J. C., Glader, B. E., Rothstein, G., Christensen, R. D. 1990; 35 (2): 251-256

    Abstract

    Congenital hypoplastic (Diamond-Blackfan) anemia is a rare macrocytic anemia, generally presenting during infancy or childhood. The condition usually occurs sporadically or in a pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance, although autosomal dominant transmission has been proposed in some kindreds. We report the largest known kindred of congenital hypoplastic anemia, with at least 7 affected individuals over 3 generations, and propose that studies of this kindred may be useful for identifying the mechanism by which their genetic abnormality results in congenital hypoplastic anemia. Erythropoietic investigations on relatives show no inhibitors of erythropoiesis in serum, T-lymphocytes, or macrophages. Their erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E and BFU-E) were generally quantitatively normal, and were capable of rapid proliferation, as judged by cell-cycle shortening. However, their erythroid progenitors displayed a relative insensitivity to recombinant erythropoietin, and produced relatively few normoblasts per erythroid progenitor cell. We propose that these and subsequent studies may be helpful in selecting candidate genes responsible for the molecular defect in this kindred.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CL21500020

    View details for PubMedID 2309764

  • SUP-HD1 - A NEW HODGKINS DISEASE-DERIVED CELL-LINE WITH LYMPHOID FEATURES PRODUCES INTERFERON-GAMMA BLOOD Naumovski, L., Utz, P. J., Bergstrom, S. K., Morgan, R., Molina, A., Toole, J. J., Glader, B. E., McFall, P., Weiss, L. M., Warnke, R., Smith, S. D. 1989; 74 (8): 2733-2742

    Abstract

    A new cell line, SUP-HD1, was established from the pleural effusion of a patient with nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease (NSHD). The SUP-HD1 cells had the characteristic morphology of Reed-Sternberg cells and contained acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase. The cells lacked the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome and reacted with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against CD15 (Leu-M1), CD25 (Tac), CD71 (OKT9), Ki67, and HLA-Dr. However, the SUP-HD1 cells were nonreactive with MoAbs that specifically identify T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and macrophage/myeloid cells. Karyotype analysis of the cell line showed clonal abnormalities involving 1p13, 7p15, 8q22, and 11q23, chromosomal locations, at which breakpoints have been reported in HD. Southern blot analysis demonstrated rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa light chain genes as well as the gene for the beta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR). Transcriptional analysis showed expression of RNAs for kappa light chain, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) but not IL-2. The SUP-HD1 cells lacked cytoplasmic and surface immunoglobulin heavy chain, but a small amount of cytoplasmic kappa light chain was detected. The presence of nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B), a B-lymphocyte-associated transcription factor, was demonstrated in stimulated and unstimulated cells. In addition, the SUP-HD1 cell line, produced IFN-gamma, a T-lymphocyte-associated lymphokine. Based on these data, the SUP-HD1 cells appear to be aberrant lymphocytes with characteristics of both activated B and T lymphocytes. Elaboration of lymphokines such as IFN-gamma by the malignant cells may represent one explanation for the unique clinical and pathologic features of HD.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CB88100019

    View details for PubMedID 2554995

  • REDUCED NEUTROPHIL COUNTS IN CHILDREN WITH TRANSIENT ERYTHROBLASTOPENIA OF CHILDHOOD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Rogers, Z. R., Bergstrom, S. K., Amylon, M. D., Buchanan, G. R., Glader, B. E. 1989; 115 (5): 746-748

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AY22300015

    View details for PubMedID 2809908

  • FAMILIAL BONE-MARROW MONOSOMY-7 - EVIDENCE THAT THE PREDISPOSING LOCUS IS NOT ON THE LONG ARM OF CHROMOSOME-7 JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Shannon, K. M., Turhan, A. G., Chang, S. S., Bowcock, A. M., Rogers, P. C., Carroll, W. L., Cowan, M. J., Glader, B. E., EAVES, C. J., Eaves, A. C., Kan, Y. W. 1989; 84 (3): 984-989

    Abstract

    Loss of expression of a tumor-suppressing gene is an attractive model to explain the cytogenetic and epidemiologic features of cases of myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with bone marrow monosomy 7 or partial deletion of the long arm (7q-). We used probes from within the breakpoint region on 7q-chromosomes (7q22-34) that detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to investigate three families in which two siblings developed myelodysplasia with monosomy 7. In the first family, probes from the proximal part of this region identified DNA derived from the same maternal chromosome in both leukemias. The RFLPs in these siblings diverged at the more distal J3.11 marker due to a mitotic recombination in one patient, a result that suggested a critical region on 7q proximal to probe J3.11. Detailed RFLP mapping of the implicated region was then performed in two additional unrelated pairs of affected siblings. In these families, DNA derived from different parental chromosome 7s was retained in the leukemic bone marrows of the siblings. We conclude that the familial predisposition to myelodysplasia is not located within a consistently deleted segment on the long arm of chromosome 7. These data provide evidence implicating multiple genetic events in the pathogenesis of myelodysplasia seen in association with bone marrow monosomy 7 or 7q-.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN25900035

    View details for PubMedID 2569483

  • HEMOGLOBIN FM-FORT-RIPLEY - ANOTHER LESSON FROM THE NEONATE PEDIATRICS Glader, B. E. 1989; 83 (5): 792-793

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U473900025

    View details for PubMedID 2470018

  • HB F-M-OSAKA OR ALPHA-2G-GAMMA-263(E7)HIS-]TYR IN A CAUCASIAN MALE INFANT HEMOGLOBIN Glader, B. E., ZWERDLING, D., Kutlar, F., Kutlar, A., Wilson, J. B., Huisman, T. H. 1989; 13 (7-8): 769-773

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CT70400014

    View details for PubMedID 2483933

  • TRANSIENT ERYTHROBLASTOPENIA OF CHILDHOOD WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Glader, B. E. 1988; 149 (4): 453-454

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q388400015

    View details for PubMedID 18750483

  • PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME-POSITIVE ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA CELL-LINES WITHOUT CLASSICAL BREAKPOINT CLUSTER REGION REARRANGEMENT CANCER RESEARCH Naumovski, L., Morgan, R., Hecht, F., Link, M. P., Glader, B. E., Smith, S. D. 1988; 48 (10): 2876-2879

    Abstract

    The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome translocation which is classically observed in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is sporadically found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In CML the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 22 is within the breakpoint cluster region, while in childhood ALL, no detectable change in breakpoint cluster region is routinely observed. In order to investigate the nature of this difference, we have established and characterized two cell lines from a child with Ph positive ALL. The cell lines have retained the cytochemical staining pattern, enzyme activity, monoclonal antibody profile, and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements of the child's malignant cells. The cell lines had the same Ph translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11) as the child's malignant cells along with additional chromosome changes. Southern blot analysis showed that the Ph translocation did not involve the 5.8-kilobase breakpoint cluster region segment characteristically seen in CML. The cell lines reported here will be a valuable resource in ascertaining the biological significance of the Ph translocation seen in ALL.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N269700042

    View details for PubMedID 3162827

  • CLINICAL AND BIOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF T-CELL NEOPLASIAS WITH REARRANGEMENTS OF CHROMOSOME-7 BAND Q34 BLOOD Smith, S. D., Morgan, R., Gemmell, R., Amylon, M. D., Link, M. P., Linker, C., Hecht, B. K., Warnke, R., Glader, B. E., Hecht, F. 1988; 71 (2): 395-402

    Abstract

    In T cell malignancy, rearrangements of chromosome 14 have been observed with a break in the band that contains the alpha chain gene for the T cell receptor (TCR). Because the beta chain TCR gene is in chromosome band 7q34, we searched for and report finding specific rearrangements of 7q34 exclusively in T cell malignancies. The rearrangements were reciprocal translocations between 7q34 and other points: 1p34, 9q32, 9q34, 15q22, and 19p13. The malignancies containing a 7q34 translocation were either T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias or T cell lymphoblastic lymphomas that had similarities in clinical, enzyme, immunologic, and cellular characteristics. Hybridization using a probe to the beta-TCR gene disclosed unique rearrangements consistent with clonality in every case. A common pattern with chromosome breakpoints involving TCR genes may be emerging in T cell neoplasia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L922400019

    View details for PubMedID 2962650

  • ELEVATED RED-CELL ADENOSINE-DEAMINASE ACTIVITY - A MARKER OF DISORDERED ERYTHROPOIESIS IN DIAMOND-BLACKFAN ANEMIA AND OTHER HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Glader, B. E., BACKER, K. 1988; 68 (2): 165-168

    Abstract

    Red-cell adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in children with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia is significantly increased (1.91 +/- 0.90 U/g Hb) compared to that seen in transient erythroblastopenia of childhood (0.80 +/- 0.16 U/g Hb) or normal individuals (0.61 +/- 0.13 U/g). These data thus further support that measurement of this purine metabolic enzyme is useful in diagnosing the cause of pure RBC aplasia in children. Of interest, however, elevated RBC-ADA activity also is seen in some children with acute leukaemia and other haematologic disorders. In children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the increase in RBC-ADA activity is proportional to the degree of anaemia. However, the elevated RBC-ADA activity in this leukaemic population is not related to the fetal haemoglobin concentration. These data suggest increased RBC-ADA activity may be a non-specific manifestation of abnormal erythroid stem cell function, an alteration distinct from that seen with reactivation of fetal erythropoiesis. However, since almost all patients with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia manifest elevated RBC-ADA activity, this chemical alteration yet may reflect the specific erythroid differentiation lesion in this disorder.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M011900004

    View details for PubMedID 3348976

  • Diagnosis and management of red cell aplasia in children. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America Glader, B. E. 1987; 1 (3): 431-447

    Abstract

    The vast majority of pediatric RBC hypoplastic anemias are accounted for by red blood cell aplasia associated with chronic hemolysis, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and transient erythroblastopenia of childhood. However, other causes of hypoplastic anemia occur in children, and some of these are similar to what is seen in adult RBC aplasia. For example, it has been reported that a 5-year-old girl with an aregenerative anemia had a thymoma and later developed pancytopenia. RBC aplasia also has been seen in children receiving anticonvulsant drug therapy, children recovering from severe protein malnutrition, children with hepatitis, and in children with leukemia during maintenance therapy. In addition, it is not uncommon for pediatric hematologists to observe children with RBC aplasia where there is no obvious diagnosis, although many are considered to be variants of Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Several important questions about RBC hypoplastic anemias in children need to be resolved; it is hoped that this will be accomplished in the next decade. Do RBC hypoplastic crises associated with hemolytic anemia occur with viral infections other than HPV? What is the cellular pathophysiology in DBA and TEC? Does the apparent heterogeneity of these disorders reflect limitations of laboratory techniques or are we looking at several different diseases? Is acute leukemia a real complication of Diamond-Blackfan anemia? Is TEC a completely benign entity or will we see other long-term problems in these children? Is the incidence of TEC actually increasing? Will TEC-like problems be seen in other aged children? As a case in point, we recently observed a 16-year-old girl who presented with pure RBC aplasia that required RBC transfusion support for 5 months; she also received prednisone therapy. After 7 months, however, this young lady had a spontaneous remission, and now 4 years later she is normal and free of any hematologic abnormalities. This was a most unusual event in our experience and, in view of the apparent increasing incidence of TEC in young children, we queried whether we were observing an adolescent equivalent of this disorder. During the next several years the answer to this and the other questions posed herein should be available.

    View details for PubMedID 3129394

  • ESTABLISHMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A COMMON ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA CELL-LINE WITH A DELETION OF CHROMOSOME-3 BAND Q26 CANCER RESEARCH Smith, S. D., Morgan, R., Galili, N., Amylon, M. D., Link, M. P., Hecht, F., Sklar, J., Glader, B. E. 1987; 47 (6): 1652-1656

    Abstract

    This paper describes the establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SUP-B7) which was established from a child with "common" acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The SUP-B7 cells (and the patient's tumor) have been characterized by cytochemical staining, monoclonal antibodies, enzyme analyses, gene rearrangement studies, and karyotype analysis. The SUP-B7 cells are periodic acid-Schiff positive, common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen positive, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase positive, and they lack the Epstein-Barr virus genome. In addition, the SUP-B7 cells lack cytoplasmic and surface immunoglobulins, and the immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies showed rearranged heavy chain genes with germ line light chain genes. Concordance between the cell line and the patient's tumor was established by the immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies. Using Southern blot analysis of the DNA from the patient's tumor and the SUP-B7 cells, there was comigration of the bands representing the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. In addition, the SUP-B7 cells possess a single chromosome abnormality: del(3)(q26q28), with the chromosome breakpoint at or near the transferrin receptor gene. Since the SUP-B7 cell line is concordant with the patient's malignancy and since these cells possess a single chromosomal abnormality, the SUP-B7 cell line may be a useful tool in determining the biological significance of the chromosome deletion: del(3)(q26q28).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G548300030

    View details for PubMedID 3469019

  • TRANSIENT ERYTHROBLASTOPENIA OF ADOLESCENCE CLINICAL PEDIATRICS Zwerdling, T., Finlay, J., Glader, B. E. 1986; 25 (11): 563-565

    Abstract

    This case report describes a 16-year-old girl with pure red cell aplasia of 7 months duration. The erythrocyte characteristics and in vitro culture of erythroid progenitors was similar to that found in transient erythroblastopenia of childhood (TEC), a disorder most commonly seen in children 2 to 6 years of age. This case may represent the adolescent equivalent of TEC.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E720400005

    View details for PubMedID 3095011

  • PYRUVATE-KINASE DEFICIENCY IN DOG AND HUMAN-ERYTHROCYTES - EFFECTS OF ENERGY DEPLETION ON CATION COMPOSITION AND CELLULAR HYDRATION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY MULLERSOYANO, A., Platt, O., Glader, B. E. 1986; 23 (3): 217-221

    Abstract

    Pyruvate kinase-(PK) deficient human reticulocytes incubated 4 hr under conditions where mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is inhibited become ATP-depleted. Concomitantly, these energy-depleted red blood cells (RBC) lose massive amounts of potassium and water. PK-deficient reticulocyte-rich RBC from a Basenji dog, incubated under the same conditions, also manifest ATP-depletion and K-loss. In contrast to the cation changes in human cells, however, K-loss in PK-deficient dog reticulocyte-rich RBC is balanced by an equivalent Na gain, and consequently these canine erythrocytes do not undergo any change in cellular hydration. Potassium depletion and dehydration, which may be related to membrane injury in human RBC, do not appear to be involved in the hemolysis of PK-deficient dog erythrocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E650300004

    View details for PubMedID 3766523

  • PREDNISONE STIMULATION OF ERYTHROPOIESIS IN LEUKEMIC CHILDREN DURING REMISSION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY Amylon, M. D., Perrine, S. P., Glader, B. E. 1986; 23 (2): 179-181

    Abstract

    Children with acute leukemia in remission manifest reticulocytosis and a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration (mean increment of 2.3 +/- 1.1 g/dl) following prednisone pulse therapy. This hemoglobin increment is not associated with changes in serum erythropoietin activity. It is speculated that this stimulation of red cell production may be a direct effect of steroids on erythroid progenitor cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E046700012

    View details for PubMedID 3463202

  • COMPARATIVE ACTIVITY OF ERYTHROCYTE ADENOSINE-DEAMINASE AND OROTIDINE DECARBOXYLASE IN DIAMOND-BLACKFAN ANEMIA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY Glader, B. E., BACKER, K. 1986; 23 (2): 135-139

    Abstract

    It previously has been reported that red blood cells (RBC) of patients with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome (DBS) have increased activity of orotidine decarboxylase (ODC) and adenosine deaminase (ADA). The studies reported here compared the activity of these two enzymes in DBS erythrocytes, cord blood, and reticulocytes. The activity of ODC, although increased in some DBS erythrocytes, was not significantly different from that seen in cord RBC or reticulocytes. In contrast, RBC-ADA activity was increased in 23 of 26 DBS patients; and this enzyme elevation was distinct from that seen in cord blood and reticulocytes. Moreover, ADA activity was normal in 26 of 27 patients with transient erythroblastopenia of childhood (TEC). Taken together, these data indicate RBC-ADA activity is more sensitive than ODC as a marker of DBS. In addition, RBC-ADA activity continues to be useful for distinguishing DBS and TEC in most patients with RBC hypoplasia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E046700007

    View details for PubMedID 3752068

  • SCREENING FOR ANEMIA AND ERYTHROCYTE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN PEDIATRICS Glader, B. E. 1986; 78 (2): 368-369

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D418700029

    View details for PubMedID 3737311

  • CHRONIC INFECTIOUS-MONONUCLEOSIS SYNDROME, PANCYTOPENIA, AND POLYCLONAL B-LYMPHOPROLIFERATION TERMINATING IN ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY ONCOLOGY Finlay, J., Luft, B., Yousem, S., Wood, G. S., Link, M., Arvin, A., Glader, B., Lennette, E., Shatsky, M., Olds, L., BORCHERDING, W., Hong, R., PURTILO, D. 1986; 8 (1): 18-27

    Abstract

    A 17-year-old previously healthy girl is reported who developed acute infectious mononucleosis followed by progressive ill health over 20 months, associated with pancytopenia and a polyclonal B-lymphoproliferation, terminating in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was recovered from the patient's nasopharyngeal secretions; serologic titers of antibodies to EBV-associated antigens were compatible with a chronic persistent EBV infection. Plasma interferon levels were markedly elevated. EBV-specific cell-mediated immunity, as well as Natural killer (NK) cell activity were markedly deficient. Other studies of cell-mediated immunity revealed notable abnormalities, including abnormalities in T-cell subset ratios, and a serum blocker of autologous mitogen-induced lymphoproliferation. Humoral (plasma)-mediated, but not cell-mediated, suppression of hemopoiesis was demonstrated using in vitro erythroid and myeloid colony culture techniques. Immunophenotyping of the patient's bone marrow cells preterminally was consistent with ALL. Autopsy revealed pathologic changes of ALL in marrow and multiple organs. We conclude that our patient developed an EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disorder, with associated defective cell-mediated immunity and hemopoiesis. Ultimately, the patient's documented polyclonal lymphoproliferative state was superimposed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C028900004

    View details for PubMedID 3013037

  • PANCYTOPENIA WITH MYELOFIBROSIS - AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF CHILDHOOD HODGKINS-DISEASE CLINICAL PEDIATRICS Carroll, W. L., Berberich, F. R., Glader, B. E. 1986; 25 (2): 106-108

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986AZE8100010

    View details for PubMedID 3753669

  • MONO-VALENT CATION CHANGES IN SICKLE ERYTHROCYTES - A DIRECT REFLECTION OF ALPHA-GLOBIN GENE NUMBER JOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE Embury, S. H., BACKER, K., Glader, B. E. 1985; 106 (1): 75-79

    Abstract

    It has been suggested that the less severe anemia that exists in patients with sickle cell anemia who also have alpha-thalassemia is related to an effect on the sickling of erythrocytes. To test this hypothesis, we used as a measure of sickling the change in sickle erythrocyte sodium and potassium content that occurs during deoxygenation. Sickle cells from individuals with four, three, or two alpha-globin genes were deoxygenated, and the change in monovalent cation content measured to determine whether a relationship exists between alpha-globin gene number and sickling. In samples of cells depleted of irreversibly sickled cells, the alpha-globin gene number was directly related to the magnitude of mean cation change and inversely related to the ratio of membrane surface area to cell volume. These data indicate that alpha-thalassemia is associated with a diminished degree of sickling in individuals with sickle cell anemia. They also suggest that excess cell membrane may play a role in this protective effect.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ALL4000012

    View details for PubMedID 4009025

  • CHILDHOOD BONE-MARROW MONOSOMY-7 SYNDROME - A FAMILIAL DISORDER JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Carroll, W. L., Morgan, R., Glader, B. E. 1985; 107 (4): 578-580

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ASM6200023

    View details for PubMedID 3862804

  • FATAL MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION FOLLOWING THERAPY WITH PROTHROMBIN COMPLEX CONCENTRATES IN A YOUNG MAN WITH HEMOPHILIA-A PEDIATRICS Sullivan, D. W., Purdy, L. J., Billingham, M., Glader, B. E. 1984; 74 (2): 279-281

    Abstract

    A fatal myocardial infarction in a 22-year-old man with hemophilia A and a factor VIII inhibitor is described. The catastrophic event occurred while the patient was receiving high doses of unactivated prothrombin complex concentrates. Autopsy examination revealed myocardial hemorrhage with no evidence of coronary artery disease or thrombosis. There also was postmortem evidence of previous myocardial infarctions. This is the fourth documented case of myocardial infarction occurring in a young hemophiliac patient using unactivated prothrombin complex concentrates. It is concluded that utilization of prothrombin complex concentrates in hemophiliac patients must be limited and closely monitored. Therapeutic guidelines are recommended.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TC76400018

    View details for PubMedID 6431390

  • IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIA ASSOCIATED WITH ACUTE NONLYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Amylon, M. D., Link, M. P., Glader, B. E. 1984; 105 (5): 776-778

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TR54000020

    View details for PubMedID 6502309

  • MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY AND ENZYMATIC PROFILES OF HUMAN-MALIGNANT LYMPHOID-T CELLS AND DERIVED CELL-LINES CANCER RESEARCH Smith, S. D., Shatsky, M., Cohen, P. S., Warnke, R., Link, M. P., Glader, B. E. 1984; 44 (12): 5657-5660

    Abstract

    Recently, four distinct cell lines were established from patients whose malignancies had been defined by immunological and biochemical markers. Each patient had a distinct subtype of a T-cell cancer, and each possessed elevated adenosine deaminase and reduced nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Cell lines cultured in vitro possessed the same basic immunophenotype and biochemical enzyme activity as the patients' original malignant cells. In a direct comparison of the immunophenotype of the cell lines and the patients' malignant cells, full concordance existed for 48 of 52 paired antibody tests performed. However, when compared to the corresponding patient's sample, each cell line showed some minor changes in antigen expression or enzyme level. Antigen loss, de novo antigen expression, or elevated adenosine deaminase levels occurred in the cell lines, and these changes were stable on repeated analysis. While there was good general concordance between the patient's cancer and the established cell line, minor biological differences in the cell lines may reflect cellular maturation or subpopulation selection in vitro.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TU47100032

    View details for PubMedID 6437672

  • ACUTE NONLYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA DEVELOPING DURING THE COURSE OF EWINGS-SARCOMA MEDICAL AND PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY Link, M. P., Donaldson, S. S., Kempson, R. L., Wilbur, J. R., Glader, B. E. 1984; 12 (3): 194-200

    Abstract

    Two children with Ewing's sarcoma developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) during the course of their illness. One patient developed ANLL after apparently successful treatment of his primary malignancy with radiation therapy and multiagent chemotherapy. In the second patient, acute leukemia developed before the administration of radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. The development of secondary ANLL after Ewing's sarcoma has been reported only twice previously, most likely representing a therapy-induced complication. The occurrence of ANLL in Patient 2 prior to therapy suggests that these two disorders may have a more than treatment-related association. Close follow-up of long-term survivors of Ewing's sarcoma with surveillance for secondary acute leukemia is advised.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SW62300009

    View details for PubMedID 6727775

  • COMPARATIVE MONO-VALENT CATION-TRANSPORT IN NEONATAL AND ADULT RED-BLOOD-CELLS PEDIATRIC RESEARCH MULLERSOYANO, A., Ramsey, B. W., Glader, B. E. 1984; 18 (8): 778-780

    Abstract

    Active transport of Na and K under physiologic and maximally stressed conditions was identical in normal adult red blood cells (RBC) and term neonatal erythrocytes. These results are consistent with the previous observation that Na-K ATPase is the same in normal adult RBC and term neonatal erythrocytes. These data, however, are at variance with a previous observation that active K transport is impaired in neonatal erythrocytes. The most reasonable explanation for this difference relates to inherent problems with the use of radioisotopes which were used in previous in vitro studies of cation transport.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TB61300023

    View details for PubMedID 6089084

  • ELEVATED ERYTHROCYTE ADENOSINE-DEAMINASE ACTIVITY IN CONGENITAL HYPOPLASTIC-ANEMIA NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Glader, B. E., BACKER, K., DIAMOND, L. K. 1983; 309 (24): 1486-1490

    Abstract

    Abnormalities of adenosine deaminase, a critical enzyme of the purine salvage pathway, have been reported in association with immune dysfunction, acute leukemia, and hereditary hemolytic anemia. We report data showing that erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity is also abnormal in congenital hypoplastic anemia (the Diamond-Blackfan syndrome). Adenosine deaminase activity in erythrocytes from 12 patients (mean +/- S.D., 2.20 +/- 0.77 IU per gram of hemoglobin) was substantially greater than that observed in 50 controls (0.62 +/- 0.13 IU per gram). Enzyme activity in affected patients was also greater than that seen in cord blood or in erythrocytes from patients with hemolytic anemia, acquired aplastic anemia, Fanconi's hypoplastic anemia, acquired pure red-cell aplasia, or transient erythroblastopenia of childhood. These observations indicate that erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity may be a unique marker for identifying congenital hypoplastic anemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RU40500004

    View details for PubMedID 6646173

  • PLATELET-ASSOCIATED IMMUNOGLOBULIN-G IN CHILDHOOD IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Cheung, N. K., Hilgartner, M. W., Schulman, I., McFall, P., Glader, B. E. 1983; 102 (3): 366-370

    Abstract

    Platelet-associated IgG was studied in children with acute and chronic ITP and in patients with thrombocytopenic SLE, using the microtiter solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Of the children with acute ITP, 85% had elevated PAIgG levels. The degree of elevation of PAIgG at onset of disease did not correlate with the development of chronicity. Of the children with acute ITP, clinically and hematologically indistinguishable from the rest, 15% had normal PAIgG values. All of 22 children with chronic ITP had elevated PAIgG values. Although there was good correlation between the platelet count and the PAIgG value in children with chronic ITP, the association was not as striking in those with acute ITP; thus, factors in addition to the level of PAIgG may contribute to the thrombocytopenia in the latter group. Patients with SLE and thrombocytopenia had higher values of PAIgG than would be predicted from the platelet count; the PAIgG value is probably not the only factor determining the degree of immune thrombocytopenia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QF66500007

    View details for PubMedID 6681837

  • THE RED-BLOOD-CELL AS A BIOPSY TOOL CLINICS IN HAEMATOLOGY Glader, B. E., Sullivan, D. W. 1981; 10 (1): 209-222

    Abstract

    During the past several years, there has been much emphasis on understanding the relationship between abnormalities in RBC metabolism and hereditary haemolytic anaemias. More recently, attention has focused on utilizing erythrocyte biochemical abnormalities in the diagnosis of systemic disorders not necessarily associated with altered RBC function. In this chapter, we have enumerated several non-erythrocytic clinical conditions clearly associated with altered RBC metabolic products or enzyme activity. Specifically, we have described the use of erythrocytes (1) to diagnose inborn errors of metabolism, (2) to assess many nutritional disorders, (3) to monitor hyperglycaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, and (4) to discriminate between essential and non-essential hypertension. As Eric Ponder said many years ago (Ponder, 1948), 'I have been told that I tend to speak of the red cell as if it were a microcosm, as if an understanding of its nature and properties would include an understanding of nearly everything else in the cellular world. To some extent this is true.' When the list of conditions for which the red cell can be used as a biopsy tool is reassessed several years from now, most assuredly many new clinical conditions will be added to the diseases we have discussed. For example, our knowledge of normal membrane structure and function currently is in its infancy, yet it already appears that analysis of RBC membranes may be useful in detecting certain neurological disorders such as muscular dystrophy (Roses, Herbstreith and Appel, 1975). Needless to say, to the delight of Dr Eric Ponder, the utility of the erythrocyte as an investigative tool appears to be without limit.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LL32600011

    View details for PubMedID 6452240

  • ERYTHROCYTE ENZYME DISORDERS IN CHILDREN PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Sullivan, D. W., Glader, B. E. 1980; 27 (2): 449-462

    Abstract

    Erythrocyte metabolic abnormalities should be considered as a possible cause of hemolysis when there is no evidence of an immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, no consumptive red blood cell disorder, no morophologic or laboratory data to suggest a problem of the red cell membrane, and no evidence of a quantitative or qualitative defect in hemoglobin synthesis. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is clearly the most common enzyme deficiency causing clinical problems.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JV66600015

    View details for PubMedID 6247687

  • HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS PEDIATRIC ANNALS Sullivan, D. W., Glader, B. E. 1980; 9 (8): 308-311

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980KD47500004

    View details for PubMedID 7413286

  • Erythrocyte disorders leading to potassium loss and cellular dehydration. Progress in clinical and biological research Glader, B. E., Sullivan, D. W. 1979; 30: 503-513

    Abstract

    RBC K loss and cellular dehydration are associated with a variety of normal and abnormal erythrocyte conditions. In some cases (normal RBC aging, pyruvate-kinase-deficient RBCs and irreversibly sickled cells) cation and water changes are related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and to increased RBC calcium content. In other disorders, such as hereditary xerocytosis, cation depletion and cellular hydration are not related to altered energy or calcium metabolism. Rather, this condition is thought to be due to a structural membrane defect which is manifested by imbalanced cation leaks (K less greater than Na gain) for which the active cation transport is unable to compensate. None of the disorders described here are associated with known structural membrane alterations. The fact that K loss and cellular dehydration are common to several RBC disorders suggests that this phenomenon may have a direct role in membrane injury. This hypothesis is supported by two separate observations: 1)Formation of irreversible sickled cells in vitro is prevented if K and water loss are inhibited, and these effects are independent of ATP depletion and calcium accumulation; 2) the mean critical hemolytic volume is markedly reduced in K- and water-depleted normal RBCs. RBC dehydration without intracellular cation depletion, however, is not associated with changes in mean critical hemolytic volume. These data thus indicate that K loss may have a direct role in RBC membrane injury. The mechanism by which this occurs and the associated alterations in membrane structure, however, remain to be identified.

    View details for PubMedID 531041

  • MICROCYTOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Glader, B. E., PROPPER, R. D., Buchanan, G. R. 1979; 72 (1): 63-64

    Abstract

    Sickle cell (Hb SS) anemia is considered a normochromic-normocytic hemolytic disorder. In 53 patients with Hb SS (mean reticulocyte values 16.8%), the authors observed that mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) was 29.8 +/- 2.4 mu microgram and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCV) was 88.1 +/- 6.8 cu micrometers. In contrast, patients in a comparable hemolytic-disease group unrelated to hemoglobinopathies (mean reticulocyte count = 15.7%) had a higher MCH (33.0 +/- 1.8 mu microgram) and larger MCV (97 +/- 5.3 cu micrometers). These data indicate that Hb SS disease is associated with "relative microcytosis," presumably a consequence of reduced hemoglobin production.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HC87000011

    View details for PubMedID 453112

  • EOSINOPHILIA IN CHILDREN PEDIATRIC ANNALS Foung, S., Glader, B. E. 1979; 8 (6): 39-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979GY10400003

    View details for PubMedID 471550

  • LEUKOCYTE COUNTS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE-CELL DISEASE - COMPARATIVE VALUES IN STEADY-STATE, VASO-OCCLUSIVE CRISIS, AND BACTERIAL-INFECTION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN Buchanan, G. R., Glader, B. E. 1978; 132 (4): 396-398

    Abstract

    Total and differential WBC counts were measured in 88 children with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies during the steady state, vaso-occlusive crisis, and bacterial infection. Steady state leukocyte values were lower than anticipated on the basis of currently available information. Total and segmented leukocyte numbers were greatly increased during vaso-occlusive crisis and infection, but only with bacterial infection was there a consistent increase in bands or nonsegmented leukocytes (mean, 4,580/microliter). On the basis of these data we believe that total and differential leukocyte counts are of value for identifying those children with potentially serious bacterial infections.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978EW29500013

    View details for PubMedID 645659

  • RED-BLOOD-CELL SIZE AND GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME-ACTIVITY - RELATIONSHIP TO NUMBER OF INTRA-MEDULLARY CELL DIVISIONS PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Glader, B. E., McCrimmons, D., MULLERSOYANO, A., Platt, O. 1978; 12 (4): 308-309

    Abstract

    In order to assess how the number of cell divisions influences the red blood cell (RBC) content of proteins other than hemoglobin, we measured the activity of two age-independent glycolytic enzymes in macrocytic, normal, and microcytic RBCs. The enzymes measured were phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). In macrocytes, both PGK and LDH activity/10(10) RBCs were increased 1.6-fold over normal RBCs. In microcytes, however, the activity of these enzymes was identical to that seen in normal RBCs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978EV11400012

    View details for PubMedID 652413

  • ENERGY RESERVE AND CATION COMPOSITION OF IRREVERSIBLY SICKLED CELLS INVIVO BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Glader, B. E., Lux, S. E., MULLERSOYANO, A., Platt, O. S., PROPPER, R. D., Nathan, D. G. 1978; 40 (4): 527-532

    Abstract

    Cation composition, cellular hydration, and adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) content were measured in irreversible sickle cells (ISC's) separated from the blood of patients with sickle cell anaemia. Total monovalent cation (Na+ + K+) content was markedly reduced in ISC's and this largely was due to cell K+ depletion. Corresponding to the reduced cation content, cells were dehydrated as indicated by a reduced mean cell volume. ISC's also appeared to be grossly depleted of ATP. These biochemical characteristics allow us to expand the definition of ISC's beyond morphologic characteristics. In addition, these chemical alterations provide a means for elucidating the mechanism of ISC production in vitro.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FX09000003

    View details for PubMedID 728369

  • CATION PERMEABILITY ALTERATIONS DURING SICKLING - RELATIONSHIP TO CATION COMPOSITION AND CELLULAR HYDRATION OF IRREVERSIBLY SICKLED CELLS BLOOD Glader, B. E., Nathan, D. G. 1978; 51 (5): 983-989

    Abstract

    Sickle erythrocytes (RBC) incubated under 100% nitrogen for 4 hr manifested marked Na gain with an equivalent K loss. There were no changes in cell total cation or water content under these conditions, and no irreversible sickle cells (ISC) were formed. In contrast, sickle RBC incubated for 24 hr under 100% nitrogen in a glucose-free Na medium containing calcium manifested marked ISC formation. ISC formed under these conditions also had elevated Na content, although K content was much more reduced, and consequently ISC were cation depleted and dehydrated. When sickle RBC were incubated 24 hr under 100% nitrogen in a glucose-free K medium containing calcium no ISC formed and there were no major changes in cation or water content. These studies indicate that the Na+K content and dehydration of ISC was not directly related to the increased cation permeability associated with sickling. Rather, the ISC changes appear to reflect the well-known Gardos effect (K and water loss occurring in ATP-depleted RBC incubated with calcium). In addition, these studies suggest that ISC formation per se is related to K and water loss, since no ISC were formed when ATP-depleted sickle RBC were deoxygenated in calcium-containing high-K media that prevented K loss and dehydration.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978EZ04900020

    View details for PubMedID 638256

  • HEMOLYTIC DISORDERS OF INFANCY CLINICS IN HAEMATOLOGY Glader, B. E., Platt, O. 1978; 7 (1): 35-61

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FH40700004

    View details for PubMedID 350466

  • PHYSIOLOGIC FEATURES OF HEMOLYSIS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED CATION AND 2,3-DIPHOSPHOGLYCERATE CONTENT BLOOD ALBALA, M. M., FORTIER, N. L., Glader, B. E. 1978; 52 (1): 135-141

    Abstract

    A hemolytic disorder characterized by altered RBC cation composition (increases Na, decreases K), reduced monovalent cation content (decreased Na + K/liter RBC), and decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) is described. The etiology of these RBC abnormalities was not elucidated following extensive laboratory evaluation, although two important physiologic principles were manifested by this case: (1) Hemolysis was relatively well compensated (41% hematocrit) despite a significantly decreased RBC survival (51 Cr t 1/2 = 10.5 days). This effect presumably was due to reduced 2,3-DPG content (1.9 mumol/ml RBC) and the associated increase in whole blood oxygen affinity (P50 = 19.6 mm hg). (2) RBC size and water content were normal in spite of marked cation depletion. This anomaly was thought to reflect the osmotic effects of reduced polyvalent anion (2,3-DPG) content.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FF13200014

    View details for PubMedID 656623

  • CATION SPECIFICITY OF PROPRANOLOL-INDUCED CHANGES IN RBC MEMBRANE-PERMEABILITY - COMPARATIVE EFFECTS IN HUMAN, DOG AND CAT ERYTHROCYTES JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY MULLERSOYANO, A., Glader, B. E. 1977; 91 (2): 317-321

    Abstract

    Propranolol, in the presence of calcium, causes marked K efflux from human red blood cells (high K, low Na). The studies reported here indicate this effect of propranolol is specific for K and does not represent a nonspecific permeability increase for intracellular cations to leave the cell. Amphotericin-treated human RBC's (high Na, low K) and dog RBC's (high Na, low K) both gain K and increase in size when incubated in a K-medium containing propranolol and calcium. No effect was noted when cat RBC's (high Na, low K) were similarly treated. Propranolol, independent of added calcium, also inhibited the normally increased Na efflux observed when dog RBC's are suspended in K-medium. These species differences in response to propranolol thus may serve as a focus for elucidating the mechanism by which this drug alters normal membrane physiology. The unique drug effect on Na permeability of canine erythrocytes also may be a useful probe for the study of dog RBC volume regulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977DD60000015

    View details for PubMedID 558987

  • BENIGN COURSE OF EXTREME HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA IN SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA - ANALYSIS OF 6 CASES JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Buchanan, G. R., Glader, B. E. 1977; 91 (1): 21-24

    Abstract

    Since the approach to the management and outcome of extreme hyperbilirubinemia in patients with sickle cell anemia is not clearly defined, we reviewed our experience with marked hyperbilirubinemia in six children with sickle cell disease. Intrahepatic sickling (sickle hepatopathy) rather than hepatitis or biliary stones appeared primarily responsible for the extreme jaundice in at least four children and possibly in all six. Signs and symptoms were few, and laboratory abnormalities were not striking other than marked hyperbilirubinemia (total serum bilirubin concentrations ranging from 20.4 to 57.6 mg/dl with approximately one half conjugated). All of the children improved within days to weeks and currently are well, without recurrence of hyperbilirubinemia or evidence of chronic liver disease. The patients described here suggest that sickling within the liver, previously reported to be a serious and even fatal syndrome, usually is a benign and self-limited process.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977DL33900004

    View details for PubMedID 874660

  • Care of the critically ill child: the bleeding neonate. Pediatrics Glader, B. E., Buchanan, G. R. 1976; 58 (4): 548-555

    Abstract

    Serious bleeding episodes in newborn infants can usually be diagnosed following careful clinical assessment and a few simple laboratory tests. Certain conditions are found almost exclusively in "sick" infants, whereas other coagulation abnormalities occur in otherwise "healthy" neonates. Successful management of hemorrhage necessitates a correct diagnosis which thereby dictates appropirate therapy. In some cases, such as in DIC, successful outcome ultimately depends on correction of the underlying pathophysiology which triggered the coagulation disturbance.

    View details for PubMedID 972796

  • EVALUATION OF HEMOLYTIC ROLE OF ASPIRIN IN GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE-DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Glader, B. E. 1976; 89 (6): 1027-1028

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976CM80300036

    View details for PubMedID 993904

  • SALICYLATE-INDUCED INJURY OF PYRUVATE-KINASE-DEFICIENT ERYTHROCYTES NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Glader, B. E. 1976; 294 (17): 916-918

    Abstract

    Salicylate is known to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Since the viability of pyruvate-kinase-deficient reticulocytes depends on ATP generated by mitochondrial metabolism, this study examined the effects of salicylate on erythrocytes deficient in pyruvate kinase. When deficient erythrocytes from patients with severe hemolysis were incubated with salicylate (2 to 30 mg per deciliter), there was a marked decrease (25 to 75 percent) in ATP. In addition, this drug-induced ATP depletion produced cell potassium and water loss, and the normal oxidant responsiveness of the hexose-monophosphate shunt was blunted. Since these cellular abnormalities are associated with accelerated hemolysis in vivo, the data suggest that aspirin therapy may aggravate hemolysis in patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency whose erythrocyte manifest sensitivity to salicylate in vitro.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976BN28300002

    View details for PubMedID 1256482

  • ENERGY METABOLISM IN HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES - ROLE OF PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE IN CATION-TRANSPORT BLOOD Segel, G. B., Feig, S. A., Glader, B. E., Muller, A., Dutcher, P., Nathan, D. G. 1975; 46 (2): 271-278

    Abstract

    Three models of disturbed erythrocyte metabolism, triose-depleted normal, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK)-deficient, and pyruvate kinase (PK)-deficient cells, have been studied to examine further the role of PGK in erythrocyte cation transport. Sodium (Na-+) and potassium (K-+) transport were reduced only in cells fully depleted of triose. In such cells the PGK step presumably was inoperative due to total lack of substrate; 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) then became the sole substrate source for remaining steps in glycolysis. At increased intracellular Na-+ concentrations which normally stimulate transport and glycolysis, triose-depleted cells had marked impairment of cation transport and ouabain-inhibitable lactate and pyruvate production from 2,3-DPG. PGK-deficient cells and normal cells with high intracellular Na-+ concentrations had similar increases in transport and ouabain-inhibitable lactate production. PK-deficient cells with high intracellular Na-+ concentrations showed an appropriate increase in transport but less stimulation of lactate production. Transport was not related to total cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. These data suggested that normal coupled cation transport occurred despite diminished metabolite flow through PGK, as in PGK- or PK-deficient cells. Transport was diminished only in triose-depleted cells where metabolite flow through PGK was presumably absent. These data, therefore, support the concept that transport and glycolysis interact at the PGK step, although impairment of PGK must be profound before its effect on transport is evident.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AL13400011

    View details for PubMedID 166715

  • INVIVO HEPATIC AND INTESTINAL TOXICITY OF SODIUM CYANATE IN RATS - CYANATE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN HEPATIC GLYCOGEN-METABOLISM JOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE Haut, M. J., Toskes, P. P., Hildebrandt, P. K., Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1975; 85 (1): 140-154

    Abstract

    To determine the hepatic and intestinal toxicity of sodium cyanate, this compound was administered to rats by orogastric tube (PO) or intraperitoneal injection (IP). At low dosage (50 mg. per kilogram per day PO for 8 weeks), the animals showed no clinical effects other than mild lethargy. They had normal intestinal absorption studies, but demonstrated decreased liver G6PD activity and a slight increase in hepatic glycogen. At higher dose levels (200 mg. per kilogram per day PO for 10 days, 400 mg. per kilogram per day PO for 3 days, and 100 mg. per kilogram per day IP for 10 days), the animals became very lethargic and developed hind-limb paralysis; many animals died during the period of dosing. The severity and rate of onset of symptoms increased proportionally with the dose level. Liver sections from rats receiving these higher doses showed striking increases in glycogen deposition. Activities of hepatic enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and degradation were measured in rats receiving 200 mg. per kilogram per day PO or 100 mg. per kilogram per day IP. Significant decreases were noted in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and G6PD in PO-dosed rats. The activities of phosphorylase, UDPG-pyrophosphorylase, glycogen synthetase, phosphoglucomutase, and debrancher did not differ from control rats. In IP-dosed rats, significant decreases were observed in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, G6PD, phosphorylase, and UDPG-pyrophosphorylase, but not in the other glycogen-related enzymes. Our data suggest that sodium cyanate affects several enzymes of hepatic glycogen metabolism but that the enzymes vary in their susceptibility (glucose-6-phosphatase and G6PD greater than phosphorylase and UDPG pyrophosphorylase.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975V287200017

    View details for PubMedID 237970

  • ROLE OF ELEVATED GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN HEMOLYSIS OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE-DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENT ERYTHROCYTES PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE Glader, B. E. 1975; 148 (1): 50-53

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975V523800011

    View details for PubMedID 236572

  • HEMOLYSIS DUE TO PYRUVATE-KINASE DEFICIENCY AND OTHER GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMOPATHIES CLINICS IN HAEMATOLOGY Glader, B. E., Nathan, D. G. 1975; 4 (1): 123-138

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975V843000008

    View details for PubMedID 1102179

  • CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC-ANEMIA ASSOCIATED WITH DEHYDRATED ERYTHROCYTES AND INCREASED POTASSIUM LOSS NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Glader, B. E., FORTIER, N., ALBALA, M. M., Nathan, D. G. 1974; 291 (10): 491-496

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974U019600003

    View details for PubMedID 4851153

  • ONCORNA VIRUS DISEASE - SYNDROME OF HEMOLYTIC-ANEMIA AND LYMPH-NODE CYSTIC-DISEASE LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Siegler, R., Moran, S., Glader, B., Lane, I., FROSCH, Y. 1974; 30 (5): 626-638

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974T041800008

    View details for PubMedID 4363519

  • EFFECT OF CYANATE ON ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY BLOOD DUROCHER, J. R., Glader, B. E., GAINES, L. T., Conrad, M. E. 1974; 43 (2): 277-280

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974S098100013

    View details for PubMedID 4810077

  • CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC-ANEMIA WITH POTASSIUM LOSS - REPLY NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Glader, B. E., Nathan, D. G., ALBALA, M. M., FORTIER, N. 1974; 291 (25): 1361-1361
  • EFFECT OF CYANATE ON ERYTHROCYTE-MEMBRANE SURFACE CHARGE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE DUROCHER, J. R., Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1973; 144 (1): 249-251

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973Q981300054

    View details for PubMedID 4771566

  • INTRAVASCULAR HEMOLYSIS ASSOCIATED WITH INTRAVENOUS UREA INFUSIONS IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS BLOOD BENSINGE, T. A., Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1973; 41 (3): 461-464

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973P060500013

    View details for PubMedID 4690143

  • HEMOLYSIS BY DIPHENYLSULFONES - COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF DDS AND HYDROXYLAMINE-DDS JOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1973; 81 (2): 267-272

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973O764800012

    View details for PubMedID 4683425

  • DECREASED GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE IN NEONATAL ERTHYROCYTES - LACK OF RELATION TO HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE METABOLISM PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1972; 6 (12): 900-904

    View details for Web of Science ID A1972O334600008

    View details for PubMedID 4643538

  • CYANATE INHIBITION OF ERYTHROCYTE GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE NATURE Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1972; 237 (5354): 336-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1972M655700020

    View details for PubMedID 4557398

  • MECHANISM OF METHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION BY DIPHENYLSULFONES - EFFECT OF 4-AMINO-4'-HYDROXYAMINODIPHENYLSULFONE AND OTHER P-SUBSTITUTED DERIVATIVES BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY Kramer, P. A., LI, T. K., Glader, B. E. 1972; 21 (9): 1265-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1972M120500006

    View details for PubMedID 5038672

  • EFFECT OF COBALT UPON IRON ABSORPTION PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE Schade, S. G., FELSHER, B. F., Glader, B. E., Conrad, M. E. 1970; 134 (3): 741-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1970G853400035

    View details for PubMedID 5431364

  • Observations on the effect of testosterone and hydrocortisone on erythropoiesis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Glader, B. E., RAMBACH, W. A., ALT, H. L. 1968; 149 (1): 383-388

    View details for PubMedID 5240725

  • OBSERVATIONS ON EFFECT OF TESTOSTERONE AND HYDROCORTISONE ON ERYTHROPOIESIS ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Glader, B. E., RAMBACH, W. A., ALT, H. L. 1968; 149 (A1): 383-?
  • ROLE OF CELLULAR PI IN PI TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN HUMAN RED CELLS BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Glader, B. E., Omachi, A. 1968; 150 (3): 524-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1968B096400023

    View details for PubMedID 5650400

  • PHOSPHATE RELEASE FROM HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Glader, B. E., Omachi, A. 1968; 163 (1): 30-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1968B560800004

    View details for PubMedID 5666776

  • 2,4-DINITROPHENOL INHIBITION OF P32 RELEASE FROM HUMAN RED CELLS EXPERIENTIA Omachi, A., Scott, C. B., Glader, B. E. 1968; 24 (3): 244-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1968A804500024

    View details for PubMedID 5661417

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