Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University College London (2014)
  • Bachelor of Chemistry, University of Oxford (2009)
  • Master of Science, University College London (2010)
  • Master of Science, Imperial College of London (2009)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications

  • MRI compatible optrodes for simultaneous LFP and optogenetic fMRI investigation of seizure-like afterdischarges NEUROIMAGE Duffy, B. A., Choy, M., Chuapoco, M. R., Madsen, M., Lee, J. H. 2015; 123: 173-184


    In preclinical studies, implanted electrodes can cause severe degradation of MRI images and hence are seldom used for chronic studies employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, we developed carbon fiber optrodes (optical fiber and electrode hybrid devices), which can be utilised in chronic longitudinal studies aiming to take advantage of emerging optogenetic technologies, and compared them with the more widely used tungsten optrodes. We find that optrodes constructed using small diameter (~130 μm) carbon fiber electrodes cause significantly reduced artifact on functional MRI images compared to those made with 50 μm diameter tungsten wire and at the same time the carbon electrodes have lower impedance, which leads to higher quality LFP recordings. In order to validate this approach, we use these devices to study optogenetically-induced seizure-like afterdischarges in rats sedated with dexmedetomidine and compare these to sub (seizure) threshold stimulations in the same animals. The results indicate that seizure-like afterdischarges involve several extrahippocampal brain regions that are not recruited by subthreshold optogenetic stimulation of the hippocampus at 20 Hz. Subthreshold stimulation led to activation of the entire ipsilateral hippocampus and septum, whereas afterdischarges additionally produced activations in the contralateral hippocampal formation, neocortex, cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, and thalamus. Although we demonstrate just one application, given the ease of fabrication, we anticipate that carbon fiber optrodes could be utilised in a variety of studies that could benefit from longitudinal optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363763900017

  • In vivo imaging of transplanted stem cells in the central nervous system CURRENT OPINION IN GENETICS & DEVELOPMENT Duffy, B. A., Weitz, A. J., Lee, J. H. 2014; 28: 83-88


    In vivo imaging is increasingly being utilized in studies investigating stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders. Direct labeling is used in preclinical and clinical studies to track the fate of transplanted cells. To further determine cell viability, experimental studies are able to take advantage of reporter gene technologies. Structural and functional brain imaging can also be used alongside cell imaging as biomarkers of treatment efficacy. Furthermore, it is possible that new imaging techniques could be used to monitor functional integration of stem cell-derived cells with the host nervous system. In this review, we examine recent developments in these areas and identify promising directions for future research at the interface of stem cell therapies and neuroimaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gde.2014.09.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347764300014

    View details for PubMedID 25461455