Clinical Focus

  • PET Scans
  • Nuclear Medicine

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Walter Wolf Young Investigator Award, Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) (June 2010)
  • Editor's Choice Best Clinical Manuscript, Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2006)
  • The Minnies: Scientific Paper of the Year, AuntMinnie (November 2006)
  • Image of the Year, Society of Nuclear Medicine (June 2005)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Nuclear Medicine, American Board of Nuclear Medicine (2002)
  • Residency:UCLA School of Medicine (2002) CA
  • Internship:Kaiser Foundation Hospital-Oakland (1999) CA
  • Medical Education:UT Southwestern Medical School (1998) TX

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Multimodality fusion imaging with PET, CT, and MRI for oncology.

Translational research bringing new radiotracers to clinical use.

Cardiovascular multimodality PET/CT imaging.

Clinical Trials

  • Adjunctive Efficacy Study Of The SoftScan® Optical Breast Imaging System Not Recruiting

    The primary study endpoint -SoftScan adjunctive accuracy- will be used to test the hypothesis that the adjunctive combination of the SoftScan with x-ray mammography provides diagnostic accuracy that is significantly better than x-ray mammography alone.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leslie Roche, (650) 724 - 5913.

    View full details

  • Evaluating Sunitinib Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma Using F-18 FDG PET/CT and DCE MRI Not Recruiting

    To learn whether FDG PET/CT and DCE MRI are better predictors of response to therapy than the current standard of care (CT or MRI).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Andrew Quon, (650) 736 - 1369.

    View full details

  • 4D-CT-based Ventilation Imaging for Adaptive Functional Guidance in Radiotherapy Recruiting

    To determine the appropriate class of deformable image registration algorithm and metric best suited for four-dimensional (4D) CT-based ventilation assessment.

    View full details

  • FLT-PET/CT vs FDG-PET/CT for Therapy Monitoring of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Recruiting

    Patients will undergo conventional staging methods (CSM), including PDG-PET/CT, for their disease within 4 weeks prior to planned initiation of R-CHOP given for 6 cycles every 3 weeks. These patients will then have FLT-PET/CT and FDG-PET/CT scans performed 18-24 days after the second cycle of R-CHOP. After completion of six cycles of chemotherapy, CSM will be repeated, including FDG-PET/CT but only if the post cycle 2 FDG-PET/CT was positive to assess response and determine the appropriate patient management.

    View full details

  • Phase II Poor Risk Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) of Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) Followed by Matched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplantation as Consolidation to Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (AHCT) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma who are not likely to be cured by the conventional transplantation regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

    View full details

  • Avastin/[18-F]-5-fluorouracil PET/CT Imaging Feasibility Project Not Recruiting

    To determine whether using a radiolabelled analog of 5-FU, [18F]-5-fluorouracil, for PET/CT imaging can visually demonstrate differential chemotherapy delivery to known tumor sites before and after administration of bevacizumab and determine the optimal timing of bevacizumab administration to maximize the chemotherapy delivery into the tumor for improved cancer treatment.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Maurice Zissen, (650) 736 - 1365.

    View full details

  • Pre-surgical Detection of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) Using Radiolabeled G250-Antibody Not Recruiting

    This is a multicenter Phase III study to demonstrate the diagnostic utility of 124I-cG250 PET/CT pre-surgical imaging in patients with operable renal masses.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, (650) 736 - 1252.

    View full details

  • Assessing the Suitability of an Imaging Probe for Use in Clinical Cell and Gene Therapy Trials in Cancer and Rheumatoid Arthritis Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether [18F]FHBG is suitable for use as an imaging probe in cancer or rheumatoid arthritis patients enrolled in cell or gene therapy trials. In this phase 1 study we will assess the safety and biodistribution of [18F]FHBG in patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Shahriar Shah Yaghoubi, Ph.D, 650-725-6070.

    View full details

  • Phase II Sequential and Concurrent Chemoradiation for Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) Recruiting

    This phase II trial is studying whether giving a combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy followed by the combination of cisplatin with radiation therapy works in treating patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Specialized radiation therapy that delivers a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor may kill more tumor cells and cause less damage to normal tissue. Giving combination chemotherapy together with radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells.

    View full details

  • Correlation of PET-CT Studies With Serum Protein Analysis Not Recruiting

    To correlate serum proteomics patterns with PET/CT findings to improve cancer diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and therapy monitoring.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Erik Mittra, (650) 725 - 4711.

    View full details

  • Sodium Fluoride PET/CT for the Evaluation of Skeletal Cancer Not Recruiting

    This clinical trial studies fluorine F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing bone tumors in patients with cancer. Diagnostic procedures, such as fluorine F-18 sodium fluoride PET/CT, may help find and diagnose bone cancer

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Euodia Jonathan, 650-723-7419.

    View full details

  • Phase I Dose Escalation of Stereotactic Radiosurgical Boost for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer Not Recruiting

    To study the safety and feasibility of stereotactic radiation dose escalation following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with concurrent conventionally fractionated radiation, by evaluating the acute and late toxicity of treatment.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laurie Ann Columbo, (650) 736 - 0792.

    View full details

  • Phase I Trial of Metabolic Reprogramming Therapy for Treatment of Recurrent Head and Neck Cancers Recruiting

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose of DCA in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer who have failed first-line therapy. The purpose of this study is to study the effect of the drug DCA (dichloroacetate) on recurrent head and neck cancers. Part of this study will also use EF5 PET scan to study tumor hypoxia.

    View full details

  • Phase I/II PTK787/ZK 222584 and Gemcitabine in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine the optimal safe and tolerable dose of gemcitabine in combination with once daily or twice daily dose of PTK/ZK in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The Phase II part of this trial plans to determine the antitumor activity of this regimen and its effectiveness of preventing tumor growth and spread.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Heidi Kaiser, (650) 724 - 0079.

    View full details


2013-14 Courses


Journal Articles

  • Impact of positron emission tomography/computed tomography surveillance at 12 and 24 months for detecting head and neck cancer recurrence CANCER Ho, A. S., Tsao, G. J., Chen, F. W., Shen, T., Kaplan, M. J., Colevas, A. D., Fischbein, N. J., Quon, A., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Pinto, H. A., Fee, W. E., Sunwoo, J. B., Sirjani, D., Hara, W., Yao, M. 2013; 119 (7): 1349-1356


    In head and neck cancer (HNC), 3-month post-treatment positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) reliably identifies persistent/recurrent disease. However, further PET/CT surveillance has unclear benefit. The impact of post-treatment PET/CT surveillance on outcomes is assessed at 12 and 24 months.A 10-year retrospective analysis of HNC patients was carried out with long-term serial imaging. Imaging at 3 months included either PET/CT or magnetic resonance imaging, with all subsequent imaging comprised of PET/CT. PET/CT scans at 12 and 24 months were evaluated only if preceding interval scans were negative. Of 1114 identified patients, 284 had 3-month scans, 175 had 3- and 12-month scans, and 77 had 3-, 12-, and 24-month scans.PET/CT detection rates in clinically occult patients were 9% (15 of 175) at 12 months, and 4% (3 of 77) at 24 months. No difference in outcomes was identified between PET/CT-detected and clinically detected recurrences, with similar 3-year disease-free survival (41% vs 46%, P = .91) and 3-year overall survival (60% vs 54%, P = .70) rates. Compared with 3-month PET/CT, 12-month PET/CT demonstrated fewer equivocal reads (26% vs 10%, P < .001). Of scans deemed equivocal, 6% (5 of 89) were ultimately found to be positive.HNC patients with negative 3-month imaging appear to derive limited benefit from subsequent PET/CT surveillance. No survival differences were observed between PET/CT-detected and clinically detected recurrences, although larger prospective studies are needed for further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.27892

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316811900010

  • Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Disease Progression and Survival in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Bazan, J. G., Koong, A. C., Kapp, D. S., Quon, A., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W., Chang, D. T. 2013; 54 (1): 27-32


    PET imaging has become a useful diagnostic tool in patients with anal cancer. We evaluated the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in patients with anal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.Patients with anal cancer who underwent PET imaging for pretreatment staging or radiation therapy planning from 2003 to 2011 were included. PET parameters included MTV and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Total MTV (MTV-T) was defined as the sum of the volumes above a standardized uptake value 50% of the SUVmax within the primary tumor and involved nodes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for associations between metabolic or clinical endpoints and overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and event-free survival (EFS). Results: Thirty-nine patients were included. Median follow-up for the cohort was 22 mo. Overall, 6 patients died and 9 patients had disease progression. The 2-y OS, PFS, and EFS for the entire cohort were 88%, 74%, and 69%, respectively. Higher MTV-T was associated with worse OS (P = 0.04), PFS (P = 0.004), and EFS (P = 0.002) on univariate analysis. Patients with an MTV greater than 26 cm(3) had worse PFS than did those with an MTV of 26 cm(3) or less (33% vs. 82%, P = 0.003). SUVmax was not prognostic for any outcome. Higher T classification (T3/T4 vs. T1/T2) was associated with worse PFS and EFS. When adjusting for T classification, MTV-T remained a significant predictor for PFS (P = 0.01) and EFS (P = 0.02).MTV-T yields prognostic information on PFS and EFS beyond that of established prognostic factors in patients with anal cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.112.109470

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313606800026

    View details for PubMedID 23236018

  • Metabolic imaging metrics correlate with survival in early stage lung cancer treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. Lung cancer Abelson, J. A., Murphy, J. D., Trakul, N., Bazan, J. G., Maxim, P. G., Graves, E. E., Quon, A., Le, Q., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W. 2012; 78 (3): 219-224


    To test whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging metrics correlate with outcomes in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR).Fifty-four patients with stage I NSCLC underwent pre-SABR PET at simulation and/or post-SABR PET within 6 months. We analyzed maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) and metabolic tumor volume defined using several thresholds (MTV50%, or MTV2, 4, 7, and 10). Endpoints included primary tumor control (PTC), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). We performed Kaplan-Meier, competing risk, and Cox proportional hazards survival analyses.Patients received 25-60 Gy in 1 to 5 fractions. Median follow-up time was 13.2 months. The 1-year estimated PTC, PFS, OS and CSS were 100, 83, 87 and 94%, respectively. Pre-treatment SUV(max) (p=0.014), MTV(7) (p=0.0077), and MTV(10) (p=0.0039) correlated significantly with OS. In the low-MTV(7)vs. high-MTV(7) sub-groups, 1-year estimated OS was 100 vs. 78% (p=0.0077) and CSS was 100 vs. 88% (p=0.082).In this hypothesis-generating study we identified multiple pre-treatment PET-CT metrics as potential predictors of OS and CSS in patients with NSCLC treated with SABR. These could aid risk-stratification and treatment individualization if validated prospectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.08.016

    View details for PubMedID 23009727

  • Initial investigation of F-18-NaF PET/CT for identification of vertebral sites amenable to surgical revision after spinal fusion surgery EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Quon, A., Dodd, R., Iagaru, A., de Abreu, M. R., Hennemann, S., Alves Neto, J. M., Sprinz, C. 2012; 39 (11): 1737-1744


    A pilot study was performed in patients with recurrent back pain after spinal fusion surgery to evaluate the ability of (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging to correctly identify those requiring surgical intervention and to locate a site amenable to surgical intervention.In this prospective study 22 patients with recurrent back pain after spinal surgery and with equivocal findings on physical examination and CT were enrolled for evaluation with (18)F-NaF PET/CT. All PET/CT images were prospectively reviewed with the primary objective of identifying or ruling out the presence of lesions amenable to surgical intervention. The PET/CT results were then validated during surgical exploration or clinical follow-up of at least 15 months.Abnormal (18)F-NaF foci were found in 16 of the 22 patients, and surgical intervention was recommended. These foci were located at various sites: screws, cages, rods, fixation hardware, and bone grafts. In 6 of the 22 patients no foci requiring surgical intervention were found. Validation of the results by surgery (15 patients) or on clinical follow-up (7 patients) showed that (18)F-NaF PET/CT correctly predicted the presence of an abnormality requiring surgical intervention in 15 of 16 patients and was falsely positive in 1 of 16.In this initial investigation, (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging showed potential utility for evaluation of recurrent symptoms after spinal fusion surgery by identifying those patients requiring surgical management.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-012-2196-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309562600010

    View details for PubMedID 22895860

  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibition Increases Myocardial Glucose Uptake in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Witteles, R. M., Keu, K. V., Quon, A., Tavana, H., Fowler, M. B. 2012; 18 (10): 804-809


    Glucose and fatty acids comprise the primary substrates for myocardial energy metabolism. The normal myocardium switches toward glucose metabolism in the setting of stress; the inability to affect such a switch is a fundamental mechanism behind "diabetic" or "insulin-resistant" cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this mechanistic study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitor sitagliptin on myocardial glucose uptake in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.Twelve nondiabetic subjects with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent metabolic testing and assessment of myocardial glucose uptake by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomographic/computerized tomographic imaging at baseline and after 4 weeks of sitagliptin therapy. Sitagliptin therapy resulted in a significant increase in myocardial glucose uptake (19% increase; P = .04). Although most patients had at least a slight increase in glucose uptake, there was an overall bimodal response, with 6 patients ("responders") demonstrating large increases (>20%) in glucose uptake and 6 patients ("nonresponders") demonstrating <5% increases or slight decreases. Triglyceride-high-density lipoprotein ratios significantly dropped in the 6 responders compared with the 6 nonresponders (P < .02).Therapy with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin results in increased myocardial glucose uptake in nondiabetic patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2012.07.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310179900009

    View details for PubMedID 23040117

  • Comparison of MRI and 18F-NaF PET/CT in patients with patellofemoral pain JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Draper, C. E., Quon, A., Fredericson, M., Besier, T. F., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S., Gold, G. E. 2012; 36 (4): 928-932


    To determine whether bone metabolic activity corresponds to bone and cartilage damage in patients with patellofemoral pain.We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18) F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT) scans of the knees of 22 subjects. We compared locations of increased tracer uptake on the (18) F-NaF PET images to bone marrow edema and cartilage damage visualized on MRI.We found that increased bone activity on (18) F-NaF PET does not always correspond to structural damage in the bone or cartilage as seen on MRI.Our results suggest that (18) F-NaF PET/CT may provide additional information in patellofemoral pain patients compared to MRI.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.23682

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308884300018

    View details for PubMedID 22549985

  • Prognostic PET F-18-FDG Uptake Imaging Features Are Associated with Major Oncogenomic Alterations in Patients with Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer CANCER RESEARCH Nair, V. S., Gevaert, O., Davidzon, G., Napel, S., Graves, E. E., Hoang, C. D., Shrager, J. B., Quon, A., Rubin, D. L., Plevritis, S. K. 2012; 72 (15): 3725-3734


    Although 2[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake during positron emission tomography (PET) predicts post-surgical outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the biologic basis for this observation is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed 25 tumors from patients with NSCLCs to identify tumor PET-FDG uptake features associated with gene expression signatures and survival. Fourteen quantitative PET imaging features describing FDG uptake were correlated with gene expression for single genes and coexpressed gene clusters (metagenes). For each FDG uptake feature, an associated metagene signature was derived, and a prognostic model was identified in an external cohort and then tested in a validation cohort of patients with NSCLC. Four of eight single genes associated with FDG uptake (LY6E, RNF149, MCM6, and FAP) were also associated with survival. The most prognostic metagene signature was associated with a multivariate FDG uptake feature [maximum standard uptake value (SUV(max)), SUV(variance), and SUV(PCA2)], each highly associated with survival in the external [HR, 5.87; confidence interval (CI), 2.49-13.8] and validation (HR, 6.12; CI, 1.08-34.8) cohorts, respectively. Cell-cycle, proliferation, death, and self-recognition pathways were altered in this radiogenomic profile. Together, our findings suggest that leveraging tumor genomics with an expanded collection of PET-FDG imaging features may enhance our understanding of FDG uptake as an imaging biomarker beyond its association with glycolysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3943

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307354100004

    View details for PubMedID 22710433

  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers by Leveraging Public Gene Expression Microarray Data-Methods and Preliminary Results RADIOLOGY Gevaert, O., Xu, J., Hoang, C. D., Leung, A. N., Xu, Y., Quon, A., Rubin, D. L., Napel, S., Plevritis, S. K. 2012; 264 (2): 387-396


    To identify prognostic imaging biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by means of a radiogenomics strategy that integrates gene expression and medical images in patients for whom survival outcomes are not available by leveraging survival data in public gene expression data sets.A radiogenomics strategy for associating image features with clusters of coexpressed genes (metagenes) was defined. First, a radiogenomics correlation map is created for a pairwise association between image features and metagenes. Next, predictive models of metagenes are built in terms of image features by using sparse linear regression. Similarly, predictive models of image features are built in terms of metagenes. Finally, the prognostic significance of the predicted image features are evaluated in a public gene expression data set with survival outcomes. This radiogenomics strategy was applied to a cohort of 26 patients with NSCLC for whom gene expression and 180 image features from computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT were available.There were 243 statistically significant pairwise correlations between image features and metagenes of NSCLC. Metagenes were predicted in terms of image features with an accuracy of 59%-83%. One hundred fourteen of 180 CT image features and the PET standardized uptake value were predicted in terms of metagenes with an accuracy of 65%-86%. When the predicted image features were mapped to a public gene expression data set with survival outcomes, tumor size, edge shape, and sharpness ranked highest for prognostic significance.This radiogenomics strategy for identifying imaging biomarkers may enable a more rapid evaluation of novel imaging modalities, thereby accelerating their translation to personalized medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.12111607

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306660000010

    View details for PubMedID 22723499

  • Patients with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated bone metabolic activity at the patellofemoral joint JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Draper, C. E., Fredericson, M., Gold, G. E., Besier, T. F., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S., Quon, A. 2012; 30 (2): 209-213


    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by pain behind the kneecap and is often thought to be due to high stress at the patellofemoral joint. While we cannot measure bone stress in vivo, we can visualize bone metabolic activity using (18) F NaF PET/CT, which may be related to bone stress. Our goals were to use (18) F NaF PET/CT to evaluate whether subjects with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated bone metabolic activity and to determine whether bone metabolic activity correlates with pain intensity. We examined 20 subjects diagnosed with patellofemoral pain. All subjects received an (18) F NaF PET/CT scan of their knees. Uptake of (18) F NaF in the patella and trochlea was quantified by computing the standardized uptake value and normalizing by the background tracer uptake in bone. We detected increased tracer uptake in 85% of the painful knees examined. We found that the painful knees exhibited increased tracer uptake compared to the pain-free knees of four subjects with unilateral pain (P?=?0.0006). We also found a correlation between increasing tracer uptake and increasing pain intensity (r(2) ?=?0.55; P?=?0.0005). The implication of these results is that patellofemoral pain may be related to bone metabolic activity at the patellofemoral joint.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.21523

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298581200007

    View details for PubMedID 21812024

  • Metabolic Tumor Volume is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated Definitively for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Lee, P., Bazan, J. G., Lavori, P. W., Weerasuriya, D. K., Quon, A., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Wakelee, H. A., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W. 2012; 13 (1): 52-58


    Fluorine-18 flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has rapidly become the standard of care for staging patients with lung cancer. We evaluated the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV), a measure of tumor burden on FDG-PET imaging, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated definitively.A retrospective review identified 61 patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET imaging for pretreatment staging. Metabolically active tumor regions were segmented on the PET scans semiautomatically to calculate the total body MTV. We determined the relationship of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with MTV in the entire cohort, and in the subgroup treated definitively.The estimated median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 11.1 months and 18.9 months. Higher MTV was significantly associated with worse OS (P = 0.00075) and PFS (P = 0.00077). For definitively treated patients, when MTV was analyzed as a binary value above or below the median value, 2-year PFS was 60% versus 39.7% (median PFS 34.9 vs. 11.9 months) and 2-year OS was 79.7% versus 33.3% (median OS 41.9 vs. 18.9 months), respectively (log-rank P = 0.12 for PFS and P = 0.066 for OS). When MTV was analyzed as a continuous variable, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated a trend to worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31; P = 0.12) and significantly worse OS (HR = 1.53; P = 0.018) with increasing MTV after controlling for known prognostic variables.Tumor burden as assessed by MTV yields prognostic information on survival beyond that of established prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC treated definitively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2011.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299270900008

    View details for PubMedID 21703935

  • Pattern of 18F-FDG Uptake in the Spinal Cord in Patients With Non-Central Nervous System Malignancy SPINE Do, B. H., Mari, C., Tseng, J. R., Quon, A., Rosenberg, J., Biswal, S. 2011; 36 (21): E1395-E1401


    Retrospective review.To (1) propose a standard method to quantitate 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake in the spinal cord and (2) use this methodology to retrospectively characterize the pattern of uptake within the entire spinal cord using whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging.A physiologic understanding of glucose metabolism within the spinal cord may provide insight regarding infectious, inflammatory, vascular, and neoplastic spinal cord diseases.Institutional review board approval was obtained. A total of 131 consecutive whole-body PET/CT studies from July to August 2004 were reviewed, and using exclusionary criteria of: (1) severe spinal arthropathy or curvature, (2) motion artifact, (3) canal hardware, (4) spinal tumor, and (5) marrow hyperplasia, 92 studies of neurologically intact patients (49 men and 43 women) were selected for a retrospective review of spinal cord 18F-FDG activity. The transaxial CT was used to define the canal and circular regions of interests were placed within the canal at the level of the vertebral body midpoint from C1 to L3. Region of interest total count, area, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were recorded. Measurements at L5 served as an internal control. For comparative analysis, the cord-to-background (CTB) ratio was defined as spinal cord SUVmax to L5 SUVmax.Mean CTB decreased along each spinal level from cranial to caudal (P < 0.001). Significant relative increases were observed at the T11-T12 vertebral body levels (P < 0.001). Although insignificant, a relative increase was observed at C4. No significant interactions of age or sex on CTB were observed.The pattern of 18F-FDG uptake within the spinal cord, observed in patients with non-central nervous system malignancy, may be helpful in understanding glucose physiology of spinal cord diseases and warrants further research.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31820a7df8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295318000005

    View details for PubMedID 21311407



    To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on postradiation (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with head-and-neck cancer.Forty-seven patients with head-and-neck cancer who received pretreatment and posttreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV(2.0)-MTV(4.0); where MTV(2.0) refers to the volume above a standardized uptake value threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival and overall survival.Multiple postradiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome; however, the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV(2.0). An increase in MTV(2.0) of 21 cm(3) (difference between 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, p = 0.0001) and death (HR = 2.0, p = 0.003). In patients with nonnasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 34), MTV(2.0) <18 cm(3) and MTV(2.0) ?18 cm(3) yielded 2-year disease-free survival rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p = 0.006) and 2-year overall survival rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p = 0.009). There was no correlation between MTV(2.0) and disease-free survival or overall survival with nasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 13). On multivariate analysis, only postradiation MTV(2.0) was predictive of disease-free survival (HR = 2.47, p = 0.0001) and overall survival (HR = 1.98, p = 0.003).Postradiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification and will be valuable in the future with risk-adapted therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.01.057

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290837100028

    View details for PubMedID 20646870

  • Tumor Volume as a Potential Imaging-Based Risk-Stratification Factor in Trimodality Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Kozak, M. M., Murphy, J. D., Schipper, M. L., Donington, J. S., Zhou, L., Whyte, R. I., Shrager, J. B., Hoang, C. D., Bazan, J., Maxim, P. G., Graves, E. E., Diehn, M., Hara, W. Y., Quon, A., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W. 2011; 6 (5): 920-926


    The role of trimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to be defined. We hypothesized that imaging parameters on pre- and postradiation positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging are prognostic for outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT)/resection/consolidation chemotherapy and could help risk-stratify patients in clinical trials.We enrolled 13 patients on a prospective clinical trial of trimodality therapy for resectable locally advanced NSCLC. PET-CT was acquired for radiation planning and after 45 Gy. Gross tumor volume (GTV) and standardized uptake value were measured at pre- and post-CRT time points and correlated with nodal pathologic complete response, loco-regional and/or distant progression, and overall survival. In addition, we evaluated the performance of automatic deformable image registration (ADIR) software for volumetric response assessment.All patients responded with average total GTV reductions after 45 Gy of 43% (range: 27-64%). Pre- and post-CRT GTVs were highly correlated (R² = 0.9), and their respective median values divided the patients into the same two groups. ADIR measurements agreed closely with manually segmented post-CRT GTVs. Patients with GTV ? median (137 ml pre-CRT and 67 ml post-CRT) had 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 14% versus 75% for GTV less than median, a significant difference (p = 0.049). Pre- and post-CRT PET-standardized uptake value did not correlate significantly with pathologic complete response, PFS, or overall survival.Preoperative CRT with carboplatin/docetaxel/45 Gy resulted in excellent response rates. In this exploratory analysis, pre- and post-CRT GTV predicted PFS in trimodality therapy, consistent with our earlier studies in a broader cohort of NSCLC. ADIR seems robust enough for volumetric response assessment in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31821517db

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289554100012

    View details for PubMedID 21774104

  • F-18-5-fluorouracil dynamic positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows decreased tracer activity after bevacizumab in colorectal metastases NUCLEAR MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS Zissen, M. H., Kunz, P., Subbarayan, M., Chin, F. T., Conti, P. S., Fisher, G. A., Quon, A. 2011; 32 (5): 343-347


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of fluorine-18 (F)-5-fluorouracil (F-5-FU) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to show differences in 5-FU activity in metastatic colorectal cancer before and after treatment with bevacizumab.This was a pilot study of five patients with newly diagnosed and untreated metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. The presence of cancer was confirmed by histopathological analysis before enrollment. Patients underwent F-5-FU PET/CT scanning before treatment and at approximately 24 h postbevacizumab. PET/CT scanning consisted of a dynamic acquisition of images taken 0-20 min after injection of radiotracer. The degree of F-5-FU activity at the metastatic sites was assessed using visual interpretation and semiquantitative standardized uptake value analyses.The sizes of the metastatic lesions ranged from the smallest lesion measuring 3.04 × 1.50 cm to the largest measuring 4.19 × 2.76 cm. By drawing regions of interest, time-activity curves were generated at each tumor site and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were carried out. At baseline, during the first 5 min after F-5-FU injection the mean AUCtumor/AUCaorta ratio was 1.24 ± 0.30 (range, 0.424-2.14). Less than 24 h after the administration of bevacizumab, the AUCtumor/AUCaorta ratio decreased to 1.06 ± 0.32 (range, 0.23-2.13, P=0.04), which represented an average decline of 20.2% (range, 0.4-45%). Radiotracer uptake on the 5, 10, 15, and 20-min images did not show any significant change between baseline and posttreatment. Follow-up CT imaging showed stable tumor size in one patient and a decrease in metastasis size in the remaining four patients.In this pilot study of five patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma, F-5-FU PET/CT scanning showed a significant perfusion-related decrease in tracer activity 24 h postbevacizumab.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MNM.0b013e328344894b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289761500003

    View details for PubMedID 21412178

  • Rosiglitazone Increases Myocardial Glucose Metabolism in Insulin-Resistant Cardiomyopathy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Kao, D. P., Witteles, R. M., Quon, A., Wu, J. C., Gambhir, S. S., Fowler, M. B. 2010; 55 (9): 926-927

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.08.085

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274865100015

    View details for PubMedID 20185047

  • Interim positron emission tomography scans in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an independent expert nuclear medicine evaluation of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E3404 study BLOOD Horning, S. J., Juweid, M. E., Schoeder, H., Wiseman, G., McMillan, A., Swinnen, L. J., Advani, R., Gascoyne, R., Quon, A. 2010; 115 (4): 775-777


    Positive interim positron emission tomography (PET) scans are thought to be associated with inferior outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In the E3404 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma study, PET scans at baseline and after 3 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone were centrally reviewed by a single reader. To determine the reproducibility of interim PET interpretation, an expert panel of 3 external nuclear medicine physicians visually scored baseline and interim PET scans independently and were blinded to clinical information. The binary Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) study criteria were based on modifications of the Harmonization Criteria; the London criteria were also applied. Of 38 interim scans, agreement was complete in 68% and 71% by ECOG and London criteria, respectively. The range of PET(+) interim scans was 16% to 34% (P = not significant) by reviewer. Moderate consistency of reviews was observed: kappa statistic = 0.445 using ECOG criteria, and kappa statistic = 0.502 using London criteria. These data, showing only moderate reproducibility among nuclear medicine experts, indicate the need to standardize PET interpretation in research and practice. This trial was registered at as #NCT00274924 [corrected].

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-08-234351

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274086600008

    View details for PubMedID 19767508

  • Efficacy of F-18-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of patients with recurrent cervical carcinoma EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Mittra, E., El-Maghraby, T., Rodriguez, C. A., Quon, A., McDougall, I. R., Gambhir, S. S., Iagaru, A. 2009; 36 (12): 1952-1959


    Only a limited number of studies have evaluated the efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for recurrent cervical carcinoma, which this study seeks to expand upon.This is a retrospective study of 30 women with cervical carcinoma who had a surveillance PET/CT after initial therapy. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated using a 2 × 2 contingency table with pathology results (76%) or clinical follow-up (24%) as the gold standard. The Wilson score method was used to perform 95% confidence interval estimations.The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT for the detection of local recurrence at the primary site were 93, 93, 93, 86, and 96%, respectively. The same values for the detection of distant metastases were 96, 95, 95, 96, and 95%, respectively. Seventy-one percent of the scans performed in symptomatic patients showed true-positive findings. In comparison, 44% of scans performed in asymptomatic patients showed true-positive findings. But, all patients subsequently had a change in their management based on the PET/CT findings such that the effect was notable. The maximum standardized uptake value ranged from 5 to 28 (average: 13 ± 7) in the primary site and 3 to 23 (average: 8 ± 4) in metastases which were significantly different (p = 0.04).This study demonstrates favorable efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for identification of residual/recurrent cervical cancer, as well as for localization of distant metastases.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-009-1206-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271979300004

    View details for PubMedID 19585114

  • Focal fat mimicking multiple hepatic metastases on FDG PET/CT imaging EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Zissen, M. H., Quon, A. 2009; 36 (9): 1527-1527

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-009-1163-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268872200020

    View details for PubMedID 19562337

  • METABOLIC TUMOR VOLUME PREDICTS FOR RECURRENCE AND DEATH IN HEAD-AND-NECK CANCER INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS La, T. H., Filion, E. J., Turnbull, B. B., Chu, J. N., Lee, P., Nguyen, K., Maxim, P., Quon, A., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W., Le, Q. 2009; 74 (5): 1335-1341


    To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and other clinical factors in patients treated for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (HNC) at a single institution.Between March 2003 and August 2007, 85 patients received positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography-guided chemoradiotherapy for HNC. Metabolically active tumor regions were delineated on pretreatment PET scans semiautomatically using custom software. We evaluated the relationship of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and total metabolic tumor volume (MTV) with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).Mean follow-up for surviving patients was 20.4 months. The estimated 2-year locoregional control, DFS, and OS for the group were 88.0%, 69.5%, and 78.4%, respectively. The median time to first failure was 9.8 months among the 16 patients with relapse. An increase in MTV of 17.4 mL (difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles) was significantly associated with an increased hazard of first event (recurrence or death) (1.9-fold, p < 0.001), even after controlling for Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (1.8-fold, p = 0.001), and of death (2.1-fold, p < 0.001). We did not find a significant relationship of maximum SUV, stage, or other clinical factors with DFS or OS.Metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor for disease recurrence and death in HNC. MTV retained significance after controlling for KPS, the only other significant adverse prognostic factor found in this cohort. MTV is a direct measure of tumor burden and is a potentially valuable tool for risk stratification and guiding treatment in future studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.10.060

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268346100006

    View details for PubMedID 19289263

  • Simulations of Virtual PET/CT 3-D Bronchoscopy Imaging Using a Physical Porcine Lung-Heart Phantom MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Yerushalmi, D., Mullick, R., Quon, A., Fahrig, R., Pelc, N. J., Fann, J. I., Gambhir, S. S. 2009; 11 (4): 275-282


    We present a systematic approach for studying positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) 3-D virtual fly-through endoscopy and for assessing the accuracy of this technology for visualizing and detecting endobronchial lesions as a function of focal lesion morphology and activity.Capsules designed to simulate endobronchial lesions were filled with activity and introduced into a porcine lung-heart phantom. PET/CT images were acquired, reconstructed, and volume rendered as 3-D fly-through and fly-around visualizations. Anatomical positioning of lesions seen on the 3-D-volume-rendered PET/CT images was compared to the actual position of the capsules.Lesion size was observed to be highly sensitive to PET threshold parameter settings and careful opacity and color transfer function parameter assignment.We have demonstrated a phantom model for studies of PET/CT 3-D virtual fly-through bronchoscopy and have applied this model for understanding the effect of PET thresholding on the visualization and detection of lesions.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-009-0201-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266830700010

    View details for PubMedID 19434462

  • Detection of Solitary Humeral Metastasis From Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma With F-18 FDG PET/CT CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Kim, J., Quon, A., Humke, E., Ford, J. M., Koong, A. C. 2009; 34 (5): 312-313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265435100015

    View details for PubMedID 19387214

  • Novel Strategy for a Cocktail F-18-Fluoride and F-18-FDG PET/CT Scan for Evaluation of Malignancy: Results of the Pilot-Phase Study JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Iagaru, A., Mittra, E., Yaghoubi, S. S., Dick, D. W., Quon, A., Goris, M. L., Gambhir, S. S. 2009; 50 (4): 501-505


    (18)F-FDG PET/CT is used for detecting cancer and monitoring cancer response to therapy. However, because of the variable rates of glucose metabolism, not all cancers are identified reliably. Sodium (18)F was previously used for bone imaging and can be used as a PET/CT skeletal tracer. The combined administration of (18)F and (18)F-FDG in a single PET/CT study for cancer detection has not been reported to date.This is a prospective pilot study (November 2007-November 2008) of 14 patients with proven malignancy (6 sarcoma, 3 prostate cancer, 2 breast cancer, 1 colon cancer, 1 lung cancer, and 1 malignant paraganglioma) who underwent separate (18)F PET/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT and combined (18)F/(18)F-FDG PET/CT scans for the evaluation of malignancy (a total of 3 scans each). There were 11 men and 3 women (age range, 19-75 y; average, 50.4 y).Interpretation of the combined (18)F/(18)F-FDG PET/CT scans compared favorably with that of the (18)F-FDG PET/CT (no lesions missed) and the (18)F PET/CT scans (only 1 skull lesion seen on an (18)F PET/CT scan was missed on the corresponding combined scan). Through image processing, the combined (18)F/(18)F-FDG scan yielded results for bone radiotracer uptake comparable to those of the (18)F PET/CT scan performed separately.Our pilot-phase prospective trial demonstrates that the combined (18)F/(18)F-FDG administration followed by a single PET/CT scan is feasible for cancer detection. This combined method opens the possibility for improved patient care and reduction in health care costs.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.108.058339

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272487200003

    View details for PubMedID 19289439

  • Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unresectable Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas CANCER Chang, D. T., Schellenberg, D., Shen, J., Kim, J., Goodman, K. A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Desser, T., Quon, A., Koong, A. C. 2009; 115 (3): 665-672


    The authors report on the local control and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Seventy-seven patients with unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas received 25 gray (Gy) in 1 fraction. Forty-five patients (58%) had locally advanced disease, 11 patients (14%) had medically inoperable disease, 15 patients (19%) had metastatic disease, and 6 patients (8%) had locally recurrent disease. Nine patients (12%) had received prior chemoradiotherapy. Sixteen patients (21%) received between 45 to 54 Gy of fractionated radiotherapy and SBRT. Various gemcitabine-based chemotherapy regimens were received by 74 patients (96%), but 3 patients (4%) did not receive chemotherapy until they had distant failure.The median follow-up was 6 months (range, 3-31 months) and, among surviving patients, it was 12 months (range, 3-31 months). The overall rates of freedom from local progression (FFLP) at 6 months and 12 months were 91% and 84%, respectively. The 6- and 12-month isolated local recurrence rates were 5% and 5%, respectively. There was no difference in the 12-month FFLP rate based on tumor location (head/uncinate, 91% vs body/tail, 86%; P = .52). The progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 6 months and 12 months were 26% and 9%, respectively. The PFS rate at 6 months was superior for patients who had nonmetastatic disease versus patients who had metastatic disease (28% vs 15%; P = .05). The overall survival (OS) rates at 6 months and 12 months from SBRT were 56% and 21%, respectively. Four patients (5%) experienced grade > or = 2 acute toxicity. Three patients (4%) experienced grade 2 late toxicity, and 7 patients (9%) experienced grade > or = 3 late toxicity. At 6 months and 12 months, the rates of grade > or = 2 late toxicity were 11% and 25%, respectively.SBRT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma was effective for local control with associated risk of toxicity and should be used with rigorous attention to quality assurance. Efforts to reduce complications are warranted. Distant metastases account for the vast majority of disease-related mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.24059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263003400025

    View details for PubMedID 19117351

  • Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: The Current Technology and Applications RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Mittra, E., Quon, A. 2009; 47 (1): 147-?


    Positron emission tomography (PET) and combined PET/CT provide powerful metabolic and anatomical information together in a single exam. This article reviews the fundamentals of PET physics, the state of the art and future directions in PET technology, and the current clinical applications of PET. The latter is quite diverse and includes oncology, cardiology, neurology, and infection and inflammation imaging, all with FDG as the tracer. Additionally, novel radiopharmeuticals are under development, many of which are target cellular processes that are more specific than glucose metabolism.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rcl.2008.10.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263843900012

    View details for PubMedID 19195540

  • PET/CT Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor With Calcified Peritoneal Implants After Imatinib Therapy CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Eslamy, H. K., Quon, A. 2008; 33 (12): 864-865


    Calcified tumor mass is an unusual feature of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) at initial presentation. However, it may develop after imatinib therapy and be erroneously attributed to a second primary malignancy. A 56-year-old woman with a 4.5-year history of metastatic GIST presented to our institution for PET/CT imaging at baseline and at 3 and 15 months after imatinib therapy. Serial PET/CT images demonstrated increasing calcification in peritoneal implants on CT and increasing FDG activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261211700010

    View details for PubMedID 19033789

  • F-18-FDG PET/CT evaluation of patients with ovarian carcinoma NUCLEAR MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS Iagaru, A. H., Mittra, E. S., McDougall, I. R., Quon, A., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 29 (12): 1046-1051


    The role of F-FDG PET has been studied in ovarian carcinoma, but its sensitivity and specificity calculations are based on dedicated PET acquisition, not PET/CT in the majority of the published studies. Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with PET/CT in the management of patients with ovarian carcinoma.This is a retrospective study of 43 women with ovarian carcinoma, 27-80 years old (average: 53.9+/-7.8), who had whole-body PET/CT at our institution from 1 January 2003 to 31 August 2006. We reviewed the patients' outcomes from medical records and compared them to the interpretation of the PET/CT scans. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a 2 x 2 table with pathology results (79.1% of the patients) or clinical follow-up (20.9% of the cases) as the 'gold standard'. Confidence interval (CI) estimations were performed using the Wilson score method.All patients had advanced stage ovarian cancer and the study was requested for re-staging. A total of 60 scans were performed: 30 patients had one scan, nine patients had two scans and four patients had three scans. The administered doses of F-FDG ranged from 381.1 to 769.6 MBq (average: 569.8+/-73.3). PET/CT had a sensitivity of 88.4% (95% CI: 75.1-95.4) and a specificity of 88.2% (95% CI: 64.4-97.9) for detection of ovarian cancer. The SUV max of the detected lesions ranged from 3 to 27 (average: 9.4+/-5.9). The CA-125 tumor marker ranged from 3 to 935 kU/ml (average: 265.2) in patients with positive scans and 4-139 kU/ml (average: 17.1) in patients with negative scans. This difference was statistically significant (P value: 0.0242).This study confirms the good results of F-FDG PET/CT for identification of residual/recurrent ovarian cancer, as well as for distant metastases localization. PET/CT should be an integral part in evaluation of patients with high-risk ovarian cancer or rising values of tumor markers (CA-125), prior to selection of the most appropriate therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MNM.0b013e32831089cb

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261164200004

    View details for PubMedID 18987524

  • Gemcitabine chemotherapy and single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Schellenberg, D., Goodman, K. A., Lee, F., Chang, S., Kuo, T., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Quon, A., Desser, T. S., Norton, J., Greco, R., Yang, G. P., Koong, A. C. 2008; 72 (3): 678-686


    Fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer achieves only modest local control. This prospective trial evaluated the efficacy of a single fraction of 25 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered between Cycle 1 and 2 of gemcitabine chemotherapy.A total of 16 patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, pancreatic adenocarcinoma received gemcitabine with SBRT delivered 2 weeks after completion of the first cycle. Gemcitabine was resumed 2 weeks after SBRT and was continued until progression or dose-limiting toxicity. The gross tumor volume, with a 2-3-mm margin, was treated in a single 25-Gy fraction by Cyberknife. Patients were evaluated at 4-6 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and every 3 months after SBRT.All 16 patients completed SBRT. A median of four cycles (range one to nine) of chemotherapy was delivered. Three patients (19%) developed local disease progression at 14, 16, and 21 months after SBRT. The median survival was 11.4 months, with 50% of patients alive at 1 year. Patients with normal carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 levels either at diagnosis or after Cyberknife SBRT had longer survival (p <0.01). Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was mild, with 2 cases of Grade 2 (13%) and 1 of Grade 3 (6%) toxicity. Late gastrointestinal toxicity was more common, with five ulcers (Grade 2), one duodenal stenosis (Grade 3), and one duodenal perforation (Grade 4). A trend toward increased duodenal volumes radiated was observed in those experiencing late effects (p = 0.13).SBRT with gemcitabine resulted in comparable survival to conventional chemoradiotherapy and good local control. However, the rate of duodenal ulcer development was significant.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.01.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259894300008

    View details for PubMedID 18395362

  • F-18-FDG-PET/CT evaluation of response to treatment in lymphoma: when is the optimal time for the first re-evaluation scan? HELLENIC JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Iagaru, A., Wang, Y., Mari, C., Quon, A., Goris, M. L., Horning, S., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 11 (3): 153-156


    Assessing the response to treatment as soon after treatment initiation is one of the key reasons for imaging lymphoma patients. The optimal time after initiating treatment for assessing response to treatment has yet to be determined. Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with serial (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients undergoing treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This is a retrospective study (Feb 2003 - Oct 2004) of 20 patients, 11 men and 9 women, with age range of 7-75 years with diagnosis of HD (10) and NHL (10), who had PET/CT at our institution prior, during and at the completion of therapy. Restaging PET/CT was done after 2 cycles of chemotherapy in 10 patients (group A) and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy in 10 pts (group B). A total of 60 scans were reviewed. The DeltaSUV from baseline to first PET/CT was on average 67.6% in group A and 75.1% in group B. This had no statistical significance (P value: 0.31). The DeltaSUV from baseline to post-therapy PET/CT was on average 72.9% in group A and 79.8% in group B. This difference also had no statistical significance (P value: 0.24). The correlation coefficient was 0.98 in group A and 0.80 in group B. Results of PET/CT after 2 cycles of chemotherapy did not statistically differ from the results of PET/CT after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. These results need to be confirmed in larger, prospective, randomized trials.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262093600003

    View details for PubMedID 19081857

  • Initial evaluation of F-18-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT scanning for primary pancreatic cancer EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Quon, A., Chang, S. T., Chin, F., Kamaya, A., Dick, D. W., Loo, B. W., Gambhir, S. S., Koong, A. C. 2008; 35 (3): 527-531


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of (18)F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT for imaging pancreatic adenocarcinoma.This was a pilot study of five patients (four males, one female) with newly diagnosed and previously untreated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients underwent FLT PET/CT, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT scanning before treatment. The presence of cancer was confirmed by histopathological analysis at the time of scanning in all five patients. The degree of FLT and FDG uptake at the primary tumor site was assessed using visual interpretation and semi-quantitative SUV analyses.The primary tumor size ranged from 2.5 x 2.8 cm to 3.5 x 7.0 cm. The SUV of FLT uptake within the primary tumor ranged from 2.1 to 3.1. Using visual interpretation, the primary cancer could be detected from background activity in two of five patients (40%) on FLT PET/CT. By comparison, FDG uptake was higher in each patient with a SUV range of 3.4 to 10.8, and the primary cancer could be detected from background in all five patients (100%).In this pilot study of five patients with primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma, FLT PET/CT scanning showed poor lesion detectability and relatively low levels of radiotracer uptake in the primary tumor.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-007-0630-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254402800010

    View details for PubMedID 17960376

  • I-123 MIBG mapping with intraoperative gamma probe for recurrent neuroblastoma MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Iagaru, A., Peterson, D., Quon, A., Dutta, S., Twist, C., Daghighian, F., Gambhir, S. S., Albanese, C. 2008; 10 (1): 19-23


    Intraoperative gamma probe guidance has become widely utilized for sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with breast cancer and melanoma, using (99m)Tc sulfur colloid. However, new indications are possible and need to continue to be investigated. We report the use during a wedge liver biopsy of a new hand-held gamma probe designed for (123)I intraoperative guidance. The patient studied is a 5-year-old boy with history of stage 4 high-risk neuroblastoma. Anatomic imaging (CT, MRI), (99m)Tc bone scintigraphy and 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) were negative, but the (123)I MIBG scintigraphy suggested recurrent liver disease. A decision was made to biopsy these lesions to obtain histopathological confirmation. Intraoperative gamma probe mapping of the liver identified areas with signal above the background, but these were prove to be hemosiderin deposits on histo-pathology examination.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-007-0116-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252107800002

    View details for PubMedID 17975716

  • FDG PET/CT detection of a gossypiboma in the neck CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Niederkohr, R. D., Hwang, B. J., Quon, A. 2007; 32 (11): 893-895

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250708300021

    View details for PubMedID 18075434

  • Molecular imaging techniques in body imaging RADIOLOGY Margolis, D. J., Hoffman, J. M., Herfkens, R. J., Jeffrey, R. B., Quon, A., Gambhir, S. S. 2007; 245 (2): 333-356


    Molecular imaging of the body involves new techniques to image cellular biochemical processes, which results in studies with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-background. The most prevalently used molecular imaging technique in body imaging is currently fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). FDG PET has become the method of choice for the staging and restaging of many of the most common cancers, including lymphoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. FDG PET has also become extremely valuable in monitoring the response to therapeutic drugs in many cancers. New PET agents, such as fluorothymidine and acetate, have also shown promise in the evaluation of response to therapy and in the staging of prostate cancer. Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has shown promise in the evaluation of prostate cancer. Breast cancer evaluation benefits from advances in spectroscopic imaging and contrast-enhanced kinetic evaluation of vascular permeability, which is altered in neoplastic processes because of release of angiogenic factors. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles represent the first of an expanding line of MR contrast agents that target specific cellular processes. SPIO particles have also been used in the evaluation of the cirrhotic liver and at MR lymphangiography.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2452061117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250343800007

    View details for PubMedID 17940297

  • Metabolic tumor burden predicts for disease progression and death in lung cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Lee, P., Weerasuriya, D. K., Lavori, P. W., Quon, A., Hara, W., Maxim, P. G., Le, Q., Wakelee, H. A., Donington, J. S., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W. 2007; 69 (2): 328-333


    In lung cancer, stage is an important prognostic factor for disease progression and survival. However, stage may be simply a surrogate for underlying tumor burden. Our purpose was to assess the prognostic value of tumor burden measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging.We identified 19 patients with lung cancer who had staging PET-CT scans before any therapy, and adequate follow-up (complete to time of progression for 18, and death for 15 of 19). Metabolically active tumor regions were segmented on pretreatment PET scans semi-automatically using custom software. We determined the relationship between times to progression (TTP) and death (OS) and two PET parameters: total metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and standardized uptake value (SUV).The estimated median TTP and OS for the cohort were 9.3 months and 14.8 months. On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, an increase in MTV of 25 ml (difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with increased hazard of progression and of death (5.4-fold and 7.6-fold), statistically significant (p = 0.0014 and p = 0.001) after controlling for stage, treatment intent (definitive or palliative), age, Karnofsky performance status, and weight loss. We did not find a significant relationship between SUV and TTP or OS.In this study, high tumor burden assessed by PET MTV is an independent poor prognostic feature in lung cancer, promising for stratifying patients in randomized trials and ultimately for selecting risk-adapted therapies. These results will need to be validated in larger cohorts with longer follow-up, and evaluated prospectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.04.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249796100002

    View details for PubMedID 17869659

  • Impact of positive positron emission tomography on prediction of freedom from progression after Stanford V chemotherapy in Hodgkin's disease JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Advani, R., Maeda, L., Lavori, P., Quon, A., Hoppe, R., Breslin, S., Rosenberg, S. A., Horning, S. J. 2007; 25 (25): 3902-3907


    To correlate [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) status after chemotherapy, but before radiation, with outcome in patients treated with the Stanford V regimen.We analyzed retrospectively 81 patients with Hodgkin's disease who had serial [(18)F]FDG-PET scans performed at baseline and again at the completion of Stanford V chemotherapy, before planned radiotherapy. Patients with favorable stage I/II (nonbulky mediastinal disease) and those with bulky mediastinal disease or stage III/IV were scanned after 8 and 12 weeks of chemotherapy, respectively. Radiotherapy fields were determined before starting chemotherapy based on baseline computed tomography scans.After chemotherapy, six of 81 patients had residual [(18)F]FDG-PET-positive sites, all in sites for which radiotherapy was planned. Four of the six patients with positive [(18)F]FDG-PET scans after chemotherapy experienced relapse compared with just three of 75 patients with negative [(18)F]FDG-PET scans. At a median follow-up of 4 years, the freedom from progression (FFP) was 96% in postchemotherapy [(18)F]FDG-PET-negative patients versus 33% in [(18)F]FDG-PET-positive patients (P < .0003). In a bivariate Cox model, [(18)F]FDG-PET positivity after chemotherapy remained a highly significant predictor of progression-free survival even after controlling for bulky disease and International Prognostic Score more than 2.These data indicate that PET status after chemotherapy is strongly predictive of FFP with the Stanford V regimen despite the use of consolidative radiotherapy. These results have implications for the design of clinical trials adapted to functional imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2007.11.9867

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249416000019

    View details for PubMedID 17664458

  • Clinical value of including the head and lower extremities in F-18-FDG PET/CT imaging for patients with malignant melanoma NUCLEAR MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS Niederkohr, R. D., Rosenberg, J., Shabo, G., Quon, A. 2007; 28 (9): 688-695


    To assess the added benefit of scanning lower extremities and skull in addition to 'skull base to upper thigh' images in PET/CT evaluation of metastatic melanoma.Reports of consecutive whole-body PET/CT scans from January 2003 to March 2006 in patients with melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. PET abnormalities in the brain/scalp and lower extremities were tabulated by location and whether they were 'anticipated' or 'unanticipated' based on previously available data. Findings were correlated with pathology, other imaging studies, and clinical follow-up.Two hundred and ninety-six PET/CT examinations in 173 patients with melanoma were included. Twenty-five of the 296 (8.4%) scans showed brain/scalp abnormalities. Of these, only four (1.4% of all scans) showed unanticipated abnormalities: two were false positive findings, and two (0.7% of all scans) represented metastases in addition to multiple other metastases in the usual field of view. Fifty-nine of the 296 (19.9%) scans showed lower extremity abnormalities. Of these, 13 (4.4% of all scans) showed unanticipated abnormalities which were equivocal or suggestive of malignancy: eight (2.7% of all scans) represented metastases in addition to multiple other metastases in the usual field of view, and five represented false positive findings. In no case was an unanticipated isolated malignant lesion identified in the brain/scalp or lower extremities.In patients with no known or suspected primary or metastatic melanoma involving the head or extremities, inclusion of these regions on PET/CT is of low yield and appears to offer little significant additional benefit, as detection of additional metastases in these patients is unlikely to change clinical management. Routine skull base to upper thigh images may be adequate for this subset of patients with melanoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250549600003

    View details for PubMedID 17667747

  • No apparent alteration of F-18 FDG biodistribution when injected shortly after insulin glargine CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Niederkohr, R. D., Quon, A. 2007; 32 (4): 302-303

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245148600010

    View details for PubMedID 17413580

  • Advances in metabolic imaging for surgical oncology SURGICAL ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Iagaru, A., Quon, A. 2007; 16 (2): 273-?


    This review focuses on several aspects of molecular imaging. First, current positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanner technology and several novel imaging techniques that are being developed are briefly discussed. Next, current clinical indications for (18)F FDG PET and PET/CT that are relevant to the surgical oncologist are discussed. Finally, advances in molecular imaging that may herald the next generation of PET radiotracers beyond (18)F FDG are reviewed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.soc.2007.03.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247901000003

    View details for PubMedID 17560512

  • RT_Image: An open-source tool for investigating PET in radiation oncology TECHNOLOGY IN CANCER RESEARCH & TREATMENT Graves, E. E., Quon, A., Loo, B. W. 2007; 6 (2): 111-121


    Positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as a valuable imaging modality for the diagnosis and staging of cancer. However, despite evidence that PET may be useful for defining target volumes for radiation therapy, no standardized methodology for accomplishing this task exists. To facilitate the investigation of the utility of PET imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning and accelerate its integration into clinical radiation oncology, we have developed software for exploratory analysis and segmentation of functional imaging datasets. The application, RT_Image, allows display of multiple imaging datasets and associated three-dimensional regions-of-interest (ROIs) at arbitrary view angles and fields of view. It also includes semi-automated image segmentation tools for defining metabolically active tumor volumes that may aid creation of target volumes for treatment planning. RT_Image is DICOM compliant, permitting the transfer of imaging data and DICOM-RT structure sets between the application and treatment planning software. RT_Image has been used by radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine physicians, and radiation physicists to analyze over 200 PET datasets. Novel segmentation techniques have been implemented within this programming framework for therapy planning and for evaluation of molecular imaging-derived parameters as prognostic indicators. RT_Image represents a freely-available software base on which further investigations of the utlity of PET and molecular imaging in radiation oncology may be built. The development of tools such as this is critical in order to realize the potential of molecular imaging-guided radiation therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245969900007

    View details for PubMedID 17375973

  • Detection of bone metastases: Assessment of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging RADIOLOGY Taira, A. V., Herfkens, R. J., Gambhir, S. S., Quon, A. 2007; 243 (1): 204-211


    To retrospectively evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the identification of malignant bone lesions when the PET and CT findings are discordant and concordant.The study conformed to HIPAA standards, and the need for informed consent was waived by the institutional review board that approved the study. FDG PET/CT reports of 712 patients were reviewed to identify patients with malignant bone lesions. Fifty-nine patients (30 female and 29 male patients; age range, 10-82 years) with 113 lesions were analyzed. With use of confirmation from histopathologic examination or clinical follow-up, the PPVs of the integrated examination and of the stand-alone CT and PET components of the examination were calculated. The results were stratified according to cancer type, chemotherapy status, and number of bone lesions and were compared by using Fisher exact tests.Of 47 lesions with positive findings at both PET and CT, 46 were malignant and one was benign, for a PPV of 98%. Of 31 lesions with positive findings at PET and negative findings at CT, 19 were malignant and 12 were benign, for a PPV of 61%. Of 35 lesions with negative findings at PET and positive findings at CT, six were malignant and 29 were benign, for a PPV of 17%. Independently, the PPV of all lesions with positive findings at PET was significantly higher than that of all lesions with positive findings at CT. Chemotherapy status for lesions with positive findings at CT and the number of lesions per patient had a statistically significant effect on the PPV of examinations (P = .02 and P < .001, respectively).PET/CT has a very high PPV for bone metastases (98%) when the findings at PET and CT are concordant; however, in lesions with discordant PET and CT findings at the integrated examination, PPV is markedly diminished.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2431052104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245312500025

    View details for PubMedID 17392254

  • Impact of integrated PET/CT on variability of target volume delineation in rectal cancer TECHNOLOGY IN CANCER RESEARCH & TREATMENT Patel, D. A., Chang, S. T., Goodman, K. A., Quon, A., Thorndyke, B., Gambhir, S. S., McMillan, A., Loo, B. W., Koong, A. C. 2007; 6 (1): 31-36


    Several studies have demonstrated substantial variability among individual radiation oncologists in defining target volumes using computed tomography (CT). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) on inter-observer variability of target volume delineation in rectal cancer. We also compared the relative concordance of two PET imaging tracers, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluorodeoxythymidine (FLT), against conventional computed tomography (CT). Six consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were enrolled onto an institutional protocol involving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and correlative studies including FDG- and FLT-PET scans acquired in the treatment position. Using these image data sets, four radiation oncologists independently delineated primary and nodal gross tumor volumes (GTVp and GTVn) for a hypothetical boost treatment. Contours were first defined based on CT alone with observers blinded to the PET images, then based on combined PET/CT. An inter-observer similarity index (SI), ranging from a value of 0 for complete disagreement to 1 for complete agreement of contoured voxels, was calculated for each set of volumes. For primary gross tumor volume (GTVp), the difference in estimated SI between CT and FDG was modest (CT SI = 0.77 vs. FDG SI = 0.81), but statistically significant (p = 0.013). The SI difference between CT and FLT for GTVp was also slight (FLT SI = 0.80) and marginally non-significant (p < 0.082). For nodal gross tumor volume, (GTVn), SI was significantly lower for CT based volumes with an estimated SI of 0.22 compared to an estimated SI of 0.70 for FDG-PET/CT (p < 0.0001) and an estimated SI of 0.70 for FLT-PET/CT (p < 0.0001). Boost target volumes in rectal cancer based on combined PET/CT results in lower inter-observer variability compared with CT alone, particularly for nodal disease. The use of FDG and FLT did not appear to be different from this perspective.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244732600005

    View details for PubMedID 17241098

  • 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of melanoma MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Iagaru, A., Quon, A., Johnson, D., Gambhir, S. S., McDougall, I. R. 2007; 9 (1): 50-57


    2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is widely available as a powerful imaging modality, combining the ability to detect active metabolic processes and their morphologic features in a single exam. The role of FDG-PET is proven in a variety of cancers, including melanoma, but the estimates of sensitivity and specificity are based in the majority of the published studies on dedicated PET, not PET/CT. Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with FDG-PET/CT in the management of melanoma.This is a retrospective study on 106 patients with melanoma (20-87 years old; average: 56.8 +/- 15.9), who had whole-body FDG-PET/CT at our institution from January 2003 to June 2005. Thirty-eight patients (35.9%) were women and 68 patients (64.1%) were men. Reinterpretation of the imaging studies for accuracy and data analysis from medical records were performed.All patients had the study for disease restaging. The primary tumor depth (Breslow's thickness) at initial diagnosis was available for 76 patients (71.7%) and ranged from 0.4 to 25 mm (average: 3.56 mm). The anatomic level of invasion in the skin (Clark's level) was determined for 70 patients (66%): 3, level II; 13, level III; 43, level IV; 11, level V. The administered dose of (18)F FDG ranged from 9.8 to 21.6 mCi (average: 15.4 +/- 1.8 mCi). FDG-PET/CT had a sensitivity of 89.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 78.5-95] and a specificity of 88% (95% CI: 76.2-94.4) for melanoma detection.This study confirms the good results of FDG-PET/CT for residual/recurrent melanoma detection, as well as for distant metastases localization. PET/CT should be an integral part in evaluation of patients with high-risk melanoma, prior to selection of the most appropriate therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-006-0065-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243545600007

    View details for PubMedID 17051322

  • Clinical role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and thyroid carcinoma JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Quon, A., Fischbein, N. J., McDougall, I. R., Le, Q., Loo, B. W., Pinto, H., Kaplan, M. J. 2007; 48: 58S-67S


    18F-FDG PET/CT has rapidly become a widely used imaging modality for evaluating a variety of malignancies, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and thyroid cancer. Using both published data and the multidisciplinary experience at our institution, we provide a practical set of guidelines and algorithms for the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation and management of head and neck cancer and thyroid cancer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243420900008

    View details for PubMedID 17204721

  • F-18FDG PET/CT evaluation of osseous and soft tissue sarcomas CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Iagaru, A., Quon, A., McDougall, T. R., Gambhir, S. S. 2006; 31 (12): 754-760


    Osseous and soft tissue sarcomas (OSTS) represent a histologic heterogeneous group of malignant tumors. Most of the current clinical data on the role of F-18 FDG PET in sarcomas come from patients studied with dedicated PET and less frequently with hardware fusion PET/CT. Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with F-18 FDG PET/CT in OSTS.This is a retrospective study (January 2003-December 2005) of 44 patients with histologic diagnoses of OSTS who had F-18 FDG PET/CT at our institution. The group included 22 men and 22 women with an age range of 2 of 84 years (average, 37 +/- 20.2 years). The administered doses of F-18 FDG range 4.1 to 19.5 mCi (average, 14.3 +/- 3 mCi). Reinterpretation of the imaging studies for accuracy and data analysis from medical records was performed.The sensitivity and specificity of combined F-18 FDG PET/CT were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 75.7-100) and 93.3% (95% CI = 78.7-98.1) for the primary OSTS, and 80% (95% CI = 58.4-91.9) and 86.4% (95% CI = 66.7-95.2) for metastases. When interpreted separately, CT outperformed PET for pulmonary metastases detection: CT was 76.5% sensitive and 88% specific, whereas PET was only 57.1% sensitive but 96.4% specific. For detection of other metastases, CT was 82.3% sensitive and 76% specific, with PET demonstrating 78.6% sensitivity and 92.8% specificity.Relatively similar results (except better specificity for PET and PET/CT) were noted when examining the rate of metastases detection, excluding pulmonary lesions. However, CT had a better detection rate for pulmonary metastases when compared with PET alone. A negative PET scan in the presence of suspicious CT findings in the chest cannot reliably exclude pulmonary metastases from OSTS.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242481400004

    View details for PubMedID 17117068

  • Sonography of the abnormal parathyroid gland. Ultrasound quarterly Kamaya, A., Quon, A., Jeffrey, R. B. 2006; 22 (4): 253-262


    In 80% to 90% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, a single parathyroid adenoma will be identified as the culprit, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% are caused by multiple adenomas, parathyroid hyperplasia, and rarely, parathyroid carcinoma. At the 2002 National Institute of Health consensus meeting, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy was endorsed as a promising and attractive alternative to total parathyroidectomy. Therefore, preoperative localization of the adenoma is critical in the clinical evaluation of the patient before surgical resection. Although adenomas less than 1 cm may be difficult to visualize sonographically, knowledge of typical imaging characteristics of parathyroid adenomas and use of special sonographic techniques will facilitate identification in most patients. Typical imaging characteristics of parathyroid adenomas include homogeneously hypoechoic echotexture on gray scale with an enlarged feeding artery and peripheral arc of vascularity seen on color and power Doppler. Proper neck extension, unilateral graded compression techniques, and patient swallowing will improve visualization of adenomas.

    View details for PubMedID 17146333

  • F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT as an imaging tool for staging and restaging cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Vasanawala, M. S., Wang, Y., Quon, A., Gambhir, S. S. 2006; 31 (9): 534-537


    Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp is a rare highly aggressive malignant tumor that typically afflicts elderly patients and commonly presents with extensive local spread and distant metastasis. Distant metastases favor lung, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. Overall, the prognosis is poor. It differs from other soft tissue sarcomas in that the size of the lesion at presentation instead of tumor grade is the important prognostic factor. Optimal treatment is yet to be determined. Wide-margin complete excision with postoperative radiotherapy has been the most effective therapy. Chemotherapy and gene therapy have been used with some success. Local extent is critical in surgical planning, especially in the head and face, and is difficult to determine accurately with clinical examination and morphologic imaging tools. We report the case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with multifocal angiosarcoma of the scalp. PET/CT imaging with F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) not only showed avid FDG uptake by an angiosarcoma (SUVmax = 10.7), but also simultaneously showed local extension of multifocal lesions with periosteal involvement and excluded metastatic abdominal nodal disease. PET/CT imaging after chemotherapy and before radiation therapy showed complete resolution of FDG uptake in the scalp and osseous lesions. Evaluation of more cases of this subset of soft tissue sarcoma with FDG PET/CT may suggest a possible role in not only staging angiosarcomas to determine the extent of local as well as distant disease, but also to potentially help determine response to therapy and early recognition of local or distant recurrence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240122400005

    View details for PubMedID 16921276

  • "Flying through" and "flying around" a PET/CT scan: Pilot study and development of 3D integrated F-18-FDG PET/CT for virtual bronchoscopy and colonoscopy JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Quon, A., Napel, S., Beaulieu, C. F., Gambhir, S. S. 2006; 47 (7): 1081-1087


    The objective of this pilot project was to devise a new image acquisition and processing technique to produce PET/CT images rendered in 3-dimensional (3D) volume that can then be reviewed in several 3D formats such as virtual bronchoscopy and colonoscopy "fly-throughs" and external "fly-arounds."We tested the new imaging and processing protocol on 24 patients with various malignancies to determine whether it could dependably acquire and reformat standard tomographic 2-dimensional PET/CT images into 3D renderings.This new technique added helpful information to the diagnostic interpretation for 2 of the 24 patients. Further, in the 6 patients undergoing mediastinoscopy, bronchoscopy, or endoscopy, 3D imaging helped in preprocedural planning.In this initial study, we demonstrated both the feasibility of rendering PET/CT images into 3D volumes and the potential clinical utility of this technique for diagnostic lesion characterization and preprocedural planning.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238879300008

    View details for PubMedID 16818940

  • Merkel cell carcinoma: Is there a role for 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography? MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Iagaru, A., Quon, A., McDougall, I. R., Gambhir, S. S. 2006; 8 (4): 212-217


    2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is becoming widely available as a powerful imaging modality, combining the ability to detect active metabolic processes and their morphologic features in a single study. The role of FDG-PET/CT is proven in lymphoma, melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, and other cancers. However, there are rare malignancies such as Merkel cell carcinoma that can potentially be evaluated with PET/CT. We were therefore prompted to review our experience with FDG-PET/CT in the management of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.This is a retrospective case series of six patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, 58-81 years old (average 69 +/- 8.3), who had whole-body PET/CT at our institution from January 1st, 2003 to August 31st, 2005. Two patients were women and four were men. Reinterpretation of the imaging studies for accuracy and data analysis from medical records were performed.Twelve examinations were acquired for the six patients (one patient had six PET/CT, one patient had two PET/CT, and four patients had one PET/CT). The injected FDG doses ranged 381.1-669.7 MBq (average 573.5 +/- 70.3). Four patients had the PET/CT as part of initial staging, and two patients had the exam for restaging (after surgery and XRT). A total of six Merkel lesions (pancreas, adrenal, lip, submandibular lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes, and parapharyngeal soft tissue) were identified in three patients and confirmed on histopathological examination. The FDG uptake in these areas was intense, with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) values of 5-14 (average 10.4 +/- 3.8). In one patient, the PET/CT scan identified abnormal focal distal sigmoid uptake that was biopsied and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Two patients had negative scans and had no clinical evidence of disease on follow-up office visits (up to one year after PET/CT).This case series suggests that FDG-PET/CT may have a promising role in the management of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-006-0047-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239124800003

    View details for PubMedID 16724293

  • Staging accuracy in mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome using integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography ARCHIVES OF DERMATOLOGY Tsai, E. Y., Taur, A., Espinosa, L., Quon, A., Johnson, D., Dick, S., Chow, S., Advani, R., Warnke, R., Kohler, S., Hoppe, R. T., Kim, Y. H. 2006; 142 (5): 577-584


    To evaluate the usefulness of integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in staging mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome and to correlate PET/CT data with histopathologic diagnosis of lymph nodes (LNs).A single-center, prospective cohort analysis.Academic referral center for cutaneous lymphoma.Thirteen patients with MF and SS at risk for secondary LN involvement. Interventions Patients were clinically evaluated based on general physical examination, total body skin examination, and laboratory screening. They underwent integrated PET/CT followed by excisional biopsy of LNs.We used PET/CT to assess LN size and metabolic activity. Enlarged LNs were defined as axillary or inguinal LNs with a short axis 1.5 cm or larger; or cervical LN, with a short axis 1.0 cm or larger. We classified LN pathologic results according to National Cancer Institute (LN1-4) and World Health Organization (WHO 1-3) criteria. We quantified PET activity using standardized uptake value (SUV) and correlated with LN grade.Based on CT size criteria alone, only 5 patients had enlarged LNs, whereas PET revealed hypermetabolic LNs in all 13 patients. Six patients had LN1-3, and 7 had effacement of LN architecture by lymphoma cells (LN4). Of the 7 patients with LN4 nodes, 4 had SS, and 3 had tumorous MF. Two patients with LN4 nodes had inguinal LNs smaller than 1.5 cm and would have been assigned an N0 classification without the use of integrated PET/CT. Correlation of SUV with LN grade revealed that LN1-3 nodes were associated with a mean SUV of 2.7 (median SUV, 2.2; range, 2.0-4.7) and LN4 nodes were associated with a mean SUV of 5.4 (median SUV, 3.9; range, 2.1-11.8). Patients with large cell transformation had the highest SUVs.For staging MF and SS, PET/CT was more sensitive in detecting LN involved by lymphoma compared with CT data alone and thus may provide more accurate staging and prognostic information. The intensity of PET activity correlated with histologic LN grade.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237543100006

    View details for PubMedID 16702495

  • Diagnosis of aseptic deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity in a cancer patient using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) ANNALS OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Do, B., Mari, C., Biswal, S., Kalinyak, J., Quon, A., Gambhir, S. S. 2006; 20 (2): 151-155


    We describe a patient with a history of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and abnormal FDG uptake in the left arm during a re-staging FDG PET/CT. After revision of the patient's clinical history, tests and physical exam, the abnormal FDG uptake was found to correspond to an extensive aseptic deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236242700010

    View details for PubMedID 16615425

  • Performance of 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography and integrated PET/CT in restaged breast cancer patients MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Fueger, B. J., Weber, W. A., Quon, A., Crawford, T. L., Allen-Auerbach, M. S., Halpern, B. S., Ratib, O., Phelps, M. E., Czernin, J. 2005; 7 (5): 369-376


    This study was conducted to compare the clinical stage derived from 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to that of integrated PET/computed tomography (CT) in restaged breast cancer patients.Fifty-eight female patients (age range 29-80 years, mean age +/-SD, 53.3 +/- 11.7 years) underwent PET/CT restaging for breast cancer. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians interpreted PET images. A radiologist was added for reading PET/CT studies. A patient-based analysis was performed. Histopathological findings, correlative imaging studies, changes in number, size, and hypermetabolic activity of suspicious lesions and/or patient outcome served as standard of reference for determining the diagnostic accuracy of both modalities.PET staged 79.3% (46/58) of the patients correctly, overstaged seven (12.1%), and understaged five patients (8.6%). Integrated PET/CT staged 89.7% (52/58) of the patients correctly, overstaged four (6.9%), and understaged two patients (3.4%). The staging accuracy of PET/CT was not significantly better than that of PET alone (p = 0.059). Lesions exhibiting mild hypermetabolic activity, benign inflammatory lesions, and physiological variants largely explained incorrect PET findings.Integrated PET/CT only marginally improves the restaging accuracy over PET alone (p = 0.059) in breast cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-005-0013-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233703000006

    View details for PubMedID 16220355

  • FDG-PET and beyond: Molecular breast cancer imaging JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Quon, A., Gambhir, S. S. 2005; 23 (8): 1664-1673

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2005.11.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227587200017

    View details for PubMedID 15755974

  • Comparison between 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-Glucose positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography hardware fusion for staging of patients with lymphoma MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Allen-Auerbach, M., Quon, A., Weber, W. A., Obrzut, S., Crawford, T., Silverman, D. H., Ratib, O., Phelps, M. E., Czernin, J. 2004; 6 (6): 411-416


    2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-Glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) stages patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with higher accuracy than computed tomography (CT). We sought to determine whether integrated (hardware) fused PET/CT imaging results in further improvements in staging accuracy.Seventy-three patients (age 51 +/- 17 years, 37 female, 36 male) with HD (n = 20) or NHL (n = 53) undergoing staging were studied with an integrated PET/CT system. Image findings were verified by clinical follow up, additional imaging and when available, histology.Thirty-four of 73 patients (46.5%) had evidence of disease and 39 were disease free as confirmed by clinical evaluation and follow-up for 41 +/- 22 weeks (n = 73), including biopsy (n = 26), and other imaging modalities (n = 52) when available. A discordant image interpretation between PET and PET/CT occurred in seven patients (10%). PET/CT correctly upstaged two and downstaged five patients. Overall staging was accurate in 93% with PET/CT and 84% with PET (P = 0.03).Lymphoma is staged with higher accuracy using PET/CT than PET alone.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mibio.2004.08.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225774500007

    View details for PubMedID 15564152

  • Impact of patient weight and emission scan duration on PET/CT image quality and lesion detectability JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Halpern, B. S., Dahlbom, M., Quon, A., Schiepers, C., Waldherr, C., Silverman, D. H., Ratib, O., Czernin, J. 2004; 45 (5): 797-801


    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate fast PET/CT imaging protocols using lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector technology and 3-dimensional (3D) image-acquisition protocols.Fifty-seven consecutive patients (30 male, 27 female; mean age, 58.6 +/- 15.7 y) were enrolled in the study. After intravenous injection of 7.77 MBq (0.21 mCi) of (18)F-FDG per kilogram, a standard whole-body CT study (80-110 s) and PET emission scan were acquired for 4 min/bed position in 49 patients and 3 min/bed position in 8 patients. One-minute-per-bed-position data were then extracted from the 3- or 4-min/bed position scans to reconstruct single-minute/bed position scans for each patient. Patients were subgrouped according to weight as follows: <59 kg (<130 lb; n = 15), 59-81 kg (130-179 lb; n = 33), and >or=82 kg (>or=180 lb; n = 9). Three experienced observers recorded numbers and locations of lesion by consensus and independently rated image quality as good, moderate, poor, or nondiagnostic.The observers analyzed 220 reconstructed whole-body PET images from 57 patients. They identified 114 lesions ranging in size from 0.7 to 7.0 cm on the 3- (n = 8) and 4-min/bed position images (n = 49). Of these, only 4 were missed on the 1-min/bed position scans, and all lesions were identified on the corresponding 2-min/bed position images. One- and 2-min/bed position image quality differed significantly from the 4-min/bed position image reference (P < 0.05).LSO PET detector technology permits fast 3D imaging protocols whereby weight-based emission scan durations ranging from 1 to 3 min/bed position provide similar lesion detectability when compared with 4-min/bed position images.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221348300020

    View details for PubMedID 15136629

  • Conventional imaging and 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography for predicting the clinical outcome of patients with previously treated Hodgkin's disease MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Filmont, J. E., Yap, C. S., Ko, F., Vranjesevic, D., Quon, A., Margolis, D. J., Safaei, A., Emmanouilides, C., Silverman, D. H., Phelps, M. E., Czernin, J. 2004; 6 (1): 47-54


    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to predict the clinical outcome of previously treated patients with Hodgkin's Disease (HD).Thirty-two patients were studied with PET within a median interval of 5.2 months after treatment. Conventional imaging (CI) performed within two months before PET included 2.9+/-1.2 imaging tests/patient. To determine the independent ability of FDG-PET to predict the clinical outcome, PET images were reread without knowledge of CI and clinical history. Study end points were disease-free survival, or clinical evidence of disease or death. PET and CI stages were also compared for each patient.Using the clinical outcome as gold standard after a median follow-up of 14 months, 21 of 32 patients (65%) were considered disease-free while 11 of 32 patients (35%) had evidence for disease or had died. The predictive accuracy of PET was 91% vs. 66% for conventional imaging (P<0.05). The positive predictive value (PPV) was also significantly higher for PET (79% vs. 50%, P<0.05), while its negative predictive value (NPV) tended to be higher than that of CI (100% vs. 86%, P=0.08). Kaplan-Meier analysis for disease-free survival showed a significant difference between PET-negative and -positive results. No such difference was observed between CI-positive and -negative results (P=0.35).Whole-body FDG-PET imaging modified the clinical stage in 28% of patients. Moreover, FDG-PET predicted patient outcome with a higher predictive accuracy than CI. This superior prognostic accuracy was achieved with a single FDG-PET study vs. 2.9+/-1.2 CI procedures/patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1536-1632(03)00107-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223039000007

    View details for PubMedID 15018828

  • Relationship between F-18-FDG uptake and breast density in women with normal breast tissue JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Vranjesevic, D., Schiepers, C., Silverman, D. H., Quon, A., Villalpando, J., Dahlbom, M., Phelps, M. E., Czernin, J. 2003; 44 (8): 1238-1242


    Breast density affects the mammographic detectability of breast cancer. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of breast density on the (18)F-FDG uptake of normal breast tissue.The study population consisted of 45 women (median age, 54 y; age range, 42-77 y). All underwent whole-body (18)F-FDG PET for various indications other than breast cancer, and all underwent mammography within a mean of 6.6 +/- 4.9 mo of PET. On the basis of mammographic findings, breasts were categorized as extremely dense, heterogeneously dense, primarily fatty, or entirely fatty. Regions of interest were drawn on every PET image in which breast tissue was visualized. Average and peak standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for the left and right breasts.Mammography showed that 20 of the 45 women had heterogeneously dense breasts, 1 had extremely dense breasts, 20 had primarily fatty breasts, and 4 had entirely fatty breasts. In dense breasts, the average SUV was 0.39 +/- 0.05 (right breast) and 0.36 +/- 0.07 (left breast) and the peak SUV was 0.93 +/- 0.16 and 0.89 +/- 0.18, respectively. The average and peak SUVs were significantly lower for primarily fatty breasts than for dense breasts (P < 0.01). Peak and average SUVs of entirely fatty breasts also differed significantly from peak and average SUVs of dense and primarily fatty breasts (P < 0.01). The impact of hormonal status on SUV was significant but less than the impact of breast density. No significant relationship between average SUV or peak SUV and age or serum glucose level was observed.Breast density and hormonal status affect the uptake of (18)F-FDG. Dense breasts exhibit, on average, significantly higher (18)F-FDG uptake than do nondense breasts. However, the highest peak SUV observed in dense breasts was 1.39, which is well below the SUV of 2.5 commonly used as a cutoff between benign and malignant tissue. Therefore, breast density is unlikely to affect the ability of (18)F-FDG PET to discriminate between benign and malignant breast lesions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184650900012

    View details for PubMedID 12902413

  • Value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for predicting the clinical outcome of patients with aggressive lymphoma prior to and after autologous stem-cell transplantation CHEST Filmont, J. E., Czernin, J., Yap, C., Silverman, D. H., Quon, A., Phelps, M. E., Emmanouilides, C. 2003; 124 (2): 608-613


    To determine and compare the values of positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and CT for predicting clinical outcome of patients with aggressive lymphoma undergoing salvage cytoreductive chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT).Forty-three patients with lymphoma who underwent ASCT with FDG-PET evaluation were studied. Group 1 (n = 20) patients (6 patients with Hodgkin disease [HD], and 14 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL]) underwent PET 2 to 5 weeks after initiation of salvage chemotherapy, prior to ASCT. Group 2 (n = 23) patients (6 patients with HD, and 17 patients with NHL) underwent PET within a median interval of 2.4 months (range, 2 to 6 months) after ASCT.Study end points were complete remission, relapse, or death. In group 1, 8 of 20 patients (40%) were disease free after a median follow-up of 13.3 months; 12 patients relapsed or died. PET findings were true-negative in 7 of 8 patients and true-positive in 11 of 12 patients who relapsed after ASCT. In group 2, 9 of 23 patients (39%) were disease free after a median follow-up of 16.5-months; 14 patients relapsed. PET findings were true-negative in 8 of 9 patients and true-positive in 13 of 14 patients who relapsed. Positive and negative predictive values of PET were 92% and 88% (group 1) and 93% and 89% (group 2), respectively. Predictive accuracy values of PET were 90% and 91% for group 1 and group 2, respectively, vs 58% and 67% for CT (p < 0.05).PET findings but not CT results were strongly correlated with disease-free survival (p < 0.01). Our results show that FDG-PET can be used to predict the post-ASCT outcome of lymphoma patients with high accuracy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184801000031

    View details for PubMedID 12907550

  • Conventional imaging and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography for predicting the clinical outcome of previously treated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Molecular imaging and biology Filmont, J., Vranjesevic, D., Quon, A., Margolis, D. J., Ko, F., Safaei, A., Emmanouilides, C., Silverman, D. H., Rao, J., Valk, P. E., Phelps, M. E., Czernin, J. 2003; 5 (4): 232-239


    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and combined conventional imaging on clinical stage and their ability to predict the clinical outcome of previously treated lymphoma patients.Seventy-eight patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) were studied with PET within a median interval of 5.3 months after treatment. Conventional imaging performed after treatment and within three months before PET included 3.3+/-1.3 imaging tests/patient. To determine the independent ability of PET for predicting clinical outcome, PET images were re-read in a blinded fashion. Study endpoints were disease-free survival, or clinical evidence of disease or death.PET downstaged 18 patients, upstaged nine and revealed the same stage as conventional imaging in 51 patients. Using the clinical outcome as gold standard, the positive and negative predictive values of PET were 95% and 83% versus 72% and 67% for conventional imaging (P<0.05). The prognostic accuracy of PET was superior to that of conventional imaging (90 vs. 71%; P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis for disease-free survival showed a significant difference between PET negative and PET positive results (P<0.0001).Whole-body FDG-PET imaging modified the clinical stage in 35% of lymphoma patients who were reevaluated after treatment. Moreover, FDG-PET predicted patient outcome with a higher predictive accuracy than conventional imaging. This superior prognostic accuracy was achieved with a single FDG-PET study versus multiple conventional imaging procedures/patient.

    View details for PubMedID 14499138

Conference Proceedings

  • Postchemoradiotherapy Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients With Esophageal Cancer Jayachandran, P., Pai, R. K., Quon, A., Graves, E., Krakow, T. E., La, T., Loo, B. W., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: 471-477


    To correlate the prechemoradiotherapy (CRT) and post-CRT metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with the pathologic response and survival in patients receiving preoperative CRT for esophageal cancer.The medical records of 37 patients with histologically confirmed Stage I-IVA esophageal cancer treated with CRT with or without surgical resection were reviewed. Of the 37 patients, 21 received preoperative CRT (57%) and 16 received definitive CRT (43%). All patients had a pre-CRT and 32 had a post-CRT PET scan. The MTV was measured on the pre-CRT PET and post-CRT PET scan, respectively, using a minimum standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold x, where x = 2, 2.5, 3, or the SUV maximum × 50%. The total glycolytic activity (TGA(x)) was defined as the mean SUV × MTV(x). The MTV ratio was defined as the pre-CRT PET MTV/post-CRT MTV. The SUV ratio was defined similarly. A single pathologist scored the pathologic response using a tumor regression grade (TRG) scale.The median follow-up was 1.5 years (range, 0.4-4.9). No significant correlation was found between any parameters on the pre-CRT PET scan and the TRG or overall survival (OS). Multiple post-CRT MTV values and post-TGA values correlated with the TRG and OS; however, the MTV(2.5(Post)) and TGA(2.5(Post)) had the greatest correlation. The MTV(2) ratio correlated with OS. The maximum SUV on either the pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scans or the maximum SUV ratio did not correlate with the TRG or OS. Patients treated preoperatively had survival similar compared with those treated definitively with a good PET response (p = 0.97) and significantly better than that of patients treated definitively with a poor PET response (p < 0.0001).The maximum SUV was not a predictive or prognostic parameter. The MTV(2.5) and TGA(2.5) were useful markers for predicting the response and survival on the post-CRT PET scan. The MTV(2) ratio also correlated with survival. Post-CRT PET can potentially guide therapy after CRT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308062700055

    View details for PubMedID 22381904

  • Positron Emission Tomography for Predicting Pathologic Response After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Chennupati, S. K., Quon, A., Kamaya, A., Pai, R. K., La, T., Krakow, T. E., Graves, E., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012: 334-339


    To investigate whether before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) positron emission tomography (PET) predict for pathologic response after preoperative CRT in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.Thirty-five patients who underwent pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scans before surgery were included. All patients were staged with endoscopic ultrasound or high resolution CT. CRT was given with 50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction and concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgery occurred at a median of 46 days (range, 27 to 112 d) after completing CRT. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) and the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using various minimum SUV thresholds (2, 2.5, 3) on the PET scans (MTV(2.0), MTV(2.5), MTV(3.0)) were determined. Post-CRT PET scans were done 3 to 5 weeks after completion of CRT. Pathologic response was assessed using the tumor regression grade (TRG) scale. Patients with complete or near-complete response (TRG=0 to 1) were considered pathologic responders. The pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scan SUV(max) and MTV values were correlated with TRG. The ?SUV(max) and ?MTV were correlated with TRG.No correlation was seen with SUV(max) (P=0.99), MTV(2.0) (P=0.73), MTV(2.5) (P=0.73), or MTV(3.0) (P=0.31) on the pre-CRT PET between pathologic responders versus nonresponders. No correlation was noted between SUV(max) (P=0.49), MTV(2.0) (P=0.73), MTV(2.5) (P=0.49), or MTV(3.0) (P=0.31) on the post-CRT PET scan and pathologic response. Finally, the ?SUV(max) (P=0.32), ?MTV(2.0) (P=0.99), ?MTV(2.5) (P=0.31), ?MTV(3.0) (P=0.31) did not correlate with pathologic response.Changes seen on PET have limited value in predicting for pathologic response of rectal cancer after preoperative neoadjuvant therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/COC.0b013e3182118d12

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306599200006

    View details for PubMedID 21422989

Stanford Medicine Resources: