Clinical Focus

  • Cancer > GI Oncology
  • Cancer > Radiation Oncology
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Radiation Oncology
  • Rectal Cancer - Radiation Oncology
  • Liver Cancer - Radiation Oncology
  • Stomach Cancer - Radiation Oncology
  • Esophageal Cancer - Radiation Oncology
  • Colorectal Cancer - Radiation Oncology
  • Radiation Oncology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology (2001)
  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (2001) CA
  • Internship:Kaiser Permanente/Santa Clara (1997) CA
  • Medical Education:Northwestern University Medical School (1996) IL
  • PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine, Cancer Biology (1994)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Hypoxia induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in solid tumors. Previous studies have indicated that hypoxia is a major determinant of local, regional, and distant recurrence after anticancer therapy. The response of tumor cells to hypoxia depends on the severity and duration of oxygen deprivation. For example, hypoxia induced factor (HIF-1) is activated at physiological levels of oxygen change, whereas the unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced by severe oxygen deprivation. The UPR is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that functions to reduce protein accumulation in the ER resulting in increased capacity to tolerate ER stress. We hypothesize that since the UPR is also activated during hypoxia, it may be a critical regulator of cell survival during hypoxia and is necessary for tumor growth. The focus of my laboratory is to understand the relationship between hypoxia and ER stress, particularly as it relates to tumorigenesis.

Clinical Trials

  • Combination SBRT With TACE for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    To determine the efficacy and toxicity of TACE combined with SBRT

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laurie Ann Columbo, 650-736-0792.

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  • Feasibility 3D Perfusion Ultrasound for Liver Cancer SABR Planning and Response Evaluation Recruiting

    Primary Objective: The primary objectives of this prospective pilot study is to: 1. determine the feasibility and reproducibility of 3D contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging in liver cancer patients undergoing Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and 2. evaluate whether there are treatment induced early changes in imaging metrics derived from 3D contrast enhanced ultrasound. This study will provide valuable insight as to the potential of baseline and/or early post-treatment 3D ultrasound perfusion characteristics (measurements of blood-flow) of primary and metastatic liver tumors to predict tumor response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy. The investigators' underlying goal is to assess whether early perfusion changes at 1-7 days after SABR initiation can be used as a non-invasive early biomarker for treatment response assessment. Secondary Objectives: Evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-to-CT fusion by assisting three-dimensional (3D) perfusion ultrasound (US) imaging with optical and electromagnetic tracking of the ultrasound probe on patients with liver cancer that will undergo CT for treatment planning and/or response evaluation.

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  • Novel Serum Markers for Monitoring Response to Anti-Cancer Therapy Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to measure the levels of serum proteins and other biomarkers in cancer patients and in patients suspected of having cancer. We believe that some of these markers may be useful for confirming the diagnosis or for selecting patients for specific types of cancer therapies. These markers may also help to predict response to therapy, relapse after therapy, and survival after therapy.

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  • Transarterial Chemoembolization Compared With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Residual or Recurrent Liver Cancer Undergone Initial Transarterial Chemoembolization Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial studies how well transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) works compared to stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with liver cancer that remain after attempts to remove the cancer have been made (residual) or has come back (recurrent). TACE is a minimally invasive, image-guided treatment procedure that uses a catheter to deliver both chemotherapy medication and embolization materials into the blood vessels that lead to the tumors. SBRT or SABR may be able to send radiation directly to the tumor and cause less damage to normal liver tissue. It is not yet known whether TACE is more effective than SBRT or SABR in treating patients with persistent or recurrent liver cancer who have undergone initial TACE.

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  • Phase III FOLFIRINOX (mFFX) +/- SBRT in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Recruiting

    The goal of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of a chemotherapy regimen known as Modified FOLFIRINOX (mFFX) alone or with the addition of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). We hope to learn if this new treatment combination helps to control the disease and improve survival for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

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  • Imaging and Biomarkers of Hypoxia in Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    We hope to find safer, noninvasive methods for measuring tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia, meaning a lack of oxygen, has been associated strongly with a wide range of human cancers. Hypoxia occurs when tumor growth exceeds the ability of blood vessels to supply the tumor with oxygenated blood. It is currently understood that hypoxic tumors are more aggressive. Current methods for measuring hypoxia include invasive procedures such as tissue biopsy, or insertion of an electrode into the tumor. EF5-PET may be a non-invasive way to make this measurement.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Justin Carter, 650-725-4796.

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  • Ipilimumab and Local Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Melanoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Colon, or Rectal Cancer Not Recruiting

    This pilot phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best of dose ipilimumab when given together with local radiation therapy and to see how well it works in treating patients with recurrent melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colon, or rectal cancer. Monoclonal antibodies, such as ipilimumab, can block cancer growth in different ways. Some block the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Others find cancer cells and help kill them or carry cancer-killing substances to them. Radiation therapy uses high energy x rays to kill cancer cells. Giving monoclonal antibody therapy together with radiation therapy may be an effective treatment for melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colon, or rectal cancer

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Erin Waller, 650-725-0379.

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  • Paclitaxel, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy With or Without Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel and cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Cetuximab may stop the growth of esophageal cancer by blocking blood flow to the tumor. It is not yet known whether giving paclitaxel and cisplatin together with radiation therapy is more effective with or without cetuximab in treating esophageal cancer. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is comparing how well giving paclitaxel and cisplatin together with radiation therapy works with or without cetuximab in treating patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laura Gable, (650) 736 - 0798.

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2016-17 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


All Publications

  • Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Osmundson, E. C., Wu, Y., Luxton, G., Bazan, J. G., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2015; 91 (5): 986-994


    To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors.We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10).Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (VBED1072) ≥ 21 cm(3) (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), VBED1066 ≥ 24 cm(3) (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (DmeanBED10) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with VBED1072 and VBED1066 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. VBED1072 ≥ 21 cm(3), VBED1066 ≥ 24 cm(3), and DmeanBED10 cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis.VBED1072, VBED1066, and DmeanBED10 to cHBT are associated with HB toxicity. We suggest VBED1072 < 21 cm(3) (5-fraction: V40 < 21 cm(3); 3-fraction: V33.8 < 21 cm(3)), VBED1066 < 24 cm(3) (5-fraction: V37.7 < 24 cm(3); 3-fraction: V32 < 24 cm(3)) as potential dose constraints for the cHBT when clinically indicated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.11.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351734000015

    View details for PubMedID 25659885

  • Phase 2 multi-institutional trial evaluating gemcitabine and stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma Cancer Herman, J., Chang, D., Goodman, K., Dholakia, A., Raman, S., Hacker-Prietz, A., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C., Griffith, M., Pawlik, T., Pai, J., O'Reilly, E., Fisher, G., Wild, A., Rosati, L., Zheng, L., Wolfgang, C., Laheru, D., Columbo, L., Sugar, E., Koong, A. 2015; 121 (7): 1128-37

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.29161

  • Single-versus Multifraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Outcomes and Toxicity INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Pollom, E. L., Alagappan, M., von Eyben, R., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Kamaya, A., Cox, V. L., Columbo, L. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 90 (4): 918-925
  • Ire1 Has Distinct Catalytic Mechanisms for XBP1/HAC1 Splicing and RIDD CELL REPORTS Tam, A. B., Koong, A. C., Niwa, M. 2014; 9 (3): 850-858
  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer SEMINARS IN RADIATION ONCOLOGY Trakul, N., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 24 (2): 140-147
  • Cost-effectiveness of modern radiotherapy techniques in locally advanced pancreatic cancer CANCER Murphy, J. D., Chang, D. T., Abelson, J., Daly, M. E., Yeung, H. N., Nelson, L. M., Koong, A. C. 2012; 118 (4): 1119-1129


    Radiotherapy may improve the outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer but at an increased cost. In this study, the authors evaluated the cost-effectiveness of modern radiotherapy techniques in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer.A Markov decision-analytic model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 treatment regimens: gemcitabine alone, gemcitabine plus conventional radiotherapy, gemcitabine plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT); and gemcitabine with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Patients transitioned between the following 5 health states: stable disease, local progression, distant failure, local and distant failure, and death. Health utility tolls were assessed for radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments and for radiation toxicity.SBRT increased life expectancy by 0.20 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) at an increased cost of $13,700 compared with gemcitabine alone (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] = $69,500 per QALY). SBRT was more effective and less costly than conventional radiotherapy and IMRT. An analysis that excluded SBRT demonstrated that conventional radiotherapy had an ICER of $126,800 per QALY compared with gemcitabine alone, and IMRT had an ICER of $1,584,100 per QALY compared with conventional radiotherapy. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the probability of cost-effectiveness at a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY was 78% for gemcitabine alone, 21% for SBRT, 1.4% for conventional radiotherapy, and 0.01% for IMRT. At a willingness to pay of $200,000 per QALY, the probability of cost-effectiveness was 73% for SBRT, 20% for conventional radiotherapy, 7% for gemcitabine alone, and 0.7% for IMRT.The current results indicated that IMRT in locally advanced pancreatic cancer exceeds what society considers cost-effective. In contrast, combining gemcitabine with SBRT increased clinical effectiveness beyond that of gemcitabine alone at a cost potentially acceptable by today's standards.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.26365

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299834300031

    View details for PubMedID 21773972

  • Identification of an Ire1alpha endonuclease specific inhibitor with cytotoxic activity against human multiple myeloma BLOOD Papandreou, I., Denko, N. C., Olson, M., Van Melckebeke, H., Lust, S., Tam, A., Solow-Cordero, D. E., Bouley, D. M., Offner, F., Niwa, M., Koong, A. C. 2011; 117 (4): 1311-1314


    Activation of the adaptive Ire1-XBP1 pathway has been identified in many solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we report the identification of STF-083010, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of Ire1. STF-083010 inhibited Ire1 endonuclease activity, without affecting its kinase activity, after endoplasmic reticulum stress both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with STF-083010 showed significant antimyeloma activity in model human MM xenografts. Similarly, STF-083010 was preferentially toxic to freshly isolated human CD138(+) MM cells compared with other similarly isolated cell populations. The identification of this novel Ire1 inhibitor supports the hypothesis that the Ire1-XBP1 axis is a promising target for anticancer therapy, especially in the context of MM.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-08-303099

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286623400029

    View details for PubMedID 21081713



    We performed a Phase I dose-escalation study to explore the feasibility and safety of treating primary and metastatic liver tumors with single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Between February 2004 and February 2008, 26 patients were treated for 40 identifiable lesions. Nineteen patients had hepatic metastases, 5 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 2 had recurrent hepatocellular carcinomas. The prescribed radiation dose was escalated from 18 to 30 Gy at 4-Gy increments with a planned maximum dose of 30 Gy. Cumulative incidence functions accounted for competing risks to estimate local failure (LF) incidence over time under the competing risk of death.All patients tolerated the single-fraction SBRT well without developing a dose-limiting toxicity. Nine acute Grade 1 toxicities, one acute Grade 2 toxicity, and two late Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities were observed. After a median of 17 months follow-up (range, 2-55 months), the cumulative risk of LF at 12 months was 23%. Fifteen patients have died: 11 treated for liver metastases and 4 with primary liver tumors died. The median survival was 28.6 months, and the 2-year actuarial overall survival was 50.4%.It is feasible and safe to deliver single-fraction, high-dose SBRT to primary or metastatic liver malignancies measuring ≤5 cm. Moreover, single-fraction SBRT for liver lesions demonstrated promising local tumor control with minimal acute and long-term toxicity. Single-fraction SBRT appears to be a viable nonsurgical option, but further studies are warranted to evaluate both control rates and impact on quality of life.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.08.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282147000026

    View details for PubMedID 20350791

  • Imaging the Unfolded Protein Response in Primary Tumors Reveals Microenvironments with Metabolic Variations that Predict Tumor Growth CANCER RESEARCH Spiotto, M. T., Banh, A., Papandreou, I., Cao, H., Galvez, M. G., Gurtner, G. C., Denko, N. C., Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C. 2010; 70 (1): 78-88


    Cancer cells exist in harsh microenvironments that are governed by various factors, including hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. These microenvironmental stressors activate signaling pathways that affect cancer cell survival. While others have previously measured microenvironmental stressors in tumors, it remains difficult to detect the real-time activation of these downstream signaling pathways in primary tumors. In this study, we developed transgenic mice expressing an X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1)-luciferase construct that served as a reporter for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and as a downstream response for the tumor microenvironment. Primary mammary tumors arising in these mice exhibited luciferase activity in vivo. Multiple tumors arising in the same mouse had distinct XBP1-luciferase signatures, reflecting either higher or lower levels of ER stress. Furthermore, variations in ER stress reflected metabolic and hypoxic differences between tumors. Finally, XBP1-luciferase activity correlated with tumor growth rates. Visualizing distinct signaling pathways in primary tumors reveals unique tumor microenvironments with distinct metabolic signatures that can predict for tumor growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2747

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278404300011

    View details for PubMedID 20028872

  • X box-binding protein 1 regulates angiogenesis in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Translational oncology Romero-Ramirez, L., Cao, H., Regalado, M. P., Kambham, N., Siemann, D., Kim, J. J., Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C. 2009; 2 (1): 31-38


    Tumors encounter endoplasmic reticulum stress during tumor growth and activate an adaptive pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Because this pathway is induced by the tumor microenvironment, it is a promising target for cancer therapy. We have previously demonstrated that X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), a key regulator of the UPR, was required for survival under hypoxia and critical for tumor growth in tumor xenografts. In this study, we investigated the role of XBP-1 in regulating tumor angiogenesis.We used an intradermal angiogenesis model to quantify the effect of XBP-1 on angiogenesis. We also used a human tumor xenograft model to assay for tumor growth delay. We determined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA. Finally, we stained human pancreatic adenocarcinoma specimens for XBP-1 expression and correlated the expression pattern of XBP-1 with CD31 (endothelial cell marker) expression.We demonstrated that XBP-1 is essential for angiogenesis during early tumor growth. Inhibiting XBP-1 expression by short-hairpin RNA sequence specific for XBP-1 reduced blood vessel formation in tumors from mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and human fibrosarcoma tumor cells (HT1080). Expressing a dominant-negative form of IRE1alpha also reduced blood vessel formation in tumors. Moreover, expression of spliced XBP-1 (XBP-1s) restored angiogenesis in IRE1alpha dominant-negative expressing cells. We further demonstrated that XBP-1-mediated angiogenesis does not depend on VEGF.We propose that the IRE1alpha-XBP-1 branch of the UPR modulates a complex proangiogenic, VEGF-independent response that depends on signals received from the tumor microenvironment.

    View details for PubMedID 19252749

  • Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unresectable Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas CANCER Chang, D. T., Schellenberg, D., Shen, J., Kim, J., Goodman, K. A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Desser, T., Quon, A., Koong, A. C. 2009; 115 (3): 665-672


    The authors report on the local control and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Seventy-seven patients with unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas received 25 gray (Gy) in 1 fraction. Forty-five patients (58%) had locally advanced disease, 11 patients (14%) had medically inoperable disease, 15 patients (19%) had metastatic disease, and 6 patients (8%) had locally recurrent disease. Nine patients (12%) had received prior chemoradiotherapy. Sixteen patients (21%) received between 45 to 54 Gy of fractionated radiotherapy and SBRT. Various gemcitabine-based chemotherapy regimens were received by 74 patients (96%), but 3 patients (4%) did not receive chemotherapy until they had distant failure.The median follow-up was 6 months (range, 3-31 months) and, among surviving patients, it was 12 months (range, 3-31 months). The overall rates of freedom from local progression (FFLP) at 6 months and 12 months were 91% and 84%, respectively. The 6- and 12-month isolated local recurrence rates were 5% and 5%, respectively. There was no difference in the 12-month FFLP rate based on tumor location (head/uncinate, 91% vs body/tail, 86%; P = .52). The progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 6 months and 12 months were 26% and 9%, respectively. The PFS rate at 6 months was superior for patients who had nonmetastatic disease versus patients who had metastatic disease (28% vs 15%; P = .05). The overall survival (OS) rates at 6 months and 12 months from SBRT were 56% and 21%, respectively. Four patients (5%) experienced grade > or = 2 acute toxicity. Three patients (4%) experienced grade 2 late toxicity, and 7 patients (9%) experienced grade > or = 3 late toxicity. At 6 months and 12 months, the rates of grade > or = 2 late toxicity were 11% and 25%, respectively.SBRT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma was effective for local control with associated risk of toxicity and should be used with rigorous attention to quality assurance. Efforts to reduce complications are warranted. Distant metastases account for the vast majority of disease-related mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.24059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263003400025

    View details for PubMedID 19117351

  • The Role of Tumor Cell-Derived Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) in Pancreatic Tumor Growth CANCER RESEARCH Bennewith, K. L., Huang, X., Ham, C. M., Graves, E. E., Erler, J. T., Kambham, N., Feazell, J., Yang, G. P., Koong, A., Giaccia, A. J. 2009; 69 (3): 775-784


    Pancreatic cancer is highly aggressive and refractory to existing therapies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a fibrosis-related gene that is thought to play a role in pancreatic tumor progression. However, CCN2 can be expressed in a variety of cell types, and the contribution of CCN2 derived from either tumor cells or stromal cells as it affects the growth of pancreatic tumors is unknown. Using genetic inhibition of CCN2, we have discovered that CCN2 derived from tumor cells is a critical regulator of pancreatic tumor growth. Pancreatic tumor cells derived from CCN2 shRNA-expressing clones showed dramatically reduced growth in soft agar and when implanted s.c. We also observed a role for CCN2 in the growth of pancreatic tumors implanted orthotopically, with tumor volume measurements obtained by positron emission tomography imaging. Mechanistically, CCN2 protects cells from hypoxia-mediated apoptosis, providing an in vivo selection for tumor cells that express high levels of CCN2. We found that CCN2 expression and secretion was increased in hypoxic pancreatic tumor cells in vitro, and we observed colocalization of CCN2 and hypoxia in pancreatic tumor xenografts and clinical pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, we found increased CCN2 staining in clinical pancreatic tumor tissue relative to stromal cells surrounding the tumor, supporting our assertion that tumor cell-derived CCN2 is important for pancreatic tumor growth. Taken together, these data improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pancreatic tumor growth and progression, and also indicate that CCN2 produced by tumor cells represents a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0987

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263048700010

    View details for PubMedID 19179545

  • Hypoxia-Induced Lysyl Oxidase Is a Critical Mediator of Bone Marrow Cell Recruitment to Form the Premetastatic Niche CANCER CELL Erler, J. T., Bennewith, K. L., Cox, T. R., Lang, G., Bird, D., Koong, A., Le, Q., Giaccia, A. J. 2009; 15 (1): 35-44


    Tumor cell metastasis is facilitated by "premetastatic niches" formed in destination organs by invading bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is critical for premetastatic niche formation. LOX secreted by hypoxic breast tumor cells accumulates at premetastatic sites, crosslinks collagen IV in the basement membrane, and is essential for CD11b+ myeloid cell recruitment. CD11b+ cells adhere to crosslinked collagen IV and produce matrix metalloproteinase-2, which cleaves collagen, enhancing the invasion and recruitment of BMDCs and metastasizing tumor cells. LOX inhibition prevents CD11b+ cell recruitment and metastatic growth. CD11b+ cells and LOX also colocalize in biopsies of human metastases. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for LOX in premetastatic niche formation and support targeting LOX for the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.11.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262334800007

    View details for PubMedID 19111879

  • Multiplexed protein detection by proximity ligation for cancer biomarker validation NATURE METHODS Fredriksson, S., Dixon, W., Ji, H., Koong, A. C., Mindrinos, M., Davis, R. W. 2007; 4 (4): 327-329


    We present a proximity ligation-based multiplexed protein detection procedure in which several selected proteins can be detected via unique nucleic-acid identifiers and subsequently quantified by real-time PCR. The assay requires a 1-microl sample, has low-femtomolar sensitivity as well as five-log linear range and allows for modular multiplexing without cross-reactivity. The procedure can use a single polyclonal antibody batch for each target protein, simplifying affinity-reagent creation for new biomarker candidates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMETH1020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245584900013

    View details for PubMedID 17369836

  • Connective tissue growth factor-specific monoclonal antibody therapy inhibits pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis CANCER RESEARCH Dornhoefer, N., Spong, S., Bennewith, K., Salim, A., Klaus, S., Kambham, N., Wong, C., Kaper, F., Sutphin, P., Nacalumi, R., Hoeckel, M., Le, Q., Longaker, M., Yang, G., Koong, A., Giaccia, A. 2006; 66 (11): 5816-5827


    Pancreatic cancer is highly aggressive and refractory to most existing therapies. Past studies have shown that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is elevated in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas and some pancreatic cancer cell lines. To address whether and how CTGF influences tumor growth, we generated pancreatic tumor cell lines that overexpress different levels of human CTGF. The effect of CTGF overexpression on cell proliferation was measured in vitro in monolayer culture, suspension culture, or soft agar, and in vivo in tumor xenografts. Although there was no effect of CTGF expression on proliferation in two-dimensional cultures, anchorage-independent growth (AIG) was enhanced. The capacity of CTGF to enhance AIG in vitro was linked to enhanced pancreatic tumor growth in vivo when these cells were implanted s.c. in nude mice. Administration of a neutralizing CTGF-specific monoclonal antibody, FG-3019, had no effect on monolayer cell proliferation, but blocked AIG in soft agar. Consistent with this observation, anti-CTGF treatment of mice bearing established CTGF-expressing tumors abrogated CTGF-dependent tumor growth and inhibited lymph node metastases without any toxicity observed in normal tissue. Together, these studies implicate CTGF as a new target in pancreatic cancer and suggest that inhibition of CTGF with a human monoclonal antibody may control primary and metastatic tumor growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238003100038

    View details for PubMedID 16740721

  • Galectin-1: A link between tumor hypoxia and tumor immune privilege JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Le, Q. T., Shi, G. Y., Cao, H. B., Nelson, D. W., Wang, Y. Y., CHEN, E. Y., Zhao, S. C., Kong, C., Richardson, D., O'Byrne, K. J., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C. 2005; 23 (35): 8932-8941


    To identify a 15-KDa novel hypoxia-induced secreted protein in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and to determine its role in malignant progression.We used surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) and tandem MS to identify a novel hypoxia-induced secreted protein in FaDu cells. We used immunoblots, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to confirm the hypoxic induction of this secreted protein as galectin-1 in cell lines and xenografts. We stained tumor tissues from 101 HNSCC patients for galectin-1, CA IX (carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia marker) and CD3 (a T-cell marker). Expression of these markers was correlated to each other and to treatment outcomes.SELDI-TOF studies yielded a hypoxia-induced peak at 15 kDa that proved to be galectin-1 by MS analysis. Immunoblots and PCR studies confirmed increased galectin-1 expression by hypoxia in several cancer cell lines. Plasma levels of galectin-1 were higher in tumor-bearing severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice breathing 10% O2 compared with mice breathing room air. In HNSCC patients, there was a significant correlation between galectin-1 and CA IX staining (P = .01) and a strong inverse correlation between galectin-1 and CD3 staining (P = .01). Expression of galectin-1 and CD3 were significant predictors for overall survival on multivariate analysis.Galectin-1 is a novel hypoxia-regulated protein and a prognostic marker in HNSCC. This study presents a new mechanism on how hypoxia can affect the malignant progression and therapeutic response of solid tumors by regulating the secretion of proteins that modulate immune privilege.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2005.02.0206

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234026500004

    View details for PubMedID 16219933

  • XBP1 is essential for survival under hypoxic conditions and is required for tumor growth CANCER RESEARCH Romero-Ramirez, L., Cao, H. B., Nelson, D., Hammond, E., Lee, A. H., Yoshida, H., Mori, K., Glimcher, L. H., Denko, N. C., Giaccia, A. J., Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C. 2004; 64 (17): 5943-5947


    Hypoxia within solid tumors is a major determinant of outcome after anticancer therapy. Analysis of gene expression changes during hypoxia indicated that unfolded protein response genes were one of the most robustly induced groups of genes. In this study, we investigated the hypoxic regulation of X-box binding protein (XBP1), a major transcriptional regulator of the unfolded protein response. Hypoxia induced XBP1 at the transcriptional level and activated splicing of its mRNA, resulting in increased levels of activated XBP1 protein. After exposure to hypoxia, apoptosis increased and clonogenic survival decreased in XBP1-deficient cells. Loss of XBP1 severely inhibited tumor growth due to a reduced capacity for these transplanted tumor cells to survive in a hypoxic microenvironment. Taken together, these studies directly implicate XBP1 as an essential survival factor for hypoxic stress and tumor growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223603200007

    View details for PubMedID 15342372

  • Phase I study of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Koong, A. C., Le, Q. T., Ho, A., Fong, B., Fisher, G., Cho, C., Ford, J., Poen, J., Gibbs, I. C., Mehta, V. K., Kee, S., Trueblood, W., Yang, G., Bastidas, J. A. 2004; 58 (4): 1017-1021


    To determine the feasibility and toxicity of delivering stereotactic radiosurgery to patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status < or=2 and locally advanced pancreatic cancer were enrolled on this Phase I dose escalation study. Patients received a single fraction of radiosurgery consisting of either 15 Gy, 20 Gy, or 25 Gy to the primary tumor. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Response to treatment was determined by serial high-resolution computed tomography scanning.Fifteen patients were treated at 3 dose levels (3 patients received 15 Gy, 5 patients received 20 Gy, and 7 patients received 25 Gy). At these doses, no Grade 3 or higher acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed. This trial was stopped before any dose-limiting toxicity was reached, because the clinical objective of local control was achieved in all 6 evaluable patients treated at 25 Gy.It is feasible to deliver stereotactic radiosurgery to patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The recommended dose to achieve local control without significant acute gastrointestinal toxicity is 25 Gy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.11.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220084200001

    View details for PubMedID 15001240

  • Loss of PTEN facilitates HIF-1-mediated gene expression GENES & DEVELOPMENT Zundel, W., Schindler, C., Haas-Kogan, D., Koong, A., Kaper, F., Chen, E., Gottschalk, A. R., Ryan, H. E., Johnson, R. S., Jefferson, A. B., Stokoe, D., Giaccia, A. J. 2000; 14 (4): 391-396


    In glioblastoma-derived cell lines, PTEN does not significantly alter apoptotic sensitivity or cause complete inhibition of DNA synthesis. However, in these cell lines PTEN regulates hypoxia- and IGF-1-induced angiogenic gene expression by regulating Akt activation of HIF-1 activity. Restoration of wild-type PTEN to glioblastoma cell lines lacking functional PTEN ablates hypoxia and IGF-1 induction of HIF-1-regulated genes. In addition, Akt activation leads to HIF-1alpha stabilization, whereas PTEN attenuates hypoxia-mediated HIF-1alpha stabilization. We propose that loss of PTEN during malignant progression contributes to tumor expansion through the deregulation of Akt activity and HIF-1-regulated gene expression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085571300001

    View details for PubMedID 10691731

  • Candidate genes for the hypoxic tumor phenotype CANCER RESEARCH Koong, A. C., Denko, N. C., Hudson, K. M., Schindler, C., Swiersz, L., Koch, C., Evans, S., Ibrahim, H., Le, Q. T., Terris, D. J., Giaccia, A. J. 2000; 60 (4): 883-887


    In this study, we have analyzed changes induced by hypoxia at the transcriptional level of genes that could be responsible for a more aggressive phenotype. Using a series of DNA array membranes, we identified a group of hypoxia-induced genes that included plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), endothelin-2, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), BCL2-interacting killer (BIK), migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), fibroblast growth factor-3 (FGF-3), GADD45, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The induction of each gene was confirmed by Northern blot analysis in two different squamous cell carcinoma-derived cell lines. We also analyzed the kinetics of PAI-1 induction by hypoxia in more detail because it is a secreted protein that may serve as a useful molecular marker of hypoxia. On exposure to hypoxia, there was a gradual increase in PAI-1 mRNA between 2 and 24 h of hypoxia followed by a rapid decay after 2 h of reoxygenation. PAI-1 levels were also measured in the serum of a small group of head and neck cancer patients and were found to correlate with the degree of tumor hypoxia found in these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085503100022

    View details for PubMedID 10706099

  • Quantitative Analysis of (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Identifies Novel Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Cui, Y., Song, J., Pollom, E., Alagappan, M., Shirato, H., Chang, D. T., Koong, A. C., Li, R. 2016; 96 (1): 102-109


    To identify prognostic biomarkers in pancreatic cancer using high-throughput quantitative image analysis.In this institutional review board-approved study, we retrospectively analyzed images and outcomes for 139 locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The overall population was split into a training cohort (n=90) and a validation cohort (n=49) according to the time of treatment. We extracted quantitative imaging characteristics from pre-SBRT (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, including statistical, morphologic, and texture features. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was built to predict overall survival (OS) in the training cohort using 162 robust image features. To avoid over-fitting, we applied the elastic net to obtain a sparse set of image features, whose linear combination constitutes a prognostic imaging signature. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the association with OS, and concordance index (CI) was used to evaluate the survival prediction accuracy.The prognostic imaging signature included 7 features characterizing different tumor phenotypes, including shape, intensity, and texture. On the validation cohort, univariate analysis showed that this prognostic signature was significantly associated with OS (P=.002, hazard ratio 2.74), which improved upon conventional imaging predictors including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and total legion glycolysis (P=.018-.028, hazard ratio 1.51-1.57). On multivariate analysis, the proposed signature was the only significant prognostic index (P=.037, hazard ratio 3.72) when adjusted for conventional imaging and clinical factors (P=.123-.870, hazard ratio 0.53-1.30). In terms of CI, the proposed signature scored 0.66 and was significantly better than competing prognostic indices (CI 0.48-0.64, Wilcoxon rank sum test P<1e-6).Quantitative analysis identified novel (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image features that showed improved prognostic value over conventional imaging metrics. If validated in large, prospective cohorts, the new prognostic signature might be used to identify patients for individualized risk-adaptive therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.04.034

    View details for PubMedID 27511850

  • A Novel Biomarker Panel Examining Response to Gemcitabine with or without Erlotinib for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy in NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3 PLOS ONE Shultz, D. B., Pai, J., Chiu, W., Ng, K., Hellendag, M. G., Heestand, G., Chang, D. T., Tu, D., Moore, M. J., Parulekar, W. R., Koong, A. C. 2016; 11 (1)


    NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3 was a randomized control trial that demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) in patients receiving erlotinib in addition to gemcitabine for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Prior to therapy, patients had plasma samples drawn for future study. We sought to identify biomarkers within these samples.Using the proximity ligation assay (PLA), a probe panel was built from commercially available antibodies for 35 key proteins selected from a global genetic analysis of pancreatic cancers, and used to quantify protein levels in 20 uL of patient plasma. To determine if any of these proteins levels independently associated with OS, univariate and mulitbaraible Cox models were used. In addition, we examined the associations between biomarker expression and disease stage at diagnosis using Fisher's exact test. The correlation between Erlotinib sensitivity and each biomarkers was assessed using a test of interaction between treatment and biomarker.Of the 569 eligible patients, 480 had samples available for study. Samples were randomly allocated into training (251) and validation sets (229). Among all patients, elevated levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha), and interleukin-6 were independently associated with lower OS, while IL-8, CEA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and mucin-1 were associated with metastatic disease. Patients with elevated levels of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) expression had improved OS when treated with erlotinib compared to placebo. In conclusion, PLA is a powerful tool for identifying biomarkers from archived, small volume serum samples. These data may be useful to stratify patient outcomes regardless of therapeutic NCT00040183.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0147995

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369527800261

    View details for PubMedID 26808546

  • Statin and Metformin Use Prolongs Survival in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer. Pancreas Kozak, M. M., Anderson, E. M., von Eyben, R., Pai, J. S., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2016; 45 (1): 64-70


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of statin and metformin therapy on disease outcome for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).This retrospective study included 171 PDAC patients who underwent surgical resection at the Stanford Cancer Institute between 1998 and 2013. No patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Statin and metformin use was defined as use during initial consult and continuing upon discharge from the hospital after surgery. Dose of each medication was recorded, as was the type of statin taken.The median follow-up for all patients was 11.23 months (range, 0.2-105.0 months). Among the 171 patients included in our analysis, 18 patients (10.5%) took metformin and 34 patients (19.9%) took statins. Statin use was associated with better overall survival (OS) in patients with PDAC (P = 0.011). Metformin use was also associated with better OS (P = 0.035). The use of statins remained significant on multivariate analysis for OS (P = 0.014; hazards ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.139-0.799), but metformin use did not (P = 0.33; hazards ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval, 0.211-1.675).Statin and metformin use is associated with improved OS in patients with resectable PDAC. These medications should be further investigated for possible long-term use in the general population.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000470

    View details for PubMedID 26474429

  • Measuring the Impact of Microenvironmental Conditions on Mitochondrial Dehydrogenase Activity in Cultured Cells. Advances in experimental medicine and biology Sun, R. C., Koong, A., Giaccia, A., Denko, N. C. 2016; 899: 113-120


    Mitochondria are powerhouses of a cell, producing much of the cellular ATP. However, mitochondrial enzymes also participate in many cellular biosynthetic processes. They are responsible for helping to maintain NAD(P)/H and redox balance, supplying metabolic intermediates for cell growth, and regulating several types of programed cell death. Several mitochondrial enzymes have even been shown to participate in the oncogenic process such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and fumarate hydratase. Recent advances have identified significant metabolic changes in the mitochondria that are regulated by malignant transformation and environmental stimuli. Understanding the biological activity and regulation of mitochondrial enzymes can provide insight into how they participate in the process of oncogenic transformation and work to sustain malignant growth. This chapter describes a technique to measure mitochondrial dehydrogenase activities that is faster and more cost effective which can also be scaled up for high throughput.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-26666-4_7

    View details for PubMedID 27325264

  • A Multimodal Data Analysis Approach for Targeted Drug Discovery Involving Topological Data Analysis (TDA). Advances in experimental medicine and biology Alagappan, M., Jiang, D., Denko, N., Koong, A. C. 2016; 899: 253-268


    In silico drug discovery refers to a combination of computational techniques that augment our ability to discover drug compounds from compound libraries. Many such techniques exist, including virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS), high-throughput screening (HTS), and mechanisms for data storage and querying. However, presently these tools are often used independent of one another. In this chapter, we describe a new multimodal in silico technique for the hit identification and lead generation phases of traditional drug discovery. Our technique leverages the benefits of three independent methods-virtual high-throughput screening, high-throughput screening, and structural fingerprint analysis-by using a fourth technique called topological data analysis (TDA). We describe how a compound library can be independently tested with vHTS, HTS, and fingerprint analysis, and how the results can be transformed into a topological data analysis network to identify compounds from a diverse group of structural families. This process of using TDA or similar clustering methods to identify drug leads is advantageous because it provides a mechanism for choosing structurally diverse compounds while maintaining the unique advantages of already established techniques such as vHTS and HTS.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-26666-4_15

    View details for PubMedID 27325272

  • Serum Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 Change After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy Is Associated With Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Esophageal Cancer Patients Undergoing Combined Modality Therapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Lu, S., Hsu, F., Tsai, C., Wu, J., Lee, J., Huang, P., Hsu, C., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T., Cheng, J. C. 2015; 93 (5): 1023-1031
  • Plant stilbenes induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and their anti-cancer activity can be enhanced by inhibitors of autophagy EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH Papandreou, I., Verras, M., McNeil, B., Koong, A. C., Denko, N. C. 2015; 339 (1): 147-153
  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R) Local Excision in Early Stage Rectal Cancer AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Russo, S., Blackstock, A. W., Herman, J. M., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Das, P., Goodman, K. A., Hong, T. S., Jabbour, S. K., Jones, W. E., Konski, A. A., Koong, A. C., Kumar, R., Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Small, W., Thomas, C. R., Suh, W. W. 2015; 38 (5): 520-525


    Low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection are considered standard treatments for early rectal cancer but may be associated with morbidity in selected patients who are candidates for early distal lesions amenable to local excision (LE). The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. The panel recognizes the importance of accurate staging to identify patients who may be candidates for a LE approach. Patients who may be candidates for LE alone include those with small, low-lying T1 tumors, without adverse pathologic features. Several surgical approaches can be utilized for LE however none include lymph node evaluation. Adjuvant radiation±chemotherapy may be warranted depending on the risk of nodal metastases. Patients with high-risk T1 tumors, T2 tumors not amenable to radical surgery may also benefit from adjuvant treatment; however, patients with positive margins or T3 lesions should be offered abdominoperineal resection or low anterior resection. Neoadjuvant radiation±chemotherapy followed by LE in higher risk patients results in excellent local control, but it is not clear if this approach reduces recurrence rates over surgery alone.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/COC.0000000000000197

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362514600014

    View details for PubMedID 26371522

  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy and central liver toxicity: A case report. Practical radiation oncology Shaffer, J. L., Osmundson, E. C., Visser, B. C., Longacre, T. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2015; 5 (5): 282-285

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2015.04.011

    View details for PubMedID 26127008

  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R) Resectable Stomach Cancer ONCOLOGY-NEW YORK Daroui, P., Jabbour, S. K., Herman, J. M., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Blackstock, A. W., Das, P., Goodman, K. A., Hong, T. S., Jones, W. E., Kaur, H., Konski, A. A., Koong, A. C., Kumar, R., Pawlik, T. M., Small, W., Thomas, C. R., Suh, W. W. 2015; 29 (8): 595-603
  • Targeting the IRE1 alpha-XBP1 branch of the unfolded protein response in human diseases SEMINARS IN CANCER BIOLOGY Jiang, D., Niwa, M., Koong, A. C. 2015; 33: 48-56


    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to ER stress, which is characteristic of cells with high level of secretory activity and implicated in a variety of disease conditions. In response to ER stress, the cell elicits an adaptive process called the unfolded protein response (UPR) to support cellular homeostasis and survival. However, prolonged and unsolvable ER stress also induces apoptosis. As the most conserved signaling branch of the UPR, the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway plays important roles in both physiological and pathological settings and its activity has profound effects on disease progression and prognosis. Recently, modulating this pathway with small molecule compounds has been demonstrated as a promising approach for disease therapy. In this review, we summarize a list of current investigational compounds targeting this pathway and their therapeutic features for treating human diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semcancer.2015.04.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359887100007

    View details for PubMedID 25986851

  • Treatment Approaches to Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma HEMATOLOGY-ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Pollom, E. L., Koong, A. C., Ko, A. H. 2015; 29 (4): 741-?
  • Emerging Treatment Paradigms in Radiation Oncology CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Le, Q., Shirato, H., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C. 2015; 21 (15): 3393-3401


    Rapid advancements in radiotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies have resulted in the development of potential paradigm-shifting use of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In this review, we discuss some of the most promising therapeutic approaches in the field of radiation oncology. These strategies include the use of highly targeted stereotactic radiotherapy and particle therapy as well as combining radiotherapy with agents that modulate the DNA damage response, augment the immune response, or protect normal tissues. Clin Cancer Res; 21(15); 3393-401. ©2015 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1191

    View details for Web of Science ID 000361907800007

    View details for PubMedID 25991820

  • Treatment Approaches to Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America Pollom, E. L., Koong, A. C., Ko, A. H. 2015; 29 (4): 741-759


    This article focuses on the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer, which should be treated as a distinct entity separate from metastatic disease and borderline resectable disease. Although the role, timing, and sequencing of radiation relative to systemic therapy in this disease are controversial, an emerging treatment paradigm involves induction chemotherapy, followed by consolidative chemoradiation in patients who do not progress. In addition, new chemotherapy regimens as well as novel radiosensitizers have shown promise and need to be tested further in the locally advanced setting. Advances in radiotherapy have enabled stereotactic body radiotherapy and should continue to be prospectively evaluated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hoc.2015.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 26226908

  • Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Pollom, E. L., Deng, L., Pai, R. K., Brown, J. M., Giaccia, A., Loo, B. W., Shultz, D. B., Quynh Thu Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2015; 92 (3): 568-576
  • Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Pollom, E. L., Deng, L., Pai, R. K., Brown, J. M., Giaccia, A., Loo, B. W., Shultz, D. B., Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2015; 92 (3): 568-576


    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.02.016

    View details for PubMedID 26068491

  • TU-CD-304-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION and BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY): Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: Development of Novel Arc Delivery Techniques Integrating Dynamic Table Motion for Extended Volume Treatments. Medical physics Chin, E., Otto, K., Hoppe, R., Million, L., Loo, B., Koong, A., Xing, L., Hsu, A., Fahimian, B. 2015; 42 (6): 3598-?


    Integration of coordinated robotic table motion with inversely-planned arc delivery has the potential to resolve table-top delivery limitations of large-field treatments such as Total Body Irradiation (TBI), Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI), and Cranial-Spinal Irradiation (CSI). We formulate the foundation for Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT), and using Varian Developer Mode capabilities, experimentally investigate its practical implementation for such techniques.A MATLAB algorithm was developed for inverse planning optimization of the table motion, MLC positions, and gantry motion under extended-SSD geometry. To maximize the effective field size, delivery trajectories for TMAT TBI were formed with the table rotated at 270° IEC and dropped vertically to 152.5cm SSD. Preliminary testing of algorithm parameters was done through retrospective planning analysis. Robotic delivery was programmed using custom XML scripting on the TrueBeam Developer Mode platform. Final dose was calculated using the Eclipse AAA algorithm. Initial verification of delivery accuracy was measured using OSLDs on a solid water phantom of varying thickness.A comparison of DVH curves demonstrated that dynamic couch motion irradiation was sufficiently approximated by static control points spaced in intervals of less than 2cm. Optimized MLC motion decreased the average lung dose to 68.5% of the prescription dose. The programmed irradiation integrating coordinated table motion was deliverable on a TrueBeam STx linac in 6.7 min. With the couch translating under an open 10cmx20cm field angled at 10°, OSLD measurements along the midline of a solid water phantom at depths of 3, 5, and 9cm were within 3% of the TPS AAA algorithm with an average deviation of 1.2%.A treatment planning and delivery system for Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy of extended volumes has been established and experimentally demonstrated for TBI. Extension to other treatment techniques such as TLI and CSI is readily achievable through the developed platform. Grant Funding by Varian Medical Systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4925570

    View details for PubMedID 26128865

  • Circulating mRNA Profiling in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Identifies FAM8(4)B As A Biomarker In Predicting Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Hsu, F., Cheng, J. C., Chang, Y., Lee, J., Koong, A. C., Chuang, E. Y. 2015; 5


    Esophageal cancer patients with pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) have favorable outcomes. Currently, there was no reliable biomarker predicting the response to CRT. Perioperative circulating mRNA may be associated with prognosis, but its application for predicting treatment response is unclear. We prospectively assessed the value of circulating messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling in predicting pCR for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients with ESCC completing CRT followed by surgery were enrolled for analysis. Venous peripheral blood was obtained before and after CRT, and total RNA was extracted for hybridization-based whole genome expression analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. We found circulating expression profiling was significantly altered after CRT. Altered FAM84B expression was significantly predictive of pCR. The decrease of serum FAM84B protein level after CRT was also associated with pCR. Immunohistochemistry and western blot confirmed that FAM84B protein was overexpressed in the majority of patients and ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, knockdown of FAM84B delayed tumor growth in ectopic xenografts. We demonstrated the decreased of circulating FAM84B mRNA and protein after neoadjuvant CRT may predict pCR, and FAM84B protein is overexpressed in ESCC. The potential of FAM84B as a novel predictive biomarker, and its biological functions deserve further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep10291

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355271500001

    View details for PubMedID 25980316

  • Smad4 inactivation predicts for worse prognosis and response to fluorouracil-based treatment in colorectal cancer JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Kozak, M. M., von Eyben, R., Pai, J., Vossler, S. R., Limaye, M., Jayachandran, P., Anderson, E. M., Shaffer, J. L., Longacre, T., Pai, R. K., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2015; 68 (5): 341-345


    To determine whether expression of Smad4, a tumour suppressor found to be absent in 10% of colorectal cancer (CRC), is associated with outcomes in patients with CRC.Tumour samples from 241 consecutive patients with CRC who underwent upfront colon resection between 2005 and 2009 were obtained. Triplicate tissue cores from resected primary colon tumours and matched normal controls were used to construct the tissue microarrays (TMAs). We examined the expression of Smad4 using immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathological records were obtained for all patients. TMAs were reviewed by two pathologists and scored as either 'positive' or 'negative' for nuclear staining. In total, 21 of 241 tumours (8.6%) were Smad4 negative.Loss of Smad4 expression correlated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) (p=0.011) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.024). Patients with loss of Smad4 expression had a median OS of 31 months compared with 89 months positive Smad4 expression. Loss of Smad4 remained significant on multivariate analysis for OS (p=0.0097). In patients with node-positive disease, loss of Smad4 predicts for worse DFS (p=0.012). In patients with metastatic and recurrent disease, Smad4 loss predicts for worse OS (p=0.012). Of the patients that received capecitabine over the course of their treatment, those with Smad4 loss (n=13) had significantly worse DFS (p=0.003) and OS (p=0.0007).Loss of Smad4 expression is associated with worse DFS and OS in multiple subsets of patients with CRC. Further studies are required to validate our findings and ascertain the role of Smad4 status in the management of this disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202660

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353420500004

    View details for PubMedID 25681512

  • Comparison of film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of dose delivered with very high-energy electron beams in a polystyrene phantom MEDICAL PHYSICS Bazalova-Carter, M., Liu, M., Palma, B., Dunning, M., McCormick, D., Hemsing, E., Nelson, J., Jobe, K., Colby, E., Koong, A. C., Tantawi, S., Dolgashev, V., Maxim, P. G., Loo, B. W. 2015; 42 (4): 1606-1613


    To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results.Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0-6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dose distributions was evaluated.MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4-6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0-4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%.The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50-70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4914371

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352273200015

    View details for PubMedID 25832051

  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy in pancreatic cancer: the new frontier EXPERT REVIEW OF ANTICANCER THERAPY Moningi, S., Marciscano, A. E., Rosati, L. M., Ng, S. K., Forbang, R. T., Jackson, J., Chang, D. T., Koong, A. C., Herman, J. M. 2014; 14 (12): 1461-1475


    Pancreatic cancer (PCA) remains a disease with a poor prognosis. The majority of PCA patients are unable to undergo surgical resection, which is the only potentially curative option at this time. A combination of chemotherapy and chemoradiation (CRT) are standard options for patients with locally advanced, unresectable disease, however, local control and patient outcomes remains poor. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for PCA. SBRT delivers potentially ablative doses to the pancreatic tumor plus a small margin over a short period of time. Early studies with single-fraction SBRT demonstrated excellent tumor control with high rates of toxicity. The implementation of SBRT (3-5 doses) has demonstrated promising outcomes with favorable tumor control and toxicity rates. Herein we discuss the evolving role of SBRT in PCA treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1586/14737140.2014.952286

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346639100008

  • Galectin-1 Mediates Radiation-Related Lymphopenia and Attenuates NSCLC Radiation Response CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Kuo, P., Bratman, S. V., Shultz, D. B., von Eyben, R., Chan, C., Wang, Z., Say, C., Gupta, A., Loo, B. W., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C., Diehn, M., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. 2014; 20 (21): 5558-5569
  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R) Rectal Cancer: Metastatic Disease at Presentation ONCOLOGY-NEW YORK Goodman, K. A., Milgrom, S. A., Herman, J. M., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Blackstock, A. W., Das, P., Hong, T. S., Jabbour, S. K., Jones, W. E., Konski, A. A., Koong, A. C., Kumar, R., Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Small, W., Thomas, C. R., Suh, W. W. 2014; 28 (10): 867-?
  • Neurotrophic factor GDNF promotes survival of salivary stem cells JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Xiao, N., Lin, Y., Cao, H., Sirjani, D., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C., Kong, C. S., Diehn, M., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. 2014; 124 (8): 3364-3377


    Stem cell-based regenerative therapy is a promising treatment for head and neck cancer patients that suffer from chronic dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary gland injury from radiation therapy. Current xerostomia therapies only provide temporary symptom relief, while permanent restoration of salivary function is not currently feasible. Here, we identified and characterized a stem cell population from adult murine submandibular glands. Of the different cells isolated from the submandibular gland, this specific population, Lin-CD24+c-Kit+Sca1+, possessed the highest capacity for proliferation, self renewal, and differentiation during serial passage in vitro. Serial transplantations of this stem cell population into the submandibular gland of irradiated mice successfully restored saliva secretion and increased the number of functional acini. Gene-expression analysis revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) is highly expressed in Lin-CD24+c-Kit+Sca1+ stem cells. Furthermore, GDNF expression was upregulated upon radiation therapy in submandibular glands of both mice and humans. Administration of GDNF improved saliva production and enriched the number of functional acini in submandibular glands of irradiated animals and enhanced salisphere formation in cultured salivary stem cells, but did not accelerate growth of head and neck cancer cells. These data indicate that modulation of the GDNF pathway may have potential therapeutic benefit for management of radiation-induced xerostomia.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI74096

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339984000013

  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, version 2.2014: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Tempero, M. A., Malafa, M. P., Behrman, S. W., Benson, A. B., Casper, E. S., Chiorean, E. G., Chung, V., Cohen, S. J., Czito, B., Engebretson, A., Feng, M., Hawkins, W. G., Herman, J., Hoffman, J. P., Ko, A., Komanduri, S., Koong, A., Lowy, A. M., Ma, W. W., Merchant, N. B., Mulvihill, S. J., Muscarella, P., Nakakura, E. K., Obando, J., Pitman, M. B., Reddy, S., Sasson, A. R., Thayer, S. P., Weekes, C. D., Wolff, R. A., Wolpin, B. M., Burns, J. L., Freedman-Cass, D. A. 2014; 12 (8): 1083-1093


    The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the diagnosis and management of adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2014 NCCN Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Panel meeting. The panel discussion focused mainly on the management of borderline resectable and locally advanced disease. In particular, the panel discussed the definition of borderline resectable disease, role of neoadjuvant therapy in borderline disease, role of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease, and potential role of newer, more active chemotherapy regimens in both settings.

    View details for PubMedID 25099441

  • Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Version 2.2014 Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Tempero, M. A., Malafa, M. P., Behrman, S. W., Benson, A. B., Casper, E. S., Chiorean, E. G., Chung, V., Cohen, S. J., Czito, B., Engebretson, A., Feng, M., Hawkins, W. G., Herman, J., Hoffman, J. P., Ko, A., Komanduri, M., Koong, A., Lowy, A. M., Ma, W. W., Merchant, N. B., Mulvihill, S. J., Muscarella, P., Nakakura, E. K., Obando, J., Pitman, M. B., Reddy, S., Sasson, A. R., Thayer, S. P., Weekes, C. D., Wolff, R. A., Wolpin, B. M., Burns, J. L., Freedman-Cass, D. A. 2014; 12 (8): 1083-1093
  • Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Dholakia, A. S., Chaudhry, M., Leal, J. P., Chang, D. T., Raman, S. P., Hacker-Prietz, A., Su, Z., Pai, J., Oteiza, K. E., Griffith, M. E., Wahl, R. L., Tryggestad, E., Pawlik, T., Laheru, D. A., Wolfgang, C. L., Koong, A. C., Herman, J. M. 2014; 89 (3): 539-546
  • Baseline metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis are associated with survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Dholakia, A. S., Chaudhry, M., Leal, J. P., Chang, D. T., Raman, S. P., Hacker-Prietz, A., Su, Z., Pai, J., Oteiza, K. E., Griffith, M. E., Wahl, R. L., Tryggestad, E., Pawlik, T., Laheru, D. A., Wolfgang, C. L., Koong, A. C., Herman, J. M. 2014; 89 (3): 539-546


    Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVpeak) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Livermean + [2 × Liversd]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses.Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm(3) or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses.Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.02.031

    View details for PubMedID 24751410

  • High Serum Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 Before Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Predict Poor Outcomes in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Combined Modality Therapy ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Cheng, J. C., Graber, M. S., Hsu, F., Tsai, C., Castaneda, L., Lee, J., Chang, D. T., Koong, A. C. 2014; 21 (7): 2361-2368


    This study was aimed at using proximity ligation assay (PLA) followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to identify serum biomarkers that predict treatment response and survival for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) undergoing neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by esophagectomy.Seventy-nine patients with ESCC receiving CCRT of taxane-based/5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and 40 Gy followed by surgery were enrolled. Serum samples were collected before and <1 month after CCRT. Fifteen biomarkers were analyzed using PLA. Biomarkers significantly correlating with pathological response/survival were verified by ELISA. Associations of the serum level of biomarkers and clinical factors with pathological response, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated by analysis of variance and log-rank tests.Thirty patients had complete response (38 %), 37 had microscopic residual disease (47 %), and 12 had macroscopic residual disease (15 %). With a median follow-up of 52.8 months, the median DFS was 43 months. Among the 15 biomarkers screened by PLA, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were significantly associated with pathological response and/or DFS. These biomarkers were further analyzed by ELISA to confirm initial biomarker findings by PLA. After ELISA of these two markers, only VEGF-A levels were significantly correlated with pathological response. On multivariate analysis, patients with combined high pre-CCRT VEGF-A and TGF-β1 levels (greater than or equal to the median), independent of pathological response, had significantly worse DFS (11 months vs. median not reached; p = 0.007) and OS (16 vs. 46 months; p = 0.07).Pre-CCRT serum VEGF-A and TGF-β1 levels may be used to predict pathological response and survivals for ESCC patients receiving combined-modality therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-3611-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337063400038

  • Postradiotherapy CA19-9 Kinetics Correlate With Outcomes in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma PANCREAS Shultz, D. B., Chan, C., Shaffer, J. L., Kunz, P. L., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 43 (5): 777-783


    We sought to determine if carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 ) nadir (nCA19-9), time to nadir (TTN), and doubling time (DT) after radiotherapy (RT) correlate with outcomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.We examined the records of 102 patients treated with RT for primary, nonmetastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma between August 1998 and July 2011. Of these, 33 patients were treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy (PORT) and 69 patients with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT).Among the patients treated with PORT, TTN and DT were associated with both overall survival (OS; P = <0.01 for both) and freedom from progression (FFP; P = <0.01 for both). In patients treated with CRT, nCA19-9 and TTN correlated with both OS (P = <0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) and FFP (P = 0.01 and <0.01, respectively). On multivariable analysis, in patients treated with PORT, TTN remained independently correlated with OS and FFP (P = 0.01; hazard ratios [HR], 6.43 and P = 0.02; HR, 4.00, respectively), whereas DT remained independently correlated to FFP (P = 0.04; HR, 0.27). In patients treated with CRT, controlling for pretreatment CA19-9, nCA19-9 and TTN independently correlated with OS (P = <0.01; HR, 3.0 and P = 0.03; HR, 2.56, respectively) and FFP (P = 0.04; HR, 2.31 and P = <0.01; HR, 4.0, respectively).CA19-9 kinetics after RT correlate with disease progression and survival and could serve as a prognostic tool to guide treatment decisions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338132700016

  • Lumbosacral spine and marrow cavity modeling of acute hematologic toxicity in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Practical radiation oncology Cheng, J. C., Bazan, J. G., Wu, J., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 4 (3): 198-206


    To identify various dosimetric parameters of bone marrow cavity that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT).We analyzed 32 patients receiving CRT. The whole pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and the lumbosacral spine (LSS) subregion were contoured for each patient. Marrow cavities were contoured using the Hounsfield units (HUs) of 100, 150, 200, and 250 as maximum density threshold levels. The volume of each region receiving at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 Gy was calculated. The endpoint was grade ≥3 HT (HT3+). Normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Maximal likelihood estimate was used to compare the parameter set. Logistic regression was used to test associations between HT and both dosimetric and clinical parameters.Ten patients (31%) experienced HT3+. While dose to both LSS and PBM significantly predicted for HT3+, LSS was superior to PBM by logistic regression and LKB modeling. Constrained optimization of the LKB model for HT3+ yielded the parameters m = 0.21, n = 1, and TD50 = 32 Gy for LSS. The NTCP fits were better with the whole bone than with marrow cavity using any HU threshold. Mean LSS doses of 21 Gy and 23.5 Gy result in a 5% and 10% risk of HT3+, respectively. Mean dose and low-dose radiation parameters (V5, V10, V15, V20) of whole bone or bone cavities of LSS were correlated most significantly with HT3+.For predicting the risk of HT3+, whole-bone contours were superior to marrow cavity and LSS was superior to PBM by LKB modeling. The results confirm PBM and LSS as parallel organs when predicting hematologic toxicity. Recommended dose constraints to the LSS are V10 ≤80%. An LSS mean dose of 23.5 Gy is associated with a 10% risk of HT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2013.07.011

    View details for PubMedID 24766688

  • Stereotactic body radiotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Seminars in radiation oncology Trakul, N., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 24 (2): 140-147


    Most patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are unable to have a curative surgical resection. Chemoradiation is a standard of care treatment for patients with locally advanced unresectable disease, but local failure rates are high with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. However, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy offers an alternative type of radiation therapy, which allows for the delivery of high-dose, conformal radiation. The high doses and shorter overall treatment time with SBRT may provide advantages in local control, disease outcomes, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness, and further investigation is currently underway. Here, we review the technology behind SBRT for pancreatic malignancy and its future direction in the overall management of pancreatic cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semradonc.2013.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 24635871

  • False positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography liver lesion mimicking metastasis in 2 patients with gastroesophageal cancer. Practical radiation oncology Paudel, N., Kunz, P. L., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 4 (6): 368-371

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2013.11.005

    View details for PubMedID 25407856

  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria®-Anal Cancer. Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR Hong, T. S., Pretz, J. L., Herman, J. M., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Blackstock, A. W., Das, P., Goodman, K. A., Jabbour, S. K., Jones, W. E., Konski, A. A., Koong, A. C., Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Small, W., Thomas, C. R., Zook, J., Suh, W. W. 2014; 7 (1): 4-14


    The management of anal cancer is driven by randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials. However, trials may present conflicting conclusions. Furthermore, different clinical situations may not be addressed in certain trials because of eligibility inclusion criteria. Although prospective studies point to the use of definitive 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C-based chemoradiation as a standard, some areas remain that are not well defined. In particular, management of very early stage disease, radiation dose, and the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy remain unaddressed by phase III studies. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

    View details for PubMedID 24558509

  • Postradiotherapy CA-19-9 Kinetics Correlate with Outcomes in Patients with Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pancreas Shultz, D., Chan, C., Shaffer, J., Kunz, P., Koong, A., Chang, D. 2014; 43 (4): 777-83
  • Sterotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer: The New Frontier Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Moningi, S., Marciscano, A., Rosati, L., Ng, S., Teboh Forbang, R., Jackson, J., Chang, D., Koong, A., Herman, J. 2014; 14 (12)
  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Rectal Cancer: Metastatic Disease at Presentation Oncology (Williston Park) Goodman, K., Milgrom, S., Herman, J., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Blackstock, A., Das, P., Hong, T., Jabbour, S., Jones, W., Konski, A., Koong, A., Kumar, R., Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Small, W., Thomas, C., Suh, W. 2014; 28 (10)
  • Low Toxicity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Treated with Abdominal and Pelvic Radiation Therapy Am J Clin Oncol White, E., Murphy, J., Chang, D., Koong, A. 2014; 7 (1)
  • High Serum Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Before Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Predict Poor Outcomes in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Combined Modality Therapy Ann Surg Oncol Cheng, J., Graber, M., Hsu, F., Tsai, C., Castaneda, L., Lee, J., Chang, D., Koong, A. 2014; 21 (7): 2361-8
  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria®-anal Cancer - Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology–Rectal/Anal Cancer Gastrointest Cancer Res Hong, T., Pretz, J., Herman, J., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Blackstock, A., Das, P., Goodman, K., Jabbour, S. 2014; 7 (1): 4-14
  • Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Bazan, J. G., Luxton, G., Kozak, M. M., Anderson, E. M., Hancock, S. L., Kapp, D. S., Kidd, E. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2013; 87 (5): 983-991


    To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy.We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters.Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.09.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327496600029

  • Re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy as a novel treatment option for isolated local recurrence of pancreatic cancer after multimodality therapy: experience from two institutions. Journal of gastrointestinal oncology Wild, A. T., Hiniker, S. M., Chang, D. T., Tran, P. T., Khashab, M. A., Limaye, M. R., Laheru, D. A., Le, D. T., Kumar, R., Pai, J. S., Hargens, B., Sharabi, A. B., Shin, E. J., Zheng, L., Pawlik, T. M., Wolfgang, C. L., Koong, A. C., Herman, J. M. 2013; 4 (4): 343-351


    Limited treatment options exist for isolated local recurrence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) following surgical resection accompanied by neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). While select patients are eligible for re-resection, recurrent lesions are often unresectable. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) represents a possible minimally invasive treatment option for these patients, although published data in this setting are currently lacking. This study examines the safety, efficacy, and palliative capacity of re-irradiation with SBRT for isolated local PDA recurrence. All patients undergoing SBRT at two academic centers from 2008-2012 were retrospectively reviewed to identify those who received re-irradiation with SBRT for isolated local recurrence or progression of PDA after previous conventionally fractionated CRT. Information regarding demographics, clinicopathologic characteristics, therapies received, survival, symptom palliation, and toxicity was obtained from patient charts. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to analyze survival and the log-rank test was used to compare survival among patient subgroups. Eighteen patients were identified. Fifteen had previously undergone resection with neoadjuvant or adjuvant CRT, while 3 received definitive CRT for locally advanced disease. Median CRT dose was 50.4 Gy [interquartile range (IQR), 45.0-50.4 Gy] in 28 fractions. All patients subsequently received gemcitabine-based maintenance chemotherapy, but developed isolated local disease recurrence or progression without evidence of distant metastasis. Locally recurrent or progressive disease was treated with SBRT to a median dose of 25.0 Gy (range, 20.0-27.0 Gy) in 5 fractions. Median survival from SBRT was 8.8 months (95% CI, 1.2-16.4 months). Despite having similar clinicopathologic disease characteristics, patients who experienced local progression greater than vs. less than 9 months after surgery/definitive CRT demonstrated superior median survival (11.3 vs. 3.4 months; P=0.019) and progression-free survival (10.6 vs. 3.2 months; P=0.030) after SBRT. Rates of freedom from local progression at 6 and 12 months after SBRT were 78% (14 of 18 patients) and 62% (5 of 8 patients), respectively. Effective symptom palliation was achieved in 4 of 7 patients (57%) who reported symptoms of abdominal or back pain prior to SBRT. Five patients (28%) experienced grade 2 acute toxicity; none experienced grade ≥3 acute toxicity. One patient (6%) experienced grade 3 late toxicity in the form of small bowel obstruction. In conclusion, re-irradiation with hypofractionated SBRT in this salvage scenario appears to be a safe and reasonable option for palliation of isolated local PDA recurrence or progression following previous conventional CRT. Patients with a progression-free interval of greater than 9 months prior to isolated local recurrence or progression may be most suitable for re-irradiation with SBRT, as they appear to have a better prognosis with survival that is long enough for local control to be of potential benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2013.044

    View details for PubMedID 24294505

  • Clinical implementation of intrafraction cone beam computed tomography imaging during lung tumor stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Li, R., Han, B., Meng, B., Maxim, P. G., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W. 2013; 87 (5): 917-923


    To develop and clinically evaluate a volumetric imaging technique for assessing intrafraction geometric and dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR).Twenty patients received SABR for lung tumors using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the beginning of each fraction, pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to align the soft-tissue tumor position with that in the planning CT. Concurrent with dose delivery, we acquired fluoroscopic radiograph projections during VMAT using the Varian on-board imaging system. Those kilovolt projections acquired during millivolt beam-on were automatically extracted, and intrafraction CBCT images were reconstructed using the filtered backprojection technique. We determined the time-averaged target shift during VMAT by calculating the center of mass of the tumor target in the intrafraction CBCT relative to the planning CT. To estimate the dosimetric impact of the target shift during treatment, we recalculated the dose to the GTV after shifting the entire patient anatomy according to the time-averaged target shift determined earlier.The mean target shift from intrafraction CBCT to planning CT was 1.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; the 95th percentile shift was 5.2, 3.1, 3.6 mm; and the maximum shift was 5.7, 3.6, and 4.9 mm along the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. Thus, the time-averaged intrafraction gross tumor volume (GTV) position was always within the planning target volume. We observed some degree of target blurring in the intrafraction CBCT, indicating imperfect breath-hold reproducibility or residual motion of the GTV during treatment. By our estimated dose recalculation, the GTV was consistently covered by the prescription dose (PD), that is, V100% above 0.97 for all patients, and minimum dose to GTV >100% PD for 18 patients and >95% PD for all patients.Intrafraction CBCT during VMAT can provide geometric and dosimetric verification of SABR valuable for quality assurance and potentially for treatment adaptation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.08.015

    View details for PubMedID 24113060

  • Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Meng, B., Xing, L., Han, B., Koong, A., Chang, D., Cheng, J., Li, R. 2013; 58 (21): 7777-7789


    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid registration significantly improved the reconstructed image quality, with a reduction of mostly 2-3 folds (up to 100) in root mean square image error. The proposed algorithm provides a remedy for solving the problem of non-coplanar CBCT reconstruction from limited angle of projections by combining the PICCS technique and rigid image registration in an iterative framework. In this proof of concept study, non-coplanar beams with couch rotations of 45° can be effectively verified with the CBCT technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/58/21/7777

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326377100023

    View details for PubMedID 24140954

  • Chemoradiotherapy Before and After Surgery for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A SEER-Medicare Analysis ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Hong, J. C., Murphy, J. D., Wang, S. J., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2013; 20 (12): 3999-4007


    The optimal combination and timing of therapy for esophageal cancer remains controversial. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare registry was used to assess neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy.Patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic T3+ or N1+ esophageal adenocarcinoma (ACA) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from 1995 to 2002 who underwent surgical resection within 6 months of diagnosis were studied. Medicare data defined preoperative chemoradiotherapy (preCRT), preoperative radiotherapy (preRT), postoperative CRT (postCRT), chemotherapy and surgery (CT + S), and surgery alone.Of 419 eligible patients, 126 received preCRT, 55 preRT, 40 postCRT, 29 CT + S, and 169 surgery alone. PreCRT yielded median overall survival (OS) of 37 months, greater than surgery alone (17 months, p = 0.002) and postCRT (17 months, p = 0.06). PreRT (20 months, p = 0.20), postCRT (p = 0.88), and CT + S (20 months, p = 0.42) were not associated with OS benefit versus surgery alone. For SCC, preCRT improved survival versus surgery alone (p = 0.01), with a trend for ACA (p = 0.07). ACA (22 months) had greater OS than SCC (17 months) (p = 0.03). ACA, younger age, and married status were associated with increased OS. Adjusting for these, preCRT had longer OS versus surgery alone (p = 0.02) and postCRT (p = 0.03). Chemotherapy agents and surgical approach did not affect OS.In the SEER-Medicare cohort, preCRT significantly improved survival versus surgery alone and postCRT for locally advanced esophageal cancer, particularly for SCC. PreRT, postCRT, and CT + S were not associated with longer survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-013-3072-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325770600043

    View details for PubMedID 23800897

  • Safety of Y-90 Radioembolization in Patients Who Have Undergone Previous External Beam Radiation Therapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Lam, M. G., Abdelmaksoud, M. H., Chang, D. T., Eclov, N. C., Chung, M. P., Koong, A. C., Louie, J. D., Sze, D. Y. 2013; 87 (2): 323-329


    Previous external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is theoretically contraindicated for yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization (RE) because the liver has a lifetime tolerance to radiation before becoming vulnerable to radiation-induced liver disease. We analyzed the safety of RE as salvage treatment in patients who had previously undergone EBRT.Between June 2004 and December 2010, a total of 31 patients who had previously undergone EBRT were treated with RE. Three-dimensional treatment planning with dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the liver was used to calculate the EBRT liver dose. Liver-related toxicities including RE-induced liver disease (REILD) were reviewed and classified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02.The mean EBRT and RE liver doses were 4.40 Gy (range, 0-23.13 Gy) and 57.9 Gy (range, 27.0-125.9 Gy), respectively. Patients who experienced hepatotoxicity (≥grade2; n=12) had higher EBRT mean liver doses (7.96 ± 8.55 Gy vs 1.62 ± 3.39 Gy; P=.037), the only independent predictor in multivariate analysis. DVH analysis showed that the fraction of liver exposed to ≥30 Gy (V30) was the strongest predictor of hepatotoxicity (10.14% ± 12.75% vs 0.84% ± 3.24%; P=.006). All patients with V30 >13% experienced hepatotoxicity. Fatal REILD (n=2) occurred at the 2 highest EBRT mean liver doses (20.9 Gy and 23.1 Gy) but also at the highest cumulative liver doses (91.8 Gy and 149 Gy).Prior exposure of the liver to EBRT may lead to increased liver toxicity after RE treatment, depending on fractional liver exposure and dose level. The V30 was the strongest predictor of toxicity. RE appears to be safe for the treatment of hepatic malignancies only in patients who have had limited hepatic exposure to prior EBRT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.05.041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324310500019

  • A novel aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 activator (Alda-89) protects submandibular gland function from irradiation without accelerating tumor growth. Clinical cancer research Xiao, N., Cao, H., Chen, C., Kong, C. S., Ali, R., Chan, C., Sirjani, D., Graves, E., Koong, A., Giaccia, A., Mochly-Rosen, D., Le, Q. 2013; 19 (16): 4455-4464


    To determine the effect of Alda-89 (an ALDH3 activitor) on (1) the function of irradiated (RT) submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, (2) its toxicity profile and (3) its effect on the growth of head and neck cancer (HNC) in vitro and in vivo.Adult mice were infused with Alda-89 or vehicle before, during and after RT. Saliva secretion was monitored weekly. Hematology, metabolic profile and post-mortem evaluation for toxicity were examined at the time of sacrifice. Alda-89 or vehicle was applied to HNC cell lines in vitro, and SCID mice transplanted with HNC in vivo with or without radiation; HNC growth was monitored. The ALDH3A1 and ALDH3A2 protein expression was evaluated in 89 HNC patients and correlated to freedom from relapse (FFR) and overall survival (OS).Alda-89 infusion significantly resulted in more whole saliva production and a higher percentage of preserved acini after RT compared to vehicle control. There was no difference in the complete blood count, metabolic profile, and major organ morphology between the Alda-89 and vehicle groups. Compared to vehicle control, Alda-89 treatment did not accelerate HNC cell proliferation in vitro, nor did it affect tumor growth in vivo with or without RT. Higher expression of ALDH3A1 or ALDH3A2 was not significantly associated with worse FFR or OS in either HPV-positive or HPV-negative group.Alda-89 preserves salivary function after RT without affecting HNC growth or causing measurable toxicity in mice. It is a promising candidate to mitigate RT-related xerostomia.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0127

    View details for PubMedID 23812668

  • Seventh Edition (2010) of the AJCC/UICC Staging System for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Is there Room for Improvement? ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Patel, M. I., Rhoads, K. F., Ma, Y., Ford, J. M., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Chang, D. T., Koong, A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2013; 20 (5): 1631-1638


    The gastric cancer AJCC/UICC staging system recently underwent significant revisions, but studies on Asian patients have reported a lack of adequate discrimination between various consecutive stages. We sought to validate the new system on a U.S. population database.California Cancer Registry data linked to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge abstracts were used to identify patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (esophagogastric junction and gastric cardia tumors excluded) who underwent curative-intent surgical resection in California from 2002 to 2006. AJCC/UICC stage was recalculated based on the latest seventh edition. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Of 1905 patients analyzed, 54 % were males with a median age of 70 years. Median number of pathologically examined lymph nodes was 12 (range, 1-90); 40 % of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 31 % received adjuvant radiotherapy. The seventh edition AJCC/UICC system did not distinguish outcome adequately between stages IB and IIA (P = 0.40), or IIB and IIIA (P = 0.34). By merging stage II into 1 category and moving T2N1 to stage IB and T2N2, T1N3 to stage IIIA, we propose a new grouping system with improved discriminatory abilityIn this first study validating the new seventh edition AJCC/UICC staging system for gastric cancer on a U.S. population with a relatively limited number of lymph nodes examined, we found stages IB and IIA, as well as IIB and IIIA to perform similarly. We propose a revised stage grouping for the AJCC/UICC staging system that better discriminates between outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2724-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317308200032

    View details for PubMedID 23149854

  • First study of on-treatment volumetric imaging during respiratory gated VMAT. Medical physics Choi, K., Xing, L., Koong, A., Li, R. 2013; 40 (4): 040701-?


    To obtain on-treatment volumetric patient anatomy during respiratory gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).On-board imaging device integrated with Linacs offers a viable tool for obtaining patient anatomy during radiation treatment delivery. In this study, the authors acquired beam-level kV images during gated VMAT treatments using a Varian TrueBeam™STx Linac. These kV projection images are triggered by a respiratory gating signal and can be acquired immediately before treatment MV beam on at every breathing cycle during delivery. Because the kV images are acquired with an on-board imaging device during a rotational arc therapy, they provide the patient anatomical information from many different angles or projection views (typically 20-40). To reconstruct the volumetric image representing patient anatomy during the VMAT treatment, the authors used a compressed sensing method with a fast first-order optimization algorithm. The conventional FDK reconstruction was also used for comparison purposes. The method was tested on a dynamic anthropomorphic physical phantom as well as a lung patient.The reconstructed volumetric images for a dynamic anthropomorphic physical phantom and a lung patient showed clearly visible soft-tissue target as well as other anatomical structures, with the proposed compressed sensing-based image reconstruction method. Compared with FDK, the compressed sensing method leads to a ? two and threefold increase in contrast-to-noise ratio around the target area in the phantom and patient case, respectively.The proposed technique provides on-treatment volumetric patient anatomy, with only a fraction (<10%) of the imaging dose used in conventional CBCT procedures. This anatomical information may be valuable for geometric verification and treatment guidance, and useful for verification of treatment dose delivery, accumulation, and adaptation in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4794925

    View details for PubMedID 23556870

  • Dosimetric analysis of organs at risk during expiratory gating in stereotactic body radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Taniguchi, C. M., Murphy, J. D., Eclov, N., Atwood, T. F., Kielar, K. N., Christman-Skieller, C., Mok, E., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2013; 85 (4): 1090-1095


    To determine how the respiratory phase impacts dose to normal organs during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic cancer.Eighteen consecutive patients with locally advanced, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with SBRT were included in this study. On the treatment planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan, the planning target volume (PTV), defined as the gross tumor volume plus 3-mm margin, the duodenum, and the stomach were contoured on the end-expiration (CTexp) and end-inspiration (CTinsp) phases for each patient. A separate treatment plan was constructed for both phases with the dose prescription of 33 Gy in 5 fractions with 95% coverage of the PTV by the 100% isodose line. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) endpoints, volume of duodenum that received 20 Gy (V20), V25, and V30 and maximum dose to 5 cc of contoured organ (D5cc), D1cc, and D0.1cc, were evaluated.Dosimetric parameters for the duodenum, including V25, V30, D1cc, and D0.1cc improved by planning on the CTexp compared to those on the CTinsp. There was a statistically significant overlap of the PTV with the duodenum but not the stomach during the CTinsp compared to the CTexp (0.38 ± 0.17 cc vs 0.01 ± 0.01 cc, P=.048). A larger expansion of the PTV, in accordance with a Danish phase 2 trial, showed even more overlapping volume of duodenum on the CTinsp compared to that on the CTexp (5.5 ± 0.9 cc vs 3.0 ± 0.8 cc, P=.0003) but no statistical difference for any stomach dosimetric DVH parameter.Dose to the duodenum was higher when treating on the inspiratory than on the expiratory phase. These data suggest that expiratory gating may be preferable to inspiratory breath-hold and free breathing strategies for minimizing risk of toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.2366

    View details for PubMedID 23273994

  • Identification and Characterization of a Potent Activator of p53-Independent Cellular Senescence via a Small-Molecule Screen for Modifiers of the Integrated Stress Response MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY Sayers, C. M., Papandreou, I., Guttmann, D. M., Maas, N. L., Diehl, J. A., Witze, E. S., Koong, A. C., Koumenis, C. 2013; 83 (3): 594-604


    The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) is a signaling program that enables cellular adaptation to stressful conditions like hypoxia and nutrient deprivation in the tumor microenvironment. An important effector of the ISR is activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in redox homeostasis and amino acid metabolism and transport. Because both inhibition and overactivation of the ISR can induce tumor cell death, modulators of ATF4 expression could prove to be clinically useful. In this study, chemical libraries were screened for modulators of ATF4 expression. We identified one compound, E235 (N-(1-benzyl-piperidin-4-yl)-2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-benzo[d]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-7-carboxamide), that activated the ISR and dose-dependently increased levels of ATF4 in transformed cells. A dose-dependent decrease in viability was observed in several mouse and human tumor cell lines, and knockdown of ATF4 significantly increased the antiproliferative effects of E235. Interestingly, low μM doses of E235 induced senescence in many cell types, including HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. E235-mediated induction of senescence was not dependent on p21 or p53; however, p21 conferred protection against the growth inhibitory effects of E235. Treatment with E235 resulted in an increase in cells arrested at the G2/M phase with a concurrent decrease in S-phase cells. E235 also activated DNA damage response signaling, resulting in increased levels of Ser15-phosphorylated p53, γ-H2AX, and phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), although E235 does not appear to cause physical DNA damage. Induction of γ-H2AX was abrogated in ATF4 knockdown cells. Together, these results suggest that modulation of the ISR pathway with the small molecule E235 could be a promising antitumor strategy.

    View details for DOI 10.1124/mol.112.081810

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315151900004

    View details for PubMedID 23229510

  • Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Disease Progression and Survival in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Bazan, J. G., Koong, A. C., Kapp, D. S., Quon, A., Graves, E. E., Loo, B. W., Chang, D. T. 2013; 54 (1): 27-32


    PET imaging has become a useful diagnostic tool in patients with anal cancer. We evaluated the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in patients with anal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.Patients with anal cancer who underwent PET imaging for pretreatment staging or radiation therapy planning from 2003 to 2011 were included. PET parameters included MTV and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Total MTV (MTV-T) was defined as the sum of the volumes above a standardized uptake value 50% of the SUVmax within the primary tumor and involved nodes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for associations between metabolic or clinical endpoints and overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and event-free survival (EFS). Results: Thirty-nine patients were included. Median follow-up for the cohort was 22 mo. Overall, 6 patients died and 9 patients had disease progression. The 2-y OS, PFS, and EFS for the entire cohort were 88%, 74%, and 69%, respectively. Higher MTV-T was associated with worse OS (P = 0.04), PFS (P = 0.004), and EFS (P = 0.002) on univariate analysis. Patients with an MTV greater than 26 cm(3) had worse PFS than did those with an MTV of 26 cm(3) or less (33% vs. 82%, P = 0.003). SUVmax was not prognostic for any outcome. Higher T classification (T3/T4 vs. T1/T2) was associated with worse PFS and EFS. When adjusting for T classification, MTV-T remained a significant predictor for PFS (P = 0.01) and EFS (P = 0.02).MTV-T yields prognostic information on PFS and EFS beyond that of established prognostic factors in patients with anal cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.112.109470

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313606800026

    View details for PubMedID 23236018

  • Cone Beam CT Imaging with Limited Angle of Projection and Prior Knowledge for Volumetric Verification of Non-Coplanar Beam Radiation Therapy: A Proof of Concept Study Phys Med Biol Meng, B., Xing, L., Han, B., Koong, A., Chang, D., Cheng, J., Li, R. 2013; 58 (21): 7777-89
  • Biomarker Studies on Radiotherapy to Hepatocellular Carcinoma ONCOLOGY Tsai, C., Koong, A. C., Hsu, F., Graber, M., Chen, I., Cheng, J. C. 2013; 84: 64-68


    Radiotherapy (RT) has been gradually integrated into the multimodality treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The various patterns of failure in HCC patients undergoing RT drive the need of effective biomarkers to guide treatment decisions. Limited numbers of biomarkers have been investigated in HCC, with even fewer of them for patients treated by RT. Serum or plasma biomarkers measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were the most common practice. Of particular interest are those biomarkers that are detectable early in the course of radiotherapy which correlated with ultimate clinical outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to evaluate the imaging pattern indicative of disease control following RT. Positron emission tomography shows that pre-RT standard uptake values associate with various types of recurrence after treatment. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) is evolving with the unique features of dual-probe identification, ligation and amplification to allow the small volume of serum/plasma samples for evaluating multiple biomarkers. We demonstrate the screening work of biomarkers by PLA with pre- and post-RT serum samples from HCC patients undergoing RT. Efforts are being made to search for the potential biomarkers for HCC patients treated by RT.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000345892

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315323300011

    View details for PubMedID 23428861

  • ER stress-mediated autophagy promotes Myc-dependent transformation and tumor growth JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Hart, L. S., Cunningham, J. T., Datta, T., Dey, S., Tameire, F., Lehman, S. L., Qiu, B., Zhang, H., Cerniglia, G., Bi, M., Li, Y., Gao, Y., Liu, H., Li, C., Maity, A., Thomas-Tikhonenko, A., Perl, A. E., Koong, A., Fuchs, S. Y., Diehl, J. A., Mills, I. G., Ruggero, D., Koumenis, C. 2012; 122 (12): 4621-4634


    The proto-oncogene c-Myc paradoxically activates both proliferation and apoptosis. In the pathogenic state, c-Myc-induced apoptosis is bypassed via a critical, yet poorly understood escape mechanism that promotes cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER initiates a cellular stress program termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to support cell survival. Analysis of spontaneous mouse and human lymphomas demonstrated significantly higher levels of UPR activation compared with normal tissues. Using multiple genetic models, we demonstrated that c-Myc and N-Myc activated the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 arm of the UPR, leading to increased cell survival via the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. Inhibition of PERK significantly reduced Myc-induced autophagy, colony formation, and tumor formation. Moreover, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased Myc-dependent apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated an important link between Myc-dependent increases in protein synthesis and UPR activation. Specifically, by employing a mouse minute (L24+/-) mutant, which resulted in wild-type levels of protein synthesis and attenuation of Myc-induced lymphomagenesis, we showed that Myc-induced UPR activation was reversed. Our findings establish a role for UPR as an enhancer of c-Myc-induced transformation and suggest that UPR inhibition may be particularly effective against malignancies characterized by c-Myc overexpression.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI62973

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311926200034

    View details for PubMedID 23143306

  • Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Bazan, J. G., Luxton, G., Mok, E. C., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: 700-706


    To identify dosimetric parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT).We analyzed 33 patients receiving CRT. Pelvic bone (PBM) was contoured for each patient and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis (LP), and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volume of each region receiving at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 Gy was calculated. Endpoints included grade ?3 HT (HT3+) and hematologic event (HE), defined as any grade ?2 HT with a modification in chemotherapy dose. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Logistic regression was used to test associations between HT and dosimetric/clinical parameters.Nine patients experienced HT3+ and 15 patients experienced HE. Constrained optimization of the LKB model for HT3+ yielded the parameters m = 0.175, n = 1, and TD(50) = 32 Gy. With this model, mean PBM doses of 25 Gy, 27.5 Gy, and 31 Gy result in a 10%, 20%, and 40% risk of HT3+, respectively. Compared with patients with mean PBM dose of <30 Gy, patients with mean PBM dose ?30 Gy had a 14-fold increase in the odds of developing HT3+ (p = 0.005). Several low-dose radiation parameters (i.e., PBM-V10) were associated with the development of HT3+ and HE. No association was found with the ilium, LP, or clinical factors.LKB modeling confirms the expectation that PBM acts like a parallel organ, implying that the mean dose to the organ is a useful predictor for toxicity. Low-dose radiation to the PBM was also associated with clinically significant HT. Keeping the mean PBM dose <22.5 Gy and <25 Gy is associated with a 5% and 10% risk of HT, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.072

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309560600053

    View details for PubMedID 22414279

  • Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy Bazan, J. G., Luxton, G., Kozak, M. M., Anderson, E. M., Hancock, S. L., Kapp, D. S., Kidd, E. A., Hara, W. Y., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: S350-S350
  • SBRT as a Novel Treatment Option for Locally Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer After Failure of Definitive Multimodality Therapy: A Multi-institutional Case Series Wild, A., Hiniker, S. M., LIMAYE, M. R., Chang, D. T., Laheru, D. A., Tran, P. T., Pawlik, T. M., Wolfgang, C. L., Koong, A. C., Herman, J. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: S323-S323
  • Postchemoradiotherapy Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients With Esophageal Cancer Jayachandran, P., Pai, R. K., Quon, A., Graves, E., Krakow, T. E., La, T., Loo, B. W., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: 471-477


    To correlate the prechemoradiotherapy (CRT) and post-CRT metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with the pathologic response and survival in patients receiving preoperative CRT for esophageal cancer.The medical records of 37 patients with histologically confirmed Stage I-IVA esophageal cancer treated with CRT with or without surgical resection were reviewed. Of the 37 patients, 21 received preoperative CRT (57%) and 16 received definitive CRT (43%). All patients had a pre-CRT and 32 had a post-CRT PET scan. The MTV was measured on the pre-CRT PET and post-CRT PET scan, respectively, using a minimum standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold x, where x = 2, 2.5, 3, or the SUV maximum × 50%. The total glycolytic activity (TGA(x)) was defined as the mean SUV × MTV(x). The MTV ratio was defined as the pre-CRT PET MTV/post-CRT MTV. The SUV ratio was defined similarly. A single pathologist scored the pathologic response using a tumor regression grade (TRG) scale.The median follow-up was 1.5 years (range, 0.4-4.9). No significant correlation was found between any parameters on the pre-CRT PET scan and the TRG or overall survival (OS). Multiple post-CRT MTV values and post-TGA values correlated with the TRG and OS; however, the MTV(2.5(Post)) and TGA(2.5(Post)) had the greatest correlation. The MTV(2) ratio correlated with OS. The maximum SUV on either the pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scans or the maximum SUV ratio did not correlate with the TRG or OS. Patients treated preoperatively had survival similar compared with those treated definitively with a good PET response (p = 0.97) and significantly better than that of patients treated definitively with a poor PET response (p < 0.0001).The maximum SUV was not a predictive or prognostic parameter. The MTV(2.5) and TGA(2.5) were useful markers for predicting the response and survival on the post-CRT PET scan. The MTV(2) ratio also correlated with survival. Post-CRT PET can potentially guide therapy after CRT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308062700055

    View details for PubMedID 22381904

  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R) (Resectable Rectal Cancer) RADIATION ONCOLOGY Jones, W. E., Thomas, C. R., Herman, J. M., Abdel-Wahab, M., Azad, N., Blackstock, W., Das, P., Goodman, K. A., Hong, T. S., Jabbour, S. K., Konski, A. A., Koong, A. C., Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Small, W., Zook, J., Suh, W. W. 2012; 7


    The management of resectable rectal cancer continues to be guided by clinical trials and advances in technique. Although surgical advances including total mesorectal excision continue to decrease rates of local recurrence, the management of locally advanced disease (T3-T4 or N+) benefits from a multimodality approach including neoadjuvant concomitant chemotherapy and radiation. Circumferential resection margin, which can be determined preoperatively via MRI, is prognostic. Toxicity associated with radiation therapy is decreased by placing the patient in the prone position on a belly board, however for patients who cannot tolerate prone positioning, IMRT decreases the volume of normal tissue irradiated. The use of IMRT requires knowledge of the patterns of spreads and anatomy. Clinical trials demonstrate high variability in target delineation without specific guidance demonstrating the need for peer review and the use of a consensus atlas. Concomitant with radiation, fluorouracil based chemotherapy remains the standard, and although toxicity is decreased with continuous infusion fluorouracil, oral capecitabine is non-inferior to the continuous infusion regimen. Additional chemotherapeutic agents, including oxaliplatin, continue to be investigated, however currently should only be utilized on clinical trials as increased toxicity and no definitive benefit has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1748-717X-7-161

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310458100001

    View details for PubMedID 23006527

  • Xbp1 inhibition delays wound healing by inhibition of cell migration and proliferation Barbhaiya, N. J., Tran, M. C., Zhen, W., Rashidi, V., Butler, P. D., Ernst, F., Longaker, M. T., Koong, A. C., Yang, G. P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: S85-S85
  • Intrafraction Verification of Gated RapidArc by Using Beam-Level Kilovoltage X-Ray Images INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Li, R., Mok, E., Chang, D. T., Daly, M., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2012; 83 (5): E709-E715


    To verify the geometric accuracy of gated RapidArc treatment using kV images acquired during dose delivery.Twenty patients were treated using the gated RapidArc technique with a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator. One to 7 metallic fiducial markers were implanted inside or near the tumor target before treatment simulation. For patient setup and treatment verification purposes, the internal target volume (ITV) was created, corresponding to each implanted marker. The gating signal was generated from the Real-time Position Management (RPM) system. At the beginning of each fraction, individualized respiratory gating amplitude thresholds were set based on fluoroscopic image guidance. During the treatment, we acquired kV images immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. After the treatment, all implanted markers were detected, and their 3-dimensional (3D) positions in the patient were estimated using software developed in-house. The distance from the marker to the corresponding ITV was calculated for each patient by averaging over all markers and all fractions.The average 3D distance between the markers and their ITVs was 0.8 ± 0.5 mm (range, 0-1.7 mm) and was 2.1 ± 1.2 mm at the 95th percentile (range, 0-3.8 mm). On average, a left-right margin of 0.6 mm, an anterior-posterior margin of 0.8 mm, and a superior-inferior margin of 1.5 mm is required to account for 95% of the intrafraction uncertainty in RPM-based RapidArc gating.To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of intrafraction verification of respiration-gated RapidArc treatment in stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. For some patients, the markers deviated significantly from the ITV by more than 2 mm at the beginning of the MV beam-on. This emphasizes the need for gating techniques with beam-on/-off controlled directly by the actual position of the tumor target instead of external surrogates such as RPM.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.03.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306128100022

    View details for PubMedID 22554582

  • Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer: The Relative Value of Posttreatment Versus Pretreatment CEA as a Prognostic Marker for Disease Recurrence ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Song, S., Hong, J. C., McDonnell, S. E., Koong, A. C., Minsky, B. D., Chang, D. T., Liauw, S. L. 2012; 19 (8): 2471-2476


    To evaluate the prognostic significance of the first postsurgery carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) and total mesorectal excision.A total of 100 patients underwent nCRT and had baseline and posttreatment CEA levels recorded within 6 months of surgery. The median radiotherapy dose was 50.4 Gy. Eighty-six patients received adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Prognostic factors were analyzed for possible associations with freedom from failure (FFF) by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median follow-up was 30 months.The median CEA (ng/ml) levels at baseline before nCRT, after nCRT, and after total mesorectal excision were 3.6, 1.7, and 1.3, respectively. Pathologic complete response was observed in 22%. FFF at 36 months was 78%. Local failure and distant failure occurred in 4 and 20% of the patients, respectively. On univariate analysis, pathologic complete response, margin status, and both pretreatment and postsurgery CEA levels were associated with recurrence (all P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, pathologic complete response (P < 0.007), margin status (P < 0.001), and postsurgery CEA level (P = 0.003), but not baseline CEA level (P = 0.2), were found to be associated with recurrence.After nCRT for rectal cancer, postsurgery CEA level may have more prognostic value than pretreatment level. Patients with a postsurgery CEA level of >2.5 ng/ml have higher rates of recurrence and may warrant closer surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2266-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306789000009

    View details for PubMedID 22327251

  • Positron Emission Tomography for Predicting Pathologic Response After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Chennupati, S. K., Quon, A., Kamaya, A., Pai, R. K., La, T., Krakow, T. E., Graves, E., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012: 334-339


    To investigate whether before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) positron emission tomography (PET) predict for pathologic response after preoperative CRT in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.Thirty-five patients who underwent pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scans before surgery were included. All patients were staged with endoscopic ultrasound or high resolution CT. CRT was given with 50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction and concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgery occurred at a median of 46 days (range, 27 to 112 d) after completing CRT. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) and the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using various minimum SUV thresholds (2, 2.5, 3) on the PET scans (MTV(2.0), MTV(2.5), MTV(3.0)) were determined. Post-CRT PET scans were done 3 to 5 weeks after completion of CRT. Pathologic response was assessed using the tumor regression grade (TRG) scale. Patients with complete or near-complete response (TRG=0 to 1) were considered pathologic responders. The pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scan SUV(max) and MTV values were correlated with TRG. The ?SUV(max) and ?MTV were correlated with TRG.No correlation was seen with SUV(max) (P=0.99), MTV(2.0) (P=0.73), MTV(2.5) (P=0.73), or MTV(3.0) (P=0.31) on the pre-CRT PET between pathologic responders versus nonresponders. No correlation was noted between SUV(max) (P=0.49), MTV(2.0) (P=0.73), MTV(2.5) (P=0.49), or MTV(3.0) (P=0.31) on the post-CRT PET scan and pathologic response. Finally, the ?SUV(max) (P=0.32), ?MTV(2.0) (P=0.99), ?MTV(2.5) (P=0.31), ?MTV(3.0) (P=0.31) did not correlate with pathologic response.Changes seen on PET have limited value in predicting for pathologic response of rectal cancer after preoperative neoadjuvant therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/COC.0b013e3182118d12

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306599200006

    View details for PubMedID 21422989

  • Clinicopathologic and molecular features of sporadic early-onset colorectal adenocarcinoma: an adenocarcinoma with frequent signet ring cell differentiation, rectal and sigmoid involvement, and adverse morphologic features MODERN PATHOLOGY Chang, D. T., Pai, R. K., Rybicki, L. A., DiMaio, M. A., Limaye, M., Jayachandran, P., Koong, A. C., Kunz, P. A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Welton, M., Shelton, A., Ma, L., Arber, D. A., Pai, R. K. 2012; 25 (8): 1128-1139


    Recent literature suggests an increasing incidence of colorectal carcinoma in young patients. We performed a histologic, molecular, and immunophenotypic analysis of patients with sporadic early-onset (?40 years of age) colorectal carcinoma seen at our institution from the years 2000-2010 and compared these tumors to a cohort of consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas seen in patients >40 years of age. A total of 1160 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas were surgically resected for the years 2000 through 2010. Of these, 75 (6%) were diagnoses in patients ?40 years of age of which 13 (17%) demonstrated abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair, 4 (5%) were in patients with known germline genetic disorders (two patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, one patient with juvenile polyposis, and one patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome), and three patients (4%) had long-standing chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The sporadic early-onset colorectal carcinoma group comprised a total of 55 patients (55/1160, 5%) and were compared with a control group comprising 73 consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair in patients >40 years of age. For the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group, most cases (33/55, 60%) were diagnosed between the age of 35 and 40 years of age. Compared with the control group, the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group was significantly different with respect to tumor location (P<0.007) with 80% (44/55 cases) identified in either the sigmoid colon (24/55, 44%) or rectum (20/55, 36%). Morphologically, early-onset colorectal carcinomas more frequently displayed adverse histologic features compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group such as signet ring cell differentiation (7/55, 13% vs 1/73, 1%, P=0.021), perineural invasion (16/55, 29% vs 8/73, 11%, P=0.009) and venous invasion (12/55, 22% vs 4/73, 6%, P=0.006). A precursor adenomatous lesion was less frequently identified in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group compared with the control group (19/55, 35% vs 39/73, 53%, P=0.034). Of the early-onset colorectal carcinomas, only 2/45 cases (4%) demonstrated KRAS mutations compared with 11/73 (15%) of the control group colorectal adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.13). BRAF V600E mutations were not identified in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group. No difference was identified between the two groups with regard to tumor stage, tumor size, number of lymph node metastases, lymphatic invasion, tumor budding, mucinous histology, or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Both groups had similar recurrence-free (P=0.28) and overall survival (P=0.73). However, patients in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group more frequently either presented with or developed metastatic disease during their disease course compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group (25/55, 45% vs 18/73, 25%, P=0.014). In addition, 8/55 patients (15%) in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group developed local recurrence of their tumor while no patients in the control colorectal carcinoma group developed local recurrence (P<0.001), likely due to the increased incidence of rectal carcinoma in the patients with early-onset colorectal carcinoma. Our study demonstrates that colorectal carcinoma is not infrequently diagnosed in patients ?40 years of age and is not frequently the result of underlying Lynch syndrome or associated with other cancer-predisposing genetic conditions or chronic inflammatory conditions. These tumors have a striking predilection for the distal colon, particularly the sigmoid colon and rectum and are much more likely to demonstrate adverse histologic factors, including signet ring cell differentiation, venous invasion, and perineural invasion.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.2012.61

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307222200008

    View details for PubMedID 22481281

  • Orthovoltage Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced and Recurrent Colorectal Cancer DISEASES OF THE COLON & RECTUM Daly, M. E., Kapp, D. S., Maxim, P. G., Welton, M. L., Tran, P. T., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2012; 55 (6): 695-702


    Locally advanced and recurrent colorectal cancers pose a significant therapeutic challenge. Orthovoltage intraoperative radiotherapy provides one potential means of improving disease control at the time of surgery.This study sought to analyze outcomes and identify prognostic factors of patients treated with orthovoltage intraoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer.This study is a retrospective chart review conducted at a tertiary medical center.Between January 1990 and July 2009, 55 patients underwent intraoperative radiotherapy to a total of 61 sites for locally advanced (n = 14) or recurrent (n = 41) cancers of colon (n = 18) or rectum/rectosigmoid junction (n = 37).Median dose was 12 Gy (range, 7.5-20 Gy). Among locally advanced rectal/rectosigmoid cases, surgery included abdominoperineal resection (n = 3) or low anterior resection (n = 9). Seven treated sites had gross residual (R2) disease, 28 had pathologic or clinical microscopic residual disease (R1), and 15 were complete resections (R0). Treated sites included sacrum (n = 22), anterior pelvis/pelvic sidewall (19), sacrum and sidewall (n = 1), aortic bifurcation (n = 2), vaginal cuff (n = 2), psoas (n = 3), perivesicular region (n = 2), and other (n = 10).Outcomes measures included in-field local control, locoregional control, overall survival, and grade ?3 toxicity.At a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 4-237) among living patients, 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of in-field local control, locoregional control, and overall survival were 69%, 51%, and 59%. Margin status predicted for improved locoregional control (p = 0.01) and overall survival (p = 0.01). Seventeen patients (31%) developed a grade 3 to 5 toxicity following surgery with intraoperative radiotherapy.This study was limited by its retrospective nature and relatively small sample size.Local control with intraoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced and recurrent colorectal cancers is good despite the high risk of residual disease. Among carefully selected patients, multimodality regimens including intraoperative radiotherapy may permit long-term survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/DCR.0b013e31824d464c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304368500011

    View details for PubMedID 22595850

  • Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Version 2.2012 Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Tempero, M. A., Arnoletti, J. P., Behrman, S. W., Ben-Josef, E., Benson, A. B., Casper, E. S., Cohen, S. J., Czito, B., Ellenhorn, J. D., Hawkins, W. G., Herman, J., Hoffman, J. P., Ko, A., Komanduri, S., Koong, A., Ma, W. W., Malafa, M. P., Merchant, N. B., Mulvihill, S. J., Muscarella, P., Nakakura, E. K., Obando, J., Pitman, M. B., Sasson, A. R., Tally, A., Thayer, S. R., Whiting, S., Wolff, R. A., Wolpin, B. M., Freedman-Cass, D. A., Shead, D. A. 2012; 10 (6): 703-713


    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the workup and management of tumors of the exocrine pancreas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary and explanation of major changes to the 2012 NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. The panel made 3 significant updates to the guidelines: 1) more detail was added regarding multiphase CT techniques for diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer, and pancreas protocol MRI was added as an emerging alternative to CT; 2) the use of a fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin (e.g., 5-FU/leucovorin/oxaliplatin or capecitabine/oxaliplatin) was added as an acceptable chemotherapy combination for patients with advanced or metastatic disease and good performance status as a category 2B recommendation; and 3) the panel developed new recommendations concerning surgical technique and pathologic analysis and reporting.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304889700004

    View details for PubMedID 22679115

  • A novel epidermal growth factor receptor variant lacking multiple domains directly activates transcription and is overexpressed in tumors ONCOGENE Piccione, E. C., LIEU, T. J., Gentile, C. F., Williams, T. R., Connolly, A. J., Godwin, A. K., Koong, A. C., Wong, A. J. 2012; 31 (24): 2953-2967


    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is essential to multiple physiological and neoplastic processes via signaling by its tyrosine kinase domain and subsequent activation of transcription factors. EGFR overexpression and alteration, including point mutations and structural variants, contribute to oncogenesis in many tumor types. In this study, we identified an in-frame splice variant of the EGFR called mini-LEEK (mLEEK) that is more broadly expressed than the EGFR and is overexpressed in several cancers. Unlike previously characterized EGFR variants, mLEEK lacks the extracytoplasmic, transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. mLEEK localizes in the nucleus and functions as a transcription factor to regulate target genes involved in the cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including the master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, molecular chaperone GRP78/Bip. We demonstrated that mLEEK regulates GRP78 transcription through direct interaction with a cis-regulatory element within the gene promoter. Several UPR pathways were interrogated and mLEEK expression was found to attenuate the induction of all pathways upon ER stress. Conversely, knockdown of mLEEK resulted in caspase-mediated cell death and sensitization to ER stress. These findings indicate that mLEEK levels determine cellular responses to unfavorable conditions that cause ER stress. This information, along with the overexpression of mLEEK in tumors, suggests unique strategies for therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, the identification of mLEEK expands the known mechanisms by which the EGFR gene contributes to oncogenesis and represents the first link between two previously disparate areas in cancer cell biology: EGFR signaling and the UPR.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2011.465

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305388400005

    View details for PubMedID 21986942

  • A phase II multi-institutional study to evaluate gemcitabine and fractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy for unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma Herman, J. M., Chang, D. T., Goodman, K. A., Wild, A. T., Laheru, D., Zheng, L., Diaz, L. A., Dung Thi Le, D. T., Raman, S. P., Leal, J. P., Chaudhry, M. A., Sugar, E., Columbo, L. A., Tom, A., Limaye, M. R., Edil, B. H., Oteiza, K., Hacker-Prietz, A., Wolfgang, C. L., Koong, A. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2012
  • Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gated VMAT using intrafraction kilovoltage x-ray images MEDICAL PHYSICS Li, R., Mok, E., Han, B., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2012; 39 (5): 2686-2693


    To evaluate the geometric accuracy of beam targeting in external surrogate-based gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images acquired during dose delivery.Gated VMAT treatments were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam STx Linac for both physical phantoms and patients. Multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted near the target. The reference position was created for each implanted marker, representing its correct position at the gating threshold. The gating signal was generated from the RPM system. During the treatment, kV images were acquired immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. All implanted markers were detected and their 3D positions were estimated using in-house developed software. The positioning error of a marker is defined as the distance of the marker from its reference position for each frame of the images. The overall error of the system is defined as the average over all markers. For the phantom study, both sinusoidal motion (1D and 3D) and real human respiratory motion was simulated for the target and surrogate. In the baseline case, the two motions were synchronized for the first treatment fraction. To assess the effects of surrogate-target correlation on the geometric accuracy, a phase shift of 5% and 10% between the two motions was introduced. For the patient study, intrafraction kV images of five stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients were acquired for one or two fractions.For the phantom study, a high geometric accuracy was achieved in the baseline case (average error: 0.8 mm in the superior-inferior or SI direction). However, the treatment delivery is prone to geometric errors if changes in the target-surrogate relation occur during the treatment: the average error was increased to 2.3 and 4.7 mm for the phase shift of 5% and 10%, respectively. Results obtained with real human respiratory curves show a similar trend. For a target with 3D motion, the technique is able to detect geometric errors in the left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. For the patient study, the average intrafraction positioning errors are 0.8, 0.9, and 1.4 mm and 95th percentile errors are 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively.The correlation between external surrogate and internal target motion is crucial to ensure the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gating. Real-time guidance based on kV x-ray images overcomes the potential issues in surrogate-based gating and can achieve accurate beam targeting in gated VMAT.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4704729

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303604300039

    View details for PubMedID 22559639

  • BRAF-mutated, Microsatellite-stable Adenocarcinoma of the Proximal Colon: An Aggressive Adenocarcinoma With Poor Survival, Mucinous Differentiation, and Adverse Morphologic Features AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Pai, R. K., Jayachandran, P., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T., Kwok, S., Ma, L., Arber, D. A., Balise, R. R., Tubbs, R. R., Shadrach, B., Pai, R. K. 2012; 36 (5): 744-752


    The association of BRAF V600E mutation and the presence of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and microsatellite instability (MSI) often confound analysis of BRAF mutation status and survival in colorectal carcinoma. We evaluated a consecutive series of proximal colonic adenocarcinomas for mismatch repair protein abnormalities/MSI, BRAF V600E mutation, and KRAS mutations in an attempt to determine the prognostic significance of these abnormalities and to correlate histopathologic features with molecular alterations. Of the 259 proximal colon adenocarcinomas analyzed for mismatch repair protein abnormalities and/or MSI, 181 proximal colonic adenocarcinomas demonstrated proficient DNA mismatch repair using either MSI PCR (n=78), mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry (n=91), or both MSI PCR and mismatch repair immunohistochemistry (n=12); these were tested for the BRAF V600E mutation and KRAS mutations. Compared with BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas, BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion (16/20, 80% vs. 75/161, 47%; P=0.008), mean number of lymph node metastases (4.5 vs. 2.2; P=0.01), perineural invasion (8/20, 40% vs. 13/161, 8%; P=0.0004), and high tumor budding (16/20, 80% vs. 83/161, 52%; P=0.02). BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas frequently contained areas with mucinous histology (P=0.0002) and signet ring histology (P=0.03), compared with KRAS-mutated and KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas. Clinical follow-up data were available for 173 proximal colonic adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair. Patients with BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas had a median survival of 12.3 months with a 1-year probability of survival of 54% and a 1-year disease-free survival of 56%. Patients with KRAS-mutated and KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas had significantly improved overall survival (unadjusted log-rank P=0.03 and unadjusted log-rank P=0.0002, respectively) and disease-free survival (unadjusted log-rank P=0.02 and unadjusted log-rank P=0.02, respectively) compared with patients with BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas. When adjusting for tumor stage, survival analysis demonstrated that patients with BRAF-mutated adenocarcinoma had a significantly poor overall survival and disease-free survival (hazard ratios 6.63, 95% CI, 2.60-16.94; and 6.08, 95% CI, 2.11-17.56, respectively) compared with patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas. No significant difference in overall or disease-free survival was identified between patients with KRAS-mutated and KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas. Our results demonstrate that BRAF-mutated proximal colon adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair have a dismal prognosis with an aggressive clinical course and often display mucinous differentiation, focal signet ring histology, and other adverse histologic features such as lymphatic and perineural invasion and high tumor budding.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31824430d7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302814000013

    View details for PubMedID 22314188

  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Abelson, J. A., Murphy, J. D., Minn, A. Y., Chung, M., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: E595-E601


    To report the outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Forty-seven patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with IMRT between 2003 and 2008. Of these 47 patients, 29 were treated adjuvantly and 18 definitively. All received concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The treatment plans were optimized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescription dose. The median delivered dose for the adjuvant and definitive patients was 50.4 and 54.0 Gy, respectively.The median age at diagnosis was 63.9 years. For adjuvant patients, the 1- and 2-year overall survival rate was 79% and 40%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 58% and 17%, respectively. The local-regional control rate at 1 and 2 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. For definitive patients, the 1-year overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and local-regional control rate was 24%, 16%, and 64%, respectively. Four patients developed Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (9%) and four developed Grade 3 late toxicity (9%).Survival for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. A small percentage of adjuvant patients have durable disease control, and with improved therapies, this proportion will increase. Systemic therapy offers the greatest opportunity. The present results have demonstrated that IMRT is well tolerated. Compared with those who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in previously reported prospective clinical trials, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with IMRT in our series had improved acute toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.09.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300980300003

    View details for PubMedID 22197234

  • Quantitation of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Plasma of Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Patients INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Cao, H., Banh, A., Kwok, S., Shi, X., Wu, S., Krakow, T., Khong, B., Bavan, B., Bala, R., Pinsky, B. A., Colevas, D., Pourmand, N., Koong, A. C., Kong, C. S., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. 2012; 82 (3): E351-E358


    To determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can be detected in the plasma of patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) and to monitor its temporal change during radiotherapy.We used polymerase chain reaction to detect HPV DNA in the culture media of HPV-positive SCC90 and VU147T cells and the plasma of SCC90 and HeLa tumor-bearing mice, non-tumor-bearing controls, and those with HPV-negative tumors. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify the plasma HPV DNA in 40 HPV-positive OPC, 24 HPV-negative head-and-neck cancer patients and 10 non-cancer volunteers. The tumor HPV status was confirmed by p16(INK4a) staining and HPV16/18 polymerase chain reaction or HPV in situ hybridization. A total of 14 patients had serial plasma samples for HPV DNA quantification during radiotherapy.HPV DNA was detectable in the plasma samples of SCC90- and HeLa-bearing mice but not in the controls. It was detected in 65% of the pretreatment plasma samples from HPV-positive OPC patients using E6/7 quantitative polymerase chain reaction. None of the HPV-negative head-and-neck cancer patients or non-cancer controls had detectable HPV DNA. The pretreatment plasma HPV DNA copy number correlated significantly with the nodal metabolic tumor volume (assessed using (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography). The serial measurements in 14 patients showed a rapid decline in HPV DNA that had become undetectable at radiotherapy completion. In 3 patients, the HPV DNA level had increased to a discernable level at metastasis.Xenograft studies indicated that plasma HPV DNA is released from HPV-positive tumors. Circulating HPV DNA was detectable in most HPV-positive OPC patients. Thus, plasma HPV DNA might be a valuable tool for identifying relapse.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.05.061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300423500003

    View details for PubMedID 21985946

  • Modern Radiation Therapy Techniques for Pancreatic Cancer GASTROENTEROLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Trakul, N., Koong, A. C., Maxim, P. G., Chang, D. T. 2012; 41 (1): 223-?


    Radiation therapy is a rapidly evolving field, and recent technical advances have spurred an increasing number of new treatments as well as marked improvements in previously existing treatments. Despite a growing body of published evidence demonstrating that radiotherapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is improving in efficacy and safety, the ultimate effect on patient outcomes remains to be seen. It is an unfortunate fact that the majority of pancreatic cancer patients will ultimately have metastases and succumb to distant disease. Thus, improvements in local tumor control engendered by these recent advances will have little impact on overall survival without the coincident development of better systemic treatment regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gtc.2011.12.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301989100016

    View details for PubMedID 22341260

  • Antiangiogenic and Radiation Therapy Early Effects on In Vivo Computed Tomography Perfusion Parameters in Human Colon Cancer Xenografts in Mice INVESTIGATIVE RADIOLOGY Ren, Y., Fleischmann, D., Foygel, K., Molvin, L., Lutz, A. M., Koong, A. C., Jeffrey, R. B., Tian, L., Willmann, J. K. 2012; 47 (1): 25-32


    To assess early treatment effects on computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters after antiangiogenic and radiation therapy in subcutaneously implanted, human colon cancer xenografts in mice and to correlate in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo assays of tumor vascularity and hypoxia.Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (perfusion CT, 129 mAs, 80 kV, 12 slices × 2.4 mm; 150 ?L iodinated contrast agent injected at a rate of 1 mL/min intravenously) was performed in 100 subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts on baseline day 0. Mice in group 1 (n=32) received a single dose of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab (10 mg/kg body weight), mice in group 2 (n=32) underwent a single radiation treatment (12 Gy), and mice in group 3 (n=32) remained untreated. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after treatment, 8 mice from each group underwent a second CT perfusion scan, respectively, after which tumors were excised for ex vivo analysis. Four mice were killed after baseline scanning on day 0 for ex vivo analysis. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and flow extraction product were calculated using the left ventricle as an arterial input function. Correlation of in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo microvessel density and extent of tumor hypoxia were assessed by immunofluorescence. Reproducibility of CT perfusion parameter measurements was calculated in an additional 8 tumor-bearing mice scanned twice within 5 hours with the same CT perfusion imaging protocol.The intraclass correlation coefficients for BF, BV, and flow extraction product from repeated CT perfusion scans were 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.97), 0.88 (0.66, 0.95), and 0.88 (0.56, 0.95), respectively. Changes in perfusion parameters and tumor volumes over time were different between treatments. After bevacizumab treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters significantly decreased from day 1 (P ? 0.006) and remained significantly decreased until day 7 (P ? 0.008); tumor volume increased significantly only on day 7 (P=0.04). After radiation treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters decreased significantly on day 1 (P < 0.001); BF and flow extraction product increased again on day 3 and 5, although without reaching statistically significant difference; and tumor volumes did not change significantly at all time points (P ? 0.3). In the control group, all 3 perfusion parameters did not change significantly, whereas tumor volume increased significantly at all the time points, compared with baseline (P ? 0.04). Ex vivo immunofluorescent staining showed good correlation between all 3 perfusion parameters and microvessel density (?=0.71, 0.66, and 0.69 for BF, BV, and flow extraction product, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a trend toward negative correlation between extent of hypoxia and all 3 perfusion parameters (?=-0.53, -0.47, and -0.40 for BF, BV, and flow extraction product, respectively; P ? 0.05).CT perfusion allows a reproducible, noninvasive assessment of tumor vascularity in human colon cancer xenografts in mice. After antiangiogenic and radiation therapy, BF, BV, and flow extraction product significantly decrease and change faster than the tumor volume.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/RLI.0b013e31823a82f6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298400100006

    View details for PubMedID 22178893

  • A Novel Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-3 Activator Leads to Adult Salivary Stem Cell Enrichment In Vivo CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Banh, A., Xiao, N., Cao, H., Chen, C., Kuo, P., Krakow, T., Bavan, B., Khong, B., Yao, M., Ha, C., Kaplan, M. J., Sirjani, D., Jensen, K., Kong, C. S., Mochly-Rosen, D., Koong, A. C., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. 2011; 17 (23): 7265-7272


    To assess aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression in adult human and murine submandibular gland (SMG) stem cells and to determine the effect of ALDH3 activation in SMG stem cell enrichment.Adult human and murine SMG stem cells were selected by cell surface markers (CD34 for human and c-Kit for mouse) and characterized for various other stem cell surface markers by flow cytometry and ALDH isozymes expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Sphere formation and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation assays were used on selected cells to confirm their renewal capacity and three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix culture was applied to observe differentiation. To determine whether ALDH3 activation would increase stem cell yield, adult mice were infused with a novel ALDH3 activator (Alda-89) or with vehicle followed by quantification of c-Kit(+)/CD90(+) SMG stem cells and BrdUrd(+) salispheres.More than 99% of CD34(+) huSMG stem cells stained positive for c-Kit, CD90 and 70% colocalized with CD44, Nestin. Similarly, 73.8% c-Kit(+) mSMG stem cells colocalized with Sca-1, whereas 80.7% with CD90. Functionally, these cells formed BrdUrd(+) salispheres, which differentiated into acinar- and ductal-like structures when cultured in 3D collagen. Both adult human and murine SMG stem cells showed higher expression of ALDH3 than in their non-stem cells and 84% of these cells have measurable ALDH1 activity. Alda-89 infusion in adult mice significantly increased c-Kit(+)/CD90(+) SMG population and BrdUrd(+) sphere formation compared with control.This is the first study to characterize expression of different ALDH isozymes in SMG stem cells. In vivo activation of ALDH3 can increase SMG stem cell yield, thus providing a novel means for SMG stem cell enrichment for future stem cell therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0179

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298133600009

    View details for PubMedID 21998334

  • SINGLE-FRACTION STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY AND SEQUENTIAL GEMCITABINE FOR THE TREATMENT OF LOCALLY ADVANCED PANCREATIC CANCER INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Schellenberg, D., Kim, J., Ciristman-Skieller, C., Chun, C. L., Columbo, L. A., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Kunz, P. L., Van Dam, J., Quon, A., Desser, T. S., Norton, J., Hsu, A., Maxim, P. G., Xing, L., Goodman, K. A., Chang, D. T., Koong, A. C. 2011; 81 (1): 181-188


    This Phase II trial evaluated the toxicity, local control, and overall survival in patients treated with sequential gemcitabine and linear accelerator-based single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Twenty patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled on this prospective single-institution, institutional review board-approved study. Gemcitabine was administered on Days 1, 8, and 15, and SBRT on Day 29. Gemcitabine was restarted on Day 43 and continued for 3-5 cycles. SBRT of 25 Gy in a single fraction was delivered to the internal target volume with a 2- 3-mm margin using a nine-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique. Respiratory gating was used to account for breathing motion. Follow-up evaluations occurred at 4-6 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and every 3 months after SBRT.All patients completed SBRT and a median of five cycles of chemotherapy. Follow-up for the 2 remaining alive patients was 25.1 and 36.4 months. No acute Grade 3 or greater nonhematologic toxicity was observed. Late Grade 3 or greater toxicities occurred in 1 patient (5%) and consisted of a duodenal perforation (G4). Three patients (15%) developed ulcers (G2) that were medically managed. Overall, median survival was 11.8 months, with 1-year survival of 50% and 2-year survival of 20%. Using serial computed tomography, the freedom from local progression was 94% at 1 year.Linear accelerator-delivered SBRT with sequential gemcitabine resulted in excellent local control of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Future studies will address strategies for reducing long-term duodenal toxicity associated with SBRT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.05.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294093300025

    View details for PubMedID 21549517

  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases A Pooled Analysis CANCER Chang, D. T., Swaminath, A., Kozak, M., Weintraub, J., Koong, A. C., Kim, J., Dinniwell, R., Brierley, J., Kavanagh, B. D., Dawson, L. A., Schefter, T. E. 2011; 117 (17): 4060-4069


    This study was undertaken to determine outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy for colorectal liver metastases in a pooled patient cohort.Patients with colorectal liver metastases from 3 institutions were included if they had 1 to 4 lesions, received 1 to 6 fractions of stereotactic body radiotherapy, and had radiologic imaging ? 3 months post-treatment. Sixty-five patients with 102 lesions treated from August 2003 to May 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. A tumor control probability (TCP) model was used to estimate the 3-fraction dose required for > 90% local control after converting the schedule into biologically equivalent dose (BED), single-fraction equivalent dose, or linear quadratic model-based single-fraction dose.Forty-seven (72%) patients had ? 1 chemotherapy regimen before stereotactic body radiotherapy, and 27 (42%) patients had ? 2 regimens. The median follow-up was 1.2 years (range, 0.3-5.2 years). The median dose was 42 gray (Gy; range, 22-60 Gy). When evaluated separately by multivariate analysis, total dose (P = .0015), dose/fraction (P = .003), and BED (P = .004) all correlated with local control by lesion. On multivariate analysis, nonactive extrahepatic disease was associated with overall survival (OS; P = .046), and sustained local control was closely correlated (P = .06). By using single-fraction equivalent dose, BED, or linear quadratic model-based single-fraction dose in the TCP model, the estimated dose range needed for 1-year local control > 90% is 46 to 52 Gy in 3 fractions.Liver stereotactic body radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective for colorectal liver metastases. The strong correlation between local control and OS supports controlling hepatic disease even for heavily pretreated patients. For a 3-fraction regimen of stereotactic body radiotherapy, a prescription dose of ? 48 Gy should be considered, if normal tissue constraints allow.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25997

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294924800030

    View details for PubMedID 21432842

  • Targeting Galectin-1, a Hypoxia Induced Protein, in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers Banh, A., Zhang, J., Cao, H., Bouley, D., Kwok, S., Kong, C., Giaccia, A., Koong, A., Le, Q. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2011: S60-S60
  • Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal CANCER Bazan, J. G., Hara, W., Hsu, A., Kunz, P. A., Ford, J., Fisher, G. A., Welton, M. L., Shelton, A., Kapp, D. S., Koong, A. C., Goodman, K. A., Chang, D. T. 2011; 117 (15): 3342-3351


    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients with anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) who were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy by either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT).Forty-six patients who received definitive chemoradiotherapy from January 1993 to August 2009 were included. Forty-five patients received 5-fluorouracil with mitomycin C (n = 39) or cisplatin (n = 6). Seventeen (37%) were treated with CRT and 29 (63%) with IMRT. The median dose was 54 Gy in both groups. Median follow-up was 26 months (CRT) and 32 months (IMRT). T3-T4 stage (P = .18) and lymph node-positive disease (P = .6) were similar between groups.The CRT group required longer treatment duration (57 days vs 40 days, P < .0001), more treatment breaks (88% vs 34.5%, P = .001), and longer breaks (12 days vs 1.5 days, P < .0001) than patients treated with IMRT. Eleven (65%) patients in the CRT group experienced grade >2 nonhematologic toxicity compared with 6 (21%) patients in the IMRT group (P = .003). The 3-year overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and progression-free survival were 87.8%, 91.9%, and 84.2%, respectively, for the IMRT groups and 51.8%, 56.7%, and 56.7%, respectively, for the CRT group (all P < .01). On multivariate analysis, T stage, use of IMRT, and treatment duration were associated with OS, and T stage and use of IMRT were associated with LRC.The use of IMRT was associated with less toxicity, reduced need for treatment breaks, and excellent LRC and OS compared with CRT in patients with SCCA of the anal canal.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293103800008

    View details for PubMedID 21287530

  • Tumor Galectin-1 Mediates Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Regulation of T-Cell Apoptosis CANCER RESEARCH Banh, A., Zhang, J., Cao, H., Bouley, D. M., Kwok, S., Kong, C., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C., Le, Q. 2011; 71 (13): 4423-4431


    Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a carbohydrate-binding protein whose secretion is enhanced by hypoxia, promotes tumor aggressiveness by promoting angiogenesis and T-cell apoptosis. However, the importance of tumor versus host Gal-1 in tumor progression is undefined. Here we offer evidence that implicates tumor Gal-1 and its modulation of T-cell immunity in progression. Comparing Gal-1-deficient mice as hosts for Lewis lung carcinoma cells where Gal-1 levels were preserved or knocked down, we found that tumor Gal-1 was more critical than host Gal-1 in promoting tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. Enhanced growth and metastasis associated with Gal-1 related to its immunomodulatory function, insofar as the benefits of Gal-1 expression to Lewis lung carcinoma growth were abolished in immunodeficient mice. In contrast, angiogenesis, as assessed by microvessel density count, was similar between tumors with divergent Gal-1 levels when examined at a comparable size. Our findings establish that tumor rather than host Gal-1 is responsible for mediating tumor progression through intratumoral immunomodulation, with broad implications in developing novel targeting strategies for Gal-1 in cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-4157

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292287300013

    View details for PubMedID 21546572

  • Unfolded Protein Response Regulation in Keloid Cells JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Butler, P. D., Wang, Z., Ly, D. P., Longaker, M. T., Koong, A. C., Yang, G. P. 2011; 167 (1): 151-157


    Keloids are a common form of pathologic wound healing characterized by excessive production of extracellular matrix. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular response to hypoxia, a component of the wound microenvironment, capable of protecting cells from the effects of over-accumulation of misfolded proteins. Since keloids have hypersecretion of extracellular matrix, we hypothesized that keloid fibroblasts (KFs) may have enhanced activation of the UPR compared with normal fibroblasts (NFs).KFs and NFs were placed in a hypoxia chamber for 0, 24, and 48h. We also used tunicamycin to specifically up-regulate the UPR. UPR activation was assayed by PCR for xbp-1 splicing and by immunoblotting with specific antibodies for the three UPR transducers. Nuclear localization of XBP-1 protein in KFs was confirmed by immunofluorescence.There is increased activation of XBP-1 protein in KFs compared with NFs following exposure to hypoxia. Pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) and ATF-6, two other pathways activated by the UPR, show comparable activation between KFs and NFs. We confirmed that there is enhanced activation of XBP-1 by demonstrating increased nuclear localization of XBP-1 using immunofluorescence.In contrast to our initial hypothesis that keloids would have broad activation of the UPR, we demonstrate here that there is a specific up-regulation of one facet of the UPR response. This may represent a specific molecular defect in KFs compared with NFs, and also suggests modulation of the UPR can be used in wound healing therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2009.04.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288744100029

    View details for PubMedID 19631342

  • Rectal and bladder deformation and displacement during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: Are current margin guidelines adequate for conformal therapy? Practical radiation oncology Daly, M. E., Murphy, J. D., Mok, E., Christman-Skieller, C., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2011; 1 (2): 85-94


    To evaluate rectal motion and estimate an appropriate target volume for preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for rectal cancer.Between January 2006 and December 2009, 17 rectal cancer patients undergoing preoperative RT underwent 39 cone-beam computed tomographic scans (CBCTs). CBCTs were fused to treatment planning CT scans by bony anatomy. The rectum and bladder were contoured on each scan. Margins of 2, 5, 10, and 15 mm were added to the rectum, and the volume and percent rectum on CBCT outside each of these margins were determined. The clinical target volume (CTV) was examined to determine the necessary margin beyond the posterior bladder edge to ensure coverage of the mesorectum at all time points.Median percentage rectum on CBCT outside the planning rectum was 7.77% (range, 0.19%-42.91%). Two patients had 1 or more CBCT with 1% or greater rectum outside a 1.5 cm margin. Five patients had 1 or more CBCT with 1% or greater rectum outside a 1.0 cm margin. A CTV extending 1 cm into the posterior bladder edge (CTV1.0) was adequate at all time points for 79% of evaluable patients, and a CTV with a 1.5 cm anterior margin was adequate for 93% of patients. For 2 patients, the rectum extended outside the CTV1.0 on CBCT.With a limited number of CBCT scans, we found that the rectum tended to remain within 1.5 cm of the initial location on treatment planning CT. However, an anterior margin of 1.5 cm beyond the posterior bladder edge provides better coverage of the mesorectum than 1 cm for the initial CTV.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2010.11.006

    View details for PubMedID 24673921

  • Multimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer: The Benefit of Chemoradiation Vossler, S. R., Bavan, B., Kunz, P., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Whyte, R., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: S309-S309
  • Low Energy Focused Ultrasound (LOFU) Sensitize Breast Cancer Cells to Tamoxifen Tang, J., Zhang, H., Zhang, J., Saha, S., Alfieri, A., Koong, A., Guha, C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: S748-S748
  • Gastrointestinal Normal Tissue Toxicity Prediction In Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Murphy, J. D., Abelson, J., Chung, M. P., Chang, D. T., Koong, A. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: S378-S378
  • Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies IMRT IGRT SBRT- ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIOTHERAPY Minn, A. Y., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2011; 43: 412-427


    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment for pancreas cancer and liver tumors. Early data suggest excellent control rates for locally advanced pancreas cancer. However, due to the close proximity of the duodenum and stomach, steps to effectively minimize toxicities must be taken through image guidance of treatments. SBRT for liver tumors has also shown high rates of local control with low risks for hepatic toxicity. Careful selection of cases for SBRT is essential to achieve disease control and to minimize toxicity for patients. In treatment, attention must be paid to minimizing exposure of nearby normal tissues, including ribs, skin and bowel as well as the functioning organs surrounding the tumors. There is no accepted standard for the SBRT dose/fractionation schedule for these cases and the optimal strategy will likely depend on the size, number and location of lesions for each patient. However, the published data seem to suggest an overall dose-response effect. To realize the clinical potential of SBRT for these tumors, investigations are needed to determine optimum fractionation schedules and to integrate its use with systemic chemotherapy programs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292117400021

    View details for PubMedID 21625166

  • Dosimetric Comparison of RapidArc versus CyberKnife for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Atwood, T. F., Mok, E., Lo, A., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: S345-S346
  • Expression of p16(INK4A) But Not Hypoxia Markers or Poly Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose Polymerase Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Chang, D. T., Chapman, C. H., Norton, J. A., Visser, B., Fisher, G. A., Kunz, P., Ford, J. M., Koong, A. C., Pai, R. K. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 5179-5187


    Pancreatic cancer is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(INK4A) ), a regulator of the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study investigates whether immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) as well as hypoxia markers and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) correlates with survival in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Seventy-three patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent curative resection at Stanford University were included. From the surgical specimens, a tissue microarray was constructed using triplicate tissue cores from the primary tumor and used for immunohistochemical staining for the following markers: carbonic anhydrase IX, dihydrofolate reductase, p16(INK4A) , and PARP1/2. Staining was scored as either positive or negative and percentage positive staining. Staining score was correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).Of the markers tested, only immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) correlated with clinical outcome. On univariate analysis, p16(INK4A) expression in the tumor was associated with improved OS (P = .038) but not PFS (P = .28). The median survival for patients with positive versus negative p16(INK4A) staining was 28.8 months versus 18 months. On multivariate analysis, p16(INK4A) expression was associated with improved OS (P = .026) but not PFS (P = .25). Age (P = .0019) and number of nodes involved (P = .025) were also significant for OS. Adjuvant chemotherapy and margin status did not correlate with OS or PFS.Expression of p16(INK4A) is associated with improved OS in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Further investigation is needed for validation, given conflicting data in the published literature. .

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25481

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284047400009

    View details for PubMedID 20665497

  • Orthovoltage intraoperative radiation therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma RADIATION ONCOLOGY Bachireddy, P., Tseng, D., Horoschak, M., Chang, D. T., Koong, A. C., Kapp, D. S., Tran, P. T. 2010; 5


    To analyze the outcomes of patients from a single institution treated with surgery and orthovoltage intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.We retrospectively reviewed 23 consecutive patients from 1990-2001 treated with IORT to 23 discrete sites with median and mean follow up of 6.5 and 21 months, respectively. Most tumors were located in the head of the pancreas (83%) and sites irradiated included: tumor bed (57%), vessels (26%), both the tumor bed/vessels (13%) and other (4%). The majority of patients (83%) had IORT at the time of their definitive surgery. Three patients had preoperative chemoradiation (13%). Orthovoltage X-rays (200-250 kVp) were employed via individually sized and beveled cone applicators. Additional mean clinical characteristics include: age 64 (range 41-81); tumor size 4 cm (range 1.4-11); and IORT dose 1106 cGy (range 600-1500). Post-operative external beam radiation (EBRT) or chemotherapy was given to 65% and 76% of the assessable patients, respectively. Outcomes measured were infield control (IFC), loco-regional control (LRC), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS) and treatment-related complications.Kaplan-Meier (KM) 2-year IFC, LRC, DMFS and OS probabilities for the whole group were 83%, 61%, 26%, and 27%, respectively. Our cohort had three grade 3-5 complications associated with treatment (surgery and IORT).Orthovoltage IORT following tumor reductive surgery is reasonably well tolerated and seems to confer in-field control in carefully selected patients. However, distant metastases remain the major problem for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1748-717X-5-105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284380900001

    View details for PubMedID 21059255

  • Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy as Adjuvant Therapy for Gastric Cancer Minn, A. Y., Hsu, A., La, T., Kunz, P., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Norton, J. A., Visser, B., Goodman, K. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2010: 3943-3952


    The current study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes and toxicity in patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT).Fifty-seven patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer were treated postoperatively: 26 with 3D CRT and 31 with IMRT. Concurrent chemotherapy was capecitabine (n=31), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (n=25), or none (n=1). The median radiation dose was 45 Gy. Dose volume histogram parameters for kidney and liver were compared between treatment groups.The 2-year overall survival rates for 3D CRT versus IMRT were 51% and 65%, respectively (P=.5). Four locoregional failures occurred each in the 3D CRT (15%) and the IMRT (13%) patients. Grade>or=2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was found to be similar between the 3D CRT and IMRT patients (61.5% vs 61.2%, respectively) but more treatment breaks were needed (3 vs 0, respectively). The median serum creatinine from before radiotherapy to most recent creatinine was unchanged in the IMRT group (0.80 mg/dL) but increased in the 3D CRT group from 0.80 mg/dL to 1.0 mg/dL (P=.02). The median kidney mean dose was higher in the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (13.9 Gy vs 11.1 Gy; P=.05). The median kidney V20 was lower for the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (17.5% vs 22%; P=.17). The median liver mean dose for IMRT and 3D CRT was 13.6 Gy and 18.6 Gy, respectively (P=.19). The median liver V30 was 16.1% and 28%, respectively (P<.001).Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was well tolerated. IMRT was found to provide sparing to the liver and possibly renal function.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25246

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280677100025

    View details for PubMedID 20564136



    This study analyzed the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) for locally advanced pancreas cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Fifty-five previously untreated, unresectable pancreas cancer patients received a single fraction of 25-Gy SBRT sequentially with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. On the preradiation PET-CT, the tumor was contoured and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and metabolic tumor burden (MTB) were calculated using an in-house software application. High-SUVmax and low-SUVmax subgroups were created by categorizing patients above or below the median SUVmax. The analysis was repeated to form high-MTB and low-MTB subgroups as well as clinically relevant subgroups with SUVmax values of <5, 5-10, or >10. Multivariate analysis analyzing SUVmax, MTB, age, chemotherapy cycles, and pretreatment carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 was performed.For the entire population, median survival was 12.7 months. Median survival was 9.8 vs.15.3 months for the high- and low- SUVmax subgroups (p <0.01). Similarly, median survival was 10.1 vs. 18.0 months for the high MTB and low MTB subgroups (p <0.01). When clinical SUVmax cutoffs were used, median survival was 6.4 months in those with SUVmax >10, 9.5 months with SUVmax 5.0-10.0, and 17.7 months in those with SUVmax <5 (p <0.01). On multivariate analysis, clinical SUVmax was an independent predictor for overall survival (p = 0.03) and progression-free survival (p = 0.03).PET scan parameters can predict for length of survival in locally advanced pancreas cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280459700020

    View details for PubMedID 20056345

  • Pathological response after chemoradiation for T3 rectal cancer. Colorectal disease Chennupati, S. K., Kamaya, A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Itakura, H., Welton, M. L., Shelton, A., Van Dam, J., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2010; 12 (7 Online): e24-30


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on nodal disease in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.Thirty-two patients staged uT3N0 and 27 patients staged uT3N1 rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent pre-CRT staging using endoscopic ultrasound or rectal protocol CT were included. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range: 45-50.4 Gy) at 1.8 Gy per fraction and all patients received concurrent 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Low anterior resection or abdomino-perineal resection occurred at a median of 46 days (range: 27-112 days) after CRT.Eleven of 32 uT3N0 patients (34.4%) and 13 of 26 uT3N1 patients (50.0%) had ypN+ (P = 0.29). For patients with uT3N0, 10 of 20 (50.0%) with ypT2-3 and 1 of 12 (8.3%) with ypT0-1 were ypN+ (P = 0.02). For patients with uT3N1, 12 of 20 (60.0%) with ypT2-3 and 1 of 6 (16.7%) with ypT0-1 were ypN+ (P = 0.16). Overall, the ypN+ rate was 11.1% in the ypT0-yT1 group compared with 55.0% in the ypT2-yT3 group (P = 003). Among patients with uT3N0 disease, the ypN+ rate in patients who had surgery > 46 days vs 46 days vs 46 days vs

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.02013.x

    View details for PubMedID 19614668

  • Pathological response after chemoradiation for T3 rectal cancer COLORECTAL DISEASE Chennupati, S. K., Kamaya, A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Itakura, H., Welton, M. L., Shelton, A., Van Dam, J., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2010; 12 (7): E24-E30
  • Cetuximab-Based Immunotherapy and Radioimmunotherapy of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Niu, G., Sun, X., Cao, Q., Courter, D., Koong, A., Le, Q., Gambhir, S. S., Chen, X. 2010; 16 (7): 2095-2105


    To show the relationship between antibody delivery and therapeutic efficacy in head and neck cancers, in this study we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted immunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy by quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.EGFR expression on UM-SCC-22B and SCC1 human head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) cells were determined by flow cytometry and immunostaining. Tumor delivery and distribution of cetuximab in tumor-bearing nude mice were evaluated with small animal PET using (64)Cu-DOTA-cetuximab. The in vitro toxicity of cetuximab to HNSCC cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The tumor-bearing mice were then treated with four doses of cetuximab at 10 mg/kg per dose, and tumor growth was evaluated by caliper measurement. FDG PET was done after the third dose of antibody administration to evaluate tumor response. Apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation after cetuximab treatment were analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67 staining. Radioimmunotherapy was done with (90)Y-DOTA-cetuximab.EGFR expression on UM-SCC-22B cells is lower than that on SCC1 cells. However, the UM-SCC-22B tumors showed much higher (64)Cu-DOTA-cetuximab accumulation than the SCC1 tumors. Cetuximab-induced apoptosis in SCC1 tumors and tumor growth was significantly inhibited, whereas an agonistic effect of cetuximab on UM-SCC-22B tumor growth was observed. After cetuximab treatment, the SCC1 tumors showed decreased FDG uptake, and the UM-SCC-22B tumors had increased FDG uptake. UM-SCC-22B tumors are more responsive to (90)Y-DOTA-cetuximab treatment than SCC1 tumors, partially due to the high tumor accumulation of the injected antibody.Cetuximab has an agonistic effect on the growth of UM-SCC-22B tumors, indicating that tumor response to cetuximab treatment is not necessarily related to EGFR expression and antibody delivery efficiency, as determined by PET imaging. Although PET imaging with antibodies as tracers has limited function in patient screening, it can provide guidance for targeted therapy using antibodies as delivery vehicles.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2495

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278595800013

    View details for PubMedID 20215534

  • Circulating miR-210 as a Novel Hypoxia Marker in Pancreatic Cancer TRANSLATIONAL ONCOLOGY Ho, A. S., Huang, X., Cao, H., Christman-Skieller, C., Bennewith, K., Le, Q., Koong, A. C. 2010; 3 (2): 109-113


    MicroRNA are small noncoding transcripts involved in many cellular mechanisms, including tumorigenesis. miR-210, in particular, is induced by hypoxia and correlates with adverse outcomes in certain cancers. Because pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibit extremely hypoxic signatures, we hypothesized that miR-210 may serve as a diagnostic marker for screening or surveillance for pancreatic cancer. Plasma samples were obtained from newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and age-matched noncancer controls. miRNA was extracted directly from plasma and reverse-transcribed to complementary DNA. A known quantity of synthetic Caenorhabditis elegans miR-54 (celmiR-54) was added for normalization. miR-210 and cel-miR-54 were then measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. An initial cohort of 11 pancreatic cancer patients and 14 age-matched controls was used as the test set and a second cohort of 11 pancreatic cancer patients and 11 controls was used as the validating set in this study. miR-210 was reliably detected and quantified, with a statistically significant four-fold increase in expression in pancreatic cancer patients compared with normal controls (P < .00004) in the test set. This difference was confirmed in the validation group (P < .018). In summary, circulating miR-210 levels are elevated in pancreatic cancer patients and may potentially serve as a useful biomarker for pancreatic cancer diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1593/tlo.09256

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278912800005

    View details for PubMedID 20360935

  • The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways PLOS ONE Courter, D., Cao, H., Kwok, S., Kong, C., Banh, A., Kuo, P., Bouley, D. M., Vice, C., Brustugun, O. T., Denko, N. C., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A., Le, Q. 2010; 5 (3)


    Human osteopontin (OPN), a known tumor associated protein, exists in different isoforms, whose function is unclear. It also possesses a RGD domain, which has been implicated in diverse function. Here, we use genetic approaches to systematically investigate the function of the RGD domain in different OPN isoforms on tumor progression and metastasis for 2 different solid tumor models.Using isoform-specific qRT-PCR, we found that OPN-A and B were the main isoforms overexpressed in evaluated human tumors, which included 4 soft tissue sarcomas, 24 lung and 30 head and neck carcinomas. Overexpression of either OPN-A or B in two different cell types promoted local tumor growth and lung metastasis in SCID mouse xenografts. However, expression of either isoform with the RGD domain either mutated or deleted decreased tumor growth and metastasis, and resulted in increased apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In vitro, whereas mutation of the RGD domain did not affect cell-cell adhesion, soft agar growth or cell migration, it increased apoptosis under hypoxia and serum starvation. This effect could be mitigated when the RGD mutant cells were treated with condition media containing WT OPN. Mechanistically, the RGD region of OPN inhibited apoptosis by inducing NF-kappaB activation and FAK phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB (by siRNA to the p65 subunit) or FAK activation (by a inhibitor) significantly increased apoptosis under hypoxia in WT OPN cells, but not in RGD mutant cells.Unlike prior reports, our data suggest that the RGD domain of both OPN-A and B promote tumor growth and metastasis mainly by protecting cells against apoptosis under stressed conditions and not via migration or invasion. Future inhibitors directed against OPN should target multiple isoforms and should inhibit cell survival mechanisms that involve the RGD domain, FAK phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0009633

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275328800027

    View details for PubMedID 20224789

  • EUS-guided gold fiducial insertion for image-guided radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer: 50 successful cases without fluoroscopy GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY Park, W. G., Yan, B. M., Schellenberg, D., Kim, J., Chang, D. T., Koong, A., Patalano, C., Van Dam, J. 2010; 71 (3): 513-518


    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) accurately delivers a high dose of potentially tumoricidal radiation to its target while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Application of IGRT to unresectable pancreatic cancer requires the use of fiducials to track the precise location of the tumor. Fiducial markers have been successfully placed endoscopically.To determine the feasibility of EUS-guided gold fiducial placement for IGRT.Prospective case series.Tertiary medical center.Consecutively referred patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma for EUS-guided insertion of gold fiducials from December 2006 to February 2009.Under only EUS guidance, fiducial markers were deployed into or near the tumor by using a 19-gauge needle. In most cases, a sterile water injection technique was used to insert the fiducials. Fluoroscopy was not used in any case.Successful placement of an adequate number of fiducials to proceed with IGRT as determined by CT.Fifty-seven consecutive patients were included. Fifty cases (88%) were successful. Of the cases in which fiducial placement was attempted and follow-up was adequate, 94% (50 of 53) of cases were successful.Single-center, nonrandomized study.EUS-guided fine-needle insertion was safe and effective in delivering gold fiducial markers for image-guided radiation therapy. Fluoroscopy was not required for successful fiducial placement.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gie.2009.10.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275897900012

    View details for PubMedID 20189509



    To compare the interfractional variation in pancreatic tumor position using bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers.Five consecutively treated patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Stanford University (Stanford, CA) underwent fiducial seed placement and treatment on the Varian Trilogy system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) with respiratory gating. Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging was performed to verify patient positioning, and isocenter shifts were made initially to match bony anatomy. Next, a final shift to the fiducial seeds was made under fluoroscopic guidance to confirm the location of the pancreatic tumor during the respiratory gated phase. All shifts were measured along three axes, left (+)-right (-), anterior (-)-posterior (+), and superior (+)-inferior (-), and the overall interfractional tumor movement was calculated based on these values.A total of 140 fractions were analyzed. The mean absolute shift to fiducial markers after shifting to bony anatomy was 1.6 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-9 mm), 1.8 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-13 mm), and 4.1 mm (95th percentile, 12 mm; range, 0-19 mm) in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The mean interfractional vector shift distance was 5.5 mm (95th percentile, 14.5 mm; range, 0-19.3 mm). In 28 of 140 fractions (20%) no fiducial shift was required after alignment to bony anatomy.There is substantial residual uncertainty after alignment to bony anatomy when radiating pancreatic tumors using respiratory gating. Bony anatomy matched tumor position in only 20% of the radiation treatments. If bony alignment is used in conjunction with respiratory gating without implanted fiducials, treatment margins need to account for this uncertainty.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274121500040

    View details for PubMedID 19879062

  • Multimodality treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS La, T. H., Minn, A. Y., Su, Z., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Goodman, K. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2010; 23 (4): 300-308


    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility and report the outcome of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with preoperative or definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Between 2003 and 2007, 30 patients with non-cervical esophageal cancer received concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT at Stanford University. Eighteen patients were planned for definitive CRT and 12 were planned for preoperative CRT. All patients had computed tomography-based treatment planning and received IMRT. The median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy. Patients planned for preoperative CRT underwent surgery 4-13 weeks (median 8.3 weeks) following completion of CRT. Median follow-up of surviving patients from start of RT was 24.2 months (range 8.2-38.3 months). The majority of tumors were adenocarcinomas (67%) and poorly differentiated (57%). Tumor location was 7% upper, 20% mid, 47% lower, and 27% gastroesophageal junction. Actuarial 2-year local-regional control (LRC) was 64%. High tumor grade was an adverse prognostic factor for LRC and overall survival (OS) (P= 0.015 and 0.012, respectively). The 2-year LRC was 83% vs. 51% for patients treated preoperatively vs. definitively (P= 0.32). The 2-year disease-free and OS were 38% and 56%, respectively. Twelve patients (40%) required feeding tube placement, and the average weight loss from baseline was 4.8%. Twelve (40%) patients experienced grade 3+ acute complications and one patient died of complications following feeding tube placement. Three patients (10%) required a treatment break. Eight patients (27%) experienced grade 3 late complications. No grade 4 complications were seen. IMRT was effective and well tolerated. Disease recurrence remains a challenge and further investigation with dose escalation to improve LRC and OS is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2009.01004.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278109300005

    View details for PubMedID 19732129

  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Pooled Analysis Chang, D. T., Swaminath, A., Kozak, M., Weintraub, J., Koong, A. C., Kim, J., Dawson, L. A., Kavanagh, B. D., Schefter, T. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2010: S56-S57
  • Significant Duodenal Dose Variation within the Respiratory Cycle during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer Taniguchi, C. M., Kielar, K. N., Murphy, J. D., Atwood, T. F., Christman-Skieller, C., Dieterich, S., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2010: S329-S329
  • Comparison of RapidArc vs. Conventional Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Kielar, K. N., Atwood, T. F., Taniguchi, C. M., Christman-Skieller, C., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2010: S785-S785
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy vs. Conventional Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Bazan, J. G., Hara, W., Kunz, P., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Welton, M. L., Koong, A., Shelton, A., Goodman, K. A., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2010: S300-S301
  • Identification of a biomarker panel using a multiplex proximity ligation assay improves accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnosis JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Chang, S. T., Zahn, J. M., Horecka, J., Kunz, P. L., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Le, Q. T., Chang, D. T., Ji, H., Koong, A. C. 2009; 7


    Pancreatic cancer continues to prove difficult to clinically diagnose. Multiple simultaneous measurements of plasma biomarkers can increase sensitivity and selectivity of diagnosis. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a highly sensitive technique for multiplex detection of biomarkers in plasma with little or no interfering background signal.We examined the plasma levels of 21 biomarkers in a clinically defined cohort of 52 locally advanced (Stage II/III) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 43 age-matched controls using a multiplex proximity ligation assay. The optimal biomarker panel for diagnosis was computed using a combination of the PAM algorithm and logistic regression modeling. Biomarkers that were significantly prognostic for survival in combination were determined using univariate and multivariate Cox survival models.Three markers, CA19-9, OPN and CHI3L1, measured in multiplex were found to have superior sensitivity for pancreatic cancer vs. CA19-9 alone (93% vs. 80%). In addition, we identified two markers, CEA and CA125, that when measured simultaneously have prognostic significance for survival for this clinical stage of pancreatic cancer (p < 0.003).A multiplex panel assaying CA19-9, OPN and CHI3L1 in plasma improves accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnosis. A panel assaying CEA and CA125 in plasma can predict survival for this clinical cohort of pancreatic cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1479-5876-7-105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272889900001

    View details for PubMedID 20003342

  • Re: "The safety and efficacy of robotic image-guided radiosurgery system treatment for intra- and extracranial lesions: A systematic review of the literature" [Radiotherapy and Oncology 89 (2009) 245-253] RADIOTHERAPY AND ONCOLOGY Gibbs, I. C., Levendag, P. C., Fariselli, L., Bondiau, P., Lartigau, E., Loo, B. W., Gagnon, G. J., Koong, A. 2009; 93 (3): 656-657

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radonc.2009.08.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272762900048

    View details for PubMedID 19748142

  • Oxygen Consumption Can Regulate the Growth of Tumors, a New Perspective on the Warburg Effect PLOS ONE Chen, Y., Cairns, R., Papandreou, I., Koong, A., Denko, N. C. 2009; 4 (9)


    The unique metabolism of tumors was described many years ago by Otto Warburg, who identified tumor cells with increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial activity. However, "aerobic glycolysis" generates fewer ATP per glucose molecule than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, so in terms of energy production, it is unclear how increasing a less efficient process provides tumors with a growth advantage.We carried out a screen for loss of genetic elements in pancreatic tumor cells that accelerated their growth as tumors, and identified mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28 (MRPL28). Knockdown of MRPL28 in these cells decreased mitochondrial activity, and increased glycolysis, but paradoxically, decreased cellular growth in vitro. Following Warburg's observations, this mutation causes decreased mitochondrial function, compensatory increase in glycolysis and accelerated growth in vivo. Likewise, knockdown of either mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) or cytochrome oxidase had a similar effect. Conversely, expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) increased oxygen consumption and decreased tumor growth. Finally, treatment of tumor bearing animals with dichloroacetate (DCA) increased pyruvate consumption in the mitochondria, increased total oxygen consumption, increased tumor hypoxia and slowed tumor growth.We interpret these findings to show that non-oncogenic genetic changes that alter mitochondrial metabolism can regulate tumor growth through modulation of the consumption of oxygen, which appears to be a rate limiting substrate for tumor proliferation.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0007033

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269796500017

    View details for PubMedID 19753307

  • Pancreatic Tumor Motion on a Single Planning 4D-CT Does Not Correlate With Intrafraction Tumor Motion During Treatment AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Minn, A. Y., Schellenberg, D., Maxim, P., Suh, Y., McKenna, S., Cox, B., Dieterich, S., Xing, L., Graves, E., Goodman, K. A., Chang, D., Koong, A. C. 2009; 32 (4): 364-368


    To quantify pancreas tumor motion on both a planning 4D-CT and during a single fraction treatment using the CyberKnife linear accelerator and Synchrony respiratory tracking software, and to investigate whether a single 4D-CT study is reliable for determining radiation treatment margins for patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer.Twenty patients underwent fiducial placement, biphasic pancreatic protocol CT scan and 4D-CT scan in the treatment position while free-breathing. Patients were then treated with a single 25 Gy fraction of stereotactic body radiotherapy. Predicted pancreas motion in the superior-inferior (SI), left-right (LR), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions was calculated from the maximum inspiration and maximum expiration 4D-CT scan. For CyberKnife treatments, mean respiratory cycle motion and maximum respiratory cycle motion was determined in the SI, LR, and AP directions.The range of centroid movement based on 4D-CT in the SI, LR, and AP directions were 0.9 to 28.8 mm, 0.1 to 13.7 mm, and 0.2 to 7.6 mm, respectively. During CyberKnife treatment, in the SI direction, the mean motion of the centroid ranged from 0.5 to 12.7 mm. In the LR direction, the mean motion range was 0.4 to 9.4 mm. In the AP direction, the mean motion range was 0.6 to 5.5 mm. The maximum range of movement (mean) during CyberKnife treatment in the SI, LR, and AP directions were 4.5 to 48.8 mm (mean 20.8 mm), 1.5 to 41.3 mm (mean 11.3 mm), and 1.6 to 68.1 mm (mean 13.4 mm), respectively. Neither the maximum or mean motion correlated with the 4D-CT movement.There is substantial respiratory associated motion of pancreatic tumors. The 4D-CT planning scans cannot accurately predict the movement of pancreatic tumors during actual treatment on CyberKnife.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/COC.0b013e31818da9e0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268761600007

    View details for PubMedID 19398901

  • Treatment of Esophageal Cancer Based on Histology A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Analysis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Chang, D. T., Chapman, C., Shen, J., Su, Z., Koong, A. C. 2009; 32 (4): 405-410


    The majority of esophageal cancer is either adenocarcinoma (ACA) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA). Recent randomized trials suggest that definitive chemoradiotherapy may be equally effective as surgery. However, the responsiveness of ACA versus SCCA to radiotherapy (RT) has never been compared. This Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry analysis investigates whether survival differed between ACA and SCCA based on the treatment modality.Patients with T2-4N0 or N+ SCCA and ACA in the cervical or thoracic esophagus diagnosed from 1983 to 2004 were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Patients with multiple primary cancers, underwent a surgical procedure other than partial or total esophagectomy, had metastatic or T1N0 disease, or received RT that did not include external beam radiation were excluded. Patients were grouped according to treatment received: RT alone, preoperative RT, any surgery (regardless of use of RT), and surgery alone.A total of 4752 patients were included, 2680 (56%) had ACA and 2072 (44%) had SCCA. After adjusting for age, marital status, cost of living, and race, the overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival was similar for all treatment groups except the RT-alone group where OS and SCC were superior for ACA. However, no difference in 3- and 5-year OS and cause-specific survival rates for all groups.No difference in survival was seen between patients with ACA and SCCA across any of the major treatment modalities for esophageal cancer, suggesting that both histologies respond to treatment similarly.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/COC.0b013e3181917158

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268761600014

    View details for PubMedID 19415029

  • A Primer on Image-guided Radiation Therapy for the Interventional Radiologist JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Kothary, N., Dieterich, S., Louie, J. D., Koong, A. C., Hofmann, L. V., Sze, D. Y. 2009; 20 (7): 859-862


    The use of image-guided radiation therapy in thoracic and abdominal tumors is increasing. Herein, the authors review the process of image-guided radiation therapy and describe techniques useful for optimal implantation of fiducial markers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2009.03.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267613000001

    View details for PubMedID 19481470

  • Impaired interferon signaling is a common immune defect in human cancer PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Critchley-Thorne, R. J., Simons, D. L., Yan, N., Miyahira, A. K., Dirbas, F. M., Johnson, D. L., Swetter, S. M., Carlson, R. W., Fisher, G. A., Koong, A., Holmes, S., Lee, P. P. 2009; 106 (22): 9010-9015


    Immune dysfunction develops in patients with many cancer types and may contribute to tumor progression and failure of immunotherapy. Mechanisms underlying cancer-associated immune dysfunction are not fully understood. Efficient IFN signaling is critical to lymphocyte function; animals rendered deficient in IFN signaling develop cancer at higher rates. We hypothesized that altered IFN signaling may be a key mechanism of immune dysfunction common to cancer. To address this, we assessed the functional responses to IFN in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with 3 major cancers: breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal cancer. Type-I IFN (IFN-alpha)-induced signaling was reduced in T cells and B cells from all 3 cancer-patient groups compared to healthy controls. Type-II IFN (IFN-gamma)-induced signaling was reduced in B cells from all 3 cancer patient groups, but not in T cells or natural killer cells. Impaired-IFN signaling was equally evident in stage II, III, and IV breast cancer patients, and downstream functional defects in T cell activation were identified. Taken together, these findings indicate that defects in lymphocyte IFN signaling arise in patients with breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal cancer, and these defects may represent a common cancer-associated mechanism of immune dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0901329106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266580500043

    View details for PubMedID 19451644



    To evaluate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) status and known prognostic makers for head and neck cancers including tumor hypoxia, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and intratumoral T-cell levels and to determine the prognostic impact of these markers by HPV status.HPV status in 82 evaluable head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients was determined by pyrosequencing and related to p16(INK4a) staining and treatment outcomes. It was correlated with tumor hypoxia (tumor pO(2) and carbonic anhydrase [CAIX] staining), EGFR status, and intratumoral lymphocyte expression (CD3 staining).Forty-four percent of evaluable tumors had strong HPV signal by pyrosequencing. There was a significant relationship between strong HPV signal and p16(INK4a) staining as well as oropharynx location. The strong HPV signal group fared significantly better than others, both in time to progression (TTP, p = 0.008) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.004) for all patients and for the oropharyngeal subset. Positive p16(INK4a) staining was associated with better TTP (p = 0.014) and OS (p = 0.00002). There was no relationship between HPV status and tumor pO(2) or CAIX staining. However, HPV status correlated inversely with EGFR reactivity (p = 0.0006) and directly with CD3(+) T-lymphocyte level (p = 0.03). Whereas CAIX and EGFR overexpression were negative prognostic factors regardless of HPV status, CD3(+) T-cell levels was prognostic only in HPV(-) tumors.HPV status was a prognostic factor for progression and survival. It correlated inversely with EGFR expression and directly with T-cell infiltration. The prognostic effect of CAIX and EGFR expression was not influenced by HPV status, whereas intratumoral T-cell levels was significant only for HPV(-) tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.02.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266057900035

    View details for PubMedID 19427557

  • Preventing oxidative stress: a new role for XBP1 CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION Liu, Y., Adachi, M., Zhao, S., Hareyama, M., Koong, A. C., Luo, D., Rando, T. A., Imai, K., Shinomura, Y. 2009; 16 (6): 847-857


    Antioxidant molecules reduce oxidative stress and protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cellular damage and probably the development of cancer. We have investigated the contribution of X-box-binding protein (XBP1), a major endoplasmic reticulum stress-linked transcriptional factor, to cellular resistance to oxidative stress. After exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or a strong ROS inducer parthenolide, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and subsequent cell death occurred more extensively in XBP1-deficient cells than wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, whereas two other anticancer agents induced death similarly in both cells. In XBP1-deficient cells, H(2)O(2) exposure induced more extensive ROS generation and prolonged p38 phosphorylation, and expression of several antioxidant molecules including catalase was lower. Knockdown of XBP1 decreased catalase expression, enhanced ROS generation and MMP loss after H(2)O(2) exposure, but extrinsic catalase supply rescued them. Overexpression of XBP1 recovered catalase expression in XBP1-deficient cells and diminished ROS generation after H(2)O(2) exposure. Mutation analysis of the catalase promoter region suggests a pivotal role of CCAAT boxes, NF-Y-binding sites, for the XBP1-mediated enhancing effect. Taken together, these results indicate a protective role of XBP1 against oxidative stress, and its positive regulation of catalase expression may at least in part account for this function.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/cdd.2009.14

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266412400005

    View details for PubMedID 19247368

  • Detection of circulating hypoxia-regulated miR-210 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients Ho, A. S., Huang, X., Cao, H., Koong, A. C., Le, Q. T. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2009
  • Detection of Solitary Humeral Metastasis From Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma With F-18 FDG PET/CT CLINICAL NUCLEAR MEDICINE Kim, J., Quon, A., Humke, E., Ford, J. M., Koong, A. C. 2009; 34 (5): 312-313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265435100015

    View details for PubMedID 19387214

  • Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Fiducial Marker Implantation for Image-guided Radiation Therapy JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Kothary, N., Heit, J. J., Louie, J. D., Kuo, W. T., Loo, B. W., Koong, A., Chang, D. T., Hovsepian, D., Sze, D. Y., Hofmann, L. V. 2009; 20 (2): 235-239


    To evaluate the safety and technical success rate of percutaneous fiducial marker implantation in preparation for image-guided radiation therapy.From January 2003 to January 2008, we retrospectively reviewed 139 percutaneous fiducial marker implantations in 132 patients. Of the 139 implantations, 44 were in the lung, 61 were in the pancreas, and 34 were in the liver. Procedure-related major and minor complications were documented. Technical success was defined as implantation enabling adequate treatment planning and computed tomographic simulation.The major and minor complication rates were 5% and 17.3%, respectively. Pneumothorax after lung implantation was the most common complication. Pneumothoraces were seen in 20 of the 44 lung implantations (45%); a chest tube was required in only seven of the 44 lung transplantations (16%). Of the 139 implantations, 133 were successful; in six implantations (4.3%) the fiducial markers migrated and required additional procedures or alternate methods of implantation.Percutaneous implantation of fiducial marker is a safe and effective procedure with risks that are similar to those of conventional percutaneous organ biopsy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2008.09.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263075000012

    View details for PubMedID 19019700

  • Preferential Cytotoxicity of Bortezomib toward Hypoxic Tumor Cells via Overactivation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathways CANCER RESEARCH Fels, D. R., Ye, J., Segan, A. T., Kridel, S. J., Spiotto, M., Olson, M., Koong, A. C., Koumenis, C. 2008; 68 (22): 9323-9330


    Hypoxia is a dynamic feature of the tumor microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance and cancer progression. We previously showed that components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, are also activated by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo animal and human patient tumors. Here, we report that ER stressors, such as thapsigargin or the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, exhibit significantly higher cytotoxicity toward hypoxic compared with normoxic tumor cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of UPR effectors in vitro and UPR reporter activity in vivo. Treatment of cells with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide, which relieves ER load, ameliorated this enhanced cytotoxicity, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity is ER stress-dependent. The mode of cell death was cell type-dependent, because DLD1 colorectal carcinoma cells exhibited enhanced apoptosis, whereas HeLa cervical carcinoma cells activated autophagy, blocked apoptosis, and eventually led to necrosis. Pharmacologic or genetic ablation of autophagy increased the levels of apoptosis. These results show that hypoxic tumor cells, which are generally more resistant to genotoxic agents, are hypersensitive to proteasome inhibitors and suggest that combining bortezomib with therapies that target the normoxic fraction of human tumors can lead to more effective tumor control.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261136600029

    View details for PubMedID 19010906

  • Gemcitabine chemotherapy and single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Schellenberg, D., Goodman, K. A., Lee, F., Chang, S., Kuo, T., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Quon, A., Desser, T. S., Norton, J., Greco, R., Yang, G. P., Koong, A. C. 2008; 72 (3): 678-686


    Fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer achieves only modest local control. This prospective trial evaluated the efficacy of a single fraction of 25 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered between Cycle 1 and 2 of gemcitabine chemotherapy.A total of 16 patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, pancreatic adenocarcinoma received gemcitabine with SBRT delivered 2 weeks after completion of the first cycle. Gemcitabine was resumed 2 weeks after SBRT and was continued until progression or dose-limiting toxicity. The gross tumor volume, with a 2-3-mm margin, was treated in a single 25-Gy fraction by Cyberknife. Patients were evaluated at 4-6 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and every 3 months after SBRT.All 16 patients completed SBRT. A median of four cycles (range one to nine) of chemotherapy was delivered. Three patients (19%) developed local disease progression at 14, 16, and 21 months after SBRT. The median survival was 11.4 months, with 50% of patients alive at 1 year. Patients with normal carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 levels either at diagnosis or after Cyberknife SBRT had longer survival (p <0.01). Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was mild, with 2 cases of Grade 2 (13%) and 1 of Grade 3 (6%) toxicity. Late gastrointestinal toxicity was more common, with five ulcers (Grade 2), one duodenal stenosis (Grade 3), and one duodenal perforation (Grade 4). A trend toward increased duodenal volumes radiated was observed in those experiencing late effects (p = 0.13).SBRT with gemcitabine resulted in comparable survival to conventional chemoradiotherapy and good local control. However, the rate of duodenal ulcer development was significant.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.01.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259894300008

    View details for PubMedID 18395362

  • In vivo H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lactate in patients with Stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Le, Q., Koong, A., Lieskovsky, Y. Y., Narasimhan, B., Graves, E., Pinto, H., Brown, J. M., Spielman, D. 2008; 71 (4): 1151-1157


    To investigate in vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes.Volume-localized lactate-edited (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO(2), nodal response, and locoregional control.The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO(2) (mean, 0.46 +/- 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO(2) < or =10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 +/- 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO(2) >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO(2) (mean, 2.74 +/- 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 +/- 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates.The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO(2), treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.11.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257299200025

    View details for PubMedID 18258377

  • High-dose single-fraction radiotherapy: Exploiting a new biology? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Brown, J. M., Koong, A. C. 2008; 71 (2): 324-325

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.02.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255971100002

    View details for PubMedID 18474308

  • Molecular Imaging of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 alpha and von Hippel-Lindau Interaction in Mice MOLECULAR IMAGING Choi, C. Y., Chau, D. A., Paulmurugan, R., Sutphin, P. D., Le, Q., Koong, A. C., Zundel, W., Gambhir, S. S., Giaccia, A. J. 2008; 7 (3): 139-146


    Tumor hypoxia plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Under hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) regulates activation of genes promoting malignant progression. Under normoxia, HIF-1 alpha is hydroxylated on prolines 402 and 564 and is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by interacting with the von Hippel-Lindau protein complex (pVHL). We have developed a novel method of studying the interaction between HIF-1 alpha and pVHL using the split firefly luciferase complementation-based bioluminescence system in which HIF-1 alpha and pVHL are fused to amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal fragments of the luciferase, respectively. We demonstrate that hydroxylation-dependent interaction between the HIF-1 alpha and pVHL leads to complementation of the two luciferase fragments, resulting in bioluminescence in vitro and in vivo. Complementation-based bioluminescence is diminished when mutant pVHLs with decreased affinity for binding HIF-1 alpha are used. This method represents a new approach for studying interaction of proteins involved in the regulation of protein degradation.

    View details for DOI 10.2310/7290.2008.00017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260954700004

    View details for PubMedID 19123984

  • Multiplexed proximity ligation assays to profile putative plasma biomarkers relevant to pancreatic and ovarian cancer CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Fredriksson, S., Horecka, J., Brustugun, O. T., Schlingemann, J., Koong, A. C., Tibshirani, R., Davis, R. W. 2008; 54 (3): 582-589


    Sensitive methods are needed for biomarker discovery and validation. We tested one promising technology, multiplex proximity ligation assay (PLA), in a pilot study profiling plasma biomarkers in pancreatic and ovarian cancer.We used 4 panels of 6- and 7-plex PLAs to detect biomarkers, with each assay consuming 1 microL plasma and using either matched monoclonal antibody pairs or single batches of polyclonal antibody. Protein analytes were converted to unique DNA amplicons by proximity ligation and subsequently detected by quantitative PCR. We profiled 18 pancreatic cancer cases and 19 controls and 19 ovarian cancer cases and 20 controls for the following proteins: a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8, CA-125, CA 19-9, carboxypeptidase A1, carcinoembryonic antigen, connective tissue growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Her2, galectin-1, insulin-like growth factor 2, interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-7, mesothelin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, osteopontin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, and chitinase 3-like 1. Probes for CA-125 were present in 3 of the multiplex panels. We measured plasma concentrations of the CA-125-mesothelin complex by use of a triple-specific PLA with 2 ligation events among 3 probes.The assays displayed consistent measurements of CA-125 independent of which other markers were simultaneously detected and showed good correlation with Luminex data. In comparison to literature reports, we achieved expected results for other putative markers.Multiplex PLA using either matched monoclonal antibodies or single batches of polyclonal antibody should prove useful for identifying and validating sets of putative disease biomarkers and finding multimarker panels.

    View details for DOI 10.1373/clinchem.2007.093195

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253570400019

    View details for PubMedID 18171715

  • Reducing respiratory motion artifacts in radionuclide imaging through retrospective stacking: A simulation study LINEAR ALGEBRA AND ITS APPLICATIONS Thorndyke, B., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2008; 428 (5-6): 1325-1344
  • Initial evaluation of F-18-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT scanning for primary pancreatic cancer EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Quon, A., Chang, S. T., Chin, F., Kamaya, A., Dick, D. W., Loo, B. W., Gambhir, S. S., Koong, A. C. 2008; 35 (3): 527-531


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of (18)F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT for imaging pancreatic adenocarcinoma.This was a pilot study of five patients (four males, one female) with newly diagnosed and previously untreated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients underwent FLT PET/CT, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT scanning before treatment. The presence of cancer was confirmed by histopathological analysis at the time of scanning in all five patients. The degree of FLT and FDG uptake at the primary tumor site was assessed using visual interpretation and semi-quantitative SUV analyses.The primary tumor size ranged from 2.5 x 2.8 cm to 3.5 x 7.0 cm. The SUV of FLT uptake within the primary tumor ranged from 2.1 to 3.1. Using visual interpretation, the primary cancer could be detected from background activity in two of five patients (40%) on FLT PET/CT. By comparison, FDG uptake was higher in each patient with a SUV range of 3.4 to 10.8, and the primary cancer could be detected from background in all five patients (100%).In this pilot study of five patients with primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma, FLT PET/CT scanning showed poor lesion detectability and relatively low levels of radiotracer uptake in the primary tumor.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-007-0630-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254402800010

    View details for PubMedID 17960376

  • Automated contour mapping with a regional deformable model INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Chao, M., Li, T., Schreibmann, E., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2008; 70 (2): 599-608


    To develop a regional narrow-band algorithm to auto-propagate the contour surface of a region of interest (ROI) from one phase to other phases of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT).The ROI contours were manually delineated on a selected phase of 4D-CT. A narrow band encompassing the ROI boundary was created on the image and used as a compact representation of the ROI surface. A BSpline deformable registration was performed to map the band to other phases. A Mattes mutual information was used as the metric function, and the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm was used to optimize the function. After registration the deformation field was extracted and used to transform the manual contours to other phases. Bidirectional contour mapping was introduced to evaluate the proposed technique. The new algorithm was tested on synthetic images and applied to 4D-CT images of 4 thoracic patients and a head-and-neck Cone-beam CT case.Application of the algorithm to synthetic images and Cone-beam CT images indicates that an accuracy of 1.0 mm is achievable and that 4D-CT images show a spatial accuracy better than 1.5 mm for ROI mappings between adjacent phases, and 3 mm in opposite-phase mapping. Compared with whole image-based calculations, the computation was an order of magnitude more efficient, in addition to the much-reduced computer memory consumption.A narrow-band model is an efficient way for contour mapping and should find widespread application in future 4D treatment planning.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.09.057

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252521700038

    View details for PubMedID 18207035

  • Tissue effects after stereotactic body radiotherapy using cyberknife for patients with abdominal malignancies CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Cupp, J. S., Koong, A. C., Fisher, G. A., NORTON, J. A., Goodman, K. A. 2008; 20 (1): 69-75


    To report the tissue effects of treatment with single fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using Cyberknife on malignant tumours of the abdomen and adjacent normal organs.The data from four autopsies with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma and one lymph node excision from a case of recurrent neuroblastoma were reviewed for radiation-related tissue effects within the primary cancer and the normal organs within the radiation field.Cases of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma consistently showed radiation-induced changes in both the primary tumour and the adjacent, non-malignant colorectal tissue. An additional case of lymph nodes exposed to stereotactic radiation showed typical radiation-related changes, including lymphocyte depletion and capsular fibrosis.A myriad of radiation-related tissue effects are seen after SBRT with Cyberknife. The changes parallel those reported after conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and suggest that the pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue damage are similar for biologically equivalent single and fractionated doses of radiotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clon.2007.08.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253281700013

    View details for PubMedID 17900882

  • Preoperative versus postoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced gastroesophageal junction and proximal gastric cancers: a comparison of normal tissue radiation doses DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS Tillman, G. F., Pawlicki, T., Koong, A. C., Goodman, K. A. 2008; 21 (5): 437-444


    Locoregional relapse occurs in over half of gastric cancer patients who undergo potentially curative resection. Adjuvant chemoradiation reduces locoregional relapse, but often requires irradiating large fields and is limited by poor patient tolerance. This study explores the potential dosimetric benefit in reducing the radiation dose to normal structures by treating gastroesophageal (GE) junction/proximal gastric cancers with preoperative rather than adjuvant radiotherapy. Five cases of GE junction/proximal gastric cancer patients treated postoperatively with curative intent were selected. The actual target contours were then modified to reflect hypothetical target volumes which would have been used had the patients been treated preoperatively. Hypothetical preoperative treatment plans were generated for each patient based on these modified contours. The hypothetical preoperative treatment plans were then compared to the actual postoperative plans with respect to dose-volume parameters including lung mean dose, lung V20, heart V20 and V30, and mean doses to abdominal structures. Target volumes were smaller with preoperative treatment, with an average reduction of 23%. Comparative dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis showed the resultant composite lung doses were reduced in the preoperative plans by 50-79%. In all patients, the proportion of lungs receiving at least 20 Gy (V20) was substantially reduced using preoperative treatment (1.9% vs. 9.7% in the 3-D conformal patient; mean of 3.1% vs. 17.6% in the intensity modulated radiation therapy patients). Likewise, the volume of heart receiving at least 30 Gy was dramatically reduced in all preoperative plans (15.8% vs. 35.4%). Doses to the kidneys, liver and spinal cord were comparable in both approaches. Preoperative treatment of GE junction and proximal gastric cancer patients offers the potential to decrease the radiation dose received by normal thoracic structures.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2007.00794.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258098400009

    View details for PubMedID 19125798

  • Enhanced 4D cone-beam CT with inter-phase motion model MEDICAL PHYSICS Li, T., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2007; 34 (9): 3688-3695


    Four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) is commonly obtained by respiratory phase binning of the projections, followed by independent reconstructions of the rebinned data in each phase bin. Due to the significantly reduced number of projections per reconstruction, the quality of the 4DCBCT images is often degraded by view-aliasing artifacts easily seen in the axial view. Acquisitions using multiple gantry rotations or slow gantry rotation can increase the number of projections and substantially improve the 4D images. However, the extra cost of the scan time may set fundamental limits to their applications in clinics. Improving the trade-off between image quality and scan time is the key to making 4D onboard imaging practical and more useful. In this article, we present a novel technique toward high-quality 4DCBCT imaging without prolonging the acquisition time, referred to as the "enhanced 4DCBCT". The method correlates the data in different phase bins and integrates the internal motion into the 4DCBCT image formulation. Several strategies of the motion derivation are discussed, and the resultant images are assessed with numerical simulations as well as a clinical case.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.2767144

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249547200031

    View details for PubMedID 17926972

  • Expression and prognostic significance of a panel of tissue hypoxia markers in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Le, Q., Kong, C., Lavori, P. W., O'Byrne, K., Erler, J. T., Huang, X., Chen, Y., Cao, H., Tibshiran, R., Denko, N., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C. 2007; 69 (1): 167-175


    To investigate the expression pattern of hypoxia-induced proteins identified as being involved in malignant progression of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to determine their relationship to tumor pO(2) and prognosis.We performed immunohistochemical staining of hypoxia-induced proteins (carbonic anhydrase IX [CA IX], BNIP3L, connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, ephrin A1, hypoxia inducible gene-2, dihydrofolate reductase, galectin-1, IkappaB kinase beta, and lysyl oxidase) on tumor tissue arrays of 101 HNSCC patients with pretreatment pO(2) measurements. Analysis of variance and Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the relationship between marker expression, tumor pO(2), and CA IX staining. Cox proportional hazard model and log-rank tests were used to determine the relationship between markers and prognosis.Osteopontin expression correlated with tumor pO(2) (Eppendorf measurements) (p = 0.04). However, there was a strong correlation between lysyl oxidase, ephrin A1, and galectin-1 and CA IX staining. These markers also predicted for cancer-specific survival and overall survival on univariate analysis. A hypoxia score of 0-5 was assigned to each patient, on the basis of the presence of strong staining for these markers, whereby a higher score signifies increased marker expression. On multivariate analysis, increasing hypoxia score was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (p = 0.015) and was borderline significant for overall survival (p = 0.057) when adjusted for other independent predictors of outcomes (hemoglobin and age).We identified a panel of hypoxia-related tissue markers that correlates with treatment outcomes in HNSCC. Validation of these markers will be needed to determine their utility in identifying patients for hypoxia-targeted therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.01.071

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248978300024

    View details for PubMedID 17707270

  • Quantitative PET of EGFR expression in xenograft-bearing mice using Cu-64-labeled cetuximab, a chimeric anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Cai, W., Chen, K., He, L., Cao, Q., Koong, A., Chen, X. 2007; 34 (6): 850-858


    Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cancer cells, was approved by the FDA to treat patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. It is currently also in advanced-stage development for the treatment of several other solid tumors. Here we report for the first time the quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of EGFR expression in xenograft-bearing mice using 64Cu-labeled cetuximab.We conjugated cetuximab with macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), labeled with 64Cu, and tested the resulting 64Cu-DOTA-cetuximab in seven xenograft tumor models. The tracer uptake measured by PET was correlated with the EGFR expression quantified by western blotting. The estimated human dosimetry based on the PET data in Sprague-Dawley rats was also calculated.MicroPET imaging showed that 64Cu-DOTA-cetuximab had increasing tumor activity accumulation over time in EGFR-positive tumors but relatively low uptake in EGFR-negative tumors at all times examined (<5%ID/g). There was a good correlation (R2=0.80) between the tracer uptake (measured by PET) and the EGFR expression level (measured by western blotting). Human dosimetry estimation indicated that the tracer may be safely administered to human patients for tumor diagnosis, with the dose-limiting organ being the liver.The success of EGFR-positive tumor imaging using 64Cu-DOTA-cetuximab can be translated into the clinic to characterize the pharmacokinetics, to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy, to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatment, and to optimize the dosage of either cetuximab alone or cetuximab in combination with other therapeutic agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-006-0361-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246592300006

    View details for PubMedID 17262214

  • Evaluation of patterns of failure and subjective salivary function in patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma HEAD AND NECK-JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK Daly, M. E., Lieskovsky, Y., Pawlicki, T., Yau, J., Pinto, H., Kaplan, M., Fee, W. E., Koong, A., Goffinet, D. R., Xing, L., Le, Q. 2007; 29 (3): 211-220


    Our aim was to correlate patterns of failure with target volume delineations in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to report subjective xerostomia outcomes after IMRT as compared with conventional radiation therapy (CRT).Between January 2000 and April 2005, 69 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic HNSCC underwent curative parotid-sparing IMRT at Stanford University. Sites included were oropharynx (n = 39), oral cavity (n = 8), larynx (n = 8), hypopharynx (n = 8), and unknown primary (n = 6). Forty-six patients received definitive IMRT (66 Gy, 2.2 Gy/fraction), and 23 patients received postoperative IMRT (60.2 Gy, 2.15 Gy/fraction). Fifty-one patients also received concomitant chemotherapy. Posttreatment salivary gland function was evaluated by a validated xerostomia questionnaire in 29 IMRT and 75 matched CRT patients >6 months after completing radiation treatment.At a median follow-up of 25 months for living patients (range, 10-60), 7 locoregional failures were observed, 5 in the gross target or high-risk postoperative volume, 1 in the clinical target volume, and 1 at the junction of the IMRT and supraclavicular fields. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for locoregional control and overall survival were 92% and 74% for definitive IMRT and 87% and 87% for postoperative IMRT patients, respectively. The mean total xerostomia questionnaire score was significantly better for IMRT than for CRT patients (p = .006).The predominant pattern of failure in IMRT-treated patients is in the gross tumor volume. Parotid sparing with IMRT resulted in less subjective xerostomia and may improve quality of life in irradiated HNSCC patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.20505

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244459100002

    View details for PubMedID 17111429

  • Impact of integrated PET/CT on variability of target volume delineation in rectal cancer TECHNOLOGY IN CANCER RESEARCH & TREATMENT Patel, D. A., Chang, S. T., Goodman, K. A., Quon, A., Thorndyke, B., Gambhir, S. S., McMillan, A., Loo, B. W., Koong, A. C. 2007; 6 (1): 31-36


    Several studies have demonstrated substantial variability among individual radiation oncologists in defining target volumes using computed tomography (CT). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) on inter-observer variability of target volume delineation in rectal cancer. We also compared the relative concordance of two PET imaging tracers, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluorodeoxythymidine (FLT), against conventional computed tomography (CT). Six consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were enrolled onto an institutional protocol involving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and correlative studies including FDG- and FLT-PET scans acquired in the treatment position. Using these image data sets, four radiation oncologists independently delineated primary and nodal gross tumor volumes (GTVp and GTVn) for a hypothetical boost treatment. Contours were first defined based on CT alone with observers blinded to the PET images, then based on combined PET/CT. An inter-observer similarity index (SI), ranging from a value of 0 for complete disagreement to 1 for complete agreement of contoured voxels, was calculated for each set of volumes. For primary gross tumor volume (GTVp), the difference in estimated SI between CT and FDG was modest (CT SI = 0.77 vs. FDG SI = 0.81), but statistically significant (p = 0.013). The SI difference between CT and FLT for GTVp was also slight (FLT SI = 0.80) and marginally non-significant (p < 0.082). For nodal gross tumor volume, (GTVn), SI was significantly lower for CT based volumes with an estimated SI of 0.22 compared to an estimated SI of 0.70 for FDG-PET/CT (p < 0.0001) and an estimated SI of 0.70 for FLT-PET/CT (p < 0.0001). Boost target volumes in rectal cancer based on combined PET/CT results in lower inter-observer variability compared with CT alone, particularly for nodal disease. The use of FDG and FLT did not appear to be different from this perspective.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244732600005

    View details for PubMedID 17241098

  • Stereotactic body radiotherapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer IMRT, IGRT, SBRT: ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIOTHERAPY Chang, S. T., Goodman, K. A., Yang, G. R., Koong, A. C. 2007; 40: 386-394


    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with few effective treatment modalities. Recent technological advances have made possible the delivery of single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to patients with locally advanced pancreatic tumors. This paper presents experience at Stanford University with SBRT for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic tumors of up to 100 cm3 could be treated. Patients achieved greater than 90% local control for the remainder of their lives. Currently, the standard dose for pancreatic tumors treated at this institution is 25 Gy given in a single fraction. Four-dimensional CT and PET scans have been essential for optimal treatment planning. PET-CT scanning may be a more effective method for evaluating tumor response than conventional CT scanning. Adjuvant systemic therapies could be administered in coordination with SBRT. SBRT is an effective method of treating patients resulting in excellent local control. Current research is aimed at defining the optimal method of combining this treatment with other cancer therapies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248596600023

    View details for PubMedID 17641521

  • Hypoxia and the unfolded protein response OXYGEN BIOLOGY AND HYPOXIA Koumenis, C., Bi, M., Ye, J., Feldman, D., Koong, A. C. 2007; 435: 275-?


    Tumor hypoxia refers to the development of regions within solid tumors in which the oxygen concentration is lower (0-3%) compared to that in most normal tissues (4-9%) (Vaupel and Hockel, 2000). Considerable experimental and clinical evidence exists supporting the notion that hypoxia fundamentally alters the physiology of the tumor towards a more aggressive phenotype (Hockel and Vaupel, 2001). Therefore, delineating the mechanisms by which hypoxia affects tumor physiology at the cellular and molecular levels will be crucial for a better understanding of tumor development and metastasis and for designing better antitumor modalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0076-6879(07)35014-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251162300014

    View details for PubMedID 17998059

  • Amplification of tumor hypoxic responses by macrophage migration inhibitory factor-dependent hypoxia-inducible factor stabilization CANCER RESEARCH Winner, M., Koong, A. C., Rendon, B. E., Zundel, W., Mitchell, R. A. 2007; 67 (1): 186-193


    Low oxygen tension-mediated transcription by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) has been reported to facilitate tumor progression, therapeutic resistance, and metastatic adaptation. One previously described target of hypoxia-mediated transcription is the cytokine/growth factor macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). In studies designed to better understand hypoxia-stimulated MIF function, we have discovered that not only is MIF induced by hypoxia in pancreatic adenocarcinoma but MIF is also necessary for maximal hypoxia-induced HIF-1alpha expression. Cells lacking MIF are defective in hypoxia- and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor-induced HIF-1alpha stabilization and subsequent transcription of glycolytic and angiogenic gene products. Moreover, COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5), a component of the COP9 signalosome previously reported to functionally interact with MIF, has recently been shown to interact with and stabilize HIF-1alpha. Our results indicate that MIF interacts with CSN5 in pancreatic cancer cells and that MIF-depleted cells display marked defects in hypoxia-induced CSN5/HIF-1alpha interactions. This functional interdependence between HIF-1alpha and MIF may represent an important and previously unrecognized pro-tumorigenic axis.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3292

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243320000024

    View details for PubMedID 17210698

  • Plasma osteopontin is an independent prognostic marker for head and neck cancers JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Petrik, D., Lavori, P. W., Cao, H., Zhu, Y., Wong, P., Christofferson, E., Kaplan, M. J., Pinto, H. A., Sutphin, P., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J., Le, Q. 2006; 24 (33): 5291-5297


    To confirm the relationship between plasma osteopontin (OPN) levels and treatment outcomes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients in an expanded study.One hundred forty patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC were enrolled onto this study, 54 previously reported and 86 new patients. Pretreatment plasma OPN levels were assessed in all patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. OPN levels were correlated to treatment outcomes in the new group of patients. Detailed analyses were also performed on the relationship between OPN and tumor control rate, event-free survival (EFS), and postrelapse survival for the entire group.Using a previously defined cut off point of 450 ng/mL, there was a significant correlation between OPN and freedom-from-relapse (P = .047), overall survival (P = .019), and EFS (P = .023) in the new, independent patient cohort (n = 86). Sequence of event analyses using the entire group (N = 140) revealed that OPN was an independent prognostic factor for initial tumor control, EFS in those who have achieved tumor control, and postrelapse survival.In this expanded study, we were able to replicate the prognostic significance of OPN using a predefined cut off point in an independent patient group and demonstrated that plasma OPN is an independent prognostic marker for HNSCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2006.06.8627

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242342800017

    View details for PubMedID 17114663

  • Results of a phase I dose-escalation study using single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Le, Q., Loo, B. W., Ho, A., Cotrutz, C., Koong, A. C., Wakelee, H., Kee, S. T., Constantinescu, D., Whyte, R. I., Donington, J. 2006; 1 (8): 802-809


    The purpose of this study was to report initial results of a phase I study using single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with inoperable lung tumors.Eligible patients included those with inoperable T1-2N0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or solitary lung metastases. Treatments were delivered by means of the CyberKnife. All patients underwent computed tomography-guided metallic fiducial placement in the tumor for image-guided targeting. Nine to 20 patients were treated per dose cohort starting at 15 Gy/fraction followed by dose escalation of 5 to 10 Gy to a maximal dose of 30 Gy/fraction. A minimal 3-month period was required between each dose level to monitor toxicity.Thirty-two patients (21 NSCLC and 11 metastatic tumors) were enrolled. At 25 Gy, pulmonary toxicity was noted in patients with prior pulmonary RT and treatment volumes greater than 50 cc; therefore, dose escalation to 30 Gy was applied only to unirradiated patients and treatment volume less than 50 cc. Ten patients received doses less than 20 Gy, 20 received 25 Gy, and two received 30 Gy. RT-related complications were noted for doses greater than 25 Gy and included four cases of grade 2 to 3 pneumonitis, one pleural effusion, and three possible treatment-related deaths. The 1-year freedom from local progression was 91% for dose greater than 20 Gy and 54% for dose less than 20 Gy in NSCLC (p = 0.03). NSCLC patients had significantly better freedom from relapse (p = 0.003) and borderline higher survival than those with metastatic tumors (p = 0.07).Single-fraction stereotactic RT is feasible for selected patients with lung tumors. For those with prior thoracic RT, 25 Gy may be too toxic. Higher dose was associated with improved local control. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine the treatment efficacy and toxicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241649300008

    View details for PubMedID 17409963

  • Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography using an on-board imager MEDICAL PHYSICS Li, T., Xing, L., Munro, P., McGuinness, C., Chao, M., Yang, Y., Loo, B., Koong, A. 2006; 33 (10): 3825-3833


    On-board cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has recently become available to provide volumetric information of a patient in the treatment position, and holds promises for improved target localization and irradiation dose verification. The design of currently available on-board CBCT, however, is far from optimal. Its quality is adversely influenced by many factors, such as scatter, beam hardening, and intra-scanning organ motion. In this work we quantitatively study the influence of organ motion on CBCT imaging and investigate a strategy to acquire high quality phase-resolved [four-dimensional (4D)] CBCT images based on phase binning of the CBCT projection data. An efficient and robust method for binning CBCT data according to the patient's respiratory phase derived in the projection space was developed. The phase-binned projections were reconstructed using the conventional Feldkamp algorithm to yield 4D CBCT images. Both phantom and patient studies were carried out to validate the technique and to optimize the 4D CBCT data acquisition protocol. Several factors that are important to the clinical implementation of the technique, such as the image quality, scanning time, number of projections, and radiation dose, were analyzed for various scanning schemes. The general references drawn from this study are: (i) reliable phase binning of CBCT projections is accomplishable with the aid of external or internal marker and simple analysis of its trace in the projection space, and (ii) artifact-free 4D CBCT images can be obtained without increasing the patient radiation dose as compared to the current 3D CBCT scan.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.2349692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241424100024

    View details for PubMedID 17089847

  • Reducing respiratory motion artifacts in positron emission tomography through retrospective stacking MEDICAL PHYSICS Thorndyke, B., Schreibmann, E., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2006; 33 (7): 2632-2641


    Respiratory motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can alter lesion intensity profiles, and result in substantially reduced activity and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). We propose a corrective algorithm, coined "retrospective stacking" (RS), to restore image quality without requiring additional scan time. Retrospective stacking uses b-spline deformable image registration to combine amplitude-binned PET data along the entire respiratory cycle into a single respiratory end point. We applied the method to a phantom model consisting of a small, hot vial oscillating within a warm background, as well as to 18FDG-PET images of a pancreatic and a liver patient. Comparisons were made using cross-section visualizations, activity profiles, and CNRs within the region of interest. Retrospective stacking was found to properly restore the lesion location and intensity profile in all cases. In addition, RS provided CNR improvements up to three-fold over gated images, and up to five-fold over ungated data. These phantom and patient studies demonstrate that RS can correct for lesion motion and deformation, while substantially improving tumor visibility and background noise.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.2207367

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239173900035

    View details for PubMedID 16898467

  • Targeting XBP-1 as a novel anti-cancer strategy CANCER BIOLOGY & THERAPY Koong, A. C., Chauhan, V., Romero-Ramirez, L. 2006; 5 (7): 756-759


    The survival and growth of tumor cells within the microenvironment of a solid tumor necessitates the adaptation of these cells to ER stress. Hypoxia, in the context of the tumor microenvironment, is a critical ER stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). This review focuses on the role of the IRE1-XBP1 branch of the UPR and its role in mediating cell survival and tumor growth. Inhibition of this pathway will be discussed as a therapeutic strategy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240705300017

    View details for PubMedID 16861911

  • Overview of image-guided radiation therapy MEDICAL DOSIMETRY Xing, L., Thorndyke, B., Schreibmann, E., Yang, Y., Li, T., Kim, G., Luxton, G., Koong, A. 2006; 31 (2): 91-112


    Radiation therapy has gone through a series of revolutions in the last few decades and it is now possible to produce highly conformal radiation dose distribution by using techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The improved dose conformity and steep dose gradients have necessitated enhanced patient localization and beam targeting techniques for radiotherapy treatments. Components affecting the reproducibility of target position during and between subsequent fractions of radiation therapy include the displacement of internal organs between fractions and internal organ motion within a fraction. Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) uses advanced imaging technology to better define the tumor target and is the key to reducing and ultimately eliminating the uncertainties. The purpose of this article is to summarize recent advancements in IGRT and discussed various practical issues related to the implementation of the new imaging techniques available to radiation oncology community. We introduce various new IGRT concepts and approaches, and hope to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the emerging clinical IGRT technologies. Some important research topics will also be addressed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.meddos.2005.12.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237818000002

    View details for PubMedID 16690451

  • Evaluation of patterns of failure and subjective salivary function in.patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Daly, M. E., Lieskovsky, Y., Pawlicki, T., Yau, J., PINTO, H., Kaplan, M., Koong, A., Goffinet, D. R., Xing, L., Le, Q. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2006: 289S-289S
  • 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) using an on-board imager Li, T., Xing, L., Munro, P., Yang, Y., Loo, B., Koong, A. AMER ASSOC PHYSICISTS MEDICINE AMER INST PHYSICS. 2006: 2234-2234
  • Mature results from a randomized phase II trial of cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy with or without tirapazamine in patients with resectable stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinomas CANCER Le, Q. T., Taira, A. I., Budenz, S., Dorie, M. J., Goffinet, D. R., Fee, W. E., Goode, R., Bloch, D., Koong, A., Brown, J. M., Pinto, H. A. 2006; 106 (9): 1940-1949


    The objective of this article was to report the results from a randomized trial that evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding tirapazamine (TPZ) to chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC).Sixty-two patients with lymph node-positive, resectable, TNM Stage IV HNSCC were randomized to receive either 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy (TPZ, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy (TPZ, cisplatin, and 5-FU) or to receive the same regimen without TPZ. Patients who did not achieve a complete response at 50 Grays underwent surgical treatment. Stratification factors for randomization included tumor site, TNM stage, and median tumor oxygen tension. The primary endpoint was complete lymph node response.The addition of TPZ resulted in increased hematologic toxicity. There was 1 treatment-related death from induction chemotherapy. The complete clinical and pathologic response rate in the lymph nodes was 90% and 74% for the standard treatment arm and the TPZ arm, respectively (P = .08) and 89% and 90% at the primary site in the respective treatment arms (P = .71). The 5-year overall survival rate was 59%, the cause-specific survival rate was 68%, the rate of freedom from recurrence was 69%, and the locoregional control rate was 77% for the entire group. There was no difference with regard to any of the outcome parameters between the 2 treatment arms. The significant long-term toxicity rate also was found to be similar between the 2 arms.The addition of TPZ increased hematologic toxicity but did not improve outcomes in patients with resectable, Stage IV HNSCC using the protocol administered this small randomized study. The combination of induction and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy resulted in excellent survival in these patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.21785

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237187400010

    View details for PubMedID 16532436

  • An evaluation of tumor oxygenation and gene expression in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancers CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Le, Q. T., Chen, E., Salim, A., Cao, H. B., Kong, C. S., Whyte, R., Donington, J., Cannon, W., Wakelee, H., Tibshirani, R., Mitchell, J. D., Richardson, D., O'Byrne, K. J., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J. 2006; 12 (5): 1507-1514


    To directly assess tumor oxygenation in resectable non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and to correlate tumor pO2 and the selected gene and protein expression to treatment outcomes.Twenty patients with resectable NSCLC were enrolled. Intraoperative measurements of normal lung and tumor pO2 were done with the Eppendorf polarographic electrode. All patients had plasma osteopontin measurements by ELISA. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA IX) staining of tumor sections was done in the majority of patients (n = 16), as was gene expression profiling (n = 12) using cDNA microarrays. Tumor pO2 was correlated with CA IX staining, osteopontin levels, and treatment outcomes.The median tumor pO2 ranged from 0.7 to 46 mm Hg (median, 16.6) and was lower than normal lung pO2 in all but one patient. Because both variables were affected by the completeness of lung deflation during measurement, we used the ratio of tumor/normal lung (T/L) pO2 as a reflection of tumor oxygenation. The median T/L pO2 was 0.13. T/L pO2 correlated significantly with plasma osteopontin levels (r = 0.53, P = 0.02) and CA IX expression (P = 0.006). Gene expression profiling showed that high CD44 expression was a predictor for relapse, which was confirmed by tissue staining of CD44 variant 6 protein. Other variables associated with the risk of relapse were T stage (P = 0.02), T/L pO2 (P = 0.04), and osteopontin levels (P = 0.001).Tumor hypoxia exists in resectable NSCLC and is associated with elevated expression of osteopontin and CA IX. Tumor hypoxia and elevated osteopontin levels and CD44 expression correlated with poor prognosis. A larger study is needed to confirm the prognostic significance of these factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235988000016

    View details for PubMedID 16533775

  • Molecular imaging of HIF-1 alpha and pVHL interaction in living subjects using firefly luciferase complementation - Improvement over the Renilla luciferase system Choi, C. Y., Paulmurugan, R., Chan, D. A., Sutphin, P. D., Le, Q., Koong, A., Gambhir, S. S., Giaccia, A. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S48-S49
  • Image-guided radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer using cone beam CT (CBCT) Lee, P., Xing, L., Pawlicki, T., Tran, P. T., Koong, A., Goodman, K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S276-S276
  • IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer: A dosimetric comparison of conventional 3D, IMRT, and IMRT with integrated boost Hsu, A., Hara, W., Pawlicki, T., Bazan, J., Koong, A., Goodman, K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S674-S674
  • Integrated analysis of pancreatic tumor motion using multiple image-guided modalities Cox, B., Ho, T., Thorndyke, B., Pawlicki, T., Loo, B., Xing, L., Goodman, K., Koong, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S53-S54
  • Verification of gated radiation therapy using pre-treatment four-dimenstional cone-beam CT Li, T., Schreibmann, E., Koong, A., Xu, Q., HAMILTON, R., Xing, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S604-S604
  • Automatic contouring in 4D radiation therapy Chao, M., Schreibmann, E., Li, T., Koong, A., Goodman, K. A., Xing, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S649-S649
  • Expression and prognostic significance of a panel of tissue hypoxia markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) Le, Q., Kong, C., Lavori, P. W., Erler, J., Huang, X., Chen, Y., Cao, H., Denko, N., Giaccia, A., Koong, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: S186-S187
  • Identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways that confer resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae MOLECULAR CANCER RESEARCH Chen, Y. J., Feldman, D. E., Deng, C. C., BROWN, J. A., De Giacomo, A. F., Gaw, A. F., Shi, G. Y., Le, Q. T., Brown, J. M., Koong, A. C. 2005; 3 (12): 669-677


    Hypoxia activates all components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response initiated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our group and others have shown previously that the UPR, a hypoxia-inducible factor-independent signaling pathway, mediates cell survival during hypoxia and is required for tumor growth. Identifying new genes and pathways that are important for survival during ER stress may lead to the discovery of new targets in cancer therapy. Using the set of 4,728 homozygous diploid deletion mutants in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we did a functional screen for genes that conferred resistance to ER stress-inducing agents. Deletion mutants in 56 genes showed increased sensitivity under ER stress conditions. Besides the classic UPR pathway and genes related to calcium homeostasis, we report that two additional pathways, including the SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the osmosensing MAPK pathway, were also required for survival during ER stress. We further show that the SLT2 MAPK pathway was activated during ER stress, was responsible for increased resistance to ER stress, and functioned independently of the classic IRE1/HAC1 pathway. We propose that the SLT2 MAPK pathway is an important cell survival signaling pathway during ER stress. This study shows the feasibility of using the yeast deletion pool to identify relevant mammalian orthologues of the UPR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0181

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234499800003

    View details for PubMedID 16380504

  • Radiation dose reduction in four-dimensional computed tomography MEDICAL PHYSICS Li, T., Schreibmann, E., Thorndyke, B., Tillman, G., Boyer, A., Koong, A., Goodman, K., Xing, L. 2005; 32 (12): 3650-3660


    Four-dimensional (4D) CT is useful in many clinical situations, where detailed abdominal and thoracic imaging is needed over the course of the respiratory cycle. However, it usually delivers a larger radiation dose than the standard three-dimensional (3D) CT, since multiple scans at each couch position are required in order to provide the temporal information. Our purpose in this work is to develop a method to perform 4D CT scans at relatively low current, hence reducing the radiation exposure of the patients. To deal with the increased statistical noise caused by the low current, we proposed a novel 4D penalized weighted least square (4D-PWLS) smoothing method, which can incorporate both spatial and phase information. The 4D images at different phases were registered to the same phase via a deformable model, thereby, a regularization term combining temporal and spatial neighbors can be designed for the 4D-PWLS objective function. The proposed method was tested with phantom experiments and a patient study, and superior noise suppression and resolution preservation were observed. A quantitative evaluation of the benefit of the proposed method to 4D radiotherapy and 4D PET/CT imaging are under investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.2122567

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234643700016

    View details for PubMedID 16475764

  • The unfolded protein response: A novel component of the hypoxic stress response in tumors MOLECULAR CANCER RESEARCH Feldman, D. E., Chauhan, V., Koong, A. C. 2005; 3 (11): 597-605


    Hypoxia is a physiologically important endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is present in all solid tumors. Numerous clinical studies have shown that tumor hypoxia predicts for decreased local control, increased distant metastases, and decreased overall survival in a variety of human tumors. Hypoxia selects for tumors with an increased malignant phenotype and increases the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Tumor cells respond to hypoxia and ER stress through the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is an adaptive response to increase cell survival during ER stress. XBP-1 is a critical transcriptional regulator of this process and is required for tumor growth. Pancreatic ER kinase (PKR-like ER kinase) regulates the translational branch of the UPR and is also important in the growth of tumors. Although the exact mechanism has yet to be elucidated, recent data suggest that the UPR affects tumor growth through protection from apoptosis and may influence angiogenic signaling pathways. Targeting various components of the UPR is a promising therapeutic strategy. Understanding the relationship between hypoxia, the UPR, and tumor growth is crucial to improving current cancer therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0221

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233959900001

    View details for PubMedID 16317085

  • Phase II study to assess the efficacy of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy followed by a stereotactic radiosurgery boost in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Koong, A. C., Christofferson, E., Le, Q. T., Goodman, K. A., Ho, A., Kuo, T., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Greco, R., Norton, J., Yang, G. P. 2005; 63 (2): 320-323


    To determine the efficacy of concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) followed by body stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.In this prospective study, all patients (19) had pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and were uniformly staged. Our treatment protocol consisted of 45 Gy IMRT with concurrent 5-FU followed by a 25 Gy SRS boost to the primary tumor.Sixteen patients completed the planned therapy. Two patients experienced Grade 3 toxicity (none had more than Grade 3 toxicity). Fifteen of these 16 patients were free from local progression until death. Median overall survival was 33 weeks.Concurrent IMRT and 5-FU followed by SRS in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer results in excellent local control, but does not improve overall survival and is associated with more toxicity than SRS, alone.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.07.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232083700002

    View details for PubMedID 16168826

  • Hypoxia upregulates osteopontin expression in NIH-3T3 cells via a ras-activated enhancer ONCOGENE Zhu, Y. H., Denhardt, D. T., Cao, H. B., Sutphin, P. D., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J., Le, Q. T. 2005; 24 (43): 6555-6563


    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoglycoprotein that has been linked to tumor progression and survival in several solid tumors, including head and neck cancers. Previous studies showed that OPN expression is induced by tumor hypoxia, and its plasma levels can serve as a surrogate marker for tumor hypoxia and treatment outcome in head and neck cancer patients. In this study, we investigate the transcriptional mechanism by which hypoxia enhances OPN expression. We found that OPN is induced in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and in NIH3T3 cells by hypoxia at both mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. Actinomycin D chase experiments showed that hypoxic induction of OPN was not due to increased mRNA stability. Deletion analyses of the mouse OPN promoter regions indicated that a ras-activated enhancer (RAE) located at -731 to -712 relative to the transcription start site was essential for hypoxia-enhanced OPN transcription. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays with the RAE DNA sequence, we found that hypoxia induced sequence-specific DNA-binding complexes. Furthermore, hypoxia and ras exposure resulted in an additive induction of OPN protein and mRNA levels that appeared to be mediated by the RAE. Induction of OPN through the RAE element by hypoxia is mediated by an Akt-kinase signaled pathway as decreasing Akt levels with dominant negative constructs resulted in inhibition of OPN induction by hypoxia. Taken together, these results have identified a new hypoxia responsive transcriptional enhancer that is regulated by Akt signaling.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.onc.1208800

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232204100009

    View details for PubMedID 16007184

  • A noninvasive approach for assessing tumor hypoxia in xenografts: Developing a urinary marker for hypoxia CANCER RESEARCH Nelson, D. W., Cao, H. B., Zhu, Y. H., Sunar-Reeder, B., Choi, C. Y., Faix, J. D., Brown, J. M., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J., Le, Q. T. 2005; 65 (14): 6151-6158


    Tumor hypoxia modifies the efficacy of conventional anticancer therapy and promotes malignant tumor progression. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein secreted during pregnancy that has been used to monitor tumor burden in xenografts engineered to express this marker. We adapted this approach to use urinary beta-hCG as a secreted reporter protein for tumor hypoxia. We used a hypoxia-inducible promoter containing five tandem repeats of the hypoxia-response element (HRE) ligated upstream of the beta-hCG gene. This construct was stably integrated into two different cancer cell lines, FaDu, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and RKO, a human colorectal cancer cell line. In vitro studies showed that tumor cells stably transfected with this plasmid construct secrete beta-hCG in response to hypoxia or hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) stabilizing agents. The hypoxia responsiveness of this construct can be blocked by treatment with agents that affect the HIF-1alpha pathways, including topotecan, 1-benzyl-3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)indazole (YC-1), and flavopiridol. Immunofluorescent analysis of tumor sections and quantitative assessment with flow cytometry indicate colocalization between beta-hCG and 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetamide (EF5) and beta-hCG and pimonidazole, two extrinsic markers for tumor hypoxia. Secretion of beta-hCG from xenografts that contain these stable constructs is directly responsive to changes in tumor oxygenation, including exposure of the animals to 10% O2 and tumor bed irradiation. Similarly, urinary beta-hCG levels decline after treatment with flavopiridol, an inhibitor of HIF-1 transactivation. This effect was observed only in tumor cells expressing a HRE-regulated reporter gene and not in tumor cells expressing a cytomegalovirus-regulated reporter gene. The 5HRE beta-hCG reporter system described here enables serial, noninvasive monitoring of tumor hypoxia in a mouse model by measuring a urinary reporter protein.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230633400024

    View details for PubMedID 16024616

  • Enhancing 4D PET through retrospective stacking Thorndyke, B., Schreibmann, E., Maxim, P., Loo, B., Boyer, A., Koong, A., Xing, L. AMER ASSOC PHYSICISTS MEDICINE AMER INST PHYSICS. 2005: 2096-2096
  • Inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth and progression by a human monoclonal antibody specific for connective tissue growth factor. Spong, S. M., Dornhofer, N., Wong, C., Lomongsod, E., Salim, A., Le, Q., Koong, A., Klaus, S., Giaccia, A. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2005: 345S-345S
  • An expanded study of the relationship between osteopontin, tumor pO(2) and prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Petrik, D. W., Cao, H., Zhu, Y., Wong, P., Sutphin, P., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. A., Le, Q. T. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2005: 505S-505S
  • Sample classification from protein mass spectrometry, by 'peak probability contrasts' BIOINFORMATICS Tibshirani, R., Hastie, T., Narasimhan, B., Soltys, S., Shi, G. Y., Koong, A., Le, Q. T. 2004; 20 (17): 3034-3044


    Early cancer detection has always been a major research focus in solid tumor oncology. Early tumor detection can theoretically result in lower stage tumors, more treatable diseases and ultimately higher cure rates with less treatment-related morbidities. Protein mass spectrometry is a potentially powerful tool for early cancer detection. We propose a novel method for sample classification from protein mass spectrometry data. When applied to spectra from both diseased and healthy patients, the 'peak probability contrast' technique provides a list of all common peaks among the spectra, their statistical significance and their relative importance in discriminating between the two groups. We illustrate the method on matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry data from a study of ovarian cancers.Compared to other statistical approaches for class prediction, the peak probability contrast method performs as well or better than several methods that require the full spectra, rather than just labelled peaks. It is also much more interpretable biologically. The peak probability contrast method is a potentially useful tool for sample classification from protein mass spectrometry data.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/bioinformatics/bth357

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225361400017

    View details for PubMedID 15226172

  • Identification of hypoxia-regulated proteins in head and neck cancer by proteomic and tissue array profiling CANCER RESEARCH Chen, Y. J., Shi, G. Y., Wei, X., Kong, C., Zhao, S. C., Gaw, A. F., CHEN, E. Y., Yang, G. P., Giaccia, A. J., Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C. 2004; 64 (20): 7302-7310


    Hypoxia within solid tumors decreases therapeutic efficacy, and identification of hypoxia markers may influence the choice of therapeutic modality. Here, we used a proteomic approach to identify hypoxia-regulated proteins and validated their use as endogenous indicators of tumor hypoxia. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and PowerBlot (antibody-based array), we identified a group of 20 proteins that are increased >/=1.5-fold during hypoxia. The majority of these proteins such as IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), MKK3b, highly expressed in cancer (HEC), density-regulated protein 1, P150(glued), nuclear transport factor 2, binder of ARL 2, Paxillin, and transcription termination factor I have not been previously reported to be hypoxia inducible. The increase in these proteins under hypoxia was mediated through posttranscriptional mechanisms. We additionally characterized the role of IKKbeta, a regulator of the nuclear factor-kappaB transcription factor, during hypoxia. We demonstrated that IKKbeta mediates cell survival during hypoxia and is induced in a variety of squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that IKKbeta expression from tumor specimens correlated with tumor oxygenation in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. These data suggest that IKKbeta is a novel endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and may represent a new target for anticancer therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224522200021

    View details for PubMedID 15492250

  • Phase II double-blind randomized study comparing oral aloe vera versus placebo to prevent radiation-related mucositis in patients with head-and-neck neoplasms INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Su, C. K., Mehta, V., Ravikumar, L., Shah, R., PINTO, H., Halpern, J., Koong, A., Goffinet, D., Le, Q. T. 2004; 60 (1): 171-177


    In a single-institution, double-blind, prospective, randomized trial, we determined whether oral aloe vera gel can reduce radiation-induced mucositis in head-and-neck cancer patients.We randomized 58 head-and-neck cancer patients between oral aloe vera and placebo. To be included in this Phase II protocol, patients had to be treated with radiotherapy with curative intent at Stanford University between February 1999 and March 2002. We examined patients biweekly for mucositis at 15 head-and-neck subsites and administered quality-of-life questionnaires.Patients in the aloe and placebo groups were statistically identical in baseline characteristics. By the end of treatment, the two groups were also statistically identical in maximal grade of toxicity, duration of Grade 2 or worse mucositis, quality-of-life scores, percentage of weight loss, use of pain medications, hydration requirement, oral infections, and prolonged radiation breaks.In our randomized study, oral aloe vera was not a beneficial adjunct to head-and-neck radiotherapy. The mean quality-of-life scores were greater in the aloe vera group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Oral aloe vera did not improve tolerance to head-and-neck radiotherapy, decrease mucositis, reduce soreness, or otherwise improve patient well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.02.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223854500022

    View details for PubMedID 15337553

  • The use of plasma surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proteomic patterns for detection of head and neck squamous cell cancers CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Soltys, S. G., Le, Q. T., Shi, G. Y., Tibshirani, R., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. C. 2004; 10 (14): 4806-4812


    Our study was undertaken to determine the utility of plasma proteomic profiling using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs).Pretreatment plasma samples from HNSCC patients or controls without known neoplastic disease were analyzed on the Protein Biology System IIc SELDI-TOF mass spectrometer (Ciphergen Biosystems, Fremont, CA). Proteomic spectra of mass:charge ratio (m/z) were generated by the application of plasma to immobilized metal-affinity-capture (IMAC) ProteinChip arrays activated with copper. A total of 37356 data points were generated for each sample. A training set of spectra from 56 cancer patients and 52 controls were applied to the "Lasso" technique to identify protein profiles that can distinguish cancer from noncancer, and cross-validation was used to determine test errors in this training set. The discovery pattern was then used to classify a separate masked test set of 57 cancer and 52 controls. In total, we analyzed the proteomic spectra of 113 cancer patients and 104 controls.The Lasso approach identified 65 significant data points for the discrimination of normal from cancer profiles. The discriminatory pattern correctly identified 39 of 57 HNSCC patients and 40 of 52 noncancer controls in the masked test set. These results yielded a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 73%. Subgroup analyses in the test set of four different demographic factors (age, gender, and cigarette and alcohol use) that can potentially confound the interpretation of the results suggest that this model tended to overpredict cancer in control smokers.Plasma proteomic profiling with SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry provides moderate sensitivity and specificity in discriminating HNSCC. Further improvement and validation of this approach is needed to determine its usefulness in screening for this disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222840700027

    View details for PubMedID 15269156

  • Identification of hypoxia regulated proteins in head and neck cancer by proteomic and tissue array profiling. Cancer Res Chen, et al 2004; 64 (20): 7302-10
  • Improved local control with stereotactic radiosurgical boost in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Le, Q. T., Tate, D., Koong, A., Gibbs, I. C., Chang, S. D., Adler, J. R., Pinto, H. A., Terris, D. J., Fee, W. E., Goffinet, D. R. 2003; 56 (4): 1046-1054


    Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone is associated with a significant risk of local recurrence. Stereotactic radiosurgery (STR) was used to boost the tumor site after EBRT to improve local control.Forty-five nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients received a STR boost after EBRT at Stanford University. Seven had T1, 16 had T2, 4 had T3, and 18 had T4 tumors (1997 American Joint Commission on Cancer staging). Ten had Stage II, 8 had Stage III, and 27 had Stage IV neoplasms. Most patients received 66 Gy of EBRT delivered at 2 Gy/fraction. Thirty-six received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. STR was delivered to the primary site 4-6 weeks after EBRT in one fraction of 7-15 Gy.At a medium follow-up of 31 months, no local failures had occurred. The 3-year local control rate was 100%, the freedom from distant metastasis rate was 69%, the progression-free survival rate was 71%, and the overall survival rate was 75%. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed N stage (favoring N0-N1, p = 0.02, hazard ratio HR 4.2) and World Health Organization histologic type (favoring type III, p = 0.002, HR 13) as significant factors for freedom from distant metastasis. World Health Organization histologic type (p = 0.004, HR 10.5) and age (p = 0.01, HR 1.07/y) were significant factors for survival. Late toxicity included transient cranial nerve weakness in 4, radiation-related retinopathy in 1, and asymptomatic temporal lobe necrosis in 3 patients who originally had intracranial tumor extension.STR boost after EBRT provided excellent local control in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. The incidence of late toxicity was acceptable. More effective systemic treatment is needed to achieve improved survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0360-3016(03)00117-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183937500018

    View details for PubMedID 12829140

  • Comparison of the comet assay and the oxygen microelectrode for measuring tumor oxygenation in head-and-neck cancer patients INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Le, Q. T., Kovacs, M. S., Dorie, M. J., Koong, A., Terris, D. J., Pinto, H. A., Goffinet, D. R., Nowels, K., Bloch, D., Brown, J. M. 2003; 56 (2): 375-383


    To compare the Eppendorf PO2 histograph and the alkaline comet assay as methods of measuring tumor hypoxia in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas.As part of a larger clinical trial, 65 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma nodal metastasis underwent tumor oxygenation measurements with Eppendorf PO2 histographs and comet assays, performed on fine-needle aspirates at 1 and 2 min after 5 Gy. Fifty-four patients had sufficient tumor cells for comet analysis at 1 min and 26 at both 1 and 2 min. Individual cells were examined for DNA single-strand breaks by alkaline gel electrophoresis, and the distribution of values was quantified using median tail moment (MTM). Nonirradiated tumor cells from pretreatment fine-needle aspirates received 5 Gy in vitro to establish the oxygenated response.There was a significant correlation between the 1- and 2-min MTM (slope = 0.77 +/- 0.03). There was no relationship between DNA damage in tumor cells irradiated in vitro and in vivo. No correlation was found between Eppendorf PO2 measurements and comet MTM. There was a statistically significant correlation between the treatment response in the node studied and comet MTMs, whereas no correlation was observed between treatment response and Eppendorf measurements.Comet assays are reproducible, as shown by biopsies at 1 and 2 min. Intertumor variation in the MTM is not a result of intrinsic radiosensitivity but of tumor hypoxia. There was no correlation between Eppendorf PO2 measurements and comet MTM. Comet assays were better than Eppendorf in predicting treatment response as an end point for short-term outcome. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the role of the comet assay as a predictor for locoregional tumor control and survivals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0360-3016(02)04503-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182861500010

    View details for PubMedID 12738312

  • Phase II trial of preoperative 3D conformal radiotherapy, protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil, and weekly CPT-11, followed by surgery for ultrasound-staged T3 rectal cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Mehta, V. K., Cho, C., Ford, J. M., Jambalos, C., Poen, J., Koong, A., Lin, A., Bastidas, J. A., Young, H., Dunphy, E. P., Fisher, G. 2003; 55 (1): 132-137


    CPT-11 sensitizes tumor cells to radiation and in combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) results in enhanced cytotoxicity to metastatic colorectal cancer. We report the results from a Phase II trial of preoperative radiotherapy (RT), CPT-11, and 5-FU for patients with ultrasound-staged T3 rectal cancer.Between April 1999 and August 2001, 32 patients (21 men, 11 women; median age 52 years, range 40-74) with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent endorectal ultrasonography for staging (uT3N0 = 19; uT3N1 = 13; uT2N1 = 1). RT was prescribed to the draining lymph nodes (45 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions) and tumor (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions). Patients also received concurrent CPT-11 (50 mg/m(2), Days 1, 8, 15, and 22) and 5-FU (200 mg/m(2) daily, 7 d/wk, Days 1-33). Surgical resection was performed 6-10 weeks after completing chemoradiotherapy.Acute toxicity was frequently observed, and 18 patients (56%) required either a chemotherapy dose reduction or RT interruption of >3 days. One patient withdrew because of diarrhea and abdominal cramping (Grade III) after 10 days of treatment. Although no Grade IV toxicity was observed, Grade III diarrhea (n = 9, 28%), mucositis (n = 7, 21%), rectal sores (n = 7, 21%), abdominal cramping (n = 3, 9%) were noted. Of the 32 patients who underwent surgery, 12 had a complete pathologic response. Of the 32 patients, the disease of 23 (71%) was downstaged. The average length of hospitalization was between 5 and 12 days, with 1 patient staying 33 days. All patients were followed for disease-free survival.Although associated with frequent acute toxicity, the regimen is associated with significant tumor "downstaging." Additional patients and longer follow-up are necessary to define the role of this regimen fully.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181070600018

    View details for PubMedID 12504045

  • Extracranial radiosurgery using the CyberKnife TECHNIQUES IN NEUROSURGERY Romanelli, P., Chang, S. D., Koong, A., Adler, J. R. 2003; 9 (3): 226-231
  • Identification of osteopontin as a prognostic plasma marker for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Le, Q. T., Sutphin, P. D., Raychaudhuri, S., Yu, S. C., Terris, D. J., Lin, H. S., Lum, B., Pinto, H. A., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J. 2003; 9 (1): 59-67


    Tumor hypoxia modifies treatment efficacy and promotes tumor progression. Here, we investigated the relationship between osteopontin (OPN), tumor pO(2), and prognosis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC).We performed linear discriminant analysis, a machine learning algorithm, on the NCI-60 cancer cell line microarray expression database to identify a gene profile that best distinguish cell lines with high Von-Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene expression, an important regulator of hypoxia-related genes, from those with low expression. Plasma OPN levels in 15 volunteers, 31 VHL patients, and 54 HNSCC patients were quantitatively measured by ELISA. The relationships between plasma OPN levels, tumor pO(2) as measured by the Eppendorf microelectrode, freedom from relapse (FFR), and survival in HNSCC patients were evaluated.Microarray analysis indicated that OPN gene expression inversely correlated with that of VHL. These findings were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. ELISA studies and Western blot in a HNSCC cell line demonstrated that hypoxia exposure resulted in increased OPN secretion. Patients with VHL syndrome had significantly higher plasma OPN levels than healthy volunteers. Plasma OPN level inversely correlated with tumor pO(2) (P = 0.003, r = -0.42). OPN levels correlated with clinical outcomes. The 1-year FFR and survival rates were 80 and 100%, respectively, for patients with OPN levels 450 ng/ml (P = 0.002 and 0.0005). Multivariate analysis revealed that OPN was an independent predictor for FFR and survival.Plasma OPN levels appeared to correlate with tumor hypoxia in HNSCC patients and may serve as noninvasive tests to identify patients at high risk for tumor recurrence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180430600008

    View details for PubMedID 12538452

  • Estimating DNA repair by sequential evaluation of head and neck tumor radiation sensitivity using the comet assay ARCHIVES OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Terris, D. J., Ho, E. Y., Ibrahim, H. Z., Dorie, M. J., Kovacs, M. S., Le, Q. T., Koong, A. C., Pinto, H. A., Brown, J. M. 2002; 128 (6): 698-702


    The alkaline comet assay is a microelectrophoretic technique for detecting single-strand DNA breaks, and may be used as an indirect measure of hypoxia by determining the radiation sensitivity of individual cells.To assess the ability of the comet assay to estimate the rate of DNA repair after irradiation in patients with head and neck cancer.The comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage in fine-needle aspirates of lymph nodes containing metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in patients with head and neck cancer 1, 2, and 3 minutes after treatment with 500 rad (5 Gy) of irradiation. The amount of DNA damage (measured as the "tail moment" of the comet) is proportional to the number of DNA single-strand breaks after irradiation, which in turn depends on the oxygen concentration in each cell.The mean +/- SD of the median tail moment of the 1-minute postirradiation comets was 29.4 +/- 14.2 (n = 27). After 2 minutes, the mean median tail moment decreased to 25.4 +/- 13.6 (n = 25), representing a mean decrease of 11.9% in those patients with both 1- and 2-minute comet assays. Assuming a linear rate of repair, this decrease in DNA damage corresponds to a repair half-life of 4.2 minutes. A 3-minute assay was also performed on samples from a smaller number of patients (n = 9), with a mean value not significantly different from that of the 2-minute assay of the samples from this group.The comet assay is a promising tool for evaluating radiation sensitivity in individual cells. The rate of DNA repair early after irradiation is consistent with data in the literature.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176264300013

    View details for PubMedID 12049567

  • Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia: Regarding Koong et al. IJROBP 2000;48 : 919-922 - Response INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Koong, A. C., Brown, J. M., Fulton, R. 2001; 50 (4): 1100-1100
  • Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in cervical cancer cells by the tumor microenvironment CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Denko, N., Schindler, C., Koong, A., Laderoute, K., Green, C., Giaccia, A. 2000; 6 (2): 480-487


    Evidence is accumulating that the adverse tumor microenvironment both modifies the malignant progression of tumor cells and contributes to chemotherapy and radiation resistance. We hypothesized that some of the effects on malignant progression are mediated through the transcriptional regulation of genes responsive to the stresses of the microenvironment, such as low oxygen or low glucose conditions. To determine epigenetic changes in gene expression that were consistent with that hypothesis, we used an in vitro subtractive hybridization method, representational difference analysis, to identify hypoxia-induced cDNAs from cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We identified 12 induced genes: two novel genes (HIG1 and HIG2), three genes known to be hypoxia-inducible (tissue factor, GAPDH, thioredoxin), and seven genes not previously identified as hypoxia-inducible [HNRNP(a1), ribosomal L7, annexin V, lipocortin 2, Ku(70), PRPP synthase, and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase]. In cultured cells, HIG1 and HIG2 expression is induced by hypoxia and by glucose deprivation, but their expression is not induced by serum deprivation, UV, or ionizing radiation. The putative HIG1 and HIG2 open reading frames are expressed in cells, as confirmed by epitope tagging. In addition, tumor xenografts derived from human cervical cancer cells display increased expression of HIG1 and HIG2 when they are deprived of oxygen. Taken together, these data suggest a coordinated transcriptional response of eukaryotic cells to microenvironmental stresses found in the solid tumor.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085502600023

    View details for PubMedID 10690527



    We have previously shown that hypoxia causes the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), and the phosphorylation of its inhibitory subunit, I kappa B alpha, on tyrosine residues. With the use of dominant negative mutants of Ha-Ras and Raf-1, we investigated some of the early signaling events leading to the activation of NF-kappa B by hypoxia. Both dominant negative alleles of Ha-Ras and Raf-1 inhibited NF-kappa B induction by hypoxia, suggesting that the hypoxia-induced pathway of NF-kappa B induction is dependent on Ras and Raf-1 kinase activity. Furthermore, although conditions of low oxygen can also activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2), these kinases do not appear to be involved in regulating NF-kappa B by low oxygen conditions, as dominant negative mutants of mitogen-activated protein kinase do not inhibit NF-kappa B activation by hypoxia. Since Ras and Raf-1 have been previously shown to work downstream from membrane-associated tyrosine kinases such as Src, we determined if the Src membrane-associated kinase was also activated by low oxygen conditions. We detected an increase in Src proto-oncogene activity within 15-30 min of cellular exposure to hypoxia. We postulate that Src activation by hypoxia may be one of the earliest events that precedes Ras activation in the signaling cascade which ultimately leads to the phosphorylation and dissociation of the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappa B, I kappa B alpha.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PL55800007

    View details for PubMedID 7923153



    Exposure of non-excitatory cells to the tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors, genistein, herbimycin A, and tyrphostin, induced at least two families of K+ currents. The first, a TEA-insensitive slow-inactivating K+ current, is induced within 3 min following treatment with 140 mM genistein or 100 nM herbimycin A. The second current, a TEA-sensitive delayed rectifier, is induced within 30 min following treatment with 50 mM genistein or 10 nM herbimycin A. Currents with similar biophysical and pharmacological characteristics are induced in these cells following exposure to ionizing radiation. The radiation-induced currents are inhibited by pretreatment with the free radical scavenger, N-Acetyl L-Cysteine, or by pretreatment with the protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine; those induced by PTK inhibitors are not. The latter, therefore, do not appear to be mediated through free radicals or require serine/threonine phosphorylation for activation. Once the channels are activated by the PTK inhibitors, phosphorylation of the channel at serine/threonine residues results in slower inactivation of the induced current. We propose that protein tyrosine phosphorylation of the K+ channel protein itself or of a factor that interacts with it maintains the K+ channels of non-excitatory cells in a closed state. Following exposure to ionizing radiation, free radical-induced activation of serine/threonine kinase(s) results in phosphorylation of the channel and/or inactivation of a tyrosine kinase that in turn leads to activation of the K+ channels.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PK53000016

    View details for PubMedID 7929599



    By understanding the signal transduction pathways through which a cell responds to changes in environmental oxygen levels, we may be able to therapeutically exploit this response by manipulating these pathways.The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was exposed to varying durations of hypoxia alone and then plated for survival, or treated with PKC activating agents for 1 h before plating for survival. Western blots were used to determine the kinetics of PKC epsilon and phospholipase C induction.The level of hypoxic killing was directly related to the time of exposure and inversely related to the level of oxygen in the environment. Exposure of the cells to protein kinase C (PKC) activators for 1 h after chronic hypoxic exposure increased cell killing by at least an additional three logs beyond that found for hypoxia alone. Treatment of cells with an inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (PDA) resulted in no increase in hypoxic cell killing, even at the highest concentrations of PDA which produced no detectable toxicity under normal aerobic conditions. Using inhibitors of phospholipases A2 and C, we were able to completely inhibit the additional hypoxic cell killing induced by TPA, but not the uninduced hypoxic cell killing.These studies suggest that accumulation of phospholipid breakdown products may be responsible for TPA induced cell killing, and that hypoxic cells differ from aerobic cells in their ability to tolerate these products.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NN51200007

    View details for PubMedID 8195017



    In the absence of stress, heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) exists as a monomer. After the treatment of cells with variety of stresses, HSF-1 forms a trimer and binds to the heat shock element (HSE), a motif consisting of three consecutive NGAAN sequences located in an inverted orientation upstream of the heat shock genes. HSF-1 is then phosphorylated causing transactivation of heat shock mRNAs. Treatment of cells with some of the stresses has been shown to increase HSF binding to HSE without detectably increasing the synthesis of heat shock mRNAs. Here we used antibody specific to HSF-1 to detect its phosphorylation status following exposure of A549, a human lung carcinoma cell line to a variety of stresses in order to correlate HSF-1 phosphorylation with its transactivation ability. Our studies show that HSF-1 is phosphorylated following heat shock (43 degrees C for 1 h), hypoxia (5 h exposure to 0.02% oxygen), 8% ethanol (1 h exposure at 37 degrees C), or 200 microM sodium arsenite (1 h exposure at 37 degrees C). All such stresses have previously been shown to increase the synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps). However, there are no detectable increases in HSF-1 phosphorylation after the treatment of cells with X-irradiation (2-8 Gy) or 100 microM canavanine, an amino acid analogue (1 h exposure at 37 degrees C). Treatment of cells with X-irradiation increases HSF binding to HSE without increasing the synthesis of hsps, while treatment of cells with canavanine has been shown to increase the synthesis of hsps.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NP47600009

    View details for PubMedID 7930803



    In this study, we have shown that steady-state levels of glucose-regulated 78 kDa (GRP78) protein and messenger RNA increase during a 5-h exposure to 0.02% oxygen. This increase in GRP78 protein and mRNA induced by hypoxia can be abolished by a 1-h pretreatment of cells before hypoxia with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporine and H7 at concentrations at which the drugs themselves do not cause cytotoxicity. Although all studies using protein kinase inhibitors must be interpreted with caution, staurosporine and H7 have been shown to be potent inhibitors of PKC activity, suggesting a role for PKC in mediating the transcriptional regulation of GRP78 by hypoxia. Further support for PKC in regulating GRP78 gene expression by hypoxia stems from gel-mobility shift studies in mixtures of nuclear extracts from aerobic or hypoxic cells with a 36 bp region of the GRP78 promoter (-170 to -135). Binding of this factor could be inhibited by pretreating cells with the PKC inhibitor staurosporine before hypoxia or activated by treating cells with the PKC-activating phorbol ester TPA. These data suggest that activation of this hypoxia-responsive factor is sensitive to oxygen levels and seems to be mediated through a PKC signal transduction pathway.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NF37900016

    View details for PubMedID 8146329



    The response of mammalian cells to stress is controlled by transcriptional regulatory proteins such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) to induce a wide variety of early response genes. In this report, we show that exposure of cells to hypoxia (0.02% O2) results in I kappa B alpha degradation, increased NF-kappa B DNA binding activity, and transactivation of a reporter gene construct containing two NF-kappa B DNA binding sites. Pretreatment of cells with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the dominant negative allele of c-Raf-1 (Raf 301) inhibited I kappa B alpha degradation, NF-kappa B binding, and transactivation of kappa B reporter constructs by hypoxia. To demonstrate a direct link between changes in the phosphorylation pattern of I kappa B alpha with NF-kappa B activation, we immunoprecipitated I kappa B alpha after varying times of hypoxic exposure and found that its tyrosine phosphorylation status increased during hypoxic exposure. Inhibition of the transfer of tyrosine phosphoryl groups onto I kappa B alpha prevented I kappa B alpha degradation and NF-kappa B binding. In comparison to other activators of NF-kappa B such as phorbol myristate acetate or tumor necrosis factor, we did not detect changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation status of I kappa B alpha following treatment with either of these agents. These results suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha during hypoxia is an important proximal step which precedes its dissociation and degradation from NF-kappa B.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NA88700009

    View details for PubMedID 8137243



    To develop a molecular strategy of increasing cytotoxicity of chronically hypoxic cells by inhibiting Glucose Regulated Protein 78 kDal (GRP78) induction.A mutant nonGRP78 inducing cell line (78WO) was developed from its parent (DG44) by overexpressing antisense GRP78 mRNA. Following exposure to varying durations of hypoxia, Northern and Western blot analysis were used to characterize the amount of GRP78 expression both at the RNA and protein level. Hypoxia was achieved by placing cells in specially designed hypoxic chambers which were subjected to successive rounds of evacuation and flushing with 95% CO2/N2 to reduce the oxygen in the environment to 0.02% oxygen. After treatment with hypoxia, cells were assayed for colony forming ability.GRP78 mRNA and protein induction following exposure to hypoxia was 3-4 fold lower in the 78WO cell line than in the parental DG44 cell line. Furthermore, it was observed that there was no difference in the cytotoxicity of 78WO and DG44 cells after 10 h of hypoxia. However, after 15 h of hypoxia, the survival of 78WO cells decreased by 1 log and after 20 h of hypoxia, the survival of 78WO decreased by another log.These results show that stress protein induction is important for cellular survival to chronic hypoxia and that inhibition of GRP78 induction may represent a novel therapeutic strategy by selectively sensitizing chronically hypoxic cells within solid tumors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NA83600012

    View details for PubMedID 8113109



    Active oxygen species are generated in cells during pathophysiologic conditions such as inflammation and postischemic reperfusion. If oxygen radical scavengers are added before reperfusion, then the magnitude of injury is reduced. We investigated whether free radicals generated following exposure to hypoxia and reoxygenation activate voltage-dependent K+ ion channels in tumor cells in vitro. Using the technique of whole cell voltage clamping, we recorded currents from two families of potassium (K+) channels that were activated following reoxygenation. One of these groups possessed the electrophysical characteristics of a tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive delayed rectifier channel and the other possessed characteristics of a Tea-insensitive slow inactivating channel. We present evidence which suggests that K+ channels are activated following reoxygenation but not during the hypoxia phase. The K+ currents decayed with time following reoxygenation. The decay characteristics of the K+ currents depended on the duration and level of hypoxia to which the cells were exposed. To determine whether activation of K+ channels by reoxygenation was initiated by free radicals, we pretreated cells with N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger, and found that this pretreatment abolished the currents induced by reoxygenation. We also present evidence that free radicals do not directly act on the channel itself, but activate a protein kinase which, in turn, activates the K+ channels. Taken together, these results indicate that one of the early responses to oxidative stress is the activation of K+ currents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LP82200016

    View details for PubMedID 8344990



    Active oxygen species are generated during pathophysiologic conditions such as inflammation and ionizing radiation exposure. We tested the hypothesis that an early cellular event in response to these species involves regulation of ion channels. We exposed cells to gamma-irradiation or treated them with hydrogen peroxide, xanthine/xanthine oxidase, or [3H]thymidine and then monitored channel activity by the technique of whole-cell voltage clamping. Recordings showed that both normal and tumor cells exhibit an increase in K+ currents after treatment with radiation, H2O2, and xanthine/xanthine oxidase but not with high specific activity [3H]thymidine, suggesting that the signal for K+ channel activation originates at the cell membrane. A single noncytotoxic dose of 10 cGy induced measurable levels of K+ currents, suggesting that the induction of currents regulates biochemical changes in response to stress. To test whether channel activity is sensitive to active oxygen species, we pretreated cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to increase cellular pools of free radical scavengers before radiation. In NAC-pretreated cells, K+ channel activation by gamma-irradiation was abolished. It has previously been shown that protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by ionizing radiation and can regulate K+ channels in some cells. However, the effect of radiation on induction of K+ channel activity was independent of PKC, since cells chronically exposed to phorbol esters still produced K+ currents after radiation. These results suggest that an early cellular response to oxidative stress is the activation of K+ channels.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KK81300028

    View details for PubMedID 8430104



    Cells exposed to hypoxia increase their synthesis of a specific set of proteins called oxygen regulated proteins. Recently, three of these proteins have been identified as hemoxygenase, Glucose Regulated Protein 78 kilodaltons and Glucose Regulated Protein 94 kilodaltons. In contrast, reoxygenation from hypoxic conditions increases the synthesis of the heat shock proteins. Although the molecular signals required for regulation of both sets of proteins by hypoxia and reoxygenation are still under investigation, it is known that their expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. This finding suggests that these stresses work either singularly or together to control the activation of nuclear transcription factors which bind distinct regulatory sequences in the promoter region of these genes. One possible nuclear transcription factor which could act as a transcriptional regulator for both hypoxia and reoxygenation gene transcription is the heat shock transcription factor. In this report, we focused on the kinetics of HSF activation by hypoxia in normal and tumor cell lines of murine and human origins. In cell culture, both the normal diploid cell line AG1522 and the tumor cell line JSQ-3 possess the same kinetics of HSF activation (binding to the heat shock element) by hypoxia, with maximal induction at or after 3 hr. We have also shown that the activation of HSF occurs in the SCCVII tumor in vivo without clamping, but not in SCCVII cells grown in monolayers. When SCCVII tumors are dissociated and allowed to reoxygenate in cell culture, HSF binding decreased in 5 hr, and was undetectable after 18 hr. Furthermore, one human tumor biopsy tested for the presence of hypoxia by both the pO2 histograph (Eppendorf, Germany) and HSF binding showed good agreement for both techniques. These results suggest that HSF binding may be a useful marker for monitoring the tumor hypoxia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JD82800027

    View details for PubMedID 1618682



    There is clear clinical evidence that tumours in anaemic patients are difficult to control with radiotherapy. We have studied the radiosensitivity of two transplantable mouse tumours, the SCCVII/St carcinoma and the KHT sarcoma in hosts made anaemic either with an iron poor diet or as a result of tumour growth. The haemoglobin level and haematocrits of mice on the low iron diet fell to about 60% of normal within 11 weeks. The number of clonogenic cells after a single X-ray dose of 20 Gy was slightly lower (P less than 0.05) in the anaemic animals (2.3 X 10(4) g-1) than in controls (5.2 X 10(4) g-1) though there was no significant difference in the surviving fractions. Mice bearing KHT tumours became anaemic with haematocrits falling to 65% of normal as their tumours grew from 300-1200 mg. A second 'test' tumour was implanted one week after the first 'anaemia-inducing' tumour so that estimates of radiosensitivity could all be carried out on tumours within the same size range (150-300 mg). Radiosensitivity was significantly greater in the most anaemic hosts with 2.2 X 10(4) cells g-1 surviving a dose of 20 Gy compared with 6.7 x 10(4) g-1 in controls (P less than 0.01). These results are consistent with most published data for mouse tumours though not for many human tumours.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FH59600007

    View details for PubMedID 2021532



    The presence of hypoxic cells in solid tumors has long been considered a problem in cancer treatment, particularly for radiation therapy but also for treatment with some anticancer drugs. Three general strategies are being actively explored to overcome the problem: oxygenating the tumor, sensitizing the hypoxic cells to radiation (or chemotherapy), or killing the hypoxic cells (with a hypoxic cell cytotoxin). In the present study, we have examined the impact of each of these three strategies on a standard radiation therapy regimen (30 doses of 2 Gy), using either of two major assumptions: full reoxygenation or no reoxygenation of the tumor cells. We demonstrate that a hypoxic cell cytotoxin can produce a level of tumor cell killing higher (by several orders of magnitude) than that produced by full oxygenation of a tumor or by use of an optimum hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, provided the cytotoxin kills more than approximately 50% of the hypoxic cells each time it is given. The only assumption that makes a difference is whether reoxygenation occurs: In the worst case (ie, no reoxygenation), the hypoxic cell cytotoxin performs only as well as an optimum radiosensitizer. The analysis shows that hypoxic cells in tumors can be a major therapeutic advantage. Therefore, we recommend that research efforts be concentrated on development of superior hypoxic cell cytotoxins rather than improved hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and that, in parallel, emphasis be placed on development of agents to increase hypoxia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EW64900008

    View details for PubMedID 1988703