Both HCV and HBV are Major Causes of Liver Cancer in Southeast Asians.
Journal of immigrant and minority health
2013; 15 (6): 1023-1029
Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Masquerading As Ascites Secondary to Alcoholic Cirrhosis
DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES
2009; 54 (10): 2053-2055
Transarterial Chemoinfusion for Hepatocellular Carcinoma as Downstaging Therapy and a Bridge toward Liver Transplantation
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION
2009; 9 (5): 1158-1168
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in Asian Americans than in other ethnicities. While hepatitis B virus (HBV) is common, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is more prevalent in some subgroups. Our goal was to determine the etiology of liver disease associated with HCC in subgroups of Asian Americans. This was an analysis of 510 Asian HCC patients at a US medical center. Patients were identified using ICD9 diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study predictors of HCV as the cause of HCC. Patients were Southeast Asian, Chinese, and Korean, with similar gender, age, and foreign-born status. Southeast Asians had a similar proportion of HBV- and HCV-related HCC, while Chinese and Korean patients had a higher proportion of HBV-related HCC. HCC was usually associated with HBV in Chinese and Korean patients, but both HCV and HBV were important associations in Southeast Asians.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10903-013-9871-z
View details for PubMedID 23864445
Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing of Hepatitis B Virus Quasispecies from Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI)-Treated Patients and NRTI-Naive Patients
JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2009; 199 (9): 1275-1285
Favorable outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are well described for patients who fall within defined tumor criteria. The effectiveness of tumor therapies to maintain tumor characteristics within these criteria or to downstage more advanced tumors to fall within these criteria is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the response to transcatheter arterial chemoinfusion (TACI) in HCC patients awaiting LT and its efficacy for downstaging or bridging to transplantation. We performed a retrospective study of 248 consecutive TACI cases in 122 HCC patients at a single U.S. medical center. Patients were divided into two groups: those who met the Milan criteria on initial HCC diagnosis (n = 95) and those with more advanced disease (n = 27). With TACI treatment, 87% of the Milan criteria group remained within the Milan criteria and 63% of patients with more advanced disease were successfully downstaged to fall within the Milan criteria. In conclusion, TACI appears to be an effective treatment as a bridge to LT for nearly 90% patients presenting within the Milan criteria and an effective downstaging modality for over half of those whose tumor burden was initially beyond the Milan criteria.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02576.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000265222200023
View details for PubMedID 19344435
The Asymptomatic Outpatient with Abnormal Liver Function Tests
CLINICS IN LIVER DISEASE
2009; 13 (2): 167-?
The dynamics of emerging nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) are not well understood because standard dideoxynucleotide direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing assays detect drug-resistance mutations only after they have become dominant. To obtain insight into NRTI resistance, we used a new sequencing technology to characterize the spectrum of low-prevalence NRTI-resistance mutations in HBV obtained from 20 plasma samples from 11 NRTI-treated patients and 17 plasma samples from 17 NRTI-naive patients, by using standard direct PCR sequencing and ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). UDPS detected drug-resistance mutations that were not detected by PCR in 10 samples from 5 NRTI-treated patients, including the lamivudine-resistance mutation V173L (in 5 samples), the entecavir-resistance mutations T184S (in 2 samples) and S202G (in 1 sample), the adefovir-resistance mutation N236T (in 1 sample), and the lamivudine and adefovir-resistance mutations V173L, L180M, A181T, and M204V (in 1 sample). G-to-A hypermutation mediated by the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family of cytidine deaminases was estimated to be present in 0.6% of reverse-transcriptase genes. Genotype A coinfection was detected by UDPS in each of 3 patients in whom genotype G virus was detected by direct PCR sequencing. UDPS detected low-prevalence HBV variants with NRTI-resistance mutations, G-to-A hypermutation, and low-level dual genotype infection with a sensitivity not previously possible.
View details for DOI 10.1086/597808
View details for Web of Science ID 000265035500007
View details for PubMedID 19301976
Adenovirus-Induced Acute Liver Failure
DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES
2009; 54 (2): 218-221
Management of Biliary Strictures Following Liver Transplantation
DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES
2009; 54 (1): 25-27
Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Asian Americans
DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES
2009; 54 (1): 160-167
Traditionally, the constellation of biochemistry tests including liver enzymes, total bilirubin, and hepatic synthetic measures (prothrombin time (PT) and serum albumin level) are referred to as liver function tests (LFTs). Abnormal LFTs can be encountered during primary health care visits, routine blood donation, and insurance screening. A reported 1% to 4% of asymptomatic patients exhibit abnormal LFTs, leading to a sizeable number of annual consultations to a gastroenterology and/or hepatology practice. A cost-effective and systematic approach is essential to the interpretation of abnormal LFTs. A review of pattern of abnormal LFTs, detailed medical history, and a comprehensive physical examination help establish a foundation for further individualized testing. Further investigation often involves biochemical testing for disease-specific markers, radiographic imaging, and even consideration of a liver biopsy. In the following account, markers of hepatic injury are reviewed followed by a discussion on an approach to various patterns of abnormal LFTs in an asymptomatic patient.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cld.2009.02.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000267207200002
View details for PubMedID 19442912
Bidirectionally Adjustable TIPS Reduction by Parallel Stent and Stent-Graft Deployment
JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
2008; 19 (11): 1653-1658
To determine the yield of colonoscopy in a predominantly Asian American gastroenterology practice in California from 8/2003 to 2/2005.A total 2,723 subjects were included: 87% were Asian and 13% were non-Asian. Advanced neoplasia prevalence was 12% in Asian men and 9% in non-Asian men (P = 0.21), and 8% and 7% in women (P = 0.62). Similar results were found in asymptomatic patients (13% and 13%, P = 0.99, for men; 8% and 6%, P = 0.46, for women). Factors associated with presence of advanced neoplasia were total number of polyps and presence of right-sided lesions. Asian men were more likely to have neoplasia overall compared with non-Asian men with odds ratio (OR) of 2.14 (1.23-3.72); however, there were no significant differences in the prevalences of advanced neoplasia in the two groups.Colorectal neoplasia is as prevalent in Asian Americans and preventive guidelines for colorectal cancer should also be advocated for this ethnic group.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-008-0499-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000261653400026
View details for PubMedID 18975084
Long-term survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transcatheter arterial chemoinfusion
ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS
2007; 26 (6): 839-846
Excessive shunting through transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) can cause life-threatening hepatic encephalopathy and insufficiency. Intentional reduction of flow may be effective but difficult to control. The present report describes refinements of the parallel stent/stent-graft technique of flow reduction that is adjustable in either direction. Six patients underwent TIPS reduction with varying stent positioning and a variety of commercial products. Flow was adjusted by iterative balloon dilatation of the stent and stent-graft, resulting in a mean gradient increase of 8 mm Hg. All cases were technically successful, but 1-year survival was seen in only the patient who underwent liver transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2008.08.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000260694700018
View details for PubMedID 18823797
Current indications and contraindications for liver transplantation.
Clinics in liver disease
2007; 11 (2): 227-247
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has become one of the most common treatments for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Published studies of TACE report a 5-16% risk of serious complications. Compared with TACE, transcatheter arterial chemoinfusion (TACI) may have similar efficacy and fewer side effects.To examine the clinical outcomes of TACI.We performed a retrospective cohort study of 345 consecutive TACI cases in 165 patients performed at a single United States medical center between 1998 and 2002. Primary outcomes were tumour response and survival rates.Only seven patients were hospitalized for more than 24 h after the procedure, and only three patients had worsening of liver function within 30 days of TACI. Survival was significantly poorer for patients with tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) IV compared to those with TNM I-III and also for patients with Child's class B/C vs. A. Following adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity and aetiology of liver diseases, independent predictors of poor survival were Child's class B/C [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.69, P = 0.024] and TNM IV staging (HR = 1.63, P = 0.014).TACI appears to be safe and effective for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with TNM stage I-III; randomized controlled trials are needed to compare TACI to TACE.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03424.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000249130100008
View details for PubMedID 17767468
Global transcriptional response to interferon is a determinant of HCV treatment outcome and is modified by race
2006; 44 (2): 352-359
Survival rates after liver transplantation have improved steadily because of earlier referral and timely evaluation, judicious patient selection, improved surgical techniques, superior immunosuppressive regimens, and effective prevention of perioperative opportunistic infections. Indications and contraindications for liver transplantation are undergoing constant modifications with the goal of improving survival and functional status of patients who have end-stage liver disease or acute liver failure. Potential candidates for liver transplantation should meet minimal listing criteria and not have contraindications to liver transplantation. Currently, the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score is used for organ allocation, but it may have future application in patient-selection criteria.
View details for PubMedID 17606204
Progressive asymptomatic occlusion of a TIPS in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome
JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
2006; 17 (4): 737-739
Portal, spienic, and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient with latent essential thrombocythemia and hyperhomocysteinemia
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY
2006; 40 (3): 227-228
Endoscopic approach to the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
2004; 7 (3): 123-129
Interferon (IFN)-alpha-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C is effective in fewer than 50% of all treated patients, with a substantially lower response rate in black patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying host transcriptional response associated with interferon treatment outcomes. We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis C patients before initiation of IFN-alpha therapy and incubated the cells with or without IFN-alpha for 6 hours, followed by microarray assay to identify IFN-induced gene transcription. The microarray datasets were analyzed statistically according to the patients' race and virological responses to subsequent IFN-alpha treatment. The global induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) was significantly greater in sustained virological responders compared with nonresponders and in white patients compared with black patients. In addition, a significantly greater global induction of ISGs was observed in sustained virological responders compared with nonresponders within the group of white patients. The level of IFN-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 activation, a key component of the Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT signaling pathway, correlated with the global induction of ISGs and was significantly higher in white patients than in black patients. In conclusion, both treatment outcome and race are associated with different transcriptional responses to IFN-alpha. Because this difference is evident in the global induction of ISGs rather than a selective effect on a subset of such genes, key factors affecting the outcome of IFN-alpha therapy are likely to act at the JAK-STAT pathway that controls transcription of downstream ISGs.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.21267
View details for Web of Science ID 000239523200009
View details for PubMedID 16871572
Older age and liver transplantation: A review
2004; 10 (8): 957-967
Gastrointestinal endoscopy is the primary diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel enteroscopy, and colonoscopy are well-established standards for initial evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, and have been used effectively for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Although thermal, injection, and mechanical methods have been the mainstay of endoscopic therapy, promising new technologies such as endoscopic ultrasound and wireless capsule endoscopy will further advance our ability to improve morbidity and mortality from severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Herein we review current standards and recent advances in the endoscopic management of upper, lower, and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.
View details for PubMedID 16015556
Chronic hepatitis C with normal aminotransferase levels
2004; 126 (5): 1409-1415
Prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection with lamivudine
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY
2003; 37 (1): 68-71
Patients older than 60 are undergoing transplantation with increasing frequency. Reports from several transplant centers document that overall short-term patient survival rates in seniors undergoing liver transplantation are comparable to survival rates of younger adults. However, specific subgroups of older patients may not fare as well. Seniors with far-advanced end-stage liver disease are high-risk for liver transplantation and have poor survival rates. In addition, seniors older than 65 have worse outcomes than those who are 60 to 65, and studies have shown increased mortality with increasing age as a continuous variable. On the other hand, the majority of seniors who survive liver transplantation have full or only minimally limited functional status. Preoperative evaluation of older patients for transplantation requires careful screening to exclude cardiopulmonary disease, malignancy, and other diseases of the aged. Paradoxically, seniors may benefit from a senescent immune system, which results in decreased requirements for immunosuppressive drugs, and possibly a lower rate of acute allograft rejection. Despite good overall short-term survival in the elderly, long-term survival may be worse because of an increased rate of long-term complications, such as malignancy and heart disease. In conclusion, although advanced age is a negative risk factor, advanced age alone should not exclude a patient from liver transplantation; however, it mandates thorough pretransplant evaluation and careful long-term follow-up with attention to usual health maintenance issues in the elderly.
View details for DOI 10.1002/lt.20155
View details for Web of Science ID 000223274300002
View details for PubMedID 15390320
Update on chronic hepatitis C.
2003; 29 (4): 224-232
The results of lamivudine therapy in 4 patients with chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation are reported. Cancer chemotherapy-induced reactivation is a known complication in patients with chronic HBV infection or history of HBV infection with recovery. Reactivation of HBV infection has a broad spectrum of manifestations ranging from mild elevation of aminotransferase levels to fatal fulminant hepatitis. Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue and a potent inhibitor of HBV reverse transcription. The 4 patients treated with lamivudine included 1 woman with breast cancer and 3 men with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ranging from 41 to 63 years of age. All 4 patients were undergoing standard, multi-agent chemotherapy when they presented with HBV reactivation manifested by sudden onset of fatigue, jaundice, and HBV serology consistent with active HBV infection (detectable serum HBV DNA) in the absence of other known causes of acute hepatitis. Lamivudine therapy (100 mg/d in 3 patients and 150 mg/d in 1 patient) was initiated from 1 to 18 days following the diagnosis of HBV reactivation. All 4 patients showed rapid decrease in aminotransferase levels within 2 weeks after initiating lamivudine therapy. Unfortunately, hepatic synthetic function failed to improve in 2 patients, who both died. The remaining 2 patients had suppression of HBV DNA to undetectable levels after 1 and 4 months of treatment and had biochemical and clinical improvement. The 2 patients who died received lamivudine therapy for 8 days and for 3 weeks. There have been no randomized clinical trials to study the role of lamivudine for prophylaxis or treatment of HBV reactivation associated with chemotherapy. However, based on our limited experience, lamivudine may be efficacious in suppressing potentially fatal HBV reactivation secondary to chemotherapy in patients with chronic HBV infection or prior infection with recovery. Patients who undergo chemotherapy should be screened for the presence of markers of chronic hepatitis B infection or previous HBV infection. We recommend that patients with chronic HBV infection (positive HBV DNA and/or positive HBsAg) or history of HBV infection with recovery (positive hepatitis B core antibody with or without HBsAb) be considered for prophylactic lamivudine use to prevent chemotherapy-induced HBV reactivation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000183597500016
View details for PubMedID 12811213
Hepatitis C virus and liver transplantation.
Clinics in liver disease
2001; 5 (4): 1073-1090
Strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C continue to evolve. Liver biopsy is now used selectively rather than routinely, and the combination peginterferon plus ribavirin is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients.
View details for PubMedID 14989044
Liver transplantation: Evolving patient selection criteria
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
2001; 15 (11): 729-738
Advances in immunosuppressive therapy, operative techniques, and perioperative management have resulted in long-term patient survival rates approaching 90% following liver transplantation for chronic viral hepatitis. The increasing number of referrals for liver transplantation reflects the impact of chronic HCV infection as a cause of end-stage liver disease. Unlike hepatitis B, there is still no effective treatment in preventing recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. The spectrum of allograft injury related to universal HCV infection recurrence ranges from no evidence of histologic injury to mild inflammation to severe disease with allograft failure in small proportion of patients. Various factors may explain these differing outcomes, including degree of pretransplantation viremia, HLA compatibility, presence of more pathogenic HCV genotypes, integrity of cellular immune response, and type of immunosuppression. Fortunately, patient survival does not seem to be affected short-term; the long-term outcome of liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C is unclear but is likely to be decreased. Combination therapy with interferon plus ribavirin seems to be a promising treatment strategy for posttransplantation recurrent hepatitis C, and the use of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin may improve these results. Patients with moderate to severe allograft hepatitis are appropriate candidates for combination antiviral therapy. Histopathologically documented recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients is associated with impaired quality of life, inferior physical condition, and a higher incidence of depression compared with patients who did not have HCV and in those without HCV recurrence. In conclusion, it is possible that the continued improvements in antiviral therapy against HCV infection may ultimately decrease the number of patients needing liver transplantation. Suitable candidates with chronic HCV infection thus warrant treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in the hope of decreasing disease progression. Recent studies, which require confirmation, suggest that nonresponders to standard antiviral therapy may benefit from maintenance therapy. The donor pool for patients with chronic hepatitis C and decompensated cirrhosis can be improved by using HCV-positive donors and by increasing utilization of newer surgical techniques, including adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation and split-liver transplantation.
View details for PubMedID 11685796
A novel endoscopic appearance of idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis
2000; 32 (6): S33-S33
Management of gallstones and their complications
AMERICAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN
2000; 61 (6): 1673-1680
The widespread recognition of the success of liver transplantation as a treatment for most types of acute and chronic liver failure has led to increased referrals for transplantation in the setting of a relatively fixed supply of cadaver donor organs. These events have led to a marked lengthening of the waiting time for liver transplantation, resulting in increased deaths of those on the waiting list and sicker patients undergoing transplantation. Nearly 5000 liver transplantations were performed in the United States in 2000, while the waiting list grew to over 17,000 patients. The mounting disparity between the number of liver transplant candidates and the limited supply of donor organs has led to reassessment of the selection and listing criteria for liver transplantation, as well as revision of organ allocation and distribution policies for cadaver livers. The development of minimal listing criteria for patients with chronic liver disease based on a specific definition for decompensation of cirrhosis has facilitated the more uniform listing of patients at individual centres across the United States. The United Network for Organ Sharing, under pressure from transplant professionals, patient advocacy groups and the federal government, has continuously revised allocation and distribution policies based on the ethical principles of justice for the individual patient versus optimal utility of the limited organ supply available annually. Beginning in 2002, it is likely that the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score will be implemented to determine disease severity and direct donor organs to the sickest patients rather than to those with the longest waiting times.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172393600003
View details for PubMedID 11727003
Cost-effective evaluation of acute viral hepatitis
WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2000; 172 (1): 29-32
Overview of interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C.
Clinics in liver disease
1999; 3 (4): 757-773
The accurate differentiation of gallstone-induced biliary colic from other abdominal disease processes is the most crucial step in the successful management of gallstone disease. Despite the availability of many imaging techniques to demonstrate the presence of gallstones, clinical judgment ultimately determines the association of symptoms with cholelithiasis and its complications. Adult patients with silent or incidental gallstones should be observed and managed expectantly, with few exceptions. In symptomatic patients, the intervention varies with the type of gallstone-induced complication. In this article, we review the salient clinical features, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options employed in the management of gallstones and their complications.
View details for Web of Science ID 000086196400009
View details for PubMedID 10750875
A novel technique for endoscopic removal of expandable biliary Wallstent
1999; 50 (2): 279-281
An uncommon aetiology of perforated gastric ulcer
POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL JOURNAL
1999; 75 (880): 113-114
Lamivudine therapy for chemotherapy-induced reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
1999; 94 (1): 249-251
The future therapy for chronic hepatitis C will probably include measures to decrease hepatocellular injury along with multidrug combinations, including inhibitors of the hepatitis C viral protease, helicase, or polymerase to reduce serum levels or eradicate HCV RNA. The results of recently concluded trials of IFN-alpha 2b plus ribavirin combination therapy have shown a twofold improvement in the biochemical and virologic response rates and superiority by other measures of efficacy with an acceptable safety profile. In view of these results, new guidelines for the management of chronic HCV infection are appropriate (Fig. 1).
View details for PubMedID 11291249
Asymptomatic elevation of aminotransferase levels and fatty liver secondary to heterozygous hypobetalipoproteinemia
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
1998; 93 (12): 2598-2599
Bloody diarrhea caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides proctitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient
CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES
1998; 27 (3): 657-657
A fatal case of Rhodotorula meningitis in AIDS.
Medicine and health, Rhode Island
1998; 81 (1): 22-23
Splenic rupture: An unusual complication of colonoscopy
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
1997; 92 (7): 1201-1204
A 54-yr-old man with lymphoma and serological evidence of prior hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with detectable anti-HBc and anti-HBs, was treated with intensive chemotherapy. He had reactivation of HBV infection with acute hepatitis B manifest by detectable HBsAg and elevated aminotransferase levels >1000 IU/L. He was treated with lamivudine 150 mg daily and had prompt resolution of acute hepatitis B with return of elevated aminotransferases to normal, and initial loss of HBeAg with later loss of HBsAg. Lamivudine was continued during the course of further chemotherapy as prophylaxis against repeat HBV reactivation. Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue that is a potent inhibitor of HBV reverse transcriptase and HBV replication. Lamivudine therapy should be considered for the treatment of HBV reactivation and might play a future role as preemptive therapy of HBV reactivation in patients with prior hepatitis B or chronic hepatitis B with inactive viral replication.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082426600048
View details for PubMedID 9934765
A PROPOSED 4-ELEMENT NEUTRON-PHOTON-BETA THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETER
1992; 63 (3): 316-323
Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of colonoscopy. A high index of suspicion is a crucial factor in the prompt diagnosis of this rare but potentially fatal complication. We report a case of splenic rupture diagnosed 3 days after a colonoscopy and requiring splenectomy. We also reviewed 17 reported cases of splenic rupture after colonoscopy, including our case. The presumed mechanisms of splenic rupture during colonoscopy are direct trauma to the spleen, excessive splenocolic ligament traction, and decrease in the relative mobility between the spleen and the colon. Of the 17 cases reviewed, 10 had polypectomy and/or biopsy performed during colonoscopy. Other probable risk factors are identified and tabulated. The hemodynamic status of the patient is the primary factor used to determine the therapeutic option. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen reliably demonstrates well-contained splenic laceration and subcapsular hematoma, and differentiates these splenic complications from perisplenic clot and hemoperitoneum. Thus, CT scan may help decide which patients may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. Splenectomy is the operative procedure of choice for splenic rupture after colonoscopy. Conservative management includes broad spectrum antibiotics, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, and close hemodynamic monitoring. The factors mandating further evaluation of persistent abdominal pain after colonoscopy are hemodynamic instability, clinical features of acute abdomen, leukocytosis, and/or acute anemia. The onset of abdominal pain associated with one or more of these critical factors is usually within 24 h after colonoscopy. An emergent CT scan of the abdomen is the modality of choice to further evaluate these clinical features, but intestinal perforation and external bleeding must first be excluded.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XK10700029
View details for PubMedID 9219800
It is common practice for a worker exposed to a mixed field with neutrons to wear both a photon-beta dosimeter and a neutron dosimeter. In this study, a thermoluminescence dosimeter has been designed and is proposed for use in mixed fields. The maximum applicable ranges of the mixed field can have photons with unknown energy from 20 keV to 2 MeV, betas with unknown energy from 147Pm to 90Sr-Y, and neutrons of known energy from thermal to 15 MeV. This proposed dosimeter (a combination of Harshaw beta-gamma thermoluminescence dosimeter and albedo neutron thermoluminescence dosimeter) has an advantage of using a minimum number of thermoluminescence dosimeter elements (therefore, making it less costly) to measure the dose equivalents in a mixed field of neutron, photon, and beta radiation. The basic dosimeter design consists of four thermoluminescence elements of TLD-600 and TLD-700 with different filtrations. Using the high-temperature peak methodology for TLD-600 and a filtration algorithm, the neutron, photon, and beta dose equivalents in a mixed field can be determined. The design, detection principle, and three dosimetric algorithms for three versions of the basic design of the four-element dosimeter are presented and discussed. The work that is required for the proposed dosimeter to be usable when it is made is also presented.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JJ92900008
View details for PubMedID 1644568