Clinical Focus

  • Neonatology
  • Neonatal Resuscitation
  • High-Stakes Communication
  • Healthcare Simulation
  • Human Performance Optimization

Administrative Appointments

  • Medical Director, Neonatal Critical Care Transport Team, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2017 - Present)
  • Associate Director, Center for Advanced Pediatric and Perinatal Education (CAPE, (2015 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, International Pediatric Simulation Society (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Society for Pediatric Research (2013 - Present)
  • Member, California Association of Neonatologists (2013 - Present)
  • Member, Society for Simulation in Healthcare (2012 - 2016)
  • Member, American Academy of Pediatrics (2009 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine Registrar (2015) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2012)
  • Residency:UCSD Medical Center (2012) CA
  • Internship:UCSD Medical Center (2010) CA
  • Medical Education:Washington Univ School Of Med (2009) MO

Research & Scholarship


  • Determination of the rate of common deviations from the NRP algorithm and evaluation of focused strategies for remediation, CAPE at Stanford


    Palo Alto, CA


All Publications

  • Appraisal of a scoring instrument for training and testing neonatal intubation skills. Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition Bouwmeester, R. N., Binkhorst, M., Yamada, N. K., Geurtzen, R., van Heijst, A. F., Halamek, L. P., Draaisma, J. M., Hogeveen, M. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity, reliability, feasibility and applicability of a neonatal intubation scoring instrument.DESIGN: Prospective observational study.SETTING: Simulation-based research and training centre (Center for Advanced Pediatric and Perinatal Education), California, USA.SUBJECTS: Forty clinicians qualified for neonatal intubation.INTERVENTIONS: Videotaped elective intubations on a neonatal patient simulator were scored by two independent raters. One rater scored the intubations twice. We scored the preparation of equipment and premedication, intubation performance, tube position/fixation, communication, number of attempts, duration and successfulness of the procedure.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for intrarater and inter-rater reliability. Kappa coefficients for individual items and mean kappa coefficients for all items combined were calculated. Construct validity was assessed with one-way analysis of variance using the hypothesis that experienced clinicians score higher than less experienced clinicians. The approximate time to score one intubation and the instrument's applicability in another setting were evaluated.RESULTS: ICCs for intrarater and inter-rater reliability were 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.96), and mean kappa coefficients were 0.93 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.01) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), respectively. There were no differences between the more and less experienced clinicians regarding preparation, performance, communication and total scores. The experienced group scored higher only on tube position/fixation (p=0.02). Scoring one intubation took approximately 15min. Our instrument, developed in The Netherlands, could be readily applied in the USA.CONCLUSIONS: Our scoring instrument for simulated neonatal intubations appears to be reliable, feasible and applicable in another centre. Construct validity could not be established.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/archdischild-2018-315221

    View details for PubMedID 30504442

  • Perspectives on periviability counselling and decision-making differed between neonatologists in the United States and the Netherlands ACTA PAEDIATRICA Schrijvers, N. M., Geurtzen, R., Draaisma, J. T., Halamek, L. P., Yamada, N. K., Hogeveen, M. 2018; 107 (10): 1710–15


    American guidelines suggest that neonatal resuscitation be considered at 23 weeks of gestation, one week earlier than in the Netherlands, but how counselling practices differ at the threshold of viability is unknown. This pilot study compared prenatal periviability counselling in the two countries.In 2013, a cross-sectional survey was sent to 121 Dutch neonatologists as part of a nationwide evaluation of prenatal counselling. In this pilot study, the same survey was sent to a convenience sample of 31 American neonatologists in 2014. The results were used to compare the organisation, content and decision-making processes in prenatal counselling at 24 weeks of gestation between the two countries.The survey was completed by 17 (55%) American and 77 (64%) Dutch neonatologists. American neonatologists preferred to meet with parents more frequently, for longer periods of time, and to discuss more intensive care topics, including long-term complications, than Dutch neonatologists. Neonatologists from both countries preferred shared decision-making when deciding whether to initiate intensive care.Neonatologists in the United States and the Netherlands differed in their approach to prenatal counselling at 24 weeks of gestation. Cross-cultural differences may play a role.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.14347

    View details for Web of Science ID 000444224300012

    View details for PubMedID 29603788

  • Optimal human and system performance during neonatal resuscitation. Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine Yamada, N. K., Kamlin, C. O., Halamek, L. P. 2018


    Performance in the delivery of care to sick neonates in need of resuscitation has long been defined primarily in terms of the extent of the knowledge possessed and hands-on skill demonstrated by physicians and other healthcare professionals. This definition of performance in neonatal resuscitation is limited by its focus solely on the human beings delivering care and a perceived set of the requisite skills to do so. This manuscript will expand the definition of performance to include all of the skill sets that humans must use to resuscitate newborns as well as the often complex systems in which those humans operate while delivering that care. It will also highlight how the principles of human factors and ergonomics can be used to enhance human and system performance during patient care. Finally, it will describe the role of simulation and debriefing in the assessment of human and system performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.siny.2018.03.006

    View details for PubMedID 29571705

  • Simulation-Based Patient-Specific Multidisciplinary Team Training in Preparation for the Resuscitation and Stabilization of Conjoined Twins AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Yamada, N. K., Fuerch, J. H., Halamek, L. P. 2017; 34 (6): 621-626


    The resuscitation of conjoined twins is a rare and complex clinical challenge. We detail how patient-specific, in situ simulation can be used to prepare a large, multidisciplinary team of health care professionals (HCPs) to deliver safe, efficient, and effective care to such patients. In this case, in situ simulation allowed an 18-person team to address the clinical and ergonomic challenges anticipated for this neonatal resuscitation. The HCPs trained together as an intact team in the actual delivery room environment to probe for human and system weaknesses prior to this unique delivery, and optimized communication, teamwork, and other behavioral skills as they prepared for the simultaneous resuscitation of two patients who were physically joined to one another.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0036-1593808

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400074500016

  • Impact of Standardized Communication Techniques on Errors during Simulated Neonatal Resuscitation. American journal of perinatology Yamada, N. K., Fuerch, J. H., Halamek, L. P. 2016; 33 (4): 385-392


    Aim Current patterns of communication in high-risk clinical situations, such as resuscitation, are imprecise and prone to error. We hypothesized that the use of standardized communication techniques would decrease the errors committed by resuscitation teams during neonatal resuscitation. Methods In a prospective, single-blinded, matched pairs design with block randomization, 13 subjects performed as a lead resuscitator in two simulated complex neonatal resuscitations. Two nurses assisted each subject during the simulated resuscitation scenarios. In one scenario, the nurses used nonstandard communication; in the other, they used standardized communication techniques. The performance of the subjects was scored to determine errors committed (defined relative to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm), time to initiation of positive pressure ventilation (PPV), and time to initiation of chest compressions (CC). Results In scenarios in which subjects were exposed to standardized communication techniques, there was a trend toward decreased error rate, time to initiation of PPV, and time to initiation of CC. While not statistically significant, there was a 1.7-second improvement in time to initiation of PPV and a 7.9-second improvement in time to initiation of CC. Conclusions Should these improvements in human performance be replicated in the care of real newborn infants, they could improve patient outcomes and enhance patient safety.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0035-1565997

    View details for PubMedID 26485251

  • Modification of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program Algorithm for Resuscitation of Conjoined Twins. American journal of perinatology Yamada, N. K., Fuerch, J. H., Halamek, L. P. 2016; 33 (4): 420-424


    There are no national or international guidelines for the resuscitation of conjoined twins. We have described how the U.S. Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm can be modified for delivery room resuscitation of omphaloischiopagus conjoined twins. In planning for the delivery and resuscitation of these patients, we considered the challenges of providing cardiopulmonary support to preterm conjoined twins in face-to-face orientation and with shared circulation via a fused liver and single umbilical cord. We also demonstrate how in situ simulation can be used to prepare a large, multidisciplinary team of health care professionals to deliver safe, efficient, and effective care to such patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0035-1563713

    View details for PubMedID 26461924

  • Failed endotracheal intubation and adverse outcomes among extremely low birth weight infants. Journal of perinatology Wallenstein, M. B., Birnie, K. L., Arain, Y. H., Yang, W., Yamada, N. K., Huffman, L. C., Palma, J. P., Chock, V. Y., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K. 2016; 36 (2): 112-115


    To quantify the importance of successful endotracheal intubation on the first attempt among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who require resuscitation after delivery.A retrospective chart review was conducted for all ELBW infants ⩽1000 g born between January 2007 and May 2014 at a level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were included if intubation was attempted during the first 5 min of life or if intubation was attempted during the first 10 min of life with heart rate <100. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment. The association between successful intubation on the first attempt and the primary outcome was assessed using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, gender and antenatal steroids.The study sample included 88 ELBW infants. Forty percent were intubated on the first attempt and 60% required multiple intubation attempts. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 29% of infants intubated on the first attempt, compared with 53% of infants that required multiple attempts, adjusted odds ratio 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.0), P<0.05.Successful intubation on the first attempt is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes among ELBW infants. This study confirms the importance of rapid establishment of a stable airway in ELBW infants requiring resuscitation after birth and has implications for personnel selection and role assignment in the delivery room.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 5 November 2015; doi:10.1038/jp.2015.158.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2015.158

    View details for PubMedID 26540244

  • Simulation in Paediatrics Manual of Simulation in Healthcare Yamada, N. K., Fuerch, J. H., Halamek, L. P. edited by Riley, R. Oxford University Press. 2016; 2nd: 383–396
  • Analysis and classification of errors made by teams during neonatal resuscitation RESUSCITATION Yamada, N. K., Yaeger, K. A., Halamek, L. P. 2015; 96: 109-113


    The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) algorithm serves as a guide to healthcare professionals caring for neonates transitioning to extrauterine life. Despite this, adherence to the algorithm is challenging, and errors are frequent. Information-dense, high-risk fields such as air traffic control have proven that formal classification of errors facilitates recognition and remediation. This study was performed to determine and characterize common deviations from the NRP algorithm during neonatal resuscitation.Audiovisual recordings of 250 real neonatal resuscitations were obtained between April 2003 and May 2004. Of these, 23 complex resuscitations were analyzed for adherence to the contemporaneous NRP algorithm and scored using a novel classification tool based on the validated NRP Megacode Checklist.Seven hundred eighty algorithm-driven tasks were observed. One hundred ninety-four tasks were completed incorrectly, for an average error rate of 23%. Forty-two were errors of omission (28% of all errors) and 107 were errors of commission (72% of all errors). Many errors were repetitive and potentially clinically significant: failure to assess heart rate and/or breath sounds, improper rate of positive pressure ventilation, inadequate peak inspiratory and end expiratory pressures during ventilation, improper chest compression technique, and asynchronous PPV and CC.Errors of commission, especially when performing advanced life support interventions such as positive pressure ventilation, intubation, and chest compressions, are common during neonatal resuscitation and are sources of potential harm. The adoption of error reduction strategies capable of decreasing cognitive and technical load and standardizing communication - strategies common in other industries - should be considered in healthcare.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366584500026

  • Impact of a novel decision support tool on adherence to Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm RESUSCITATION Fuerch, J. H., Yamada, N. K., Coelho, P. R., Lee, H. C., Halamek, L. P. 2015; 88: 52-56


    Studies have shown that healthcare professionals (HCPs) display a 16-55% error rate in adherence to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) algorithm. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm by subjects working from memory as compared to subjects using a decision support tool that provides auditory and visual prompts to guide implementation of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm during simulated neonatal resuscitation.Healthcare professionals (physicians, nurse practitioners, obstetrical/neonatal nurses) with a current NRP card were randomized to the control or intervention group and performed three simulated neonatal resuscitations. The scenarios were evaluated for the initiation and cessation of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and chest compressions (CC), as well as the frequency of FiO2 adjustment. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare a score measuring the adherence of the control and intervention groups to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm.Sixty-five healthcare professionals were recruited and randomized to the control or intervention group. Positive pressure ventilation was performed correctly 55-80% of the time in the control group vs. 94-95% in the intervention group across all three scenarios (p<0.0001). Chest compressions were performed correctly 71-81% of the time in the control group vs. 82-93% in the intervention group in the two scenarios in which they were indicated (p<0.0001). FiO2 was addressed three times more frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group (p<0.001).Healthcare professionals using a decision support tool exhibit significantly fewer deviations from the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm compared to those working from memory alone during simulated neonatal resuscitation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.12.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352508400023

    View details for PubMedID 25555358

  • On the need for precise, concise communication during resuscitation: a proposed solution. journal of pediatrics Yamada, N. K., Halamek, L. P. 2015; 166 (1): 184-187

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.027

    View details for PubMedID 25444016

  • The Role of a Fetal Center in Preparing for a Conjoined Twin Delivery NeoReviews Fuerch, J. H., Yamada, N. K., Kobayashi, D., Hartman, G. E., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Hintz, S. R., Chock, V. Y. 2015; 16 (11): e617-623
  • Communication during resuscitation: Time for a change? RESUSCITATION Yamada, N. K., Halamek, L. P. 2014; 85 (12): E191-E192
  • The Neonatal Resuscitation Program: Current Recommendations and a Look at the Future INDIAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Kumar, P., Yamada, N. K., Fuerch, J. H., Halamek, L. P. 2014; 81 (5): 473-480


    The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) consists of an algorithm and curriculum to train healthcare professionals to facilitate newborn infants' transition to extrauterine life and to provide a standardized approach to the care of infants who require more invasive support and resuscitation. This review discusses the most recent update of the NRP algorithm and recommended guidelines for the care of newly born infants. Current challenges in training and assessment as well as the importance of ergonomics in the optimization of human performance are discussed. Finally, it is recommended that in order to ensure high-performing resuscitation teams, members should be selected and retained based on objective performance criteria and frequent participation in realistic simulated clinical scenarios.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12098-013-1332-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335739000011

    View details for PubMedID 24652267

  • When operating is considered futile: Difficult decisions in the neonatal intensive care unit SURGERY Yamada, N. V., Kodner, I. J., Brown, D. E. 2009; 146 (1): 122-125

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2009.03.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267498600015

    View details for PubMedID 19548365