Doctor of Philosophy, University of Rochester (2010)
Mark Kay, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Mice in which lung epithelial cells can be induced to express an oncogenic Kras(G12D) develop lung adenocarcinomas in a manner analogous to humans. A myriad of genetic changes accompany lung adenocarcinomas, many of which are poorly understood. To get a comprehensive understanding of both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes that accompany lung adenocarcinomas, we took an omics approach in profiling both the coding genes and the non-coding small RNAs in an induced mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma. RNAseq transcriptome analysis of Kras(G12D) tumors from F1 hybrid mice revealed features specific to tumor samples. This includes the repression of a network of GTPase-related genes (Prkg1, Gnao1 and Rgs9) in tumor samples and an enrichment of Apobec1-mediated cytosine to uridine RNA editing. Furthermore, analysis of known single-nucleotide polymorphisms revealed not only a change in expression of Cd22 but also that its expression became allele specific in tumors. The most salient finding, however, came from small RNA sequencing of the tumor samples, which revealed that a cluster of ∼53 microRNAs and mRNAs at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus on mouse chromosome 12qF1 was markedly and consistently increased in tumors. Activation of this locus occurred specifically in sorted tumor-originating cancer cells. Interestingly, the 12qF1 RNAs were repressed in cultured Kras(G12D) tumor cells but reactivated when transplanted in vivo. These microRNAs have been implicated in stem cell pleuripotency and proteins targeted by these microRNAs are involved in key pathways in cancer as well as embryogenesis. Taken together, our results strongly imply that these microRNAs represent key targets in unraveling the mechanism of lung oncogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.523.
View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2013.523
View details for Web of Science ID 000347185500009
Processing of microRNAs (miRNAs) from their precursors to their biologically active mature forms is regulated during development and cancer. We show that mouse pri- or pre-miR-151 can bind to and compete with mature miR-151-5p and miR-151-3p for binding sites contained within the complementary regions of the E2f6 mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). E2f6 mRNA levels were directly regulated by pri- or pre-miR-151. Conversely, miR-151-mediated repression of ARHGDIA mRNA was dependent on the level of mature miR-151 because only the mature miRNA binds the 3' UTR. Thus, processing of miR-151 can have different effects on separate mRNA targets within a cell. A bioinformatics pipeline revealed additional candidate regions where precursor miRNAs can compete with their mature miRNA counterparts. We validated this experimentally for miR-124 and the SNAI2 3' UTR. Hence, miRNA precursors can serve as post-transcriptional regulators of miRNA activity and are not mere biogenesis intermediates.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nsmb.2862
View details for PubMedID 25086740
Ribosomal protein S5 is critical for small ribosomal subunit (SSU) assembly and is indispensable for SSU function. Previously, we identified a point mutation in S5, (G28D) that alters both SSU formation and translational fidelity in vivo, which is unprecedented for other characterized S5 mutations. Surprisingly, additional copies of an extraribosomal assembly factor, RimJ, rescued all the phenotypes associated with S5(G28D), including fidelity defects, suggesting that the effect of RimJ on rescuing the miscoding of S5(G28D) is indirect. To understand the underlying mechanism, we focused on the biogenesis cascade and observed defects in processing of precursor 16S (p16S) rRNA in the S5(G28D) strain, which were rescued by RimJ. Analyses of p16S rRNA-containing ribosomes from other strains further supported a correspondence between the extent of 5(') end maturation of 16S rRNA and translational miscoding. Chemical probing of mutant ribosomes with additional leader sequences at the 5(') end of 16S rRNA compared to WT ribosomes revealed structural differences in the region of helix 1. Thus, the presence of additional nucleotides at the 5(') end of 16S rRNA could alter fidelity by changing the architecture of 16S rRNA in translating ribosomes and suggests that fidelity is governed by accuracy and completeness of the SSU biogenesis cascade.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0912305107
View details for Web of Science ID 000275368400015
View details for PubMedID 20176963
A specific mutation of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S5, in which glycine is changed to aspartate at position 28 [S5(G28D)], results in cold sensitivity and defects in ribosome biogenesis and translational fidelity. In an attempt to understand the roles of S5 in these essential cellular functions, we selected extragenic suppressors and identified rimJ as a high-copy suppressor of the cold-sensitive phenotype associated with the S5(G28D) mutation. Our studies indicate that RimJ overexpression suppresses the growth defects, anomalous ribosome profiles and mRNA misreading exhibited by the S5(G28D) mutant strain. Although previously characterized as the N-acetyltransferase of S5, our data indicate that RimJ, when devoid of acetyltransferase activity, can suppress S5(G28D) defects thus indicating that the suppression activity of RimJ is not dependent on its acetyltransferase activity. Additionally, RimJ appears to associate with pre-30S subunits indicating that it acts on the ribonucleoprotein particle. These findings suggest that RimJ has evolved dual functionality; it functions in r-protein acetylation and as a ribosome assembly factor in E. coli.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06252.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000256110700017
View details for PubMedID 18466225
S5 is a small subunit ribosomal protein (r-protein) linked to the functional center of the 30S ribosomal subunit. In this study we have identified a unique amino acid mutation in Escherichia coli S5 that produces spectinomycin-resistance and cold sensitivity. This mutation significantly alters cell growth, folding of 16S ribosomal RNA, and translational fidelity. While translation initiation is not affected, both +1 and -1 frameshifting and nonsense suppression are greatly enhanced in the mutant strain. Interestingly, this S5 ribosome ambiguity-like mutation is spatially remote from previously identified S5 ribosome ambiguity (ram) mutations. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for ram phenotypes in the novel mutant strain is possibly distinct from those proposed for other known S5 (and S4) ram mutants. This study highlights the importance of S5 in ribosome function and cell physiology, and suggests that translational fidelity can be regulated in multiple ways.
View details for DOI 10.1261/rna.302006
View details for Web of Science ID 000242420700006
View details for PubMedID 17053085
Assembly of 30S ribosomal subunits from Escherichia coli has been dissected in detail using an in vitro system. Such studies have allowed characterization of the role for ribosomal protein S15 in the hierarchical assembly of 30S subunits; S15 is a primary binding protein that orchestrates the assembly of ribosomal proteins S6, S11, S18, and S21 with the central domain of 16S ribosomal RNA to form the platform of the 30S subunit. In vitro S15 is the sole primary binding protein in this cascade, performing a critical role during assembly of these four proteins. To investigate the role of S15 in vivo, the essential nature of rpsO, the gene encoding S15, was examined. Surprisingly, E. coli with an in-frame deletion of rpsO are viable, although at 37 degrees C this DeltarpsO strain has an exaggerated doubling time compared to its parental strain. In the absence of S15, the remaining four platform proteins are assembled into ribosomes in vivo, and the overall architecture of the 30S subunits formed in the DeltarpsO strain at 37 degrees C is not altered. Nonetheless, 30S subunits lacking S15 appear to be somewhat defective in subunit association in vivo and in vitro. In addition, this strain is cold sensitive, displaying a marked ribosome biogenesis defect at low temperature, suggesting that under nonideal conditions S15 is critical for assembly. The viability of this strain indicates that in vivo functional populations of 70S ribosomes must form in the absence of S15 and that 30S subunit assembly has a plasicity that has not previously been revealed or characterized.
View details for DOI 10.1261/rna.2262106
View details for Web of Science ID 000238670900010
View details for PubMedID 16682557