Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University (2011)
Maximilian Diehn, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
The engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after drug resistance gene transfer and drug selection may recapitulate stress response hematopoiesis, but the processes remain elusive. Homing, trafficking, and localization of transduced cells and the impact of insertion site on focal expansion have not been well characterized. With the goal of optimizing and understanding these processes under conditions of low multiplicity of infection (MOI) lentiviral gene transfer, we used drug resistance gene O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-P140K and in vivo selection to enrich for transduced and transgene-expressing HSCs. To systemically monitor homing, trafficking, and expansion after transplantation and drug selection over time, we linked MGMT-P140K to the firefly luciferase gene in lentiviral self-inactivating vectors. Periodic bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of transplanted recipients was followed for up to 9 months after both primary and secondary transplantation. Initial dispersion and widespread early homing and engraftment were transient, followed by detection of persistent and discrete foci at stable tissue sites after in vivo drug selection. From these studies, we concluded that drug resistance gene transfer followed by early or late drug selection can result in stable gene expression and cell expansion in persistent foci of transduced bone marrow cells that often remain in fixed sites for extended periods of time.
View details for DOI 10.1038/mt.2010.315
View details for Web of Science ID 000292295900021
View details for PubMedID 21304493
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, myocardial, or neural lineages when exposed to specific stimuli, making them attractive for tissue repair and regeneration. We have used reporter gene-based imaging technology to track MSC transplantation or implantation in vivo. However, the effects of lentiviral transduction with the fluc-mrfp-ttk triple-fusion vector on the transcriptional profiles of MSCs remain unknown. In this study, gene expression differences between wild-type and transduced hMSCs were evaluated using an oligonucleotide human microarray. Significance Analysis of Microarray identified differential genes with high accuracy; RT-PCR validated the microarray results. Annotation analysis showed that transduced hMSCs upregulated cell differentiation and antiapoptosis genes while downregulating cell cycle, proliferation genes. Despite transcriptional changes associated with bone and cartilage remodeling, their random pattern indicates no systematic change of crucial genes that are associated with osteogenic, adipogenic, or chondrogenic differentiation. This correlates with the experimental results that lentiviral transduction did not cause the transduced MSCs to lose their basic stem cell identity as demonstrated by osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation assays with both transduced and wild-type MSCs, although a certain degree of alterations occurred. Histological analysis demonstrated osteogenic differentiation in MSC-loaded ceramic cubes in vivo. In conclusion, transduction of reporter genes into MSCs preserved the basic properties of stem cells while enabling noninvasive imaging in living animals to study the biodistribution and other biological activities of the cells.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00300.2007
View details for Web of Science ID 000265220400003
View details for PubMedID 19116247
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been studied for decades in order to understand their stem cell biology and their potential as treatments in gene therapy, and those studies have resulted in tremendous advancement of understanding HSCs. However, most of the studies required the sacrifice of cohorts of the animals in order to obtain data for analysis, resulting in the use of large animal numbers along with difficult long-term studies. The dynamic engraftment and expansion of HSC are not fully observed and analyzed. Until recently, with the development of optical imaging, HSC repopulation can be continuously monitored in the same animal over a long period of time, reducing animal numbers and opening a new dimension for investigation. In this chapter, bioluminescence imaging of murine HSC is described for observing the dynamic repopulation process after transplantation. Photons emitted from transplanted murine HSCs expressing firefly luciferase within the mice can be visualized in light-sealed chamber with a highly sensitive digital camera after injection of substrate D-luciferin. Xenogen IVIS200 imaging system is used to record the process, and other similar imaging systems can also be used for this process.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-59745-182-6_20
View details for PubMedID 18370307
Dynamic measurements of infused stem cells generally require animal euthanasia for single-time-point determinations of engraftment. In this study, we used a triple-fusion reporter system for multimodal imaging to monitor human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) transplants.hMSCs were transduced with a triple-fusion reporter, fluc-mrfp-ttk (encoding firefly luciferase, monomeric red fluorescent protein, and truncated herpes simplex virus type 1 sr39 thymidine kinase) by use of a lentiviral vector. Transduced cells were assayed in vitro for the expression of each functional component of the triple-fusion reporter. Transduced and control hMSCs were compared for their potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat. hMSCs expressing the reporter were then loaded into porous, fibronectin-coated ceramic cubes and subcutaneously implanted into NOD-SCID mice along with cubes that were loaded with wild-type hMSCs and empty cubes. Mice were imaged repeatedly over 3 mo by bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and selected animals underwent CT and PET imaging.Osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential assays revealed retained differentiation potentials between transduced and wild-type hMSCs. Signals from the cubes loaded with reporter-transduced hMSCs were visible by BLI over 3 mo. There was no signal from the empty or wild-type hMSC-loaded control cubes. PET data provided confirmation of the quantitative estimation of the number of cells at one spot (cube). Cubes were removed from some animals, and histologic evaluations showed bone formation in cubes loaded with either reporter-transduced or wild-type hMSCs, whereas empty controls were negative for bone formation.The triple-fusion reporter approach resulted in a reliable method of labeling stem cells for investigation in small-animal models by use of both BLI and small-animal PET imaging. It has the potential for translation into future human studies with clinical PET.
View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.107.043166
View details for Web of Science ID 000252895100019
View details for PubMedID 18006616