p53 Suppresses Metabolic Stress-Induced Ferroptosis in Cancer Cells
2018; 22 (3): 569–75
How cancer cells respond to nutrient deprivation remains poorly understood. In certain cancer cells, deprivation of cystine induces a non-apoptotic, iron-dependent form of cell death termed ferroptosis. Recent evidence suggests that ferroptosis sensitivity may be modulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor and canonical tumor suppressor protein p53. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, small-molecule probes, and high-resolution, time-lapse imaging, we find that stabilization of wild-type p53 delays the onset of ferroptosis in response to cystine deprivation. This delay requires the p53 transcriptional target CDKN1A (encoding p21) and is associated with both slower depletion of intracellular glutathione and a reduced accumulation of toxic lipid-reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the p53-p21 axis may help cancer cells cope with metabolic stress induced by cystine deprivation by delaying the onset of non-apoptotic cell death.
View details for PubMedID 29346757
Hepatic GALE Regulates Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis by Modulating Tff3 Expression.
2017; 66 (11): 2789–99
Transcripts of key enzymes in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism in mouse livers are significantly increased after chronic high-fat/high-sucrose feeding. UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE) is the last enzyme in this pathway that converts UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose and was previously identified as a downstream target of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress effector spliced X-box binding protein 1, suggesting an interesting cross talk between galactose and glucose metabolism in the context of hepatic ER stress and whole-body metabolic fitness. However, its specific role in glucose metabolism is not established. Using an inducible and tissue-specific mouse model, we report that hepatic overexpression of Gale increases gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and impairs glucose tolerance. Conversely, genetic reduction of Gale in liver improves glucose tolerance. Transcriptional profiling identifies trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) as one of the downstream targets of GALE. Restoration of Tff3 expression corrects glucose intolerance in Gale-overexpressing mice. These studies reveal a new link between hepatic GALE activity and whole-body glucose homeostasis via regulation of hepatic Tff3 expression.
View details for DOI 10.2337/db17-0323
View details for PubMedID 28877911
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5652600
A pharmacogenetic study of risperidone on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients
PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
2014; 51: 153-158
Previous observations of the pathophysiological distribution and pharmacological profile of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) have indicated its potential role in antipsychotic drug actions. More information on the pharmacogenetics of CCL2 may therefore be useful in developing individualized therapy. However, to our knowledge, rare studies have been reported in this area. This investigation was attempted to clarify whether CCL2 polymorphism could affect risperidone efficacy. We genotyped four SNPs (rs4795893, rs1024611, rs4586 and rs2857657) distributed throughout the CCL2 gene and examined them for association using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score in two independent cohorts of Chinese schizophrenic patients (n = 208) from two different geographic areas, following an 8-week period of risperidone monotherapy. We found that all genotyped SNPs were significantly associated with risperidone treatment (rs4795893: p = 1.66E-04, rs4586: p = 0.001, rs2857657: p = 0.004, at week 4, in ANOVA). Our results indicate that there may be some effect of variations in the CCL2 gene on therapeutic efficacy of risperidone, and the associated polymorphisms may be a potential genetic marker for predicting the therapeutic effect of risperidone.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.01.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000333257800023
View details for PubMedID 24495780
Radiosurgery inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway in a rat model of arteriovenous malformations.
Journal of neurosurgery
2014; 120 (6): 1385-1396
Notch signaling has been suggested to promote the development and maintenance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), but whether radiosurgery inhibits Notch signaling pathways in AVMs is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine molecular changes of Notch signaling pathways following radiosurgery and to explore mechanisms of radiosurgical obliteration of "nidus" vessels in a rat model of AVMs.One hundred eleven rats received common carotid artery-to-external jugular vein anastomosis to form an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) model. Six weeks postoperatively, dilated small vessels and capillaries formed a nidus. The rats with AVFs received 25-Gy radiosurgery. The expression of Notch1 and Notch4 receptors and their ligands, Delta-like1 and Delta-like4, Jagged1, Notch downstream gene target HES1, and an apoptotic marker caspase-3 in nidus vessels in the AVF rats was examined immunohistochemically and was quantified using LAS-AF software at 7 time points over a period of 42 days postradiosurgery. The interaction events between Notch1 receptor and Jagged1, as well as Notch4 receptor and Jagged1, were quantified in nidus vessels in the AVF rats using proximity ligation assay at different time points over 42 days postradiosurgery.The expression of Notch1 and Notch4 receptors, Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and HES1 was observed in nidus vessels in the AVF rats pre- and postradiosurgery. Radiosurgery enhanced apoptotic activity (p < 0.05) and inhibited the expression of Notch1 and Notch4 receptors and Jagged1 in the endothelial cells of nidus vessels in the AVF rats at 1, 2, 3, 7, 21, 28, and 42 days postradiosurgery (p < 0.05). Radiosurgery suppressed the interaction events between Notch1 receptor and Jagged1 (p < 0.001) as well as Notch4 receptor and Jagged1 (p < 0.001) in the endothelial cells of nidus vessels in the AVF rats over a period of 42 days postradiosurgery. Radiosurgery induced thrombotic occlusion of nidus vessels in the AVF rats. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of fully obliterated nidus vessels and time after radiosurgery (r = 0.9324, p < 0.001).Radiosurgery inhibits endothelial Notch1 and Notch4 signaling pathways in nidus vessels while inducing thrombotic occlusion of nidus vessels in a rat model of AVMs. The underlying mechanisms of radiosurgery-induced AVM shrinkage could be a combination of suppressing Notch receptor signaling in blood vessel endothelial cells, leading to a reduction in nidus vessel size and thrombotic occlusion of nidus vessels.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2013.12.JNS131595
View details for PubMedID 24410155
Notch1 and 4 Signaling Responds to an Increasing Vascular Wall Shear Stress in a Rat Model of Arteriovenous Malformations
BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
Notch signaling is suggested to promote the development and maintenance of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and an increasing wall shear stress (WSS) contributes to AVM rupture. Little is known about whether WSS impacts Notch signaling, which is important for understanding the angiogenesis of AVMs. WSS was measured in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) surgically created in 96 rats at different time points over a period of 84 days. The expression of Notch receptors 1 and 4 and their ligands, Delta1 and 4, Jagged1, and Notch downstream gene target Hes1 was quantified in "nidus" vessels. The interaction events between Notch receptors and their ligands were quantified using proximity ligation assay. There was a positive correlation between WSS and time (r = 0.97; P < 0.001). The expression of Notch receptors and their ligands was upregulated following AVF formation. There was a positive correlation between time and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands aftre AVF formation (r = 0.62, P < 0.05) and a positive correlation between WSS and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands (r = 0.87, P < 0.005). In conclusion, an increasing WSS may contribute to the angiogenesis of AVMs by activation of Notch signaling.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2014/368082
View details for Web of Science ID 000330694600001
View details for PubMedID 24563863
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3915856
Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Metabolic Disturbance in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Subchronic MK-801 Treated Rats
2013; 8 (4)
Although a number of proteins and genes relevant to schizophrenia have been identified in recent years, few are known about the exact metabolic pathway involved in this disease. Our previous proteomic study has revealed the energy metabolism abnormality in subchronic MK-801 treated rat, a well-established animal model for schizophrenia. This prompted us to further investigate metabolite levels in the same rat model to better delineate the metabolism dysfunctions and provide insights into the pathology of schizophrenia.Metabolomics, a high-throughput investigatory strategy developed in recent years, can offer comprehensive metabolite-level insights that complement protein and genetic findings. In this study, we employed a nondestructive metabolomic approach (1H-MAS-NMR) to investigate the metabolic traits in cortex and hippocampus of MK-801 treated rats. Multivariate statistics and ingenuity pathways analyses (IPA) were applied in data processing. The result was further integrated with our previous proteomic findings by IPA analysis to obtain a systematic view on our observations.Clear distinctions between the MK-801 treated group and the control group in both cortex and hippocampus were found by OPLS-DA models (with R(2)X = 0.441, Q(2)Y = 0.413 and R(2)X = 0.698, Q(2)Y = 0.677, respectively). The change of a series of metabolites accounted for the separation, such as glutamate, glutamine, citrate and succinate. Most of these metabolites fell in a pathway characterized by down-regulated glutamate synthesis and disturbed Krebs cycle. IPA analysis further confirmed the involvement of energy metabolism abnormality induced by MK-801 treatment.Our metabolomics findings reveal systematic changes in pathways of glutamate metabolism and Krebs cycle in the MK-801 treated rats' cortex and hippocampus, which confirmed and improved our previous proteomic observation and served as a valuable reference to the etiology research of schizophrenia.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0060598
View details for Web of Science ID 000319109800069
View details for PubMedID 23577129
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3618452
Histamine H4 Receptor Polymorphism A Potential Predictor of Risperidone Efficacy
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
2013; 33 (2): 221–25
Histamine interacts with histamine H4 receptor (HRH4) to impact antipsychotic response. Pharmacogenetic information about this receptor could therefore be useful in developing individualized therapy. The aim of this investigation was to clarify whether polymorphisms at human HRH4 gene alter risperidone efficacy. We genotyped 5 tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms of the HRH4 gene and analyzed their association with the reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a group of 113 Chinese Han patients with schizophrenia who were following an 8-week period of risperidone monotherapy. Using χ(2), analysis of variance, haplotype, and receiver operating characteristics analysis, we found that HRH4 common variant rs4483927 is significantly associated with risperidone efficacy and that its TT genotype predicts poor therapeutic response both on the positive, negative, and general subscales and on the total scale of PANSS scores (P = 0.017, 0.019, 0.021, and 0.002, respectively, in analysis of variance). Our results provide the first evidence that an HRH4 polymorphism may be a molecular marker for the prediction of risperidone efficacy and suggest novel pharmacologic links between HRH4 gene and treatment of schizophrenia.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JCP.0b013e318283963b
View details for Web of Science ID 000316303700013
View details for PubMedID 23422377
NMDA Receptor Hypofunction Induces Dysfunctions of Energy Metabolism And Semaphorin Signaling in Rats: A Synaptic Proteome Study
2012; 38 (3): 579-591
There is considerable evidence to suggest that aberrations of synapse connectivity contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamate transmission is especially important. Administration of MK-801 ([+]-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a, d]-cycloheptene-5, 10-iminehydrogenmaleate) induces hypofunction of NMDA receptors in rats, which are widely used as a model for schizophrenia. We investigated synaptosomal proteome expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of MK-801-treated Sprague-Dawley rats using the 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis method, and 49 differentially expression proteins were successfully identified using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight/Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. We carried out a literature search for further confirmation of subsynaptic locations and to explore the relevance to the diseases of differentially expressed proteins. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) was used to further examine the underlying relationship between the changed proteins. The network encompassing "cell morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, nervous system development and function" was found to be significantly altered in the MK-801-treated rats. "Energy metabolism" and "semaphorin signaling in neurons" are the most significant IPA canonical pathways to be affected by MK-801 treatment. Using western blots, we confirmed the differential expression of Camk2a, Crmp2, Crmp5, Dnm1, and Ndufs3 in both synaptosome proteins and total proteins in the cerebral cortex of the rats. Our study identified the change and/or response of the central nervous transmission system under the stress of NMDA hypofunction, underlining the importance of the synaptic function in schizophrenia.
View details for DOI 10.1093/schbul/sbq132
View details for Web of Science ID 000303169000026
View details for PubMedID 21084551
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3329985
Quantitative assessment of the effect of ABCA1 R219K polymorphism on the risk of coronary heart disease
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY REPORTS
2012; 39 (2): 1809–13
In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) R219K polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results have been inconclusive. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether this polymorphism confers significant susceptibility to CHD using a meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase and CNKI database were searched to get the genetic association studies. Then data were extracted. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Moreover, subgroup and sensitive analysis were performed. In total, 9,437 cases and 16,270 controls were involved in the meta-analysis. The K219 was significantly associated with CHD (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.92, P(Z) = 0.001). However, significant heterogeneity was present. Further subgroup analysis suggested ethnicity explained much heterogeneity. In Asians, K219 showed a strong protective effect and the pooled OR was 0.69 (95% CI 0.55-0.86 P(Z) = 0.0009). While in Caucasians the result was not significant (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.73-1.04, P(Z) = 0.12). In conclusion, our results indicate that the ABCA1 R219K polymorphism is a protective factor of CHD in Asians, but not in Caucasians.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11033-011-0922-z
View details for Web of Science ID 000298751300119
View details for PubMedID 21643759
Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis reveals dysfunction of complement pathway in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients: evidence for the immune hypothesis of schizophrenia
2012; 8 (10): 2664–71
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disease caused by a combination of serial alterations in genetic and environmental factors. Although the brain is usually considered as the most relevant organ in schizophrenia, accumulated evidence suggests that peripheral tissues also contribute to this disease. In particular, abnormalities of the immune system have been identified in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients. To screen the serum proteomic signature of schizophrenia patients, we conducted shotgun proteomic analysis on serum samples of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. High-abundance proteins were eliminated by immunoaffinity before LC-MS/MS analysis. The multivariate statistical test partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to build models for screening out variable importance in the projection (VIP) and 27 proteins were identified as being responsible for discriminating between the proteomic profiles of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Pathway analysis based on these 27 proteins revealed that complement and coagulation cascades was the most significant pathway. ELISA-based activity analyses indicated that the alternative complement pathway was suppressed in schizophrenia patients. Ingenuity pathways analysis was used to conduct the interaction network of 27 proteins. The network exhibited common features such as, nervous system development and function, humoral immune response and inflammatory response, and highlighted some proteins with important roles in the immune system, such as hub nodes. Our findings indicate dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway in schizophrenia patients. The protein interaction network enhances the interpretation of proteomic data and provides evidence that the immune system may contribute to schizophrenia.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c2mb25158b
View details for Web of Science ID 000308098600025
View details for PubMedID 22797129
Proteome alterations of cortex and hippocampus tissues in mice subjected to vitamin A depletion
JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
2011; 22 (11): 1003-1008
Vitamin A regulates the development and maintenance of the central nervous system. Studies of vitamin A depletion (VAD) and mutations of retinoid receptors in rodents have revealed a dysfunction of motor and cognitive abilities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes are not well understood. In this study, VAD mice were examined and abnormal motor behavior related to psychosis symptoms was found. With the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies, 44 and 23 altered protein spots were identified in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively, in VAD mice. By Western blot, the up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and proteasome subunit beta type 2 (PSMB2) in the cortex and that of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYSL2) and PSMB2 in the hippocampus were observed in VAD mice. Bioinformatic analysis using DAVID revealed that altered proteins induced by VAD showed significant enrichment of (i) glycolysis, cytoskeleton, mitochondrion and glutamate metabolism in the cortex; and (ii) actin binding, dopamine receptor signaling and transmission of nerve impulse in the hippocampus. The up-regulations of DPYSL2, MAPK1 and PSMB2 may indicate the activated neuronal defensive mechanism in VAD brain regions, which may underlie the VAD-related psychosis behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.08.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000296268500002
View details for PubMedID 21190828
Differential expression profiling of the synaptosome proteome in a rat model of antipsychotic resistance
2009; 1295: 170-178
This study used a comparative proteomics approach to identify the effects of the antipsychotic drugs, Chlorpromazine (CPZ), Clozapine (CLZ), and Quetiapine (QTP) on the synaptosomal protein of the cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The multivariate statistical test partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to build the models for screening out the variable important plot (VIP). The PLS-DA models were able to distinguish each drug treatment group and the control group; more importantly, the univariate differentially expressed protein spots were capable of being verified by the VIP of the models. The interrelationships among the identified proteins were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis and pathway analysis. Through the synaptosome proteome experiments, we established that the energy production of the mitochondrial function and 'Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis' were involved in the response to antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, the G protein-coupled signal transduction system was also inhibited by antipsychotic medications. The result of our study should contribute to the understanding of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on synaptic function.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.097
View details for Web of Science ID 000271085500017
View details for PubMedID 19660441