Obstetric Anesthesiology Research
Advancing Obstetric and Perinatal Anesthetic Care
Research Mission Statement
To advance knowledge in the field of obstetric anesthesiology and peripartum care through clinical, epidemiological, and outcomes-based research.
Research Vision Statement
To optimize and personalize maternal care provided by obstetric anesthesiologists.
Our Research Faculty
Our faculty are internationally recognized experts in obstetric anesthesiology.
We aim to advance the health and well-being of mothers by:
- Ensuring each woman obtains high-quality pain relief during and after her delivery.
- Identifying approaches for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage.
- Expanding knowledge related to women’s recovery after delivery.
How our research has changed practice
Research from our group has been instrumental in advancing maternal and peripartum care. Through our research, we have developed new protocols and approaches for preventing and managing postpartum hemorrhage, enhanced methods to manage mothers’ pain during labor and after cesarean delivery, improved knowledge of how drugs behave in the peripartum setting, and designed instruments to measure recovery after childbirth.
Our faculty have gained recognition for their outstanding contributions to innovation and knowledge in peripartum care and obstetric anesthesiology. Our work has received funding support from the National Institute for Health, Stanford Maternal & Child Health Research Institute and industry partners. Our research has been recognized with the receipt of numerous scientific awards from several international medical societies.
At the Society of Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology annual scientific meetings, the most prestigious obstetric anesthesia meeting in the world, we have won the Best Scientific Paper award on 3 occasions, and been a finalist for this award on 7 occasions. Our trainee-mentored research has been consistently recognized with an unprecedented 13 Resident/Fellow Research Presentation awards in the past 18 years. We have also received scientific meeting research awards from the American Society of Anesthesiology, Obstetric Anaesthetists’ Association of Great Britain, and the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society.
Our work has been published in high-impact scientific journals on numerous occasions (see all publications). We have produced and contributed towards several national guidelines and consensus statements produced by the Society of Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology, the American Heart Association and the World Health Organization.
Our obstetric anesthesia facility was the first in the nation to be designated as a Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology Center of Excellence, and Brendan Carvalho was appointed as President of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology between 2017 and 2018.
- Assessment of fatigue in postpartum women using patient-reported outcome measures: a systematic review utilising Consensus Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines FATIGUE-BIOMEDICINE HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR Ciechanowicz, S., Pandal, P., Carvalho, B., Blake, L., Van Damme, S., Taylor, J., Sultan, P. 2022 Hide More
A Systematic Scoping Review of Peridelivery Pain Management for Pregnant People With Opioid Use Disorder: From the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology and Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine.
Anesthesia and analgesia
Lim, G., Soens, M., Wanaselja, A., Chyan, A., Carvalho, B., Landau, R., George, R. B., Klem, M. L., Osmundson, S. S., Krans, E. E., Terplan, M., Bateman, B. T.
The prevalence of pregnant people with opioid use disorder (OUD), including those receiving medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), is increasing. Challenges associated with pain management in people with OUD include tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and risk for return to use. Yet, there are few evidence-based recommendations for pain management in the setting of pregnancy and the postpartum period, and many peripartum pain management studies exclude people with OUD. This scoping review summarized the available literature on peridelivery pain management in people with OUD, methodologies used, and identified specific areas of knowledge gaps. PubMed and Embase were comprehensively searched for publications in all languages on peripartum pain management among people with OUD, both treated with MOUD and untreated. Potential articles were screened by title, abstract, and full text. Data abstracted were descriptively analyzed to map available evidence and identify areas of limited or no evidence. A total of 994 publications were imported for screening on title, abstracts, and full text, yielding 84 publications identified for full review: 32 (38.1%) review articles, 14 (16.7%) retrospective studies, and 8 (9.5%) case reports. There were 5 randomized controlled trials. Most studies (64%) were published in perinatology (32; 38.1%) journals or anesthesiology (22; 26.2%) journals. Specific areas lacking trial or systematic review evidence include: (1) methods to optimize psychological and psychosocial comorbidities relevant to acute pain management around delivery; (2) alternative nonopioid and nonpharmacologic analgesia methods; (3) whether or not to use opioids for severe breakthrough pain and how best to prescribe and monitor its use after discharge; (4) monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation with coadministration of other analgesics; (5) optimal neuraxial analgesia dosing and adjuncts; and (6) benefits of abdominal wall blocks after cesarean delivery. No publications discussed naloxone coprescribing in the labor and delivery setting. We observed an increasing number of publications on peripartum pain management in pregnant people with OUD. However, existing published works are low on the pyramid of evidence (reviews, opinions, and retrospective studies), with a paucity of original research articles (<6%). Opinions are conflicting on the utility and disutility of various analgesic interventions. Studies generating high-quality evidence on this topic are needed to inform care for pregnant people with OUD. Specific research areas are identified, including utility and disutility of short-term opioid use for postpartum pain management, role of continuous wound infiltration and truncal nerve blocks, nonpharmacologic analgesia options, and the best methods to support psychosocial aspects of pain management.
View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006167
View details for PubMedID 36135926
Obstetric services in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic: A national survey.
Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine
O'Carroll, J. E., Zucco, L., Warwick, E., Arbane, G., Moonesinghe, R., El-Boghdadly, K., Guo, N., Carvalho, B., Sultan, P.
The management of obstetric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires unique considerations. Many aspects of labour and delivery practice required adaptation in response to the global pandemic and were supported by guidelines from the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecologists. The adoption and adherence to these guidelines is unknown.Participating centres in "Quality of Recovery in Obstetric Anaesthesia study - a multicentre study" (ObsQoR) completed an electronic survey based on the provision of services and care related to COVID-19 in October 2021. The survey was designed against the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists COVID-19 guidelines.One hundred and five of the 107 participating centres completed the survey (98% response rate representing 54% of all UK obstetric units). The median [IQR] annual number of deliveries among the included sites was 4389 [3000-5325]. Ninety-nine of the 103 (94.3%) sites had guidelines for the management of peripartum women with COVID-19. Sixty-one of 105 (58.1%) had specific guidance for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. Thirty-seven of 104 (35.6%) centres restricted parturient birthing plans if a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 was made. A COVID-19 vaccination referral pathway encouraging full vaccination for all pregnant women was present in 63/103 centres (61.2%).We found variability in care delivered and adherence to guidelines related to COVID-19. The clinical implications for this related to quality of peripartum care is unclear, however there remains scope to improve pathways for immunisation, birth plans and VTE prophylaxis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.accpm.2022.101137
View details for PubMedID 35914704
Incidence, prevalence, and timing of postpartum complications and mortality in Canada and the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.
JBI evidence synthesis
Ke, J. X., Vidler, M., Dol, J., Carvalho, B., Blake, L. E., George, R. B., Bone, J., Seligman, K., Coombs, M., Chau, A. A., Saville, L., Gibbs, R. S., Sultan, P.
The goal of this systematic review is to assess the incidence, prevalence, and timing of common postpartum (up to one year after delivery) medical, surgical/procedural, and psychosocial complications and mortality.Childbirth is the most common cause for hospitalization, and cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed inpatient surgery. After delivery, mothers are at risk of short- and long-term complications that can impact their well-being. The results of this review will inform evidence-based recommendations for patient education, monitoring, and follow-up.We will include studies performed in Canada and/or the United States that report the incidence or prevalence of medical, procedural/surgical, and psychosocial complications within one year postpartum. Observational studies (analytical cross-sectional studies, retrospective and prospective cohorts), randomized or non-randomized controlled trials with a control or standard of care group, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses will be included. Studies with <100 patients, age <18 years, no reporting of duration, and focus on patients with a specific condition rather than a general postpartum population will be excluded.The search strategy was co-developed with a medical librarian and included full-text English-language articles published within the past 10 years (2011-2021) in PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Screening, critical appraisal, and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers using Covidence, standardized JBI tools, and a standardized form, respectively. For each complication, the incidence or prevalence, timing of the frequency measurement, and duration of follow-up from individual studies will be determined. Meta-analysis will be performed if feasible.PROSPERO CRD42022303047.
View details for DOI 10.11124/JBIES-21-00437
View details for PubMedID 35975310
Obstetric Anesthesia Procedure-Based Workload and Facility Utilization of Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology Centers of Excellence Designated Institutions.
Anesthesia and analgesia
Im, M., Riley, E. T., Hoang, D., Lim, G., Zakowski, M., Carvalho, B.
BACKGROUND: Optimal workload and staffing for obstetric anesthesia services have yet to be determined. We surveyed Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) Centers of Excellence (COE) for Obstetric Anesthesia Care institutions to evaluate procedure-based obstetric anesthesia workload and facility use.METHODS: After institutional review board (IRB) exemption, an online survey instrument (REDCap) was sent by email (1 initial and 2 reminders) to all SOAP COEs. Survey data included the number of deliveries, cesarean delivery rate, neuraxial labor analgesia rate, the number of labor and operating rooms, and the number of in-house and backup obstetric anesthesia providers. Obstetric anesthesia activity was estimated using a time-based workload ratio per provider (Stanford Work Index, 1.0 = clinically working every minute of every hour on duty) during weekday, weeknight, and weekend shifts. We compared workload between academic and nonacademic centers and correlated operating and labor rooms with cesarean and vaginal delivery volume.RESULTS: Fifty-one of 53 surveys were returned (96% response rate). Data from 33 academic and 14 nonacademic US institutions were analyzed. For academic centers, median Stanford Work Index for all staff (included trainees and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists) was 0.20 (weekday) and 0.19 (weeknight and weekends); nonacademic centers were 0.33 (weekday, P < .001 versus academic), 0.23 (weeknight, P = .009 versus academic), and 0.23 (weekends, P = .03 versus academic practices). Attending-only Stanford Work Indices were similar between academic and nonacademic centers. Total number of rooms on the obstetric suite (operating, labor, or triage room) was strongly correlated with delivery volume (R2 = 0.55).CONCLUSIONS: The results outline staffing procedure-based workload ratios and facility utilization at SOAP COEs in the United States. These data can be used by other institutions that provide obstetric anesthesia services to guide their obstetric anesthesia staffing. The importance of considering the workload associated with different shifts and between academic and nonacademic centers is also highlighted. The results show that approximately one-third of an obstetric anesthesiologist's workload is spent on performing procedures. We did not, however, measure the other tasks anesthesiologists practice as peripartum physicians (eg, managing critically ill parturients, doing pre- and postprocedural evaluations, or performing emergent and unexpected procedures), and future studies are required to determine the time required to perform these tasks. Studies to determine the optimal staffing models to handle workload fluctuations and improve outcomes are also required.
View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006112
View details for PubMedID 35759390
The Effect of Night Float Rotation on Resident Sleep, Activity, and Wellbeing: An Observational Study
Ruan, A., Klein, A., Hasan, N., Flood, P.
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: 433-436
View details for Web of Science ID 000840283000166
Chronic disabling postpartum headache after unintentional dural puncture during epidural anaesthesia: a prospective cohort study.
British journal of anaesthesia
Ansari, J. R., Barad, M., Shafer, S., Flood, P.
2021; 127 (4): 600-607
BACKGROUND: Unintentional dural puncture with an epidural needle complicates approximately 1% of epidural anaesthetics and causes an acute headache in 60-80% of these patients. Several retrospective studies suggest an increased risk of chronic headache. We assessed the relationship between unintentional dural puncture and chronic disabling headache, defined as one or more functionally limiting headaches within a 2-week interval ending 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum.METHODS: In this prospective observational study, parturients who experienced unintentional dural puncture were matched 1:4 with control patients. Patients completed questionnaires regarding characteristics of headache and back pain pre-pregnancy, during pregnancy, immediately postpartum, and at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum. The primary outcome was prevalence of disabling headache in the past 2 weeks, assessed at 2 months postpartum. Secondary outcomes included prevalence and characteristics of headache and back pain at these time points.RESULTS: We enrolled 99 patients. At 2 and 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of disabling headache was greater among patients with unintentional dural puncture than matched controls (2 months, 74% vs 38%, relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9, P=0.009; 6 months, 56% vs 25%, relative risk 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.0, P=0.033). There was no difference in the prevalence of back pain at any time point.CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective trial confirms retrospective studies that chronic headache is more prevalent among women who experienced unintentional dural puncture compared with controls who received uncomplicated neuraxial anaesthesia. This finding has implications for the. patient consent process and recommendations for long-term follow-up of patients who experience unintentional dural puncture.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bja.2021.05.020
View details for PubMedID 34548152
Gender Differences in Compensation in Anesthesiology in the United States: Results of a National Survey of Anesthesiologists.
Anesthesia and analgesia
Hertzberg, L. B., Miller, T. R., Byerly, S., Rebello, E., Flood, P., Malinzak, E. B., Doyle, C. A., Pease, S., Rock-Klotz, J. A., Kraus, M. B., Pai, S.
BACKGROUND: A gender-based compensation gap among physicians is well documented. Even after adjusting for age, experience, work hours, productivity, and academic rank, the gender gap remained and widened over the course of a physician's career. This study aimed to examine if a significant gender pay gap still existed for anesthesiologists in the United States.METHODS: In 2018, we surveyed 28,812 physician members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists to assess the association of compensation with gender and to identify possible causes of wage disparities. Gender was the primary variable examined in the model, and compensation by gender was the primary outcome. Compensation was defined as the amount reported as direct compensation on a W-2, 1099, or K-1, plus all voluntary salary reductions (eg, 401[k], health insurance). The survey directed respondents to include salary, bonuses, incentive payments, research stipends, honoraria, and distribution of profits to employees. Respondents had the option of providing a point estimate of their compensation or selecting a range in
Labor prior to cesarean delivery associated with higher post-discharge opioid consumption.
Ende, H. B., Landau, R., Cole, N. M., Burns, S. M., Bateman, B. T., Bauer, M. E., Booth, J. L., Flood, P., Leffert, L. R., Houle, T. T., Tsen, L. C.
2021; 16 (7): e0253990
BACKGROUND: Severe acute post-cesarean delivery (CD) pain has been associated with an increased risk for persistent pain and postpartum depression. Identification of women at increased risk for pain can be used to optimize post-cesarean analgesia. The impact of labor prior to CD (intrapartum CD) on acute post-operative pain and opioid use is unclear. We hypothesized that intrapartum CD, which has been associated with both increased inflammation and affective distress related to an unexpected surgical procedure, would result in higher postoperative pain scores and increased opioid intake.METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study examining opioid use up to 2 weeks following CD. Women undergoing CD at six academic medical centers in the United States 9/2014-3/2016 were contacted by phone two weeks following discharge. Participants completed a structured interview that included questions about postoperative pain scores and opioid utilization. They were asked to retrospectively estimate their maximal pain score on an 11-point numeric rating scale at multiple time points, including day of surgery, during hospitalization, immediately after discharge, 1st week, and 2nd week following discharge. Pain scores over time were assessed utilizing a generalized linear mixed-effects model with the patient identifier being a random effect, adjusting for an a priori defined set of confounders. A multivariate negative binomial model was utilized to assess the association between intrapartum CD and opioid utilization after discharge, also adjusting for the same confounders. In the context of non-random prescription distribution, this model was constructed with an offset for the number of tablets dispensed.RESULTS: A total of 720 women were enrolled, 392 with and 328 without labor prior to CD. Patients with intrapartum CD were younger, less likely to undergo repeat CD or additional surgical procedures, and more likely to experience a complication of CD. Women with intrapartum CD consumed more opioid tablets following discharge than women without labor (median 20, IQR 10-30 versus 17, IQR 6-30; p = 0.005). This association persisted after adjustment for confounders (incidence rate ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.29; p = 0.004). Pain scores on the day of surgery were higher in women with intrapartum CD (difference 0.91, 95% CI 0.52-1.30; adj. p = <0.001) even after adjustment for confounders. Pain scores at other time points were not meaningfully different between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Intrapartum CD is associated with worse pain on the day of surgery but not other time points. Opioid requirements following discharge were modestly increased following intrapartum CD.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0253990
View details for PubMedID 34242277
Genetics and Gender in Acute Pain and Perioperative Opioid Analgesia.
Kwon, A. H., Flood, P.
2020; 38 (2): 341–55
Experimental and clinical acute pain research in relation to biological sex and genetics started in the 1980s. Research methods became more powerful and sensitive with the advancement in affordable gene sequencing methods and high-throughput genetic assays. Decades of research has identified several potential pharmaceutical targets, providing insights into future research direction, and understanding of acute pain and opioid analgesic effects in the clinical setting. However, there is insufficient evidence to make generalized recommendations for using genetic tests for clinical practice of acute pain management.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.anclin.2020.01.003
View details for PubMedID 32336388
Postpartum care visits among commercially insured women in the United States.
AJOG global reports
Butwick, A. J., Bentley, J., Daw, J., Sultan, P., Girsen, A., Gibbs, R. S., Guo, N.
2022; 2 (4): 100106
To reduce postpartum morbidity and mortality, optimizing routine outpatient postpartum care has become a focus of national attention and a healthcare priority.This study aimed to examine the timing, content, and predictors of routine outpatient postpartum visit attendance within a large, commercially insured patient population.We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national US database of commercial insurance beneficiaries with a delivery hospitalization between 2011 and 2015. We calculated the proportion of patients who had an outpatient postpartum visit within 8 weeks of hospital discharge. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified independent predictors of an outpatient postpartum visit. To gain insight into the nature and extent of any postpartum medical or surgical morbidity, we also identified the most frequent International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes associated with postpartum visits.The study cohort comprised 431,969 patients who underwent delivery hospitalization, of whom 257,727 (59.7%; 95% confidence interval, 59.5-59.8) had at least 1 outpatient postpartum visit within 8 weeks of hospital discharge. The distribution of postpartum visits was bimodal, occurring most frequently in the first week (23.2%) and sixth week (21.7%) after hospital discharge. The median period between hospital discharge and the postpartum visit was 28 days (interquartile range, 8-41 days). In our multivariable model, patient-level factors that were most strongly associated with a postpartum visit were preexisting medical morbidities, which included: thyroid disease (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-1.52), seizure disorder (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.70), chronic hypertension (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-1.67), and psychiatric disease (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.47). Between 29% and 42% of patients with preexisting medical morbidity and between 35% and 41% of patients who experienced peri- or postpartum complications did not attend a postpartum visit.Our findings indicate that among a large, commercially-insured patient population, postpartum visit attendance was suboptimal. A high proportion with preexisting medical and peripartum morbidities was not evaluated within 8 weeks of hospital discharge. Multifaceted interventions and healthcare reform are suggested to address patients' concerns and healthcare needs after delivery.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xagr.2022.100106
View details for PubMedID 36275400
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9563203
Update on Applications and Limitations of Perioperative Tranexamic Acid.
Anesthesia and analgesia
Patel, P. A., Wyrobek, J. A., Butwick, A. J., Pivalizza, E. G., Hare, G. M., Mazer, C. D., Goobie, S. M.
2022; 135 (3): 460-473
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a potent antifibrinolytic with documented efficacy in reducing blood loss and allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in several clinical settings. With a growing emphasis on patient blood management, TXA has become an integral aspect of perioperative blood conservation strategies. While clinical applications of TXA in the perioperative period are expanding, routine use in select clinical scenarios should be supported by evidence for efficacy. Furthermore, questions regarding optimal dosing without increased risk of adverse events such as thrombosis or seizures should be answered. Therefore, ongoing investigations into TXA utilization in cardiac surgery, obstetrics, acute trauma, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, pediatric surgery, and other perioperative settings continue. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current applications and limitations of TXA use in the perioperative period.
View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006039
View details for PubMedID 35977357
Hospital-level variation in rates of postpartum hemorrhage in California.
Davis, R., Guo, N., Bentley, J., Sie, L., Ansari, J., Bateman, B., Main, E., Butwick, A. J.
BACKGROUND: To examine the extent of hospital-level variation in risk-adjusted rates of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH).STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study examining live births in 257 California hospitals between 2011 and 2015 using linked birth certificate and maternal discharge data. PPH was measured using International Classification of Diseases Codes version 9. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to examine the presence and extent of hospital-level variation in PPH before and after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and select hospital characteristics (teaching status and annual delivery volume). Risk-adjusted rates of PPH were estimated for each hospital. The extent of hospital variation was evaluated using the median odds ratio (MOR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).RESULTS: Our study cohort comprised 1,904,479 women who had a live birth delivery hospitalization at 247 hospitals. The median, lowest, and highest hospital-specific rates of PPH were 3.48%, 0.54%, and 12.0%, respectively. Similar rates were observed after adjustment for patient and hospital factors (3.44%, 0.60%, and 11.48%). After adjustment, the proportion of the total variation in PPH rates attributable to the hospital was low, with a MOR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-2.15) and ICC of 14.3% (95% CI: 11.9%-16.3%).DISCUSSION: Wide variability exists in the rate of PPH across hospitals in California, not attributable to patient factors, hospital teaching status, and hospital annual delivery volume. Determining whether differences in hospital quality of care explain the unaccounted-for variation in hospital-level PPH rates should be a public health priority.
View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.17036
View details for PubMedID 35920049
- Association of neuraxial labor analgesia with autism spectrum disorder in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of obstetric anesthesia Lumbreras-Marquez, M. I., Capdeville, G., Ferrigno, A. S., Villela-Franyutti, D., Bain, P. A., Campos-Zamora, M., Butwick, A. J., Farber, M. K. 2022; 52: 103577 Hide More
Latest advances in postpartum hemorrhage management.
Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology
Kumaraswami, S., Butwick, A.
2022; 36 (1): 123-134
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. A maternal health priority is improving how healthcare providers prevent and manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Because anesthesiologists can help facilitate how hospitals develop approaches for PPH prevention and anticipatory planning, we review the potential utility of PPH risk-assessment tools, bundles, and protocols. Anesthesiologists rely on clinical and diagnostic information for initiating and evaluating medical management. Therefore, we review modalities for measuring blood loss after delivery, which includes visual, volumetric, gravimetric, and colorimetric approaches. Point-of-care technologies for assessing changes in central hemodynamics (ultrasonography) and coagulation profiles (rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography) are also discussed. Anesthesiologists play a critical role in the medical and transfusion management of PPH. Therefore, we review blood ordering and massive transfusion protocols, fixed-ratio vs. goal-directed transfusion approaches, coagulation changes during PPH, and the potential clinical utility of the pharmacological adjuncts, tranexamic acid, and fibrinogen concentrate.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpa.2022.02.004
View details for PubMedID 35659949
Expert Consensus Regarding Core Outcomes for Enhanced Recovery after Cesarean Delivery Studies: A Delphi study.
Sultan, P., George, R., Weiniger, C. F., El-Boghdadly, K., Pandal, P., Carvalho, B., CRADLE Study Investigators, Ansari, J. R., Benhamou, D., Baluku, M., Bernstein, P. S., Bollag, L. A., Bowden, S. J., Fay, E., Habib, A. S., Halder, S., Landau, R., Lim, G., Liu, V., Moreno, C., Nelson, G. S., Powell, M. F., Pujic, B., Sharawi, N., Singh, N., Smith, R., Stockert, E., Sultan, E., Tiouririne, M., Wilson, R. D., Wrench, I. J., Yun, R., Zakowski, M.
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity among reported outcomes from enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery impact studies is high. This study aimed to develop a standardized enhanced recovery core outcome set for use in future enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery studies.METHODS: An international consensus study involving physicians, patients and a director of Midwifery and Nursing Services, was conducted using a three-round modified Delphi approach (2 rounds of electronic questionnaires and a 3rd round e-discussion), to produce the core outcome set. An initial list of outcomes was based on a previously published systematic review. Consensus was obtained for the final core outcome set, including definitions for key terms, and preferred units of measurement. Strong consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement and weak consensus as 50-69% agreement. Of the 64 stakeholders who were approached, 32 agreed to participate. All 32, 31 and 26 stakeholders completed Rounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively.RESULTS: The number of outcomes in the final core outcome set was reduced from 98 to 15. Strong consensus (≥70% stakeholder agreement) was achieved for 15 outcomes. The core outcome set included: length of hospital stay; compliance with enhanced recovery protocol; maternal morbidity (hospital re-admissions or unplanned consultations); provision of optimal analgesia (maternal satisfaction, compliance with analgesia, opioid consumption / requirement and incidence of nausea or vomiting); fasting times; breastfeeding success; and times to mobilization and urinary catheter removal. The Obstetric Quality of Recovery-10 item composite measure was also included in the final core outcome set. Areas identified as requiring further research included readiness for discharge and analysis of cost savings.CONCLUSIONS: Results from an international consensus to develop a core outcome set for enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery are presented. These are outcomes that could be considered when designing future enhanced recovery studies.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000004263
View details for PubMedID 35511169
Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to Assess Outpatient Postpartum Recovery: A Systematic Review.
JAMA network open
Sultan, P., Sharawi, N., Blake, L., Ando, K., Sultan, E., Aghaeepour, N., Carvalho, B., Sadana, N.
2021; 4 (5): e2111600
Outpatient postpartum recovery is an underexplored area of obstetrics. There is currently no consensus regarding which patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) clinicians and researchers should use to evaluate postpartum recovery.To evaluate PROMs of outpatient postpartum recovery using Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines.An initial literature search performed in July 2019 identified postpartum recovery PROMs and validation studies. A secondary search in July 2020 identified additional validation studies. Both searches were performed using 4 databases (Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and CINAHL), with no date limiters. Studies with PROMs evaluating more than 3 proposed outpatient postpartum recovery domains were considered. Studies were included if they assessed any psychometric measurement property of the included PROMs in the outpatient postpartum setting. The PROMs were assessed for the following 8 psychometric measurement properties, as defined by COSMIN: content validity, structural validity, internal consistency, cross-cultural validity and measurement invariance, reliability, measurement error, hypothesis testing, and responsiveness. Psychometric measurement properties were evaluated in each included study using the COSMIN criteria by assessing (1) the quality of the methods (very good, adequate, doubtful, inadequate, or not assessed); (2) overall rating of results (sufficient, insufficient, inconsistent, or indeterminate); (3) level of evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations assessment tool; and (4) level of recommendation, which included class A (recommended for use; showed adequate content validity with at least low-quality evidence for sufficient internal consistency), class B (not class A or class C), or class C (not recommended).In total, 15 PROMs (7 obstetric specific and 8 non-obstetric specific) were identified, evaluating outpatient postpartum recovery in 46 studies involving 19 165 women. The majority of psychometric measurement properties of the included PROMs were graded as having very-low-level or low-level evidence. The best-performing PROMs that received class A recommendations were the Maternal Concerns Questionnaire, the Postpartum Quality of Life tool, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. The remainder of the evaluated PROMs had insufficient evidence to make recommendations regarding their use (and received class B recommendations).This review found that the best-performing PROMs currently available to evaluate outpatient postpartum recovery were the Maternal Concerns Questionnaire, the Postpartum Quality of Life tool, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF; however, these tools all had significant limitations. This study highlights the need to focus future efforts on robustly developing and validating a new PROM that may comprehensively evaluate outpatient postpartum recovery.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11600
View details for PubMedID 34042993
Proposed domains for assessing postpartum recovery: A concept elicitation study.
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
Sultan, P., Jensen, S. E., Taylor, J., El-Sayed, Y., Carmichael, S., Cella, D., Angst, M. S., Gaudilliere, B., Lyell, D. J., Carvalho, B.
To propose postpartum recovery domains.Concept elicitation study SETTING: Semi-structured interviews POPULATION: 10 writing committee members and 50 stakeholder interviews (23 postpartum women, 9 general obstetricians, 5 maternal fetal medicine specialists, 8 nurses and 5 obstetric anaesthetists).Alternating interviews and focus group meetings until concept saturation was achieved (no new themes in 3 consecutive interviews). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed, and an iterative coding process utilised to identify domains.The primary outcome was to identify recovery domains. We also report key symptoms and concerns. Discussion frequency and importance scores (0-100; 0=not important; 100=vitally important to recovery) were used to rank domains. Discussion frequency was used to rank factors helping and hindering recovery, and determine the greatest challenges experienced postpartum.34 interviews and 2 focus group meetings were performed. The 13 postpartum recovery domains identified, (ranked highest to lowest) were: psychosocial distress, surgical / medical factors, infant feeding and breast health, psychosocial support, pain, physical function, sleep, motherhood experience, infant health, fatigue, appearance, sexual function and cognition. The most frequently discussed factors facilitating postpartum recovery were: family support, lactation / breastfeeding support and partner support. The most frequently discussed factor hindering recovery was inadequate social support. The most frequent challenges reported were: breastfeeding (week 1), breastfeeding (week 3) and sleep (week 6).We propose 13 domains, which comprehensively describe recovery in women delivering in a single centre within the United States. This provides a novel framework to study the postpartum recovery process.
View details for DOI 10.1111/1471-0528.16937
View details for PubMedID 34536324
Evaluation of Domains of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Recovery After Childbirth: A Scoping and Systematic Review.
JAMA network open
Sultan, P. n., Sadana, N. n., Sharawi, N. n., Blake, L. n., El-Boghdadly, K. n., Falvo, A. n., Ciechanowicz, S. n., Athar, W. n., Shah, R. n., Guo, N. n., Jensen, S. n., El-Sayed, Y. n., Cella, D. n., Carvalho, B. n.
2020; 3 (5): e205540
Despite the global delivery rate being approximately 259 deliveries per minute in 2018, postpartum recovery remains poorly defined.To identify validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used to assess outpatient and inpatient postpartum recovery, evaluate frequency of PROM use, report the proportion of identified PROMs used within each recovery domain, report the number of published studies within each recovery domain, summarize descriptive data (country of origin, year of study, and journal specialty) for published studies using PROMs to evaluate postpartum recovery, and report PROMs used to evaluate global postpartum recovery.This study followed PRISMA-ScR guidelines. A literature search of 4 databases (MEDLINE through PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL) was performed on July 1, 2019, to identify PROMs used to evaluate 12 author-defined domains of postpartum recovery. All psychometrically evaluated PROMs used to evaluate inpatient or outpatient postpartum recovery after all delivery modes were included.From 8008 screened titles and abstracts, 573 studies (515 outpatient and 58 inpatient) were identified in this review. A total of 201 PROMs were used to assess recovery for outpatient studies and 73 PROMs were used to assess recovery for inpatient studies. The top 5 domains (with highest to lowest numbers of PROMs) used to assess outpatient recovery were psychosocial distress (77 PROMs), surgical complications (26 PROMs), psychosocial support (27 PROMs), motherhood experience (16 PROMs), and sexual function (13 PROMs). Among inpatient studies, the top 5 domains were psychosocial distress (32 PROMs), motherhood experience (7 PROMs), psychosocial support (5 PROMs), fatigue (5 PROMs), and cognition (3 PROMs). The 3 most frequently used PROMs were the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (267 studies), Short-Form 36 Health Questionnaire (global recovery assessment; 40 studies), and Female Sexual Function Index (35 studies). A total of 24 global recovery PROMs were identified among all included studies. Most studies were undertaken in the United States within the last decade and were published in psychiatry and obstetrics and gynecology journals.Most PROMs identified in this review evaluated a single domain of recovery. Future research should focus on determining the psychometric properties of individual and global recovery PROMs identified in this review to provide recommendations regarding optimum measures of postpartum recovery.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.5540
View details for PubMedID 32442292
Postpartum recovery: what does it take to get back to a baseline?
Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
Sultan, P. n., Carvalho, B. n.
2020; Publish Ahead of Print
Limited guidance exists regarding how to assess postpartum recovery. In this article, we discuss various aspects of inpatient and outpatient postpartum recovery.The postpartum period for many women includes sleep deprivation, maternal-neonatal bonding, breastfeeding, and integrating a new life into the family unit. Factors which impact inpatient quality of recovery include pain, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, shivering, comfort, mobilization, ability to hold and feed the baby, personal hygiene maintenance, and feeling in control. Outpatient recovery domains include psychosocial distress, surgical/medical factors, feeding and breast health, psychosocial support, pain, physical function, sleep, motherhood experience, infant health, fatigue, appearance / cosmetic factors, sexual function, and cognition. Postpartum recovery is likely to take longer than six weeks; however, no consensus regarding recovery duration exists among professional societies. Obstetric quality of recovery (ObsQoR) is a recommended measure of inpatient postpartum recovery; however, studies are needed to determine the optimum outpatient recovery assessment tool.Postpartum recovery is an important area that requires clinical and research attention. Future studies should focus on identifying and developing valid, reliable, and responsive measures of recovery as well as tracking and optimizing recovery domains following all delivery modes.http://links.lww.com/COOG/A65.
View details for DOI 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000684
View details for PubMedID 33395109
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- Odor PM, Bampoe S, Lucas DN, Moonesinghe SR, Andrade J, Pandit JJ; Pan-London Peri-operative Audit and Research Network (PLAN), for the DREAMY Investigators Group*. Incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in obstetrics: a multicentre, prospective cohort study. Anaesthesia. 2021;76(6):759-776. doi: 10.1111/anae.15385. *Sultan P and O’Carroll J are named study investigators
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- Sultan P, Carvalho B. Postpartum recovery: what does it take to get back to a baseline? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2021;33(2):86-93. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000684
- Sultan P, Carvalho B, Halpern S. Comment on the editorial relating to: Transversus abdominis plane block compared with wound infiltration for postoperative analgesia following Cesarean delivery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 2021;68(4):581-582. doi: 10.1007/s12630-020-01872-5
- Sultan P, Jensen SE, Taylor J, El-Sayed Y, Carmichael S, Cella D, Angst MS, Gaudilliere B, Lyell DJ, Carvalho B. Proposed domains for assessing postpartum recovery: a concept elicitation study. BJOG. 2021. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.16937. Online ahead of print.
- Sultan P, Sharawi N, Blake L, Ando K, Sultan E, Aghaeepour N, Carvalho B, Sadana N. Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to Assess Outpatient Postpartum Recovery: A Systematic Review. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(5):e2111600. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11600
- Sultan P, Sharawi N, Blake L, Habib AS, Brookfield KF, Carvalho B. Impact of enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery on maternal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2021;40(5):100935. doi: 10.1016/j.accpm.2021.100935
- Sultan P, Sultan E, Carvalho B. Regional anaesthesia for labour, operative vaginal delivery and caesarean delivery: a narrative review. Anaesthesia. 2021;76 Suppl 1:136-147. doi: 10.1111/anae.15233
- Sun JW, Bourgeois FT, Haneuse S, Hernández-Díaz S, Landon JE, Bateman BT, Huybrechts KF. Development and Validation of a Pediatric Comorbidity Index. Am J Epidemiol. 2021;190(5):918-927. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwaa244
- Sun JW, Hernández-Díaz S, Bourgeois FT, Haneuse S, Brill G, Bateman BT, Huybrechts KF. Antidiabetic medication use in commercially insured children and adolescents in the United States from 2004 to 2019. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2021;23(2):444-454. doi: 10.1111/dom.14237
- Sun JW, Hernández-Díaz S, Haneuse S, Bourgeois FT, Vine SM, Olfson M, Bateman BT, Huybrechts KF. Association of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors With the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021;224(3):290.e1-290.e22. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.09.007
- Sutherland TN, Wunsch H, Pinto R, Newcomb C, Brensinger C, Gaskins L, Bateman BT, Neuman MD. Association of the 2016 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Opioid Prescribing Guideline With Changes in Opioid Dispensing After Surgery. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(6):e2111826. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11826
- Sutton C, Carvalho B. Post-cesarean delivery analgesia. UpToDate Review March 2021
- Szmulewicz AG, Bateman BT, Levin R, Huybrechts KF. Risk of Overdose Associated With Co-prescription of Antipsychotics and Opioids: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Schizophr Bull. 2021:sbab116. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbab116
- Szmulewicz A, Bateman BT, Levin R, Huybrechts KF. The Risk of Overdose With Concomitant Use of Z-Drugs and Prescription Opioids: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2021;178(7):643-650. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20071038
- Toledo P, Singh PM, Sultan P. Can Noninferior be Superior? Anesth Analg. 2021;132(3):663-665. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005267
- Wall-Wieler E, Bateman BT, Hanlon-Dearman A, Roos LL, Butwick AJ. Association of Epidural Labor Analgesia With Offspring Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(7):698-705. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0376
- Wall-Wieler E, Butwick AJ, Gibbs RS, Lyell DJ, Girsen AI, El-Sayed YY, Carmichael SL. Maternal Health after Stillbirth: Postpartum Hospital Readmission in California. Am J Perinatol. 2021;38(S 01):e137-e145. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1708803
- Weiniger CF, Carvalho B, Ronel I, Greenberger C, Aptekman B, Almog O, Kagan G, Shalev S. A randomized trial to investigate needle redirections/re-insertions using a handheld ultrasound device versus traditional palpation for spinal anesthesia in obese women undergoing cesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2021 Sep:103229. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2021.103229. Online ahead of print.
- Wood ME, Chen ST, Huybrechts KF, Bateman BT, Gray KJ, Seely EW, Zhu Y, Mogun H, Patorno E, Hernández-Díaz S. Validation of a Claims-based Algorithm to Identify Pregestational Diabetes Among Pregnant Women in the United States. Epidemiology. 2021;32(6):855-859. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001397
- Xiao MZX, Whitney D, Guo N, Bentley J, Shaw GM, Druzin ML, Butwick AJ. Trends in eclampsia in the United States, 2009-2017: a population-based study. J Hypertens. 2021;40(3):490-497. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003037
- Zhu Y, Huybrechts KF, Desai RJ, Franklin JM, Hernandez-Diaz S, Krumme A, Straub L, Neuman M, Wunsch H, Levin R, Mogun H, Bateman BT. Prescription opioid use after vaginal delivery and subsequent persistent opioid use and misuse. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2021;3(2):100304. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100304
- Abir G, Austin N, Seligman KM, Burian BK, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN. Cognitive aids in obstetric units: Design, implementation, and use. Anesth Analg. 2020;130:1341-50
- Ackland GL, Abbott TEF, Jones TF, Leuwer M, Pearse RM; VISION-UK Investigators*. Early elevation in plasma high-sensitivity troponin T and morbidity after elective noncardiac surgery: prospective multicentre observational cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2020;124(5):535-543 *Sultan P is a named study investigator
- Al-Sulttan S, Bampoe S, Howle, R, Setty T, Columb M, Patel A, Fernando R, Husain T, Sultan P. A prospective, up-down sequential allocation study investigating the effectiveness of vital capacity breaths using high-flow nasal oxygenation versus a tight-fitting face mask to pre-oxygenate term pregnant women. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020 In press
- Ansari J, Flood P. Severe sequelae, chronic headache linked to PDPH. ASA Monitor. October 2020, Vol. 84, 1–16
- Ansari J, Weiniger CF, Carvalho B, Riley ET. Confounders not general anesthesia likely explains greater postpartum depression. Anesth Analg 2020;131(6):e248-e250
- Bauer M, Bernstein K, Dinges E, Delgado C, El-Sharawi N, Sultan P, Mhyre, JM, Landau R. Obstetric Anesthesia During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Anesth Analg. 2020;131(1):7-15
- Bollag L, Lim G, Sultan P, Habib AS, Landau R, Zakowski M, Tiouririne M, Bhambhani S, Carvalho B. Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology Consensus Statement and Recommendations for Enhanced Recovery After Cesarean (ERAC). Anesth Analg. 2020 In Press. PMID: 33177330.
- Brookfield KF, Tuel K, Rincon M, Vinson A, Caughey AB, Carvalho B. Alternate Dosing Protocol for Magnesium Sulfate in Obese Women With Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2020:136:1190-4
- Bryant E, Tsai S, Levin E, Fleischman D, Ansari J, Fischbein M, Bianco K, Khandelwal A. Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Ascending Aortic Aneurysm in a Twin Pregnancy. J Am Coll Cardiol Case Rep. 2020:2(1):96–100
- Butwick A, Lyell D, Goodnough L. How do I manage severe postpartum hemorrhage? Transfusion. 2020;60(5):897-907
- Butwick AJ, Druzin ML, Shaw GM, Guo N. Evaluation of US State-Level Variation in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2018741
- Butwick AJ. Postpartum Hemorrhage: Wherefore Art Thou, Hyperfibrinolysis? Anesth Analg. 2020;131(5):1370-1372
- Butwick AJ, McCarthy RJ. Machine learning: the next frontier in obstetric anesthesiology? Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;14:S0959-289X(20)30119-9
- Chan AL, Guo N, Popat R, Robakis T, Blumenfeld YY, Main E, Scott KA, Butwick AJ. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Hospital-Based Care Associated with Postpartum Depression. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020 May 30. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00774-y
- Chungsamarnyart Y, Wacharasint P, Carvalho B. Hemodynamic profiles with and without left uterine displacement: a randomized study in term pregnancies receiving subarachnoid blockade for cesarean delivery. J Clin Anesth. 202016;64:109796.
- Darnall BD, Mackey SC, Lorig K, Kao MC, Mardian A, Stieg R, Porter J, DeBruyne K, Murphy J, Perez L, Okvat H, Tian L, Flood P, McGovern M, Colloca L, King H, Van Dorsten B, Pun T, Cheung M. Comparative Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain and Chronic Pain Self-Management within the Context of Voluntary Patient-Centered Prescription Opioid Tapering: The EMPOWER Study Protocol. Pain Med. 2020;21(8):1523-1531
- Desai N, Carvalho B. Conversion of labour epidural analgesia to surgical anaesthesia for emergency or urgent intrapartum caesarean section. BJA Education. 2020;20(1):26-
- El-Boghdadly K, Desai N, Halpern S, Blake L, Odor PM, Bampoe S, Carvalho B, Sultan P. Quadratus lumborum block vs. transversus abdominis plane block for caesarean delivery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Anaesthesia 2020 In press
- Fantin R, Ortner CM, Klein KU, Putz G, Marhofer D, Jochberger S. Hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia during cesarean section : Current treatment concepts. Anaesthetist 2020;69(4):254-261
- Fitzgerald JP, Fedoruk KA, Jadin SM, Carvalho B, Halpern SH. Prevention of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Anaesthesia. 2020;75(1):109-121
- Howle R, Sultan P, Shah R, Sceales P, Van de Putte P, Bampoe S. Gastric point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic review. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;44:24-32
- Kist M, Bekemeyer Z, Ralls L, Carvalho B, Rodriguez ST, Caruso TJ. Virtual Reality in Laboring Women Undergoing Epidural Placement: A Case Series J Clin Anesth. 2020;61:109635
- Kleiman AM, Chisholm CA, Dixon AJ, Sariosek BM, Thiele RH, Hedrick TL, Carvalho B, Tiouririne M. Evaluation of the impact of enhanced recovery after surgery protocol implementation on maternal outcomes following elective cesarean delivery Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;43:39-46
- Komatsu R, Ando K, Flood PD. Postpartum chronic pelvic pain and pelvic girdle pain. Minerva Anestesiol. 2020;86(1):99-100
- Komatsu R, Ando K, Flood PD. Factors associated with persistent pain after childbirth: a narrative review. Br J Anaesth. 2020;124(3):e117-e130
- Kwon AH, Flood P. Genetics and Gender in Acute Pain and Perioperative OpioidAnalgesia. Anesthesiol Clin. 2020;38(2):341-355
- Ladfors LV, Muraca GM, Butwick A, Edgren G, Stephansson O. Accuracy of postpartum hemorrhage coding in the Swedish Pregnancy Register. 2020 In press
- Nanji JA, Carvalho B. Pain management during labor and vaginal birth. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2020;67:100-112
- Nanji JA, Guo N, Riley ET, Carvalho B. Impact of intraoperative dexamethasone after scheduled cesarean delivery: a retrospective study. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;41:39-46
- Nedeljkovic SS, Kett A, Vallejo MC, Horn JL, Carvalho B, Bao X, Cole NC, Song J, Yang J, Habib AS. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine for Pain After Cesarean Delivery in a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Anesth Analg 2020;131;1830-1839
- Odor PM, Bampoe S, Lucas DN, Moonesinghe SR, Andrade J, Pandit JJ; DREAMY Investigators Group*. Protocol for direct reporting of awareness in maternity patients (DREAMY): a prospective, multicentre cohort study of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;42:47-56 *Sultan P is a named study investigator.
- Odor PM, Bampoe S, Moonesinghe SR, Andrade J, Pandit JJ, Lucas DN; Pan-London Peri-operative Audit Research Network for the direct reporting of awareness in maternity patients (DREAMY) Investigators Group*. General anaesthetic and airway management practice for obstetric surgery in England: a prospective, multicentre observational study. Anaesthesia. 2020 In press. *Sultan P is a named study investigator.
- Ortner CM, Macias P, Neethling E, Krishnamoorty V, Carvalho B, Dyer RA. Ocular sonography in pre-eclampsia: a simple technique to detect raised intracranial pressure? Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;41:1-6
- Peneva D, Druzin M, Stevens W, Butwick AJ, Lee HC. Maternal and Infant Adverse Outcomes Associated with Mild and Severe Preeclampsia during the First Year after Delivery in the United States. Am J Perinatol. 2020;37(4):398-408
- Reiff ES, Habib AS, Carvalho B, Ragahunathan K. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean Delivery: A Survey of Anesthesiologists. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2020;2020:374160
- Rodrigues A, Waldrop A, Suharwardy S, Druzin M, Ansari J, Stone S, Jaffe R, Jin M, Li G, Hayden-Gephart M. Management of brain tumors presenting in pregnancy: a case series and systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020 In press
- Stewart M, Carvalho B, Tsui BCH. Electrical stimulation test for epidural catheter placement after receiving intrathecal local anesthetic during a combined spinal-epidural technique for Cesarean delivery: confirmation of the spinal nerve root as epidural site of action. Can J Anaesth. 2020;67:498-499S
- Sultan P, Carvalho B. Postpartum recovery: what does it take to get back to a baseline? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2020 In press
- Sultan P, Segal S. Epidural-Related Maternal Fever: Still a Hot Topic, But What Are the Burning Issues? Anesth Analg. 2020;130(2):318-320.
- Sultan P, Kormendy F, Nishimura S, Carvalho B, Guo N, Papageorgiou C. Comparison of spontaneous versus operative vaginal delivery using Obstetric Quality of Recovery-10 (ObsQoR-10): An observational cohort study. J Clin Anesth. 2020;63:109781
- Sultan P, Sadana N, Sharawi N, Blake L, El-Boghdadly K, Falvo A, Ciechanowicz S, Athar W, Shah R, Guo N, Jensen S, El- Sayed Y, Cella D, Carvalho B. Evaluation of Domains of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Recovery after Childbirth: A Scoping and Systematic Review. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(5):e205540
- Sultan P, Sharawi N, Blake L, Carvalho B. Enhanced recovery after caesarean delivery versus standard care studies: a systematic review of interventions and outcomes. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2020;43:72-86
- Sultan P, Patel SD, Jadin S, Carvalho B, Halpern SH. Transversus abdominis plane block compared to wound infiltration for post-operative analgesia following cesarean delivery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Can J Anesth. 2020;67(12):1710-27
- Sultan P, Kamath N, Carvalho B, Bansal P, Elkhateb R, Dougan S, Whittington J, Guo N, El-Sayed Y, Mhrye J, Sharawi N. Evaluation of inpatient postpartum recovery using the Obstetric Quality of Recovery-10 patient-reported outcome measure: a single-center observational study. Am J Obstet Gynecol: MFM. 2020;2(4):100202
- Suharwardy S, Carvalho B. Enhanced recovery after surgery for cesarean delivery. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2020;32(2):113-120
- Wall-Wieler E, Butwick AJ, Gibbs RS, Lyell DJ, Girsen AI, El-Sayed YY, Carmichael SL. Maternal Health after Stillbirth: Postpartum Hospital Readmission in California. Am J Perinatol. 2020;4:10.1055/s-0040-1708803
- Wall-Wieler E, Shover CL, Hah JM, Carmichael SL, Butwick AJ. Opioid Prescription and Persistent Opioid Use After Ectopic Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136(3):548-555
- Weiniger CF, Maor A, Aptekman B, Carvalho B. Prospective investigation of the relationship between body habitus measurements and depth to epidural space and difficult neuraxial block in term pregnant women. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2020;64(5):677-684
- Abir G, Carvalho B. Anesthesia for Non-delivery Obstetric Procedures UpToDate Review
- Abir G, Austin N, Seligman K, Burian B, Goldhaber-Fiebert S. Cognitive Aids in Obstetric Units: Design, Implementation, and Use. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2019.
- Ackland GL, Abbott TEF, Cain D, Edwards MR, Sultan P, Karmali SN, Fowler AJ, Whittle JR, MacDonald NJ, Reyes A, Gallego Paredes L, Stephens RCM, Gutierrez Del Arroyo A, Woldman S, Archbold RA, Wragg A, Kam E, Ahmad T, Khan AW, Niebrzegowska E, Pearse RM. Preoperative systemic inflammation and perioperative myocardial injury: prospective observational multicentre cohort study of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2019 Feb;122(2):180-187.
- Barad M, Sturgeon JA, Fish S. Mackey S, Flood P. PREEMPT: prospective and predictions from complex migraine patients in practice. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2019; 44(6):660-668
- Bateman BT, Carvalho B. Addressing racial and ethnic disparities in pain management in the midst of the opioid crisis. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Dec;134(6):1144-1146
- Bauchat JR, Weiniger CF, Sultan P, Habib A, Ando K, Kowalczyk JJ, Kato R, George R, Palmer C, Carvalho B. (Chair) Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology consensus recommendations for the prevention and detection of respiratory depression associated with neuraxial morphine administration for cesarean delivery analgesia. Anesth Analg. 2019 Aug;129(2):458-474. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004195.
- Bollag L, Tiouririne M, Lim G, Carvalho B, Zakowski B, Bhambhani S. Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) Enhanced Recovery After Cesarean (ERAC) Consensus Statement.
- Butwick AJ, Bentley J, Leonard SA, Carmichael SL, El-Sayed YY, Stephansson O, Guo N. Prepregnancy maternal body mass index and venous thromboembolism: a population-based cohort study. BJOG. 2019; 126: 581-588
- Butwick AJ, Weiniger CF. Combatting Misinformation and Myths about Obstetric Anesthesia (editorial) International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia 2019; 40: 1-3.
- Carvalho B, Habib A. Review: personalized analgesic management for cesarean delivery Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Apr 26. pii: S0959-289X(18)30574-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2019.02.124.
- Carvalho B, Kinsella SM. Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association/National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit collaborative project to develop key indicators for quality of care in obstetric anaesthesia: first steps in the right direction. Anaesthesia. 2019 Dec 3. doi: 10.1111/anae.14935.
- Carvalho B, Mhyre JM. Editorial: Centers of Excellence for Anesthesia Care of Obstetric Patients Anesth Analg. 2019 May;128(5):844-846
- Carvalho B, Seligman K, Weiniger C. The comparative accuracy of a handheld and console ultrasound device for neuraxial depth and landmark assessment Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Jan 11. pii: S0959-289X(18)30359-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2019.01.004.
- Carvalho B, Sutton CD, Kowalczyk J, Flood PD. Efficacy of patient choice of different postoperative analgesic protocols after cesarean delivery: a randomized prospective clinical trial Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2019 Mar 13. pii: rapm-2018-100206. doi: 10.1136/rapm-2018-100206.
- Ciechanowicz S, Howle R, Heppolette C, Nakhjavani B, Carvalho B, Sultan P. Evaluation of the obstetric quality-of-recovery score (obsqor-11) following non-elective caesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Feb 2. pii: S0959-289X(18)30515-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2019.01.010.
- Ciechanowicz S, Setty T, Robson E, Sathasivam C, Chazapis M, Dick J, Carvalho B, Sultan P. Development and evaluation of an obstetric quality-of-recovery score (ObsQoR-11) after elective Caesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth. 2019 Jan;122(1):69-78.
- Darnall BD, Juurlink D, Kerns RD, Mackey S, Van Dorsten B, Humphreys K, Gonzales-Sotomayor JA, Furlan A, Gordon DB, Hoffman DE, Katz J, Kertesz SG, Satel S, Lawhern RA, Nicholson KM, Polomano RC Williamson OD, McAnally H, Kao MC, Schug S, Twillman R, Lewis TA, Stieg RL Lorig K, MAllick-Searle T, West RW, Gray S, Ariens SR, Sharpe Potter J, Cowan P, Kollas CD, Laird D, Ingle B, Julian Grove J, Wilson M, Lockman K, Hodson F, Palackdharry CS, Fillingim RB, Rudin J, Barnhouse J, Manhapra A, Henson SR, Singer B, Ljosenvoor M, Griffith M, Doctor JN, Hardin K, London C, Mankowski J, Anderson A, Ellsworth L, Davis Budzinski L, Brandt B, Hartley G, Nickels Heck D, Zobrosky MJ, Cheeck C, Wilson M, Lauz CE, Datz G, Dunaway J, Schonfeld E, Cady M, LeDantec-Boswell T, Craigie M, Sturgeon J, Flood P, Giummarra M, Whelan J, Thorn BE, Martin RL, Schatman ME, Gregory MD, Jirz J, Robinson P, Marx JG, Stewart JR, Keck PS, Hadland SE, Murphy JL, Lumley MA, Brown KS, Leong MS, Fillman M, Broatch JW, Perez A, Watford K, Kruska K, Sophia You D, Ogbeide S, Kukucka A, Lawson S, Ray JB, Wade Martin T, Lakehomer JB Burke A, Cohen RI, Grinspoon P, Rubenstein MS, Sutherland S, Walters K, Lovejoy T. International stakeholder community of pain experts and leaders call for an urgent action on forced opioid tapering. Pain Med 2019; 20:429-33 *Content expert and manuscript editing
- Darnall BD, Ziadni MS, Krishnamurthy P, Flood P, Heathcote L, Mackey IG, Taub CJ, Wheeler A. “My surgical success”: effect of a digital behavioral pain medicine intervention on time to opioid cessation after breast cancer surgery – a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Pain Medicine 2019; [Epub ahead of print]
- Desai N, Carvalho B. Conversion of labour epidural analgesia to surgical anaesthesia for emergency or urgent intrapartum caesarean section BJA Education
- Desai N, Gardner A, Carvalho B. Labour epidural analgesia to caesarean section anaesthetic conversion failure: a national survey Anesthesiology Research and Practice 2019, Article ID 6381792
- Du L, Wenning L,Carvalho B, Duley L, Brookfield K, Witjes H, de Greef R, Lumbiganon P, Titapant V, Kongwattanakul K, Long Q, Sangkomkamhang U, Gülmezoglu AM, Oladapo OT. Alternative magnesium sulphate dosing regimens for women with pre-eclampsia: A population pharmacokinetic exposure-eclampsia response modelling and simulation study J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Jun 3. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1448.
- Fedoruk K, Seligman KM, Carvalho B, Butwick AJ. Assessing the Association Between Blood Loss and Postoperative Hemoglobin After Cesarean Delivery: A Prospective Study of 4 Blood Loss Measurement Modalities Anesthesia and Analgesia 2019; 128: 926-932.
- Fitzgerald JP, Fedoruk KA, Jadin SM, Carvalho B, Halpern SH. Prevention of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Anaesthesia. 2020 Jan;75(1):109-121
- Gutierrez del Arroyo A, Sanchez J, Patel S, Phillips S, Reyes A, David AL, EPIFEVER investigators, Sultan P, Ackland GL. The role of leukocyte caspase-1 activity in the development of epidural-related maternal fever: a single centre, observational, mechanistic cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2019 Jan;122(1):92-102.
- Han X, Ghaemi MS, Ando K, Peterson L, Ganio E, Tsai AS, Gaudilliere D, Einhaus J, Stanley N, Culos A, Taneda A, Tsai E, Fallahzadeh R, Wong RJ, Winn VD, Druzin ML, Blumenfeld YJ, Hlatky M, Quaintance CC, Gibbs RS, Lewis BD, Carvalho B, Shaw GM, Stevenson DK, Angst MS, Aghaeepour N, Gaudilliere B. Differential dynamics of the maternal immune system in healthy pregnancy and preeclampsia. Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 11;10:1305.
- Heesen M, Carvalho B, Carvalho JCA, Duvekot JJ, Dyer RA, Lucas ND, McDonnell N, Orbach-Zinger S, Kinsella SM. International consensus statement on the use of uterotonic agents during caesarean section. Anaesthesia 2019 doi:10.1111/anae.14757
- Kist M, Bekemeyer Z, Ralls L, Carvalho B, Rodriguez ST, Caruso TJ. Virtual reality in laboring women undergoing epidural placement: a case series J Clin Anesth. 2019 Oct 26:109635. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2019.109635.
- Kleiman AM, Chisholm CA, Dixon AJ, Sariosek BM, Thiele RH, Hedrick TL, Carvalho B, Tiouririne M. Evaluation of the impact of enhanced recovery after surgery protocol implementation on maternal outcomes following elective cesarean delivery Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Aug 21. pii: S0959-289X(19)30527-8.
- Komatsu R, Ando K, Flood PD. Postpartum chronic pelvic pain and pelvic girdle pain. Minerva Anestesiol. 2019; [In Press]
- Kowalczyk J, Carvalho B, Collins J. Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange for elective laryngeal surgery during pregnancy: a case report. AA Pract. 2019 Dec 1;13(11):426-429.
- Kowalczyk J, Yurashevich M, Austin N, Carvalho B. In vitro intravenous fluid co-load rates with and without an intravenous fluid warming device. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019;38:149-150.
- Kwon A and Flood P. Genetics and gender in acute pain and perioperative opioid analgesia. Anesthesiology Clinics 2019 [In Press]
- Lozada J, Weiniger CF, Carvalho B, Bauchat JR. Taking a RESPITE from using remifentanil for labour analgesia. The Lancet 2019, 394(10198): e12.
- Mhyre JM, Sultan P. General anesthesia for cesarean delivery: Occasionally essential but best avoided. Anesthesiology. 2019 Jun;130(6):864-866.
- Nanji JA, Guo N, Riley ET, Carvalho B. Impact of intraoperative dexamethasone after scheduled cesarean delivery: a retrospective study. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Jun 24. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2019.06.006
- Nanji JA, Guo N, Riley ET, Faulkner B, Do C, Carvalho B. Evaluation of opioid use with split doses of oral opioids in a postcesarean delivery analgesia order set. Obstet Gynecol. 2019; 44(5): 575-585.
- Oji-Zurmeyer J, Ortner CM, Klein KU, Gries M, Kühn C, Schroffenegger T, Putz G, Jochberger S. National survey of obstetric anaesthesia clinical practices in the republic of Austria. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Aug;39:95-98. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2019.02.002. Epub 2019 Feb 15.
- Ortner CM, Macias P, Neethling E, Krishnamoorty V, Carvalho B, Dyer RA. Ocular sonography in pre-eclampsia: a simple technique to detect raised intracranial pressure? Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Sep 20.
- Ortner CM, Krishnamoorthy V, Neethling E, Flint M, Swanevelder JL, Lombard C, Fawcus S, Dyer RA. Point-of-Care Ultrasound Abnormalities in Late-Onset Severe Preeclampsia: Prevalence and Association With Serum Albumin and Brain Natriuretic Peptide. Anesth Analg. 2019 Jun;128(6):1208-1216. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003759.
- Patel SD, Sharawi N, Sultan P. Local anaesthetic techniques for post caesarean delivery pain. Submitted to Int J Obstet Anesth 2019 Nov;40:62-77
- Riley E, Akbar K, Carvalho B. Intra-aortic balloon pump for cesarean hysterectomy and massive hemorrhage in a parturient with placenta accreta and pulmonary embolus: a case report. J Med Ultrasound 2019;27:104-6
- Riley ET, Mangum K, Carvalho B, Butwick AJ. The crystalloid co-load as effective as colloid preload for preventing hypotension from spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2019; 47(1): 35-40
- Sharawi N, Klima L, Shah R, Blake L, Carvalho B, Sultan P. Evaluation of patient-reported outcome measures of functional recovery following caesarean section: a systematic review using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Anaesthesia. 2019 Nov; 74(11):1439-1455.
- Sherman J, Hedli L, Kristensen-Cabrera A, Lipman S, Schwandt D, Lee H, Sie L, Halamek L, Austin N. Understanding the Heterogeneity of Labor and Delivery Units: Using Design Thinking Methodology to Assess Environmental Factors that Contribute to Safety in Childbirth. Am J Perinatol. 2019 Apr. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-168549
- Stewart M, Carvalho B, Tsui BCH. Electrical stimulation test for epidural catheter placement after receiving intrathecal local anesthetic during a combined spinal-epidural technique for Cesarean delivery: confirmation of the spinal nerve root as epidural site of action. Can J Anaesth. 2019 Nov 4
- Sultan P, Bampoe S, Shah R, N.Guo, J. Estes, Halpern S, Butwick A. Treatment of postpartum anemia using oral versus intravenous iron therapy: A systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jul;221(1):19-29.e3.
- Sultan P, Bampoe S, Shah R, Guo N, Estes J, Stave C, Goodnough LT, Halpern S, Butwick AJ. Oral versus intravenous iron therapy for postpartum anemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2019; 221: 19-29.e3
- Sutton CD, Carvalho B. Supraglottic airway rescue after failed fiberoptic intubation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta A A Pract. 2019 Jan 28. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000968.
- Terkawi AS, Bakri B, Alsadek AS, Alsibaee RH, Alasfar EM, Albakour AH, Aljouja AY, Alshaikhwais NA, Fares FA, Flood PD, Jnaid H Najib AA, Saloom DA, Zahra NA, Altirkawi KA. Women's health in northwestern syria: findings from healthy-syria 2017 study. Avicenna J Med. 2019; 9:94-106
- Ton TGN, Bennett MV, Incerti D, Peneva D, Druzin M, Stevens W, Butwick AJ, Lee HC. Maternal and Infant Adverse Outcomes Associated with Mild and Severe Preeclampsia during the First Year after Delivery in the United States. American Journal of Perinatology 2019 Feb 19. [Epub ahead of print]
- Wall-Wieler E, Carmichael SL, Gibbs RS, Lyell DL, Girsen AI, El-Sayed YY, Butwick AJ. Severe Maternal Morbidity among Stillbirth and Live Birth Deliveries in California Obstetrics and Gynecology 2019; 134: 310-17
- Weiniger CF, Maor A, Aptekman B, Carvalho B. Prospective investigation of the relationship between body habitus measurements and depth to epidural space and difficult neuraxial block in term pregnant women Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2019 Dec 31. doi: 10.1111/aas.13544.
- Yurashevich M, Carvalho B, Butwick AJ, Ando K, Flood P. Determinants of patient dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in labor and delivery. Anaesthesia 2019; 74:1112-1120
- Yurashevich M, Chow A, Kowalczyk J, Traynor AJ, Carvalho B. Preoperative fasting times for patients undergoing cesarean delivery: before and after a patient educational initiative. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2019; 47(4): 282-286
- Ackland G, Gutierrez del Arroyo A, Sanchez J, Patel S, Phillips S, Reyes A, Sultan P, David A. Caspase-1 and epidural-related maternal fever. Br J Anaesth. 2018;120:e20-e21.
- Austin N, Kristensen-Cabrera A, Sherman J, Schwandt D, McDonald A, Hedli L, Lipman S, Daniels K, Lee H. Analyzing the heterogeneity of labor and delivery units: a quantitative analysis of space and design. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0209339.
- Bagdas D, Gurunc MS, Flood P, Papkee RL, Damaj MI. New insights on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as targets for pain and inflammation: a focus on α7 nAChRs. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018;16:415-25.
- Buchan T, Walkden M, Jenkins K, Sultan P, Bandula S. High frequency jet ventilation during cryoablation of small renal tumours. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2018;41:1067-73.
- Butwick AJ, Abreo A, Bateman BT, Lee HC, El-Sayed YY, Stephansson O, Flood P. Effect of body mass index on postpartum hemorrhage. Anesthesiology. 2018;128: 774-83.
- Butwick A, Bentley J, Leonard SA, Carmichael SL, EI-Sayed YY, Stephansson O, Guo N. Prepregnancy maternal body mass index and venous thromboembolism: a population based cohort study. BJOG. Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15567. [Epub ahead of print]
- Butwick A, Bentley J, Wong CA, Snowden JM, Sun E, Guo N. United States state-level variation in the use of neuraxial analgesia during labor for pregnant women. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1:e186567.
- Butwick AJ, Palanisamy A. Mode of anesthesia for cesarean delivery and maternal morbidity: can we overcome confounding by indication? Br J Anaesth. 2018;120:621-3.
- Butwick A, Walsh EM, Kuzniewicz M, Li SX, Escobar GJ. Accuracy of international classification of diseases, ninth revision, codes for postpartum hemorrhage among women undergoing cesarean delivery. Transfusion. 2018;58:998-1005.
- Butwick AJ, Wong CA, Guo N. Maternal body mass index and use of labor neuraxial analgesia: a population-based retrospective cohort study. Anesthesiology. 2018;129:448-58.
- Cobb B, Abir G, Carvalho B. Preoperative anterior thigh temperature does not correlate with perioperative temporal hypothermia during cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia: secondary analysis of a randomized control trial. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2018;33:40-5.
- Darnall BD, Ziadni MS, Stieg RL, Mackey IG, Kao MC, Flood P. Patient-centered prescription opioid tapering in community outpatients with chronic pain. JAMA Intern Med. 2018; 178:707-8.
- Devlin JW, Skrobik Y, Gélinas C, Needham DM, Slooter AJC, Pandharipande PP, Watson PL, Weinhouse GL, Nunnally ME, Rochwerg B, Balas MC, van den Boogaard M, Bosma KJ, Brummel NE, Chanques G, Denehy L, Drouot X, Fraser GL, Harris JE, Joffe AM, Kho ME, Kress JP, Lanphere JA, McKinley S, Neufeld KJ, Pisani MA, Payen JF, Pun BT, Puntillo KA, Riker RR, Robinson BRH, Shehabi Y, Szumita PM, Winkelman C, Centofanti JE, Price C, Nikayin S, Misak CJ, Flood PD, Kiedrowski K, Alhazzani W. Executive summary: clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2018;46:1532-48.
- Devlin JW, Skrobik Y, Rochwerg B, Nunnally M, Needham DM, Gelinas C, Pandharipande P, Slooter AA, Watson P, Weinhouse G, Kho ME, Centofan J, Price C, Harmon L, Misak C, Flood P, Alhazzani W. Methodological innovation in creating clinical practice guidelines: insights from the 2018 SCCM pain, agitation (sedation), delirium, immobility and sleep (disruption) guideline effort. Crit Care Med. 2018;46:1457-63.
- Du L, Wenning L, Migoya E, Xu Y, Carvalho B, Brookfield K, Witjes H, de Greef R, Lumbiganon P, Sangkomkamhang U, Titapant V, Duley L, Long Q, Oladapo OT. Population pharmacokinetic modeling to evaluate standard magnesium sulfate treatments and alternative dosing regimens for pregnant women with preeclampsia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 13. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1328. [Epub ahead of print]
- Eisenried A, Austin N, Cobb B, Akhbardeh A, Carvalho B, Yeomans DC, Tzabazis AZ. Correlation of changes in hemodynamic response as measured by cerebral optical spectrometry with subjective pain ratings in volunteers and patients: a prospective cohort study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:1991-8.
- Fedoruk K, Seligman KM, Carvalho B, Butwick AJ. Assessing the association between blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin after cesarean delivery: a prospective study of 4 blood loss measurement modalities. Anesth Analg. 2018 May 25. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003449. [Epub ahead of print]
- Fischer A, Ortner CM, Hartmann T, Jochberger S, Klein KU. Which medications are safe for breastfeeding? A synopsis for the anesthetist, obstetrician and pediatrician. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2018 Apr 24. doi: 10.1007/s10354-018-0637-z. [Epub ahead of print]
- Guo N, Robakis T, Miller C, Butwick A. Prevalence of depression among women of reproductive age in the United States.Obstet Gynecol. 2018;131:671-9.
- Ho PT, Carvalho B, Sun EC, Macario A, Riley ET. Cost-benefit analysis of maintaining a fully stocked malignant hyperthermia cart versus an initial dantrolene treatment dose for maternity units. Anesthesiology. 2018;129:249-59.
- Howle R, Ciechanowicz S, Heppolette C, Nakhjavani B, Sultan P. Validation of an obstetric quality of recovery scoring tool (ObsQoR-11) after emergency caesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth. 2018;121:e19-e20.
- Komatsu R, Carvalho B, Flood P. Prediction of pain, analgesia requirement and recovery of function after childbirth. Br J Anaesth. 2018;121:417-26.
- Leffert L, Butwick A, Arendt K, Bates S, Boehlen F, Fernando R, Friedman A, Horlocker T, Kopp S, Montgomery D, Pellegrini J, Smiley R, Toledo P, Carvalho B, Landau IR. The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology consensus statement on the anesthetic management of pregnant and postpartum women receiving thromboprophylaxis or higher dose anticoagulants. Anesth Analg. 2018; 126:928-44.
- Nanji JA, Carvalho B. Modern techniques to optimize neuraxial labor analgesia. Anesth Pain Med. 2018;13:233-40.
- Ng S, Sodha S, Habib AS, Carvalho B, Sultan P. High-dose versus low-dose local anesthetic for transversus abdominis plane block post-cesarean delivery analgesia - a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2018;120:252-63.
- Ortner CM, Krishnamoorthy V, Neethling E, Flint M, Swanevelder JL, Lombard C, Fawcus S, Dyer RA. Point-of-care ultrasound abnormalities in late onset severe preeclampsia: prevalence and association with serum albumin and brain natriuretic peptide. Anesth Analg. 2018 Sep 10. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003759. [Epub ahead of print]
- Palmer E, Ciechanowicz S, Reeve A, Harris S, Wong DJN, Sultan P. Operating room-to-incision interval and neonatal outcome in emergency caesarean section: a retrospective 5-year cohort study. Anaesthesia. 2018;73:825-31.
- Patel SD, Habib AS, Phillips S, Carvalho B, Sultan P. The effect of glycopyrrolate on the incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2018;126:552-8.
- Pushpanathan E, Setty T, Carvalho B, Sultan P. A systematic review of postoperative pain outcome measurements utilised in regional anesthesia randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiol Res Prac. 2018;2018:9050239.
- Riley ET. Comment on arachnoid and dura mater lesions. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018;43:332.
- Riley ET, Dyer RA, Carvalho B. Left uterine tilt for cesarean delivery significantly improves maternal hemodynamics and should not be considered outdated dogma. Anesthesiology. 2018;128:858-9.
- Seligman KM, Weiniger CF, Carvalho B. The accuracy of a handheld ultrasound device for neuraxial depth and landmark assessment: a prospective cohort trial. Anesth Analg. 2018;126:1995-8.
- Sharawi N, Carvalho B, Habib AS, Blake L, Mhyre JM, Sultan P. A systematic review evaluating neuraxial morphine and diamorphine associated respiratory depression following cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2018;127:1385-95.
- Sloan R, Shapiro P, McKinley P, Bartels M, Shimbo D, Lauriola V, Karmally W, Choi C, Choo T, Scodes J, Flood P, Tracey KJ. Aerobic exercise training and systemic inflammation: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Am Heart Ass. 2018;7:e010201.
- Tan, M, Lipman S, Lee H, Sie L, Carvalho B. Evaluation of electronic medical records on nurses’ time allocation during cesarean delivery. J Patient Saf. 2018 Feb 26 doi: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000467. [Epub ahead of print]
- Weber U, Schiefer J, Muehlbacher J, Bernardi M, Ortner CM, Jaksch P. High altitude trekking after lung transplantation: a prospective study using lung ultrasound to detect comet tails for interstitial pulmonary edema in lung transplant recipients and healthy volunteers. Transpl Int. 2018;31:1245-53.
- Weiniger CF, Akdagli S, Turval E, Carvalho B. Prospective observational investigation of capnography and pulse oximetry monitoring after cesarean delivery with intrathecal morphine. Anesth Analg. 2018 Jun 28. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003503. [Epub ahead of print]
- Weiniger CF, Cobb B, Wang RR. Carvalho B. Observational study using ultrasound to assess midline labor epidural analgesia placement and analgesic efficacy. J Ultrasound Med. 2018;37:1693-9.
- Zackler A, Flood P, Dajao R, Maramara L, Goetzl L. Suspected chorioamnionitis and myometrial contractility: mechanisms for increased risk of cesarean delivery and postpartum hemorrhage. Reprod Sci. 2018 Jan 1:1933719118778819. doi: 10.1177/1933719118778819. [Epub ahead of print]
- Abir G, Akdagli S, Butwick A, Carvalho B. Clinical and microbiological features of maternal sepsis: a retrospective study. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2017;29:26-33.
- Abir G, Mhyre J. Maternal mortality and the role of the obstetric anesthesiologist. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2017;31:91-105.
- Bateman BT, Cole NM, Maeda A, Burns SM, Houle TT, Huybrechts KF, Clancy CR, Hopp SB, Ecker JL, Ende H, Grewe K, Corradini BR, Schoenfeld RE, Sankar K, Day LJ, Harris LC, Booth JL, Flood P, Bauer ME, Tsen LC, Leffert LR, Landau R. Patterns of opioid prescription and use after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130:29-35.
- Betti F, Carvalho B, Riley ET. Intrathecal migration of an epidural catheter while using a programmed intermittent epidural bolus technique for labor analgesia maintenance: a case report. A A Case Rep. 2017;9:357-9.
- Brookfield KF, Elkomy M, Su F, Drover DR, Carvalho B. Optimization of maternal magnesium sulfate administration for fetal neuroprotection: application of a prospectively constructed pharmacokinetic model to the BEAM cohort. J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;57:1419-24.
- Butwick A. Improving post-caesarean analgesia: where to next? BJOG. 2017;124:1071.
- Butwick AJ, Ramachandran B, Hegde P, Riley ET, El-Sayed YY, Nelson LM. Risk factors for severe postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery: case-control studies. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:523-32.
- Butwick AJ, Walsh EM, Kuzniewicz M, Li SX, Escobar GJ. Patterns and predictors of severe postpartum anemia after cesarean section. Transfusion. 2017;57:36-44.
- Carvalho B, Bateman B. Not too little, not too much: finding the goldilocks zone for spinal anesthesia to facilitate external cephalic version. Anesthesiology. 2017;127:596-8.
- Carvalho B, Butwick AJ. Postcesarean delivery analgesia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2017;31:69-79.
- Carvalho B, Mirza F, Flood P. Patient choice compared with no choice of intrathecal morphine dose for caesarean analgesia: a randomized clinical trial. Br J Anaesth. 2017;118:762-71.
- Carvalho B, Riley ET. Programmed intermittent epidural boluses (PIEB) for maintenance of labor analgesia: an incremental step before the next paradigm shift? Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2017;45:73-5.
- 13. Carvalho B, Weiniger CF. A perspective on hypercapnia events after cesarean delivery in women receiving intrathecal morphine. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:355-6.
- Carvalho B, Zheng LL, Butwick A. Comparative effectiveness of lower leg compression devices versus sequential compression devices to prevent postspinal hypotension during cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2017;124:696-7.
- Chin KJ, McDonnell JG, Carvalho B, Sharkey A, Pawa A, Gadsden J. Essentials of our current understanding: abdominal wall blocks. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017;42:133-83.
- Cobb B, Lipman S. Cardiac arrest: obstetric CPR/ACLS. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2017;60:425-30.
- Daniels K, Hamilton C, Crowe S, Lipman S, Halamek LP, Lee HC. Opportunities to foster efficient communication in labor and delivery using simulation. AJP Rep. 2017;7:e44-e48.
- Desai N, Carvalho B. General anaesthesia for caesarean section: is the end in sight for thiopental? Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2017;78:358.
- Duffield A, McKenzie C, Carvalho B, Ramachandran B, Yin V, El-Sayed YY, Riley ET, Butwick AJ. Effect of a high-rate versus a low-rate oxytocin infusion for maintaining uterine contractility during elective cesarean delivery: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Anesth Analg. 2017;124:857-62.
- Duffield A, Sultan P, Riley ET, Carvalho B. Optimal administration of cefazolin prophylaxis for cesarean delivery. J Perinatol. 2017;37:16-20.
- Farr A, Holzer I, Einig S, Ortner CM, Lenz-Gebhart A, Lehner R. Outcomes and trends of peripartum maternal admission to the intensive care unit. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017;129:605-11.
- Jochberger S, Klein KU, Ortner CM. Schmerztherapie während der Geburt (Pain management during labor). Wien Med Wochenschr. 2017;167:368-73.
- Komatsu R, Carvalho B, Flood P. Recovery after nulliparous birth: a detailed analysis of pain analgesia and recovery of function. Anesthesiology. 2017;127;684-94
- Kowalczyk JJ, Bause GS. From Danielsville to doctor's day: Crawford W. Long, MD, the first surgical and first obstetric etherist. J Anesth Hist. 2017;3:31-2.
- Kumar G, Howard SK, Kou A, Kim TE, Butwick AJ, Mariano ER. Availability and readability of online patient education materials regarding regional anesthesia techniques for perioperative pain management. Pain Med. 2017;18:2027-32.
- Leffert LR, Dubois HM, Butwick AJ, Carvalho B, Houle TT, Landau R. Neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients receiving thromboprophylaxis with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin: a systematic review of spinal epidural hematoma. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:223-31.
- Mayo-Wilson E, Li T, Fusco N, Bertizzolo L, Canner JK, Cowley T, Doshi P, Ehmsen J, Gresham G, Guo N, Haythornthwaite JA, Heyward J, Hong H, Pham D, Payne JL, Rosman L, Stuart EA, Suarez-Cuervo C, Tolbert E, Twose C, Vedula S, Dickersin K. Cherry-picking by trialists and meta-analysts can drive conclusions about intervention efficacy. J Clin Epidemiology. 2017;91:95-110.
- McKenzie C, Akdagli S, Abir G, Carvalho B. Postpartum tubal ligation: a retrospective review of anesthetic management at a single institution and a practice survey of academic institutions. J Clin Anesth. 2017;43:39-46.
- Miller CM, Cohn S, Akdagli S, Carvalho B, Blumenfeld YJ, Butwick AJ. Postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery: risk factors and maternal outcomes. J Perinatol. 2017;37:243-8.
- Moy DM, Kim TE, Harrison TK, Leng JC, Carvalho B, Howard SK, Shum C, Kou A, Mariano ER; Anesthesiology-Directed Advanced Procedural Training (ADAPT) Research Group. Comparative echogenicity of an epidural catheter and 2 new catheters designed for ultrasound-guided continuous peripheral nerve blocks. J Ultrasound Med. 2017;36:2571-6.
- Nekhendzy V, Ramaiah VK, Collins J, Lemmens HJ, Most SP. The safety and efficacy of the use of the flexible laryngeal mask airway with positive pressure ventilation in elective ENT surgery: a 15-year retrospective single-center study. Minerva Anestesiol. 2017;83:947-55.
- Panigrahi AK, Yeaton-Massey A, Bakhtary S, Andrews J, Lyell DJ, Butwick AJ, Goodnough LT. A standardized approach for transfusion medicine support in patients with morbidly adherent placenta. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:603-8.
- Phillips S, Subair S, Husain T, Sultan P. Apnoeic oxygenation during maternal cardiac arrest in a parturient with extreme obesity. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2017;29:88-90.
- Rahman S, Walker D, Sultan P. Medical identification jewellery: an opportunity to save lives or an unreliable hindrance? Anaesthesia. 2017;72:1139-45.
- Riley ET. Comment on Montenigro et al., "Cumulative head impact exposure predicts later-life depression, apathy, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment in former high school and college football players". J Neurotrauma. 2017;34:1490.
- Riley ET, Carvalho B. Programmed intermittent epidural boluses (PIEB) for maintenance of labor analgesia: a superior technique to continuous epidural infusion? Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2017;45:65-6.
- Seligman K, Ramachandran B, Hegde P, Riley ET, El-Sayed YY, Nelson LM, Butwick AJ. Obstetric interventions and maternal morbidity among women who experience severe postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2017;31:27-36.
- Shaylor R, Weiniger CF, Austin N, Tzabazis A, Shander A, Goodnough LT, Butwick AJ. National and international guidelines for patient blood management in obstetrics: a qualitative review. Anesth Analg. 2017;124:216-32.
- Sultan P, Habib A, Carvalho B. Ambient operating room temperature: mother, baby or surgeon? Br J Anaesth. 2017;119:839.
- Sutton CD, Butwick AJ, Riley ET, Carvalho B. Nitrous oxide for labor analgesia: utilization and predictors of conversion to neuraxial analgesia. J Clin Anesth. 2017;40:40-5.
- Sutton CD, Carvalho B. Optimal pain management after cesarean delivery. Anesthesiol Clin. 2017;35:107-24.
- Sutton C, Carvalho B. What's trending now? An analysis of trends in internet searches for labor epidurals. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2017;30:52-7.
- Takazawa T, Choudhury P, Tong CK, Conway CM, Scherrer G, Flood PD, Mukai J, MacDermott AB. Inhibition mediated by glycinergic and GABAergic receptors on excitatory neurons in mouse superficial dorsal horn is location-specific but modified by inflammation. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2336-48.
- Van Erp M, Ortner CM, Jochberger S, Klein KU. Aktuelle versorgungskonzepte in der geburtshilflichen anästhesie (Recent standards in management of obstetric anesthesia). Wien Med Wochenschr. 2017;167:374-89.
- Wang M, He M, Wu B, Ke L, Han T, Wang J, Shan H, Ness P, Guo N, Liu Y, Nelson K. The association of elevated alanine aminotransferase levels with hepatitis E virus infections among blood donors in China. Transfusion. 2017;57:273-9.
- Weiniger CF, Carvalho B, Landau R. Optimal and timely triggers for vital signs-controlled, patient-assisted intravenous analgesia (VPIA) using remifentanil for labour and delivery analgesia. Anaesthesia. 2017;72:1155-6.
- Weiniger CF, Carvalho B, Stocki D, Einav S. Analysis of physiological respiratory variable alarm alerts among laboring women receiving remifentanil. Anesth Analg. 2017;124:1211-8.
- Ansari J, Carvalho B, Shafer S, Flood P. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs commonly used in pregnancy and parturition. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:786-804.
- Austin N, Goldhaber-Fiebert S, Daniels K, Arafeh J, Grenon V, Welle D, Lipman S. Building comprehensive strategies for obstetric safety: simulation drills and communication. Anesth Analg. 2016;123:1181-90.
- Brookfield KF, O'Malley K, El-Sayed YY, Blumenfeld YJ, Butwick AJ. Does time of delivery influence the risk of neonatal morbidity? Am J Perinatol. 2016;33:502-9.
- Brookfield KF, Su F, Drover DR, Elkomy MH, Adelus M, Lyell DJ, Carvalho B. Pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of magnesium sulfate in pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;214:737.e1-9.
- Butwick A, Blumenfeld Y, Brookfield K, Weiniger CF. Racial and ethnic disparities in mode of anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:472-9.
- Butwick AJ, Tiouririne M. Evaluation of high-risk obstetric patients: a survey of US academic centers. J Clin Anesth. 2016;33:460-8.
- Carvalho B, George RB, Cobb B, McKenzie C, Riley ET. Implementation of programmed intermittent epidural bolus for the maintenance of labor analgesia. Anesth Analg. 2016;123:965-71.
- Carvalho B, Granot M, Sultan P, Wilson H, Landau R. A longitudinal study to evaluate pregnancy-induced endogenous analgesia and pain modulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016;41:175-80.
- Carvalho B, Mhyre JM. Moving beyond the 0-10 scale for labor pain measurement. Anesth Analg. 2016;123:1351-3.
- Carvalho B, Zheng M, Harter S, Sultan P. A prospective cohort study evaluating the ability of anticipated pain, perceived analgesic needs, and psychological traits to predict pain and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2016;2016:7948412 .
- Cobb B, Cho Y, Hilton G, Ting V, Carvalho B. Active warming utilizing combined intravenous fluid and forced-air warming decreases hypothermia and improves maternal comfort during cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:1490-7.
- Darnall B, Wheeler A, Taub C, Mackey I, Wapnir I, Schultz C, Rico T, Flood P. An internet-based perioperative pain psychology treatment program: results of a randomized controlled trial in breast oncology surgery patients. J Pain. 2016;17:S106.
- Degos V, Flood P. Are epigenetic changes the key to the elusive mechanism for the long-lasting effects of anesthetic drugs that persist after emergence? Anesthesiology. 2016;124:530-1.
- Farber MK, Miller CM, Ramachandran B, Hegde P, Akbar K, Goodnough LT, Butwick AJ. Knowledge of blood loss at delivery among postpartum patients. Peer J. 2016;4:e2361.
- Flood P, Clark JD. Molecular interaction between stress and pain. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:994-5.
- Fragiadakis GK, Baca QJ, Gherardini PF, Ganio EA, Gaudilliere DK, Tingle M, Lancero HL, McNeil LS, Spitzer MH, Wong RJ, Shaw GM, Darmstadt GL, Sylvester KG, Winn VD, Carvalho B, Lewis DB, Stevenson DK, Nolan GP, Aghaeepour N, Angst MS, Gaudilliere BL. Mapping the fetomaternal peripheral immune system at term pregnancy. J Immunol. 2016;197:4482-92.
- Hilton G, Daniels K, Carvalho B. Simulation study assessing healthcare provider's knowledge of preeclampsia and eclampsia in a tertiary referral center. Simul Healthc. 2016;11:25-31.
- Hilton G, Daniels K, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Lipman S, Carvalho B, Butwick A. Checklists and multidisciplinary team performance during simulated obstetric hemorrhage. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2016;25:9-16.
- Hu LQ, Flood P, Li Y, Tao W, Zhao P, Xia Y, Pian-Smith MC, Stellaccio FS, Ouanes JP, Hu F, Wong CA. No pain labor & delivery: a global health initiative's impact on clinical outcomes in China. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:1931-8.
- Ioscovich A, Shatalin D, Butwick AJ, Ginosar Y, Orbach-Zinger S, Weiniger CF. Israeli survey of anesthesia practice related to placenta previa and accreta. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2016;60:457-64.
- Lipman S, Cohen SE, Mhyre J, Carvalho B, Einav S, Arafeh J, Jeejeebhoy F, Cobb B, Druzin M, Katz V, Harney K. Challenging the 4- to 5-minute rule: from perimortem cesarean to resuscitative hysterotomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:129-31.
- McKenzie CP, Carvalho B, Riley ET. The Wiley spinal catheter-over-needle system for continuous spinal anesthesia: a case series of 5 cesarean deliveries complicated by paresthesias and headaches. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016;41:405-10.
- McKenzie CP, Cobb B, Riley ET, Carvalho B. Programmed intermittent epidural boluses for maintenance of labor analgesia: an impact study. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2016;26:32-8.
- Miller CM, Ramachandran B, Akbar K, Carvalho B, Butwick AJ. The impact of postpartum hemoglobin levels on maternal quality of life after delivery: a prospective exploratory study. Ann Hematol. 2016;95:2049-55.
- Osmundson SS, Gould JB, Butwick AJ, Yeaton-Massey A, El-Sayed YY. Labor outcome at extremely advanced maternal age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;214:362.e1-7.
- Riley ET. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and professional athletes: suicides are contagious. World Neurosurg. 2016;94:576-7.
- Sultan P, Halpern SH, Pushpanathan E, Patel S, Carvalho B. Effect of intrathecal morphine dose for cesarean delivery on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2016;123:154-64.
- Sultan P, Seligman K, Carvalho B. Amniotic fluid embolism: update and review. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2016;29:288-96.
- Sultan P, Weiniger CF, Carvalho B. Neuraxial blockade increases external cephalic version success: a well-known finding needing to be disseminated within the obstetric domain. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:675-6.
- Sultan P, David AL, Fernando R, Ackland GL. Inflammation and epidural-related maternal fever: proposed mechanisms. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:1546-53.
- Sutton C, Butwick A. Can extra carbs improve perinatal outcomes? BJOG. 2016;123:518
- Tawfik V, Flood P. Electrical synapses: high-speed communication in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:13-5.
- Terkawi AS, Mavridis D, Flood P, Wetterslev J, Terkawi RS, Bin Abdulhak AA, Nunemaker MS, Tiouririne M. Does ondansetron modify sympathectomy due to subarachnoid anesthesia?: Meta-analysis, meta-regression, and trial sequential analysis. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:846-69.
- Traynor AJ, Aragon M, Gosh D, Choi R, Dingmann C, Bucklin BA. The obstetric anesthesia workforce survey: a 30-year update. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:1939-46.
- Van de Velde M, Carvalho B. Remifentanil for labor analgesia: an evidence-based narrative review. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2016;25:66-74.
- Weiniger CF, Sultan P, Dunn A, Carvalho B. Survey of external cephalic version for breech presentation and neuraxial blockade use. J Clin Anesth. 2016;34:616-22.
- Anast N, Kwok J, Carvalho B, Lipman S, Flood P. Intact survival after obstetric hemorrhage and 55 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A A Case Rep. 2015;5:9-12.
- Beswick DM, Collins J, Nekhendzy V, Damrose EJ. Chondronecrosis of the larynx following use of the laryngeal mask airway. Laryngoscope. 2015;125:946-9.
- Blumenfeld YJ, El-Sayed YY, Lyell DJ, Nelson LM, Butwick AJ. Risk factors for prolonged postpartum length of stay following cesarean delivery. Am J Perinatol. 2015;32:825-32.
- Brookfield KF, El-Sayed YY, Chao L, Berger V, Naqvi M, Butwick AJ. Antenatal corticosteroids for preterm premature rupture of membranes: single or repeat course? Am J Perinatol. 2015;32:537-44.
- Butwick A, Blumenfeld Y, El-Sayed YY, Osmundson SS, Weiniger CF. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry. Br J Anaesth. 2015;115:267-74.
- Butwick AJ, Carvalho B, Blumenfeld YJ, El-Sayed YY, Nelson LM, Bateman BT. Second-line uterotonics and the risk of hemorrhage-related morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212:e1-7.
- Butwick A, Columb M, Carvalho B. Vasopressors and spinal hypotension during cesarean delivery: what’s the latest? Br J Anaesth. 2015;114:183-6.
- Butwick A, Goodnough LT. Transfusion and coagulation management in major obstetric hemorrhage. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2015;28:275-84.
- Butwick A, Gutierrez M, Hilton G. The impact of advanced maternal age on peripartum thromboelastographic coagulation profiles: a prospective observational exploratory study. Can J Anaesth. 2015;62:504-12.
- Camann W, McGovern C, Collins M, Baysinger C, Vallejo M, Anderson J, Wood C, Hawkins JL, Carvalho B, Rollins M, Bishop J, Brumley J. How to say “YES” to nitrous oxide for labor. SOAP Newsletter, Summer 2015.
- Carvalho B, Dyer RA. Norepinephrine for spinal hypotension during cesarean delivery: another paradigm shift? Anesthesiology. 2015;122:728-30.
- Carvalho B, Wong C. Drug labeling in the practice of obstetric anesthesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212:24-7.
- Carvalho B, Yun RD, Mariano ER. Continuous versus single-Injection peripheral nerve blocks: a pilot study comparing procedural time and estimated personnel cost. The Open Anesthesia Journal 2015;9:1-5.
- Cobb B, Lipman S. An update on the American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy. Published in Circulation October 2015. SOAP Newsletter, Winter 2015.
- Creanga AA, Bateman BT, Butwick AJ, Rayleigh L, Maeda A, Kuklina E, Callaghan WM. Morbidity associated with cesarean delivery in the United States: is placenta accreta an increasingly important contributor? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;213:384.e1-11.
- Edwards MR, Sultan P, Gutierrez Del Arroyo A, Whittle J, Karmali SN, Moonesinghe SR, Haddad FS, Mythen MG, Singer M, Ackland GL. Metabolic dysfunction in lymphocytes promotes postoperative morbidity. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:423-437.
- Elkomy MH, Sultan P, Clavijo C, Galinkin JL, Carvalho B, Drover DR. Ondansetron pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and neonates: towards a new treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015;97:167-76.
- Flood P, Dexter F, Ledolter J and Dutton RP. Large heterogeneity in mean durations of labor analgesia among hospitals reporting to the American Society of Anesthesiologist’s Anesthesia Quality Institute. Anesth Analg. 2015;121:1283-9.
- Flood P, McKinley P, Monk C, Muntner P, Colantonio L, Goetzl L, Hatch M, Sloan R. Beat-to-beat heart rate and blood pressure variability and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol. 2015;32:1050-8.
- Girsen AI, Greenberg MB, El-Sayed YY, Carvalho B, Lyell DJ. Magnesium sulfate exposure and neonatal intensive care unit admission. J Perinatol. 2015;35:181-5.
- Golovanevski L, Ickowicz DE, Sokolsky-Papkov M, Domb AJ, Weiniger CF. Biocompatibility of an extended release bupivacaine formulation following site-directed nerve injection. J Bioact Compat Polym. 2015;30:114-125.
- Jeejeebhoy FM, Zelop CM, Lipman S, Carvalho B, Joglar J, Mhyre JM, Katz VL, Lapinsky SE, Einav S, Warnes CA, Page RL, Griffin RE, Jain A, Dainty KN, Arafeh J, Windrim R, Koren G, Callaway C. Cardiac arrest in pregnancy: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;132:1747-73.
- Karmali S, Jenkins N, Sciusco A, John J, Haddad F, Ackland GL; POM-X Study Investigators (Reyes A, Davies K, Edwards J, Whittle J, Barnett S, Moonesinghe S, Wyndham D, Bettini E, Lee S, Sultan P, Edwards M, Cain D, del Arroyo A). Randomized controlled trial of vagal modulation by sham feeding in elective non-gastrointestinal (orthopaedic) surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2015;115:727-35.
- Li Y, Flood P, Cornes S. Electroencephalography of seizure-like movements during general anesthesia with propofol: seizures or nonepileptic events? A A Case Rep. 2015;5:195-8.
- Liu YM, Patel SD, Mon W, Fernando R, Columb M, Sultan P. Maternal fever and epidural insertion: an OAA approved survey. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2015;24:S28.
- Paech M, Sng BL, Sia A, Ng L, Nathan E, Carvalho B. Methylnaltrexone to prevent intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus after caesarean delivery: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Br J Anaesth. 2015;114:469-76.
- Rhee KY, Goetzl L, Unal R, Cierny J, Flood P. Relationship between plasma inflammatory cytokines and labor pain. Anesth Analg. 2015;121:748-51.
- Rodriguez CI, Kegeles LS, Levinson A, Ogden R, Mao X, Milak MS, Vermes D, Xie S, Hunter L, Flood P, Moore H, Shungu DC, Simpson HB. In vivo effects of ketamine on glutamate-glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015;233:141-7.
- Soltanifar D, Bogod D, Harrison S, Carvalho B, Sultan P. A survey of accepted practice following failed intubation for emergency caesarean delivery. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2015;2015:192315.
- Soltanifar D, Carvalho B, Sultan P. Perioperative considerations of the patient with malaria. Can J Anaesth. 2015;62:304-18.
- Soltanifar D, Jacobs M, Jones T, McGlennan A, Sultan P. Spinal anaesthesia for emergency caesarean delivery in a parturient with falciparum malaria. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2015;24:91.
- Sultan P, Habib AS, Cho Y, Carvalho B. The effect of patient warming during caesarean delivery on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. Br J Anesth. 2015;115:500-10.
- Valentine AR, Carvalho B, Lazo TA, Riley ET. Scheduled acetaminophen with as-needed opioids compared to as-needed acetaminophen plus opioids for post-cesarean pain management. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2015;24:210-6.
- Weiniger CF, Ezra Y, Dunn AL, Carvalho B. The utilization of spinal anesthesia for external cephalic version: a clinical practice cohort analysis. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2015;24:389-90.
- Wen L, Hilton G, Carvalho B. The impact of breastfeeding on maternal pain after vaginal and cesarean delivery. J Clin Anesth. 2015;27:33-8.
- Ahsan ZS, Carvalho B, Yao J. Incidence of failure of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia in upper extremity surgery. J Hand Surg Am. 2014;39:324-9.
- Austin N, Krishnamoorthy V, Dagal A. Airway management in cervical spine injury. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2014;4:50-6.
- Bateman BT, Tsen LT, Liu J, Butwick AJ, Huybrechts KF. Patterns of second-line uterotonic utilization in a large sample of delivery admissions in the United States. Anesth Analg. 2014;119:1344-9.
- Botto F, ... Sultan P, ... Wildes T. Vascular events in noncardiac surgery patients cohort evaluation (VISION) Writing Group. Myocardial Injury after noncardiac Surgery: a large, international, prospective cohort study establishing diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2014;120:564-78.
- Butwick AJ, Carvalho B, El-Sayed YY. Risk factors for severe obstetric morbidity in patients with uterine atony undergoing cesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth. 2014;113:661-8.
- Butwick AJ, Hass C, Wong J, Lyell D, El-Sayed Y. Retrospective study of peripartum and anesthetic outcomes in anticoagulated parturients. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2014;23:238-45.
- Caballero JA, Butwick AJ, Carvalho B, Riley ET. Preferred spoken language mediates differences in neuraxial labor analgesia utilization among racial and ethnic groups. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2014;23:161-7.
- Carvalho B. Strategies to optimize post-cesarean delivery analgesia. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) refresher courses in anesthesiology. 2014 Volume 42.
- Carvalho B, Derby R, Horn JL. “Pseudo” shearing of a peripheral nerve catheter for interscalene block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014;39:556-7.
- Carvalho B, Hilton G, Wen L, Weiniger CF. Prospective longitudinal cohort questionnaire assessment of laboring women's preference both pre- and post-delivery for either reduced pain intensity for a longer duration or greater pain intensity for a shorter duration. Br J Anaesth. 2014;113:468-73.
- Carvalho B, Zheng M, Aiono-Le Tagaloa L. A prospective observational study evaluating the ability of prelabor psychological tests to predict labor pain, epidural analgesic consumption, and maternal satisfaction. Anesth Analg. 2014;119:632-40.
- Cho Y, Carvalho B, Butwick A, Blumenfeld Y, Riley E. Elective caesarean section at 38 weeks versus 39 weeks: neonatal and maternal outcomes in a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2014;121:1748.
- Cierny JT, Unal ER, Flood P, Rhee KY, Praktish A, Olson TH, Goetzl L. Maternal inflammatory markers and term labor performance. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210;447.e1-6.
- D'Angelo R, Smiley RM, Riley ET, Segal S. Serious complications related to obstetric anesthesia: the serious complication repository project of the society for obstetric anesthesia and perinatology. Anesthesiology. 2014;120:1505-12.
- Daniels K, Oakeson A, Hilton G. Steps toward a national disaster plan for obstetrics. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124:154-8.
- Ducloy-Bouthors AS, Susen S, Wong CA, Butwick A, Vallet B, Lockhart E. Medical advances in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Anesth Analg. 2014;119:1140-7.
- 17. Elkomy MH, Sultan P, Drover DR, Ekaterina E, Galinkin JL, Carvalho B. Pharmacokinetics of prophylactic cefazolin in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:3504-13.
- Flood P, Clark DJ. Genetic variability in the activity of monoamines: a window into the complexity of pain. Anesth Analg. 2014;119:1032-8.
- Flood P, Damaj MI. Nicotine is out: nicotinic agonists may have utility as analgesics. Anesth Analg. 2014;119:232-3.
- Flood P. Editorial commentary: "Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: anesthesia and glycine receptor antibodies". A A Case Rep. 2014;2:86-7.
- Flood P, Raja SN. Balance in opioid prescription during pregnancy. Anesthesiology. 2014;120:163-4.
- Ickowicz DE, Golovanevski L, Domb AJ, Weiniger CF. Extended duration local anesthetic agent in a rat paw model. Int J Pharm. 2014;468:152-7.
- Ickowicz DE, Golovanevski L, Haze E, Domb AJ, Weiniger CF. Extended release local anesthetic agents in a postoperative arthritic pain model. J Pharm Sci. 2014;103:185-90.
- Ickowicz DE, Haim-Zada M, Abbas R, Touitou D, Nyska A, Golovanevski L, Weiniger CF, Katzhendler J, Domb AJ. Castor oil-citric acid co-polyester for tissue augmentation. Polym Adv Technol. 2014;25:SI1323-8.
- Kabiri D, Hants Y, Simons M, Shanwetter N, Weiniger CF, Gielchinsky Y, Ezra Y. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies after conservative treatment for placenta accreta. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014;127:206-10.
- Lipman S, Cohen S, Einav S, Jeejeebhoy F, Mhyre JM, Morrison LJ, Katz V, Tsen LC, Daniels K, Halamek LP, Suresh MS, Arafeh J, Gauthier D, Carvalho JC, Druzin M, Carvalho B. The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology consensus statement on the management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy. Anesth Analg. 2014;118:1003-16.
- Mariano ER, Yun RD, Kim TE, Carvalho B. Application of echogenic technology for catheters used in ultrasound-guided continuous peripheral nerve blocks. J Ultrasound Med. 2014;33:905-11.
- Peer L, Brezis ML, Shalit M, Carvalho B, Philip LD, Seri O, Weiniger CF. Evaluation of a prospectively administered written questionnaire to reduce the reported incidence of suspected latex anaphylaxis during elective cesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2014;23:335-40.
- Sharoni L, Weiniger CF. Anesthesia and external cephalic version. Curr Anesthesiol Rep. 2014;5:91-9.
- Soltanifer D, Afzal S, Harrison S, Sultan P. Caesarean delivery in a parturient with type III hereditary angioedema. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2014;23:398-9.
- Stocki D, Matot I, Einav S, Eventov-Friedman S, Ginosar Y, Weiniger CF. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and respiratory effects of patient-controlled intravenous remifentanil analgesia and patient-controlled epidural analgesia in laboring women. Anesth Analg. 2014;118:589-7.
- Sultan P, Edwards MR, Gutierrez Del Arroyo A, Cain D, Sneyd JR, Struthers R, Minto G, Ackland GL. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and preoperative markers of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:727451.
- Terkawi AS, Jackson, WM, Hansoti, S, Tabassum R, Flood P. Polymorphism in the ADRB2 gene explains a small portion of inter-subject variability in pain relative to cervical dilation in the first stage of labor. Anesthesiology. 2014;121:140-8.
- Udani A, Wang T, Hilton G, Harrison K. Physiology of pregnancy and postpartum hemorrhage: an innovative, interactive teaching approach. MedEdPORTAL Publications; 2014. Available from: https://www.mededportal.org/publication/9987.
- Weiniger CF, Carvalho B. The dilemma of vaginal breech delivery worldwide. Lancet. 2014;384:1183.
- Weiniger CF, Carvalho B. Analgesia following cesarean delivery: "Sometimes it takes a painful experience to make us change our ways" (proverbs 20:30). Isr Med Assoc J. 2014;16:171-2.
- Weiniger CF, Spencer PS, Weiss Y, Ginsberg G, Ezra Y. Reducing the cesarean delivery rates for breech presentations: administration of spinal anesthesia facilitates manipulation to cephalic presentation, but is it cost saving? Isr J Health Policy Res. 2014;3:5.