Where to Find our Published Work


Mindie H. Nguyen, MD, MAS, AGAF, FAASLD
Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health


  • Sex and ethnic disparities in hepatitis B evaluation and treatment across the world. Journal of hepatology Kudaravalli, S., Huang, D. Q., Yeh, M., Trinh, L., Tsai, P. C., Hsu, Y., Kam, L. Y., Nguyen, V. H., Ogawa, E., Lee, D. H., Ito, T., Watanabe, T., Enomoto, M., Preda, C. M., Ko, M. K., Wan-Hin Hui, R., Atsukawa, M., Suzuki, T., Marciano, S., Barreira, A., Do, S., Uojima, H., Takahashi, H., Quek, S. X., Toe Wai Khine, H. H., Ishigami, M., Itokawa, N., Go, M. S., Kozuka, R., Marin, R. I., Sandra, I., Li, J., Zhang, J. Q., Wong, C., Yoshimaru, Y., Vo, D. K., Tseng, C., Lee, C., Inoue, K., Maeda, M., Hoang, J. K., Chau, A., Chuang, W., Dai, C., Huang, J., Huang, C., Buti, M., Tanaka, Y., Gadano, A. C., Yuen, M., Cheung, R., Lim, S. G., Trinh, H. N., Toyoda, H., Yu, M., Nguyen, M. H. 2024; 81 (1): 33-41


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral antiviral therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is well-tolerated and lifesaving, but real-world data on utilization are limited. We examined rates of evaluation and treatment in patients from the REAL-B consortium.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study nested within our retrospective multinational clinical consortium (2000-2021). We determined the proportions of patients receiving adequate evaluation, meeting AASLD treatment criteria, and initiating treatment at any time during the study period. We also identified factors associated with receiving adequate evaluation and treatment using multivariable logistic regression analyses.RESULTS: We analyzed 12,566 adult treatment-naive patients with CHB from 25 centers in 9 countries (mean age 47.1 years, 41.7% female, 96.1% Asian, 49.6% Western region, 8.7% cirrhosis). Overall, 73.3% (9,206 patients) received adequate evaluation. Among the adequately evaluated, 32.6% (3,001 patients) were treatment eligible by AASLD criteria, 83.3% (2,500 patients) of whom were initiated on NAs, with consistent findings in analyses using EASL criteria. On multivariable logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, cirrhosis, and ethnicity plus region, female sex was associated with adequate evaluation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.13, p=0.004), but female treatment-eligible patients were about 50% less likely to initiate NAs (aOR 0.54, p<0.001). Additionally, the lowest evaluation and treatment rates were among Asian patients from the West, but no difference was observed between non-Asian patients and Asian patients from the East. Asian patients from the West (vs. East) were about 40-50% less likely to undergo adequate evaluation (aOR 0.60) and initiate NAs (aOR 0.54) (both p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation and treatment rates were suboptimal for patients with CHB in both the East and West, with significant sex and ethnic disparities. Improved linkage to care with linguistically competent and culturally sensitive approaches is needed.IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: Significant sex and ethnic disparities exist in hepatitis B evaluation and treatment, with female treatment-eligible patients about 50% less likely to receive antiviral treatment and Asian patients from Western regions also about 50% less likely to receive adequate evaluation or treatment compared to Asians from the East (there was no significant difference between Asian patients from the East and non-Asian patients). Improved linkage to care with linguistically competent and culturally sensitive approaches is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhep.2024.02.033

    View details for PubMedID 38906621

  • MAFLD in adults: non-invasive tests for diagnosis and monitoring of MAFLD. Hepatology international Chan, W. K., Wong, V. W., Adams, L. A., Nguyen, M. H. 2024


    Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the liver manifestation of a metabolic syndrome and is highly prevalent in the general population. There has been significant progress in non-invasive tests for MAFLD, from the diagnosis of fatty liver and monitoring of liver fat content in response to intervention, to evaluation of liver fibrosis and its change over time, and from risk stratification of patients within the context of clinical care pathways, to prognostication. Various non-invasive tests have also been developed to assess for fibrotic metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis, which has emerged as an important diagnostic goal, particularly in the context of clinical trials. Non-invasive tests can be used to diagnose clinically significant portal hypertension so that intervention can be administered to reduce the risk of decompensation. Furthermore, the use of risk stratification algorithms can identify at-risk patients for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance. Beyond the liver, various tests that evaluate cardiovascular disease risk, assess sarcopenia and measure patient reported outcomes, can be utilized to improve the care of patients with MAFLD. This review provides an up-to-date overview of these non-invasive tests and the limitations of liver biopsy in the management of patients with MAFLD.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-024-10661-x

    View details for PubMedID 38913148

    View details for PubMedCentralID 7154715

  • Updates in characteristics and survival rates of cirrhosis in a nationwide cohort of real-world U.S. patients, 2003-2021. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Tran, S., Zou, B., Lee, K., Kam, L., Yeo, Y., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2024


    BACKGROUND: Adverse outcomes of cirrhosis remain a top priority.AIMS: We examined the distribution of cirrhosis causes, HCC incidence and mortality and related changes over time in a nationwide U.S.COHORT:METHODS: A retrospective study of a national sample of commercially insured patients with cirrhosis from Optum's de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database (CDM).RESULTS: A total of 628,743 cirrhosis cases were identified with 45% having NAFLD, 19.5% HCV, and 16.3% ALD. African Americans had the highest rate of decompensation (60.6%), while Asians had the highest rate of HCC (2.4%), both p<0.001. African Americans more frequently had HCV (28.4%) while Hispanic/Latinos more frequently had NAFLD (49.2%, p<0.001). Patients in the 2014-2021 cohort were significantly older (63.0±12.8 vs. 57.0±14.3), less frequently decompensated (54.5% vs. 58.3%) but more frequently had HCC (1.7% vs. 0.6%) and NAFLD (46.5% vs. 44.2%), all p<0.001. The overall annual incidence of HCC was 0.76% (95% CI: 0.75-0.77) with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 4.03% (95% CI: 3.98-4.09), with significant variation by sex, race/ethnicity, and cirrhosis aetiology. The overall median years of survival were 11.4 (95% CI: 11.3-11.5) with a 5-year cumulative survival of 73.4% (95% CI: 73.3%-73.6%), also with significant disparities in similar subgroups (lowest in cryptogenic cirrhosis and worse in 2014-2021 vs. 2003-2013). The 2014-2021 period was independently associated with worse survival (aHR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20).CONCLUSIONS: HCC incidence and survival vary by aetiology among patients with cirrhosis, with cryptogenic cirrhosis having the lowest survival and lower survival in the more recent time period.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.18024

    View details for PubMedID 38693757

  • Genome-wide association study identifies high-impact susceptibility loci for hepatocellular carcinoma in North America. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) Hassan, M. M., Li, D., Han, Y., Byun, J., Hatia, R. I., Long, E., Choi, J., Kelley, R. K., Cleary, S. P., Lok, A. S., Bracci, P., Permuth, J. B., Bucur, R., Yuan, J. M., Singal, A. G., Jalal, P. K., Ghobrial, R. M., Santella, R. M., Kono, Y., Shah, D. P., Nguyen, M. H., Liu, G., Parikh, N. D., Kim, R., Wu, H. C., El-Serag, H., Chang, P., Li, Y., Chun, Y. S., Lee, S. S., Gu, J., Hawk, E., Sun, R., Huff, C., Rashid, A., Amin, H. M., Beretta, L., Wolff, R. A., Antwi, S. O., Patt, Y., Hwang, L. Y., Klein, A. P., Zhang, K., Schmidt, M. A., White, D. L., Goss, J. A., Khaderi, S. A., Marrero, J. A., Cigarroa, F. G., Shah, P. K., Kaseb, A. O., Roberts, L. R., Amos, C. I. 2024


    Despite the substantial impact of environmental factors, individuals with a family history of liver cancer have increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, genetic factors have not been studied systematically by genome-wide approaches in large numbers of individuals from European-descent populations (EDP).We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) on HCC not affected by hepatitis B virus infections. A total of 1872 HCC cases and 2907 controls were included in the discovery stage and 1200 HCC cases and 1832 controls in the validation. We analyzed the discovery and validation samples separately and then conducted meta-analysis. All analyses were conducted in the presence and absence of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The liability-scale heritability was 24.4% for overall HCC. Five regions with significant ORs (95% CI) were identified for non-viral HCC: 3p22.1, MOBP, rs9842969, [0.51, (0.40-0.65)]; 5p15.33, TERT, rs2242652, [0.70, (0.62-0.79)]; 19q13.11, TM6SF2, rs58542926, [1.49, (1.29-1.72)]; 19p13.11 MAU2, rs58489806, [1.53, (1.33-1.75)]; and 22q13.31, PNPLA3, rs738409, [1.66, (1.51-1.83)]. One region was identified for HCV-induced HCC: 6p21.31, HLA-DQB1, rs9275224, [0.79, (0.74-0.84)]. A combination of homozygous variants of PNPLA3 and TERT showing a 6.5-fold higher risk for non-viral-related HCC compared to individuals lacking these genotypes. This observation suggests that gene-gene interactions may identify individuals at elevated risk for developing HCC.Our GWAS highlights novel genetic susceptibility of non-viral HCC among EDP from North America with substantial heritability. Selected genetic influences were observed for HCV-positive HCC. Our findings indicate the importance of genetic susceptibility to HCC development.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HEP.0000000000000800

    View details for PubMedID 38381705

  • Global incidence of adverse clinical events in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical and molecular hepatology Le, M. H., Le, D. M., Baez, T. C., Dang, H., Nguyen, V. H., Lee, K., Stave, C. D., Ito, T., Wu, Y., Yeo, Y. H., Ji, F., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2024


    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes. We aimed to estimate the pooled incidence of NAFLD-related adverse events.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of adults with NAFLD to evaluate the pooled incidence of adverse events.19,406 articles were screened, 409 full-text articles reviewed, and 79 eligible studies (1,377,466 persons) were included. Mean age was 51.47 years and BMI 28.90 kg/m2. Baseline comorbidities included metabolic syndrome (41.73%), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (16.83%), cirrhosis (21.97%), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (58.85%). Incidence rate per 1000 person-years for mortality included: all-cause (14.6), CVD-related (4.53), non-liver cancer-related (4.53), and liver-related (3.10). Incidence for liver-related events included overall (24.3), fibrosis progression (49.0), cirrhosis (10.9), liver transplant (12.0), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (3.39). Incidence for non-liver events included metabolic syndrome (25.4), hypertension (25.8), dyslipidemia (26.4), diabetes (19.0), CVD (24.77), renal impairment (30.3), depression/anxiety (29.1), and non-liver cancer (10.5). Biopsy-proven NASH had higher incidence of liver-related mortality (p=0.054), HCC (p=0.043), and liver-related events (p=0.050) compared to non-NASH. Higher rates of CVD and mortality were observed in North America and Europe, hypertension and non-liver cancer in North America, and HCC in Western Pacific/Southeast Asia (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed by sex. Time-period analyses showed decreasing rates of cardiovascular and non-liver cancer mortality and increasing rates of decompensated cirrhosis (p<0.05).People with NAFLD have high incidence of liver and non-liver adverse clinical events, varying by NASH, geographic region, and time-period, but not sex.

    View details for DOI 10.3350/cmh.2023.0485

    View details for PubMedID 38281814

  • Antiviral Therapy Utilization and 10-Year Outcomes in Resected Hepatitis B Virus- and Hepatitis C Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Huang, D. Q., Hoang, J. K., Kamal, R., Tsai, P. C., Toyoda, H., Yeh, M. L., Yasuda, S., Leong, J., Maeda, M., Huang, C. F., Won Jun, D., Ishigami, M., Tanaka, Y., Uojima, H., Ogawa, E., Abe, H., Hsu, Y. C., Tseng, C. H., Alsudaney, M., Yang, J. D., Yoshimaru, Y., Suzuki, T., Liu, J. K., Landis, C., Dai, C. Y., Huang, J. F., Chuang, W. L., Schwartz, M., Dan, Y. Y., Esquivel, C., Bonham, A., Yu, M. L., Nguyen, M. H. 2024: JCO2300757


    There are limited data on antiviral treatment utilization and its impact on long-term outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatic resection. We aimed to determine the utilization and impact of antivirals in HBV- and HCV-related HCC.This cohort study included 1,906 participants (1,054 HBV-related HCC and 852 HCV-related HCC) from 12 international sites. All participants had HBV- or HCV-related HCC and underwent curative surgical resection. The primary outcome was the utilization of antiviral therapy, and the secondary outcome was long-term overall survival (OS).The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 62.1 (±11.3) years, 74% were male, and 84% were Asian. A total of 47% of the total cohort received antiviral therapy during a mean (±SD) follow-up of 5.0 (±4.3) years. The overall antiviral utilization for participants with HBV-related HCC was 57% and declined over time, from 65% before 2010, to 60% from 2010 to 2015, to 47% beyond 2015, P < .0001. The overall utilization of antivirals for HCV-related HCC was 35% and increased over time, from 24% before 2015 to 74% from 2015 and beyond, P < .0001. The 10-year OS was lower in untreated participants for both HBV (58% v 61%) and HCV participants (38% v 82%; both P < .0001). On multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for relevant confounders, antiviral therapy initiated before or within 6 months of HCC diagnosis was independently associated with lower mortality in both HBV- (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.43 to 0.83]; P = .002) and HCV-related HCC (aHR, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.11 to 0.31]; P < .0001).Antiviral therapy is associated with long-term survival in people with HBV- or HCV-related HCC who undergo curative resection but is severely underutilized.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.23.00757

    View details for PubMedID 38175991

  • Incidence and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in NAFLD without diagnosed cirrhosis: a nationwide real-world U.S. study. Hepatology international Huang, D. Q., Tran, S., Barnett, S., Zou, B., Yeo, Y. H., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    A substantial proportion of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) do not have cirrhosis. Data regarding the incidence and predictors of HCC development in NAFLD without cirrhosis are limited. We conducted a large, national study of NAFLD patients without documented cirrhosis to examine the incidence and predictors for HCC development.This retrospective study included 751,603 NAFLD patients (54% female) without documented cirrhosis derived from the deidentified Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart Database. Patients with cirrhosis, platelets < 120,000/µL or FIB-4 values > 2.67 were excluded.The mean age was 53.7 ± 15.0 years, 45.9% were male, 39.5% had diabetes, 57.6% were White, 18.4% Hispanic, 8.2% Black and 4.9% were Asian. The mean platelet count was 264,000 ± 72,000/µL, and 96.3% of patients had a FIB-4 < 1.30. Over 1,686,607 person-years of follow-up, there were 76 incident cases of HCC, resulting in an HCC incidence rate of 0.05 per 1000 person-years. There was a higher HCC incidence rate among patients with platelets ≤ 150,000/µL, versus those with platelets > 150,000/µL (0.23 per 1000 person-years, vs. 0.04 per 1000 person-years, p = 0.02) but not in subgroup analyses for age, sex, race/ethnicity or diabetes. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards model adjusted multiple confounders, platelet count ≤ 150,000/µL remained an independent predictor of HCC development (adjusted HR 5.80, 95% CI 1.67-20.1, p = 0.006).HCC incidence in NAFLD without documented cirrhosis was below the threshold for cost-effective HCC surveillance in overall and multiple subgroup analyses. Platelet count < 150,000/µL may be a useful predictor of HCC development in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-023-10616-8

    View details for PubMedID 38079023

    View details for PubMedCentralID 8215299

  • Updates in Characteristics and Survival Rates of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Nationwide Cohort of Real-World US Patients, 2003-2021. Journal of hepatocellular carcinoma Tran, S., Zou, B., Kam, L., Lee, K., Huang, D. Q., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023; 10: 2147-2158


    Causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may change as treatments become available for some liver diseases. We examined the distribution of HCC cause and survival of a nationwide cohort of insured patients.Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database (CDM), 2003-2021.A total of 34707 patients with HCC were included: mean age: 68.3±11.6 years, 61% male, 62% Caucasian, 74% cirrhosis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was the most common etiology (38.9%), then hepatitis C virus (HCV) (25.3%), cryptogenic (18.0%), alcohol-associated liver disease (9.4%), other liver diseases (5.8%) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at 2.6%. NAFLD patients were the oldest (mean age 71.1±11.2) and had the highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) (mean 10.5±3.9), while HCV were the youngest (mean age 64.2±9.2 years) and HBV had the lowest CCI (mean 7.2±4.4) (both P<0.0001). The overall 5-year survival was 18.8% (95% CI 18.2-19.3) but was lower in the recent 2014-2021 period vs 2003-2013 (18.1% vs 19.5%, P=0.003). The 2014-2021 cohort (inclusive of HCV treatment advances) was significantly older, with more females, fewer Caucasians, more African Americans, more Hispanics, fewer Asians, more cirrhosis, more NAFLD, and higher CCI (all P<0.001). On multivariable analysis, males (aHR: 1.13), Caucasians (aHR: 1.46), African Americans (aHR: 1.53) and Hispanics (aHR: 1.28) vs Asians, 2014-2021 (vs 2003-2013) cohort (aHR: 1.12), NAFLD (aHR: 1.14) or cryptogenic liver disease (aHR: 1.45) were associated with increased mortality (all P<0.001).HCC patients in more recent time 2014-2021 were more likely to be older, more likely to have nonviral etiology, and had worse survival compared to those from 2003 to 2013.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/JHC.S420603

    View details for PubMedID 38076642

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10700040

  • Treatment rates and factors associated with direct-acting antiviral therapy for insured patients with hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma - A real-world nationwide study. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Kam, L. Y., Yeo, Y. H., Ji, F., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    Since the inception of the interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, guidelines as to who should receive this potentially curative treatment have evolved. Treatment with DAAs is now considered for all patients except for those considered moribund.To determine the DAA treatment rate for patients with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).This was a retrospective study from January 2015 to March 2021 of a national sample of privately insured patients with HCV-related HCC using Optum's Clinformatics® Data Mart (CDM) Database - a large, de-identified, adjudicated claims database.We identified 3922 patients with HCV-related HCC: 922 (23.5%) received DAA. Compared to untreated patients, DAA-treated patients were younger (65.2 ± 7.5 vs. 66.4 ± 7.5 years, p < 0.001), more frequently saw a gastroenterology/infectious disease (GI/ID) physician (41.2% vs. 34.2%), and had decompensated cirrhosis (56% vs. 53%, p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, younger age (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, p < 0.001), GI/ID care (HR: 3.06, 95% CI: 2.13-4.51, p < 0.001), and having cirrhosis (compensated: HR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.18-2.21, p = 0.003; decompensated: HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.07-1.98, p = 0.02) were associated with receiving DAA treatment, but not sex, race, or ethnicity. DAA-treated patients had significantly higher 5-year survival than untreated patients (47.2% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001). Following adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and HCC treatment, receiving DAA treatment was associated with lower mortality (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.53-0.69, p < 0.001).DAA treatment remains underutilised in insured patients with HCV-related HCC; fewer than one in four patients received treatment. Seeing a specialist and having decompensated cirrhosis were predictors for DAA treatment; additional efforts are needed to increase awareness of HCV treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.17794

    View details for PubMedID 37937485

  • Increased spine bone density in patients with chronic hepatitis B switched to tenofovir alafenamide: A prospective, multinational study. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Ogawa, E., Jun, D. W., Toyoda, H., Hsu, Y. C., Yoon, E. L., Ahn, S. B., Yeh, M. L., Do, S., Trinh, H. N., Takahashi, H., Enomoto, M., Kawada, N., Yasuda, S., Tseng, C. H., Kawashima, K., Lee, H. A., Inoue, K., Haga, H., Do, A. T., Maeda, M., Hoang, J. H., Cheung, R., Ueno, Y., Eguchi, Y., Furusyo, N., Yu, M. L., Tanaka, Y., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    Data on patients switched to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) from nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) other than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are limited.To assess the treatment and renal/bone safety outcomes following the switch to TAF.We prospectively enrolled adult patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who switched from any NUC to TAF at 14 centres in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the U.S. Study outcomes were viral suppression (VR; HBV DNA < 20 IU/mL), biochemical response (BR; alanine aminotransferase normalisation), and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and T-scores (L-spine) by bone absorptiometry by 24 months after switch to TAF.We enrolled 270 eligible patients. Mean age was 58.1; 58.2% were male; 12.2% had cirrhosis and 73.3% previously received entecavir monotherapy. VR rate increased significantly from 95.2% to 98.8% by 24 months after the switch to TAF (p = 0.014). Between the switch and 24 months later, the mean spine T-score improved significantly from -1.43 ± 1.36 to -1.17 ± 1.38 (p < 0.0001), while there was no significant change in mean eGFR (88.4 ± 16.9-89.5 ± 16.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 , p = 0.13). On multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, baseline spine T-score and prior TDF or adefovir dipivoxil use, male sex was significantly associated with lower risk of worsening spine T-score (odds ratio: 0.29, p = 0.020), while age was significantly associated with a higher risk of worsening chronic kidney disease stage (OR: 1.07, p = 0.019).At 24 months after the switch to TAF, VR rates and spine bone density improved significantly while renal function remained stable.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.17785

    View details for PubMedID 37882252

  • Sex differences in treatment response to nucleos(t)ide therapy in chronic hepatitis B: a multicenter longitudinal study. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association Chau, A., Yeh, M. L., Tsai, P. C., Huang, D. Q., Kim, S. E., Trinh, H., Yoon, E. L., Oh, H., Jeong, J. Y., Ahn, S. B., An, J., Tseng, C. H., Hsu, Y. C., Jeong, S. W., Cho, Y. K., Shim, J. J., Kim, H. S., Ito, T., Marciano, S., Kawashima, K., Suzuki, T., Watanabe, T., Nozaki, A., Ishikawa, T., Inoue, K., Eguchi, Y., Uojima, H., Abe, H., Takahashi, H., Chuma, M., Ishigami, M., Hoang, J. K., Mayumi, M., Huang, C. F., Gadano, A., Dai, C. Y., Huang, J. F., Tanaka, Y., Chuang, W. L., Lim, S. G., Cheung, R., Yu, M. L., Jun, D. W., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    It is unclear if there may be sex differences in response to nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) including viral suppression [VR], biochemical response [BR], complete response [CR], and HCC incidence among hepatitis B patients. We compared NA treatment outcomes by sex.A retrospective cohort study of 3388 treatment-naïve adult hepatitis B patients (1250 female; 2138 male) from the REAL-B consortium who initiated therapy with either entecavir or tenofovir from 22 sites (Argentina, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, USA). We used propensity-score matching (PSM) to balance background characteristics of the male and female groups and competing risks analysis to estimate incidence and subdistribution hazard ratios (SHR) of VR, BR, CR, and HCC.Females (vs. males) were older (52.0 vs. 48.6 years), less likely overweight/obese (49.3% vs. 65.7%), diabetic (9.9% vs. 13.1%), or cirrhotic (27.9% vs. 33.0%), and with lower HBV DNA (5.9 vs. 6.0 log10 IU/mL) and ALT (91 vs. 102 IU/L) [all P<0.01]. However, following PSM, relevant background characteristics became balanced between the two groups. Females (vs. males) had similar 5-year cumulative VR (91.3% vs. 90.3%, P=0.40) and HCC incidence rates (5.1% vs. 4.4%, P=0.64), but lower BR (84.0% vs. 90.9%, P<0.001) and CR (78.8% vs. 83.4%, P=0.016). Males were more likely to achieve BR (SHR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.17-1.46, P<0.001) and CR (SHR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31, P=0.016) but VR and HCC risks were similar.Sex differences exist for treatment outcomes among hepatitis B patients. Male sex associated with 16% higher likelihood of clinical remission and 31% higher likelihood of biochemical response than females, while viral suppression and HCC incidence were similar between the two groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cgh.2023.09.002

    View details for PubMedID 37734582

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance - utilization, barriers and the impact of changing aetiology. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Huang, D. Q., Singal, A. G., Kanwal, F., Lampertico, P., Buti, M., Sirlin, C. B., Nguyen, M. H., Loomba, R. 2023


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surveillance for HCC is critical for early detection and treatment, but fewer than one-quarter of individuals at risk of HCC undergo surveillance. Multiple failures across the screening process contribute to the underutilization of surveillance, including limited disease awareness among patients and health-care providers, knowledge gaps, and difficulty recognizing patients who are at risk. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcohol-associated liver disease are the fastest-rising causes of HCC-related death worldwide and are associated with unique barriers to surveillance. In particular, more than one-third of patients with HCC related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease do not have cirrhosis and therefore lack a routine indication for HCC surveillance on the basis of current practice guidelines. Semi-annual abdominal ultrasound with measurement of α-fetoprotein levels is recommended for HCC surveillance, but the sensitivity of this approach for early HCC is limited, especially for patients with cirrhosis or obesity. In this Review, we discuss the current status of HCC surveillance and the remaining challenges, including the changing aetiology of liver disease. We also discuss strategies to improve the utilization and quality of surveillance for HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41575-023-00818-8

    View details for PubMedID 37537332

    View details for PubMedCentralID 9670241

  • Diagnostic Performance of the Fibrosis-4 Index and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Fibrosis Score in Lean Adults With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. JAMA network open Park, H., Yoon, E. L., Ito, T., Jo, A. J., Kim, M., Lee, J., Kim, H. L., Arai, T., Atsukawa, M., Kawanaka, M., Toyoda, H., Ishigami, M., Yu, M. L., Jun, D. W., Nguyen, M. H. 2023; 6 (8): e2329568


    The diagnostic performance of the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score (NFS) for advanced fibrosis in lean patients with NAFLD is limited.To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the FIB-4 and NFS in lean individuals with NAFLD.This diagnostic study included adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD from 6 referral centers in Asia from 1995 to 2019. Cohorts were matched by age and sex between the lean and nonlean groups. All statistical analyses were executed from October 2022 to March 2023.The diagnostic performance of the FIB-4 and NFS at the current cutoff for advanced hepatic fibrosis in lean (body mass index [BMI] below 23 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) and nonlean (BMI above 23) patients were evaluated.A total of 1501 patients were included in analysis (mean [SD] age, 46.1 [16.4] years); 788 male (52.5%), 115 lean (7.7%), 472 (30.2%) Korean, 821 (48.7%) Japanese, and 341 (21.3%) Taiwanese. Among the age- and sex-matched cohort, the mean (SD) age was 52.3 (15.1) years and 41.2% (47 of 114) were male. The diagnostic performance and areas under the operating characteristic curve of the FIB-4 (lean, 0.807 vs nonlean, 0.743; P = .28) and NFS (lean, 0.790 vs nonlean, 0.755; P = .54) between the 2 groups were comparable in the age- and sex-matched cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of the NFS showed increasing and decreasing tendency according to the BMI quartiles (P for trend < .001), while those of the FIB-4 did not (P for trend = .05 and P = .20, respectively). Additionally, although the areas under the operating characteristic curve of the FIB-4 and NFS were not significantly different in the lean group (0.807 vs 0.790; P = .09), the sensitivity of the current NFS cutoff values was lower in the lean group than in that of FIB-4 (54.4% vs 81.8%; P = .03).In this cohort study, the performance of the FIB-4 and NFS in diagnosing advanced fibrosis did not differ significantly between the 2 groups overall. However, in lean NAFLD, while the sensitivity for diagnosing advanced hepatic fibrosis remained reasonable at the current cutoff level, the sensitivity of NFS at the current cutoff was too low to be an adequate screening tool.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.29568

    View details for PubMedID 37589973

  • Real-world treatment outcome with protease inhibitor direct-acting antiviral in advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis: a REAL-C study. Hepatology international Wong, Y. J., Tran, S., Huang, C. F., Hsu, Y. C., Preda, C., Toyoda, H., Liu, J., Jun, D. W., Landis, C., Huang, D. Q., Gila, A., Negoita, L., Yasuda, S., Tseng, C. H., Tsai, P. C., Uojima, H., Nozaki, A., Chuma, M., Atsukawa, M., Ishigami, M., Itokawa, N., Iio, E., Lam, C. P., Watanabe, T., Asai, A., Yokohama, K., Abe, H., Enomoto, M., Kawada, N., Tamori, A., Lee, D. H., Jun, M. J., Do, S., Vo, D. K., Liu, L., Li, J., Ji, F., Wang, W., Li, Y., Wang, X., Guo, F., Xu, Q., Jing, L., Ye, Q., Pan, H., Zhang, J., Wen, X., Wang, Q., Ren, H., Cai, D., Shang, J., Liu, J., Lu, C., Zang, W., Li, J., Niu, J., Zhang, M., Wu, C., Huang, R., Maeda, M., Nakanishi, A., Yeh, M. L., Chuang, W. L., Huang, J. F., Dai, C., Ishikawa, T., Takaguchi, K., Senoh, T., Trinh, H. N., Takahashi, H., Eguchi, Y., Quek, S. X., Haga, H., Ogawa, E., Wong, G., Buti, M., Fukunishi, S., Ueno, Y., Yuen, M. F., Tanaka, Y., Lim, S. G., Cheung, R., Yu, M. L., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    Current guidelines discourage the use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) containing protease-inhibitor (PI) in advanced HCV cirrhosis. We aimed to compare the real-world tolerability of PI vs. non-PI DAA regimens in this population.We identified advanced cirrhosis patients treated with DAA from the REAL-C registry. The primary outcome was significant worsening or improvement in CPT or MELD scores following DAA treatment.From the REAL-C registry of 15,837 patients, we included 1077 advanced HCV cirrhosis patients from 27 sites. 42% received PI-based DAA. Compared to non-PI group, the PI group was older, had higher MELD and higher percentage with kidney disease. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW; matching on age, sex, history of clinical decompensation, MELD, platelet, albumin, Asia site, Asian ethnicity, hypertension, hemoglobin, genotype, liver cancer, ribavirin) was used to balance the two groups. In the IPTW-matched cohorts, the PI and non-PI groups had similar SVR12 (92.9% vs. 90.7%, p = 0.30), similar percentages of significant worsening in CTP or MELD scores at posttreatment week 12 and 24 (23.9% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.07 and 16.5% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.77), and similar frequency of new HCC, decompensating event, and death by posttreatment week 24. In multivariable analysis, PI-based DAA was not associated with significant worsening (adjusted odds ratio = 0.82, 95% CI 0.38-1.77).Tolerability and treatment outcomes were not significantly different in advanced HCV cirrhosis treated with PI-based (vs. non-PI) DAA up to CTP-B or MELD score of 15. Safety of PI-based DAA in those with CTP-C or MELD beyond 15 awaits further data.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-023-10547-4

    View details for PubMedID 37273170

    View details for PubMedCentralID 6821220

  • Antiviral therapy substantially reduces hepatocellular carcinoma risk in chronic Hepatitis B patients in the indeterminate phase. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) Huang, D. Q., Tran, A., Yeh, M., Yasuda, S., Tsai, P., Huang, C., Dai, C. Y., Ogawa, E., Ishigami, M., Ito, T., Kozuka, R., Enomoto, M., Suzuki, T., Yoshimaru, Y., Preda, C. M., Marin, R. I., Sandra, I., Tran, S., Quek, S. X., Khine, H. H., Itokawa, N., Atsukawa, M., Uojima, H., Watanabe, T., Takahashi, H., Inoue, K., Maeda, M., Hoang, J. K., Trinh, L., Barnett, S., Cheung, R., Lim, S. G., Trinh, H. N., Chuang, W., Tanaka, Y., Toyoda, H., Yu, M., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    BACKGROUND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is higher in the indeterminate phase compared to the inactive phase. However, it is unclear if antiviral therapy reduces HCC risk in this population. We aimed to evaluate the association between antiviral therapy and HCC risk in the indeterminate phase.APPROACH RESULTS: We analyzed 855 adult (59% male), treatment-naive CHB patients without advanced fibrosis in the indeterminate phase at 14 centers (U.S., Europe, and Asia). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance the treated (n = 405) and untreated (n = 450) groups. The primary outcome was HCC development. The mean age was 46 ± 13 years, the median ALT was 38 (IQR, 24 - 52) U/L, the mean HBV DNA was 4.5 ± 2.1 log10 IU/mL and 20% were HBeAg positive. The two groups were similar after IPTW. After IPTW (n = 819), the 5-, 10- and 15-year cumulative HCC incidence was 3%, 4%, and 9% among treated patients (n = 394) versus 3%, 15%, and 19%, among untreated patients(n = 425), respectively (p = 0.02), with consistent findings in subgroup analyses for age > 35 years, males, HBeAg positive, HBV DNA > 1,000IU/mL, and ALT < upper limit of normal. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, sex, HBeAg, HBV DNA, ALT, diabetes, and platelets, antiviral therapy remained an independent predictor of reduced HCC risk (adjusted HR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1 - 0.6, p = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy reduces HCC risk by 70% among indeterminate phase CHB patients. These data have important implications for the potential expansion of CHB treatment criteria.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HEP.0000000000000459

    View details for PubMedID 37184202

  • Utilization of Antiviral Therapy for Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nationwide Real-World US Study. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association Kudaravalli, S., Kam, L. Y., Huang, D. Q., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    Although oral antiviral therapy (OAV) is reported to improve outcomes in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is underutilized. We determined the rate and factors associated with OAV utilization among patients with HBV-related HCC in a US population with health insurance.Patients with HBV-related HCC were identified from the de-identified administrative health claims database for patients with private insurance, Optum Clinformatics (2003-2021).We identified 2129 patients with HBV-related HCC: 71% male, mean age 62.7 ± 12.5 years, 40% Asian individuals, 72% with cirrhosis, and 37% received OAV. The treatment rate improved over time (40.5% after 2010 vs 26.3% earlier; P < .001). Significantly lower treatment rates were noted for females, non-Asian patients, noncirrhotic patients, and patients without gastroenterologist/hepatologist or infectious disease (GI/ID) specialist care (P < .0001). OAV treatment predictors included Asian race and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.6; 95% CI, 2.8-4.5; P < .001), male sex (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0; P < .001), seeing a GI/ID specialist (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.10-1.99; P = .0091), having compensated cirrhosis (aOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.8; P < .001), and being treated from 2011 to 2021 (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.8-3.0; P < .001); being younger (aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99; P < .001) was less likely for treatment. OAV initiated at or before HCC diagnosis was associated independently with improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99; P = .037).Among patients with HBV-related HCC, only 1 in 3 received OAV despite having insurance coverage. Efforts must continue to develop ways to improve HBV OAV treatment, especially among females, non-Asian patients, and patients without cirrhosis or not seen by specialists.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cgh.2023.04.020

    View details for PubMedID 37805836

  • Development and validation of a REcurrent Liver cAncer Prediction ScorE (RELAPSE) following liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of the us multicenter hcc transplant consortium. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society Tran, B. V., Moris, D., Markovic, D., Zaribafzadeh, H., Henao, R., Lai, Q., Florman, S. S., Tabrizian, P., Haydel, B., Ruiz, R. M., Klintmalm, G. B., Lee, D. D., Taner, C. B., Hoteit, M., Levine, M. H., Cillo, U., Vitale, A., Verna, E. C., Halazun, K. J., Tevar, A. D., Humar, A., Chapman, W. C., Vachharajani, N., Aucejo, F., Lerut, J., Ciccarelli, O., Nguyen, M. H., Melcher, M. L., Viveiros, A., Schaefer, B., Hoppe-Lotichius, M., Mittler, J., Nydam, T. L., Markmann, J. F., Rossi, M., Mobley, C., Ghobrial, M., Langnas, A. N., Carney, C. A., Berumen, J., Schnickel, G. T., Sudan, D. L., Hong, J. C., Rana, A., Jones, C. M., Fishbein, T. M., Busuttil, R. W., Barbas, A. S., Agopian, V. G. 2023


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following liver transplantation (LT) is highly morbid and occurs despite strict patient selection criteria. Individualized prediction of post-LT HCC recurrence risk remains an important need.Clinico-radiologic and pathologic data of 4981 patients with HCC undergoing LT from the United States Multicenter HCC Transplant Consortium (UMHTC) were analyzed to develop a REcurrent Liver cAncer Prediction ScorE (RELAPSE). Multivariable Fine and Gray competing risk analysis and machine learning algorithms (MLA; Random Survival Forest [RSF] and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models) identified variables to model HCC recurrence. RELAPSE was externally validated in 1160 HCC LT recipients from the European Hepatocellular Cancer Liver Transplant (EurHeCaLT) study group.Of 4981 UMHTC patients with HCC undergoing LT, 71.9% were within Milan criteria (MC), 16.1% were initially beyond MC with 9.4% downstaged prior to LT, and 12.0% had incidental HCC on explant pathology. Overall and recurrence-free survival at 1-, 3-, and 5-years was 89.7%, 78.6%, 69.8% and 86.8%, 74.9%, 66.7%, respectively, with a 5-year incidence of HCC recurrence of 12.5% (median 16 mo) and non-HCC mortality of 20.8%. A multivariable model identified maximum AFP (HR = 1.35 per-log SD, 95%-CI:1.22-1.50,p < 0.001), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (HR = 1.16 per-log SD, 95%-CI:1.04-1.28,p < 0.006), pathologic maximum tumor diameter (HR = 1.53 per-log SD, 95%-CI 1.35-1.73,p < 0.001), microvascular (HR = 2.37, 95%-CI:1.87-2.99,p < 0.001) and macrovascular (HR = 3.38, 95%-CI:2.41-4.75,p < 0.001) invasion, and tumor differentiation (moderate HR = 1.75, 95%-CI:1.29-2.37,p < 0.001; poor HR = 2.62, 95%-CI:1.54-3.32,p < 0.001) as independent variables predicting post-LT HCC recurrence (C-statistic = 0.78). MLAs incorporating additional covariates improved prediction of recurrence (RSF C-statistic = 0.81). Despite significant differences in EurHeCaLT recipient radiologic, treatment, and pathologic characteristics, external validation of RELAPSE demonstrated consistent 2 and 5-year recurrence risk discrimination (AUC 0.77 and 0.75, respectively).We develop and externally validate a RELAPSE score which accurately discriminates post-LT HCC recurrence risk, and may allow for individualized post-LT surveillance, immunosuppression modification, and selection of high-risk patients for adjuvant therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/LVT.0000000000000145

    View details for PubMedID 37029083

  • Global incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 63 studies and 1,201,807 persons. Journal of hepatology Le, M. H., Le, D. M., Baez, T. C., Wu, Y., Ito, T., Lee, E. Y., Lee, K., Stave, C. D., Henry, L., Barnett, S. D., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. We aimed to estimate the pooled global NAFLD incidence.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of adults without NAFLD at baseline to evaluate the global incidence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD.A total of 63 eligible studies (1,201,807 persons) were analyzed. Studies were from Mainland China/Hong Kong (n=26), South Korea (n=22), Japan (n=14), other (n=2, Sri Lanka, Israel); 63.8% were clinical center studies; median study year 2000 to 2016; 87% were good quality. Among the 1,201,807 persons at risk, 242,568 persons developed NAFLD with incidence rate of 4,612.8 (95% CI 3,931.5-5,294.2) per 100,000 person-years; no statistically significant differences by study sample size (P=0.90) or study setting (P=0.055). Males had higher incidence versus females (5,943.8 vs. 3,671.7, P=0.0013). Both the obese (vs. nonobese) and the overweight/obese groups (vs. normal weight) were about 3 times more likely to develop NAFLD (8,669.6 vs. 2,963.9 and 8,416.6 vs. 3,358.2, respectively) (both P<0.0001). Smokers had higher incidence than nonsmokers (8,043.2 vs. 4,689.7, P=0.046). By meta-regression, adjusting for study year, study setting, and study location, study period of 2010 or after and study setting were associated with increased incidence (P=0.010 and P=0.055, respectively). By country, China had a higher NAFLD incidence compared to non-China regions (P=0.012) and Japan a lower incidence compared to non-Japan regions (P=0.005).NAFLD incidence is increasing with a current estimate of 4,613 new cases per 100,000 years. Males and overweight/obese had significantly higher incidence rates compared to females and those of normal weight. Public health interventions for prevention of NAFLD are needed with a special emphasis on males, overweight/obese persons, and higher risk region. Impact and Implications; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects approximately 30% of people worldwide and appears to be increasing but data to estimate the incidence rate are limited. In this meta-analytic study of over 1.2 million people, we estimated the incidence rate of NAFLD was 46.13 per 1000 person years with significant differences by sex, BMI, geography, and time-period. As treatment options for NAFLD remain limited, prevention of NAFLD should remain the focus of public health. Studies such as these can help policy makers in determining which and whether their prevention interventions are impactful.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhep.2023.03.040

    View details for PubMedID 37040843

  • Global burden of hepatitis B virus: current status, missed opportunities and a call for action. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Hsu, Y. C., Huang, D. Q., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 296 million people worldwide and is the leading aetiology of cirrhosis and liver cancer globally. Major medical complications also include acute flares and extrahepatic manifestations. In addition, people living with HBV infection also experience stigma. HBV-related cirrhosis resulted in an estimated 331,000 deaths in 2019, and it is estimated that the number of deaths from HBV-related liver cancer in 2019 was 192,000, an increase from 156,000 in 2010. Meanwhile, HBV remains severely underdiagnosed and effective measures that can prevent infection and disease progression are underutilized. Birth dose coverage for HBV vaccines remains low, particularly in low-income countries or regions where HBV burden is high. Patients with HBV infection are inadequately evaluated and linked to care and are undertreated worldwide, even in high-income countries or regions. Despite the goal of the World Health Organization to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health problem by 2030, the annual global deaths from HBV are projected to increase by 39% from 2015 to 2030 if the status quo remains. In this Review, we discuss the current status and future projections of the global burden of HBV infection. We also discuss gaps in the current care cascade and propose future directions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41575-023-00760-9

    View details for PubMedID 37024566

    View details for PubMedCentralID 6096795

  • Perspectives on the Underlying Etiology of HCC and Its Effects on Treatment Outcomes. Journal of hepatocellular carcinoma Ito, T., Nguyen, M. H. 2023; 10: 413-428


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to be a serious medical problem with poor prognosis worldwide. The distribution of the major etiologies of HCC is changing due to the progress of anti-viral treatments, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression by nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) and increased sustained virologic response (SVR) rates by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as the rising trend of nonviral liver disease. Although viral hepatitis remains the most common cause of HCC, non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) with metabolic syndrome and alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) are increasing. Effective and well-tolerated NAs treatment can slow the disease progression of chronic HBV infection to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and reduce HCC risk. Treatment with NAs is also associated with significant improvement in the long-term survival of patients with HBV infection who already have HCC. DAAs have achieved viral elimination in almost all patients with HCV without significant adverse events, even in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC. Similarly, DAA therapy can reduce disease progression, liver and non-liver complications, and improve the long-term survival of patients with chronic HCV infection with or without HCC. Meanwhile, NAFLD is a rapidly increasing cause of HCC along with the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes globally. NAFLD-related HCC can occur in patients without cirrhosis and is known to have a lower survival rate than viral hepatitis-related HCC. Since there is currently no specific pharmacotherapy effective for NAFLD, lifestyle modification and prevention of complications are important to improve prognosis. Additionally, ALD is the second fastest-growing cause of HCC-related deaths, especially with an accelerated trend since the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic trends in the etiologies of HCC, and the progress of treatments for each etiology and the impact on outcome in the patients with HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/JHC.S347959

    View details for PubMedID 36926055

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10013586

  • Effectiveness and tolerability of camrelizumab combined with molecular targeted therapy for patients with unresectable or advanced HCC. Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII Li, T., Guo, J., Liu, Y., Du, Z., Guo, Z., Fan, Y., Cheng, L., Zhang, Y., Gao, X., Zhao, Y., He, X., Wu, W., Gao, N., Wu, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Kang, W., Cai, Z., Wang, W., Li, X., Zan, Y., Nguyen, M. H., Ji, F. 2023


    There is a lack of effective programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-targeted immunotherapy with good tolerability in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and severely compromised liver function. We assessed patient outcomes after combined camrelizumab and molecular targeted therapy in a multicenter cohort study in China. The study included 99 patients with advanced HCC (58 Child-Pugh A and 41 Child-Pugh B), 84 of them received camrelizumab combined with molecular targeted therapy from January 10, 2019, to March 31, 2021. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. The median follow-up was 12.1 months. For patients with Child-Pugh B, the OS probability at 12-months, ORR and DCR were 49.7%, 31.7% and 65.9%, respectively, and the median PFS was 5.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-7.1], which were comparable with Child-Pugh A patients, although median OS was shorter in Child-Pugh B patients (20.5 vs.13.4 months, P = 0.12). In multivariate analysis, macrovascular infiltration (MVI), but not sex, age, hepatitis B virus etiology, extrahepatic metastasis, Child-Pugh B, or AFP > 400 ng/ml, was associated with 12-months OS [hazard ratio (HR) 2.970, 95% CI 1.276-6.917, P = 0.012] and ORR (HR 2.906, 95% CI 1.18-7.16, P = 0.020). Grade 3/4 immune-related AEs occurred in 26.8% of Child-Pugh B patients, including one potentially treatment-related death. In both groups, the most common AEs were immune thrombocytopenia and hepatotoxicity. Camrelizumab combined with targeted therapy showed favorable effectiveness and tolerability with manageable toxicities in Chinese HCC patients, regardless of Child-Pugh A/B liver function. MVI was associated with suboptimal immunotherapy response and poor prognosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00262-023-03404-8

    View details for PubMedID 36840762

    View details for PubMedCentralID 6813818

  • Global treatment rate and barriers to DAA therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 146 studies and 1,760,352 HCV patients. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver Nguyen, V. H., Huang, D. Q., Le, M. H., Jin, M., Lee, E. Y., Henry, L., Nerurkar, S. N., Ogawa, E., Thin, K. N., Teng, M. L., Goh, K. S., Kai, J. C., Wong, C., Tan, D. J., Thuy, L. T., Hai, H., Enomoto, M., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    Global data on the treatment rate with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are sparse. We aimed to evaluate the CHC treatment rate and barriers to treatment in the DAA era.We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane from inception to August 5, 2021, for relevant articles. Patients treated with DAAs without interferon (IFN) therapy were categorized as IFN-free DAAs. Patients receiving DAA with IFN or unclear IFN status were categorized as DAA/IFN.We identified and analyzed data from 146 studies (1,760,352 CHC patients). DAA/IFN treatment rate was 16.0% (95% CI: 9.9-23.3, 49 studies, 886,535 patients). IFN-free DAA treatment rate was 52.3% (95% CI: 46.2 - 58.4, 123 studies, 1,276,754 patients): 45.4% in North America, 64.2% in South America (1 study), 90.4% in Africa (most data from Egypt), 54.4% in Europe, 60.7% in Australia, and 60.5% in Asia, p < 0.0001); 49% with hepatitis B co-infection, and 32.3% with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment was not a priority in 22.8% of patients in Europe and 16.7% in Australia, compared to only 4.8% in North America and 2.1% in Asia (P<0.0001). Poor adherence to clinic follow-up was the cause of no treatment in 74.7% of patients in Australia, 37.0% in North America, 7.9% in Europe, and 14.3% in Asia (P<0.0001).Though a marked improvement from IFN/DAA, the treatment rate with IFN-free DAA remains suboptimal (52.3% overall, 32.3% in HCC patients). Non-adherence to clinical follow-up and lack of disease awareness were treatment barriers.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/liv.15550

    View details for PubMedID 36825358

  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Characteristics and Care Patterns of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients in the United States. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association Liu, J., Kam, L. Y., Huang, D. Q., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023


    CHB disproportionately impacts foreign-born patients and those of Asian or Black race. Given the paucity of data, we aimed to study the impact of race/ethnicity on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patient characteristics and management.A retrospective analysis of adult CHB patients using data recorded in the deidentified Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart Database (1/2003‒3/2021) was performed. We characterized and examined the rates of receiving adequate treatment evaluation (measuring HBV DNA and alanine transaminase) and HBV treatment among the racial and ethnic groups.The study cohort included 42,140 patients: age 51.9±15.1 years, 56.1% male, 47% Asian, 26% White, 11% Black, and 7% Hispanic. 33% of White and 48% of Asian patients had annual household income >100,000 USD compared to 16% for Black and 25% for Hispanic patients (P<0.001), with similar disparities in educational levels. About one-third of White (29.3%), Black (35.1%), and Hispanic (35.4%) and half of Asian (49.9%) patients received adequate evaluation (P<0.001). Among patients who met AASLD treatment criteria, treatment rates were similar among White (60.8%, P=0.09) and Black (62.8%, P=0.48) but lower among Hispanic (54.7%, P=0.03) as compared to Asian patients (65.4%). On multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, provider type, viral co-infection, and fatty liver disease, Hispanic patients were less likely to receive treatment (adjusted hazards ratio: 0.69, 95%CI 0.53‒0.91, P=0.01) compared to Asian patients.Compared to Asian CHB patients, non-Asian patients were less likely to undergo adequate evaluation and Hispanic patients less likely to receive treatment for CHB. Additional efforts are needed to improve CHB management, especially for non-Asian patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cgh.2023.01.035

    View details for PubMedID 36781005

  • Racial and ethnic disparities in years of potential life loss among patients with cirrhosis during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The American journal of gastroenterology Zhao, Y., Yeo, Y. H., Samaan, J., Lv, F., He, X., Liu, J., Li, M., Gao, N., Park, J., Yang, J. D., Ayoub, W. S., Zhang, L., Odden, M. C., Ji, F., Nguyen, M. H. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.14309/ajg.0000000000002191

    View details for PubMedID 36728136

  • Meta-analysis: Chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma with statins, aspirin and metformin. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Zeng, R. W., Yong, J. N., Tan, D. J., Fu, C. E., Lim, W. H., Xiao, J., Chan, K. E., Tan, C., Goh, X. L., Chee, D., Syn, N., Tan, E. X., Muthiah, M. D., Ng, C. H., Tamaki, N., Lee, S. W., Kim, B. K., Nguyen, M. H., Loomba, R., Huang, D. Q. 2023


    BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that statins, aspirin and metformin may protect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. However, prior meta-analyses were limited by heterogeneity and inclusion of studies without adequate adjustment for baseline risks.AIM: To examine by an updated meta-analysis the association between these medications and HCC risk.METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched from inception to March 2022 for studies that balanced baseline risks between study groups via propensity score matching or inverse probability of treatment weighting, that reported the impact of statins, aspirin or metformin on HCC risk. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC were pooled using a random effects model.RESULTS: Statin use was associated with reduced HCC risk overall (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37-0.72) (10 studies, 1,774,476), and in subgroup analyses for cirrhosis, hepatitis B/C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, studies accounting for concurrent aspirin and metformin consumption and lipophilic statins. Aspirin use was associated with reduced HCC risk overall (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.27-0.87) (11 studies, 2,190,285 patients) but not in studies accounting for concurrent statin and metformin use. Metformin use was not associated with reduced HCC risk overall (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.31-1.06) (3 studies, 125,458 patients). Most analyses had moderate/substantial heterogeneity, except in follow-up <60months for aspirin (I2 =0%).CONCLUSION: Although statin and aspirin use were associated with reduced HCC risk, only statin use was significant in subgroup analyses accounting for concurrent medications. Metformin use was not associated with reduced HCC risk. These data have implications for future clinical trial design.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.17371

    View details for PubMedID 36625733

  • NAFLD and Non-Liver Comorbidities. Clinical and molecular hepatology Manikat, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.3350/cmh.2022.0442

    View details for PubMedID 36603574

  • Liver-Related Mortality in Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody+/Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen- Patients: Occult Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development. The American journal of gastroenterology Jung, J., Nguyen, M. H. 2023; 118 (1): 24-25


    Although hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) serum clearance is an important milestone in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBsAg-negative patients are at risk of liver cancer and liver-related death, especially when progressive fibrosis is present. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBV core antibody-positive patients should be carefully evaluated and managed accordingly for the presence of significant liver fibrosis, other viral coinfections, occult HBV infection, risk of HBV reactivation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Antiviral prophylaxis should be initiated in isolated anti-HBV core antibody patients receiving high-risk chemotherapy or biologics. Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance with liver ultrasound and serum alpha-fetoprotein should be considered for patients with risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.14309/ajg.0000000000002030

    View details for PubMedID 36602834

  • Outcomes in liver transplant recipients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-related HCC: results from the US multicenter HCC transplant consortium. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society Verna, E. C., Phipps, M. M., Halazun, K. J., Markovic, D., Florman, S. S., Haydel, B. M., Ruiz, R., Klintmalm, G., Lee, D. D., Taner, B., Hoteit, M. A., Tevar, A. D., Humar, A., Chapman, W. C., Vachharajani, N., Aucejo, F. N., Melcher, M. L., Nguyen, M. H., Nydam, T. L., Markmann, J. F., Mobley, C., Ghobrial, R. M., Langnas, A. N., Berumen, J., Schnickel, G. T., Sudan, D., Hong, J. C., Rana, A., Jones, C. M., Fishbein, T. M., Busuttil, R. W., Agopian, V. 2023; 29 (1): 34-47


    NAFLD will soon be the most common indication for liver transplantation (LT). In NAFLD, HCC may occur at earlier stages of fibrosis and present with more advanced tumor stage, raising concern for aggressive disease. Thus, adult LT recipients with HCC from 20 US centers transplanted between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed to determine whether NAFLD impacts recurrence-free post-LT survival. Five hundred and thirty-eight (10.8%) of 4981 total patients had NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD were significantly older (63 vs. 58, p<0.001), had higher body mass index (30.5 vs. 27.4, p<0.001), and were more likely to have diabetes (57.3% vs. 28.8%, p<0.001). Patients with NAFLD were less likely to receive pre-LT locoregional therapy (63.6% vs. 72.9%, p<0.001), had higher median lab MELD (15 vs. 13, p<0.001) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (3.8 vs. 2.9, p<0.001), and were more likely to have their maximum pre-LT alpha fetoprotein at time of LT (44.1% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001). NAFLD patients were more likely to have an incidental HCC on explant (19.4% vs. 10.4%, p<0.001); however, explant characteristics including tumor differentiation and vascular invasion were not different between groups. Comparing NAFLD and non-NAFLD patients, the 1, 3, and 5-year cumulative incidence of recurrence (3.1%, 9.1%, 11.5% vs. 4.9%, 10.1%, 12.6%, p=0.36) and recurrence-free survival rates (87%, 76%, and 67% vs. 87%, 75%, and 67%, p=0.97) were not different. In competing risks analysis, NAFLD did not significantly impact recurrence in univariable (HR: 0.88, p=0.36) nor in adjusted analysis (HR: 0.91, p=0.49). With NAFLD among the most common causes of HCC and poised to become the leading indication for LT, a better understanding of disease-specific models to predict recurrence is needed. In this NAFLD cohort, incidental HCCs were common, raising concerns about early detection. However, despite less locoregional therapy and high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, explant tumor characteristics and post-transplant recurrence-free survival were not different compared to non-NAFLD patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/LVT.0000000000000007

    View details for PubMedID 36630156

  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on liver disease-related mortality rates in the United States JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY Gao, X., Lv, F., He, X., Zhao, Y., Liu, Y., Zu, J., Henry, L., Wang, J., Yeo, Y., Ji, F., Nguyen, M. H. 2023; 78 (1): 16-27
  • Association of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy With Liver and Nonliver Complications and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C. JAMA internal medicine Ogawa, E., Chien, N., Kam, L., Yeo, Y. H., Ji, F., Huang, D. Q., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and its complications are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, large-scale data analysis of the long-term liver and nonliver effects of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment has been limited.To assess the association of hepatitis C virus elimination through DAA treatment with the risk of liver and nonliver morbidity and mortality during long-term follow-up among a large nationwide cohort of insured patients with CHC in the US.This was a retrospective cohort study of 245 596 adult patients with CHC using data from the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart database, 2010 to 2021. Of the total cohort, 40 654 patients had received 1 or more prescriptions for DAA medication (without interferon), and 204 942 patients were untreated.Treatment with a DAA.Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver decompensation, relevant nonliver events (nonliver cancer, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease), and overall mortality.The DAA-treated cohort (vs untreated) were older (mean [SD] age, 59.9 [10.8] vs 58.5 [13.0] years; P < .001); more likely to be male (25 060 [62%] vs 119 727 [58%] men; P < .001) and White (23 937 [59%] vs 115 973 [57%]; P < .001) individuals; and more likely to have diabetes (10 680 [26%] vs 52 091 [25%]; P < .001) or cirrhosis (17 971 [44%] vs 60 094 [29%]; P < .001). Comparing DAA-treated with untreated patients, the incidence (per 1000 person-years) of liver outcomes (eg, decompensation, 28.2 [95% CI, 27.0-29.4] vs 40.8 [95% CI, 40.1-41.5]; P < .001, and HCC in compensated cirrhosis, 20.1 [95% CI, 18.4-21.9] vs 41.8 [95% CI, 40.3-43.3]; P < .001) and nonliver outcomes (eg, diabetes, 30.2 [95% CI, 35.4-37.7] vs 37.2 [95% CI, 36.6-37.9]; P < .001; and chronic kidney disease, 31.1 [95% CI, 29.9-32.2] vs 34.1 [95% CI, 33.5-34.7]; P < .001) were significantly lower in treated patients. The all-cause mortality rates per 1000 person-years were also significantly lower in DAA-treated compared with untreated patients (mortality, 36.5 [95% CI, 35.4-37.7] vs 64.7 [95% CI, 63.9-65.4]; P < .001). In multivariable regression analysis, DAA treatment was independently associated with a significant decrease in the risk of liver (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for HCC, 0.73; decompensation, 0.36), nonliver (aHR for diabetes, 0.74; chronic kidney disease, 0.81; cardiovascular disease, 0.90; nonliver cancer, 0.89), and mortality outcomes (aHR, 0.43).The findings of this retrospective cohort study indicate that DAA treatment for insured patients with CHC was associated with improved liver- and nonliver outcomes, and ultimately, with long-term overall survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.5699

    View details for PubMedID 36508196

  • Curing chronic hepatitis B virus infection. The Lancet. Infectious diseases Hsu, Y. C., Nguyen, M. H. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00743-5

    View details for PubMedID 36509099

  • Characteristics and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with macrovascular invasion following surgical resection: a meta-analysis of 40 studies and 8,218 patients. Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition Huang, D. Q., Tran, A., Tan, E. X., Nerurkar, S. N., Teh, R., Teng, M. L., Yeo, E. J., Zou, B., Wong, C., Esquivel, C. O., Bonham, C. A., Nguyen, M. H. 2022; 11 (6): 848-860


    Guidelines recommend that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and/or hepatic vein tumor thrombosis (HVTT) should undergo systemic therapy. However, recent data suggest that surgical resection may be beneficial in selected cases, but outcomes are heterogenous. We aimed to estimate pooled overall survival (OS), recurrence free survival (RFS) and complication rates in HCC patients with macrovascular invasion (MVI) following surgical resection.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, two investigators independently searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases from inception to Nov 10, 2020, without language restrictions, for studies reporting outcomes of adult HCC patients with MVI who underwent liver resection with curative intent.We screened 8,598 articles and included 40 studies involving 8,218 patients. Among all patients with MVI, the pooled median OS was 14.39 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.99-18.84], 1-year OS was 54.47% (95% CI: 46.12-62.58%) and 3-year OS was 23.20% (95% CI: 16.61-31.42%). Overall, 1- and 3-year RFS were 27.70% (95% CI: 21.00-35.57%) and 10.06% (95% CI: 6.62-15.01%), respectively. Among patients with PVTT, median OS was 20.41 months in those with segmental/2nd order involvement compared to 12.91 months if 1st order branch was involved and 6.41 months if the main trunk was involved. The pooled rate of major complications was 6.17% (95% CI: 3.53-10.56%).Overall median survival was 14.39 months for HCC patients with MVI following resection. Median survival was higher in PVTT with segmental/2nd order involvement at 20.41 versus 6.41 months if the main trunk was involved.

    View details for DOI 10.21037/hbsn-21-419

    View details for PubMedID 36523924

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9745615

  • Characteristics and Treatment Rate of Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Direct-Acting Antiviral Era and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States. JAMA network open Nguyen, V. H., Kam, L., Yeo, Y. H., Huang, D. Q., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2022; 5 (12): e2245424


    Clinical data on hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment rates in the United States are sparse.To evaluate HCV treatment rates in the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs).This retrospective cohort study used data from the deidentified Optum Cliniformatics Data Mart Database (2014-2021) on patients with HCV in the DAA and COVID-19 eras. The database includes patients with private health insurance in the US.The treatment rate and changes over time were assessed with adjusted log-binomial regression, and factors associated with treatment were examined using multivariable logistic regression.A total of 133 348 patients with HCV (79 567 [59.7%] men; mean [SD] age, 59.7 [12.3] years; 4448 [3.3%] Asian, 24 662 [18.5%] Black, and 74 750 [56.1%] White individuals) were included; 38 180 (26.8%) had HCV RNA data, and of those, 20 277 (53.1%) had positive HCV RNA. Overall, 13 214 patients with positive HCV RNA tests (65.2%) received DAA treatment; 6456 of 6634 patients treated with DAAs (97.3%) achieved sustained virologic response. After adjusting for age, sex, and race and ethnicity, the treatment rate in 2018 was 0.5 times greater than the rate in 2014 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.42-1.59) but declined after 2018, decreasing from 64.8% to 61.2%, and especially after 2019, when it decreased to less than 60% (P < .001). The number of patients with viremic HCV identified in between April 2020 and March 2021 also decreased to 496 from 2761 and 3258 in the preceding 2 years. Receiving care from a gastroenterologist or infectious disease specialist with advanced care practitioner (ie, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or clinical nurse specialist) was independently associated with greater odds of DAA treatment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.64; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50). Patients with decompensated cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were 31% less likely to receive treatment compared with those without (aOR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90).In this cohort study, less than two-thirds of insured patients with viremic HCV received DAA treatment, with declines in both the treatment rate and the number of viremic HCV diagnoses since 2019 and especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further efforts are needed to increase HCV diagnosis and treatment, especially for those with cirrhosis and HCC. An urgent call for nationwide actions to improve access to DAA treatment, community outreach programs, and specialists through referral pipelines is needed in the United States to stay on track to meet the World Health Organization goal of reducing the burden of viral hepatitis with the eventual goal to eliminate viral hepatitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.45424

    View details for PubMedID 36477481

  • A Reappraisal of the Diagnostic Performance of B-Mode Ultrasonography for Mild Liver Steatosis. The American journal of gastroenterology Lee, C. M., Yoon, E. L., Nakajima, A., Yoneda, M., Toyoda, H., Yasuda, S., Lee, J., Kim, M., Kang, B. K., Nguyen, M. H., Jun, D. W., Sumida, Y. 2022


    Previous studies have shown that ultrasonography has high specificity (80%-100%) but low sensitivity (50%-70%) in diagnosing fatty liver; sensitivity is especially low for mild steatosis. In this study, we aimed to reappraise the diagnostic performance of B-mode ultrasonography (B-USG) for fatty liver disease.We performed a retrospective, multinational, multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (6 referral centers from 3 nations). We included 5,056 participants who underwent both B-USG and magnetic resonance proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) within a 6-month period. The diagnostic performance of B-USG was compared with that of MRI-PDFF as a reference standard for fatty liver diagnosis, using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).B-USG showed a sensitivity of 83.4%, specificity of 81.0%, and AUC of 0.822 in diagnosing mild liver steatosis (6.5% ≤MRI-PDFF ≤14%). The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC in diagnosing the presence of fatty liver disease (MRI-PDFF ≥6.5%) were 83.4%, 81.0%, and 0.822, respectively. The mean PDFF of B-USG-diagnosed nonfatty liver differed significantly from that of diagnosed mild liver steatosis (3.5% ± 2.8% vs 8.5% ± 5.0%, P < 0.001). The interinstitutional variability of B-USG in diagnosing fatty liver was similar in diagnostic accuracy among the 6 centers (range, 82.8%-88.6%, P = 0.416).B-USG was an effective, objective method to detect mild liver steatosis using MRI-PDFF as comparison, regardless of the etiologies and comorbidities.

    View details for DOI 10.14309/ajg.0000000000002020

    View details for PubMedID 36305695

  • Prevalence, characteristics, and mortality outcomes of obese and nonobese MAFLD in the United States. Hepatology international Dao, A. D., Nguyen, V. H., Ito, T., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) establishes new criteria for diagnosis of fatty liver disease independent of alcohol intake. We aimed to describe the prevalence and compare characteristics and mortality outcomes of persons with nonobese and obese MAFLD.METHODS: Using data from 13,640 participants from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994, we identified participants with fatty liver on ultrasound who had MAFLD and analyzed them by the presence of obesity.RESULTS: Overall prevalence of MAFLD was 19%; amongst those, 54% were obese and 46% were nonobese. Nonobese MAFLD was more common in participants older than 65 than in younger participants (56.8% vs. 43.2%, p<0.0001). Nonobese MAFLD was more common in males (63.2% vs. 48.3%, p<0.0001). Obese MAFLD was more common in females (51.7% vs. 48.3%, p<0.0001). After adjusting for several demographic factors and alcohol use, older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, p=0.003] and being male (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI 1.25-2.17, p=0.001) were independent risk factors for nonobese MAFLD. Nonobese MAFLD participants had a higher 20-year cumulative incidence for all-cause mortality compared to obese MAFLD participants (33.2% vs. 28.8%, p=0.0137). However, nonobese MAFLD was not independently associated with mortality after adjusting for relevant confounders, while FIB-4>1.3 and cardiovascular disease were the strongest risk factors associated with increased mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) >2.7 for both, p<0.0001 for both].CONCLUSIONS: Nonobese MAFLD constitutes about half of the MAFLD in the United States, especially among males and the elderly. Notably, nonobese MAFLD carries higher mortality than obese MAFLD. Screening and diagnosis of MAFLD should be considered in nonobese populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-022-10436-2

    View details for PubMedID 36309601

  • Gaps in hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance among insured patients with hepatitis B infection without cirrhosis in the United States. Hepatology communications Nguyen, M. H., Roberts, L. R., Engel-Nitz, N. M., Bancroft, T., Ozbay, A. B., Singal, A. G. 2022


    Suboptimal adherence to guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance among high-risk patients is a persistent problem with substantial detriment to patient outcomes. While patients cite cost as a barrier to surveillance receipt, the financial burden they experience due to surveillance has not been examined. We conducted a retrospective administrative claims study to assess HCC surveillance use and associated costs in a US cohort of insured patients without cirrhosis but with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, monitored in routine clinical practice. Of 6831 patients (1122 on antiviral treatment, 5709 untreated), only 39.3% and 51.3% had received any abdominal imaging after 6 and 12 months, respectively, and patients were up to date with HCC surveillance guidelines for only 28% of the follow-up time. Completion of surveillance was substantially higher at 6 and 12 months among treated patients (51.7% and 69.6%, respectively) compared with untreated patients (36.9% and 47.6%, respectively) (p < 0.001). In adjusted models, treated patients were more likely than untreated patients to receive surveillance (hazard ratio [HR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-2.01, p < 0.001), and the proportion of those up to date with surveillance was 9.7% higher (95% CI 6.26-13.07, p < 0.001). Mean total and patient-paid daily surveillance-related costs ranged from

  • Forecasted 2040 Global Prevalence of NAFLD using Hierarchical Bayesian Approach. Clinical and molecular hepatology Le, M. H., Yeo, Y. H., Zou, B., Barnet, S., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    Background: Due to increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. Current forecast models may not include non-obese NAFLD. We used a Bayesian approach forecasting the prevalence of NAFLD through 2040.Methods: Prevalence data from 245 articles involving 2,699,627 persons were used with a hierarchical Bayesian approach to forecast the prevalence of NAFLD through 2040. Subgroup analyses were conducted for age, gender, presence of metabolic syndrome, region, and smoking. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for clinical setting and study quality.Results: Forecasted 2040 prevalence rate was 55.7%, a 3-times increase since 1990 and 43.2% increase from the 2020 prevalence of 38.9%. The estimated average yearly increase since 2020 was 2.16%. For those aged <50 years and ≥50 years old, the 2040 prevalence rates were not different (56.7% vs 61.5%, P=0.52). There was a significant difference in 2040 prevalence by sex (males- 60% vs.50%, P+) but trend is stepper for females (2.5% vs 1.5%, P=0.025). No difference in trends overtime by region (P=0.48). The rate of increase was significantly higher in those without metabolic syndrome (3.8% vs. 0.84%, P=0.003) and for smokers (1.4% vs. 1.1%, P=0.011). There was no difference by clinical/community setting (P=0.491) or the quality of the studies (P=0.85).Conclusion: By 2040, over half the adult population is forecasted to have NAFLD. The largest increases occur in women, smokers and those without metabolic syndrome. Intensification of efforts raising awareness and determining long term solutions addressing driving factors of NAFLD are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.3350/cmh.2022.0239

    View details for PubMedID 36117442

  • Gaps in hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in a United States cohort of insured patients with cirrhosis. Current medical research and opinion Nguyen, M. H., Roberts, L. R., Engel-Nitz, N. M., Bancroft, T., Ozbay, A. B., Singal, A. G. 2022: 1-35


    Objective Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be underutilized; however, neither the variation of surveillance adherence by cirrhosis etiology nor the patient-side economic burden of surveillance are well understood. To identify potential barriers to HCC surveillance, we assessed utilization patterns and costs among US patients with cirrhosis monitored in routine clinical practice. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of insured adult patients with cirrhosis using national administrative claims data from January 2013 - June 2019. Time up-to-date with recommended surveillance, correlates of surveillance receipt, and surveillance-associated costs were assessed during a ≥6-month follow-up. Results: Among 15,543 patients with cirrhosis (mean [SD] age 64.0 [11.1] years, 50.7% male), 45.8% and 58.7% had received any abdominal imaging at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Patients were up-to-date with recommended surveillance for only 31% of a median 1.3-year follow-up. Those with viral hepatitis were more likely to receive surveillance than those with other etiologies (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.17, p=0.010 for patients without a baseline gastroenterologist [GI] visit and 2.69, 95% CI 1.77-4.09, p<0.001 for patients with a GI visit, relative to those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and no GI visit). For all etiologies except NAFLD, the HR (95% CI) for surveillance receipt was higher among patients with vs without a baseline GI visit (alcohol-related, 1.164 [1.002-1.351] vs 0.880 [0.796-0.972]; viral hepatitis, 2.688 [1.765-4.093] vs 1.553 [1.111-2.171]; Other, 0.612 [0.519-0.722] vs 0.549 [0.470-0.641]). Mean total and patient-paid daily surveillance-related costs ranged from

  • Bulevirtide and tenofovir combination therapy for hepatitis D virus infection: longer treatment and more diverse trial populations are needed. The Lancet. Infectious diseases Ito, T., Nguyen, M. H. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00412-1

    View details for PubMedID 36113539

  • Effectiveness of entecavir vs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for functional cure of chronic hepatitis B in an international cohort. Hepatology international Hsu, Y. C., Jun, D. W., Peng, C. Y., Yeh, M. L., Trinh, H., Wong, G. L., Kim, S. E., Chen, C. H., Oh, H., Lin, C. H., Trinh, L., Wong, V. W., Yoon, E., Ahn, S. B., Huang, D., Cho, Y. K., Jeong, J. Y., Jeong, S. W., Kim, H. S., Xie, Q., Liu, L., Riveiro-Barciela, M., Tsai, P. C., Accarino, E. V., Toyoda, H., Enomoto, M., Preda, C., Marciano, S., Hoang, J., Huang, C. F., Kozuka, R., Yasuda, S., Istratescu, D., Lee, D. H., Su, J. Y., Huang, Y. T., Huang, J. F., Dai, C. Y., Chuang, W. L., Yuen, M. F., Gadano, A., Cheung, R., Lim, S. G., Buti, M., Yu, M. L., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    Both entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are first-line therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but their comparative effectiveness with regards to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance remains unclear.This international multicenter cohort study enrolled 7697 treatment-naïve CHB patients (median age 50 years; male 66.75%) initiated on either ETV (n = 5430) or TDF (n = 2267) without baseline malignancy or immunosuppression from 23 centers across 10 countries or regions. Patients were observed for HBsAg seroclearance until death, loss to follow-up, or treatment discontinuation or switching. The incidences of HBsAg seroclearance were adjusted for competing mortality and compared between ETV and TDF cohorts with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) and also by multivariable regression analysis.The study population was followed up for a median duration of 56.1 months with 36,929 11 person-years of observation. HBsAg seroclearance occurred in 70 ETV-treated and 21 TDF-treated patients, yielding 8-year cumulative incidence of 1.69% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-2.17) for ETV and 1.34% (95% CI 0.85-2.10%), for TDF (p = 0.58). In the IPTW analysis with the two study cohorts more balanced in background covariates, the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of TDF versus ETV for HBsAg seroclearance was 0.91 (95% CI 0.50-1.64; p = 0.75). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two medications in the multivariable competing risk regression model (adjusted sub-distributional HR 0.92 for TDF vs. ETV; 95% CI 0.56-1.53; p = 0.76).ETV and TDF did not differ significantly in the incidence of HBsAg seroclearance, which rarely occurred with either regimen.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-022-10411-x

    View details for PubMedID 36070123

  • Most excess years of potential life loss among individuals with cirrhosis during the pandemic were not related to COVID-19 GUT Zhao, Y., Yeo, Y., Samaan, J., Lv, F., He, X., Gao, N., Park, J., Yang, J., Ayoub, W., Odden, M. C., Ji, F., Nguyen, M. H. 2022
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on liver disease-related mortality rates in the United States. Journal of hepatology Gao, X., Lv, F., He, X., Zhao, Y., Liu, Y., Zu, J., Henry, L., Wang, J., Yeo, Y. H., Ji, F., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    The pandemic has resulted in an increase of deaths not directly related to COVID-19 infection. We aimed to use a national death dataset to determine the impact of the pandemic on people with liver disease in the U.S, focusing on alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Using data from the National Vital Statistic System from the CDC WONDER platform and ICD-10 codes, we identified deaths associated with liver disease. We evaluated observed versus predicted mortality for 2020-2021 based on trends from 2010-2019 with joinpoint and prediction modeling analysis.Among 626,090 chronic liver disease-related deaths between 2010 and 2021, Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for ALD dramatically increased between 2010-2019 and 2020-2021 (annual percentage change [APC] 3.5% to 17.6%, P<0.01), leading to a higher observed ASMR (per 100,000 persons) than predicted for 2020 (15.67 vs.13.04) and 2021 (17.42 vs.13.41). ASMR for NAFLD also increased during the pandemic (APC:14.5%), while the rates for hepatitis B and C decreased. Notably, the ASMR rise for ALD was most pronounced in non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and Alaska Indians/Native Americans (APC: 11.7%, 10.8%, 18.0%, all P<0.05), with similar but less critical findings for NAFLD while rates were steady for non-Hispanic Asians throughout 2010-2021 (APC: 4.9%). The ASMR rise for ALD was particularly severe for the 25-44 age group (APC: 34.6%, versus 13.7% and 12.6% for 45-64 and ≥65, all P<0.01), which were also all higher than pre-COVID-19 rates (all P<0.01).ASMR for ALD and NAFLD increased at an alarming rate during the COVID-19 pandemic with the largest disparities among the young, non-Hispanic White, and Alaska Indian/Native American populations.The impact of the pandemic on people with liver disease in the U.S remains unclear. This study indicated that age-standardized mortality rates for alcohol associated liver disease and non-alcohol fatty liver disease greatly accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic with the largest disparities among the young, non-Hispanic White, and Alaska Indian/Native American populations. Increasing awareness about the care importance of chronic liver disease in specific populations must be prioritized.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhep.2022.07.028

    View details for PubMedID 35988691

  • Increased mortality of patients with alcohol-related liver diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Journal of internal medicine Yeo, Y. H., Zou, B., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1111/joim.13545

    View details for PubMedID 35869603

  • Utilization and outcomes of hepatitis B-positive grafts in orthotopic liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2021. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society Ali, S. E., Vutien, P., Bonham, C. A., Landis, C., Kwo, P., Esquivel, C., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    The demand for orthotopic liver transplants (OLT) is projected to increase which indicates a need to expand the liver donor pool. We aimed to investigate the utilization of hepatitis B (HBV)-positive graft utilization and the outcomes of recipients undergoing orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) with HBV-positive grafts.We conducted a retrospective cohort study analyzing all deceased donors and OLT recipients in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database from January 1999 through March 2021. Donor HBV status was positive if HBsAg was positive or HBV nucleic acid testing was detectable. Recipients of HBV-positive allografts were matched 1:5 to recipients of HBV-negative allografts based on recipient and donor age, transplant year, recipient gender, donation after circulatory death, recipient location, and MELD score at transplant.Among the 185,212 potential donors, 422(0.2%) were HBV-positive and 265(63%) of the HBV-positive grafts were transplanted (14 of 265[5.3%] in HBV-positive recipients). The overall discard rate for HBV-positive donors of 37.2% (157/422) remained significantly higher than the discard rate for HBV-negative donors of 26.5% (49,026/185,212) during the study period (p < 0.001). Recipients of HBV-positive (n = 209) had similar mortality (log-rank, p=0.47) and graft loss (log-rank, p=0.72) to matched recipients of HBV-negative allografts (n = 1,045). The 3-year graft survival was 77.9% for the HBV-positive group and 79.7% in the matched HBV-negative group.Based on this analysis, transplant recipients of HBV-positive liver allografts do not experience increased rates of mortality or graft loss. Utilizing these HBV-positive allografts is one strategy that may help expand the donor pool and lower the waiting-list mortality rate.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lt.26543

    View details for PubMedID 35844046

  • Cabozantinib plus atezolizumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of adjuvant antiviral therapy. The Lancet. Oncology Ji, F., Nguyen, M. H. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1470-2045(22)00383-7

    View details for PubMedID 35798015

  • Meta-analysis: global prevalence, trend and forecasting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents, 2000-2021. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Li, J., Ha, A., Rui, F., Zou, B., Yang, H., Xue, Q., Hu, X., Xu, Y., Henry, L., Barakhat, M., Stave, C. D., Shi, J., Wu, C., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    BACKGROUND: NAFLD is increasing in children.AIMS: To determine the recent trend and forecast the future global prevalence of paediatric NAFLD METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library databases from inception to 1 May 2021 for studies of children and adolescents (≤21years) with NAFLD. Obesity was defined with weight at ≥95th percentile and overweight as 85th to <95th percentile as per the Center for Disease Control BMI-for-age percentile cut-offs.RESULTS: From 3350 titles and abstracts, we included 74 studies (276,091 participants) from 20 countries/regions. We included 14 studies in the general NAFLD prevalence analysis, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.40% (95% CI: 4.17-12.81) regardless of the diagnostic method, and 8.77% (95% CI: 3.86-18.72) by ultrasound. Among continents with more than one study, the prevalence of NAFLD was 8.53% (95% CI: 5.71-12.55) for North America, 7.01% (95% CI: 3.51-13.53) for Asia, and 1.65% (95% CI: 0.97-2.80) for Europe. NAFLD prevalence regardless of the diagnostic method was 52.49% (95% CI: 46.23-58.68, 9159 participants) and 39.17% (95% CI: 30.65-48.42, 5371 participants) among obese and overweight/obese participants, respectively. For the general population, trend analysis from 2000 to 2017 indicates an increasing global prevalence of paediatric NAFLD from 4.62% to 9.02% at a yearly increase of 0.26%, whereas forecast analysis predicts a prevalence of 30.7% by 2040.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of paediatric NAFLD varies by region and is 52.49% overall among the obese population and 7.40% in the general population. It is predicted to reach 30.7% by 2040.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.17096

    View details for PubMedID 35736008

  • Poor diagnostic efficacy of noninvasive tests for advanced fibrosis in obese or younger than 60 diabetic NAFLD patients. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association Ito, T., Nguyen, V. H., Tanaka, T., Park, H., Yeh, M. L., Kawanaka, M., Arai, T., Atsukawa, M., Yoon, E. L., Tsai, P. C., Toyoda, H., Huang, J. F., Henry, L., Jun, D. W., Yu, M. L., Ishigami, M., Nguyen, M. H., Cheung, R. C. 2022


    Serum-based non-invasive tests (NITs) have been widely used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the diagnostic efficacy of NITs across ranges of age, body mass index (BMI), and presence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) may vary and have not been well characterized.background METHODS: We analyzed 1,489 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD from 6 centers in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. Using histology as the gold standard, we compared the AUROCs of fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), and the new Hepamet fibrosis score (HFS) with a focus on performance in subgroups as stratified by age, BMI, and the presence of T2DM.By histology, 44.0% (655/1489) of the overall cohort had F2-4 and 20.6% (307/1489) had F3-4 fibrosis. FIB-4 had the highest AUROCs for both F2-4 (0.701 vs. NFS 0.676 and HFS 0.682, P=0.001) and F3-4 (0.767 vs. NFS 0.736 and HFS 0.752, P=0.002). However, for F3-4 fibrosis, the AUROCs of all 3 NITs were generally higher in older (>60 years), nonobese (BMI<25 kg/m2), and non-diabetic patients, though overall the best performance was observed with FIB-4 among nonobese (BMI<25) diabetic patients (AUROC 0.92). The worst performance was observed in younger patients with T2DM for all NITs including FIB-4 (AUROC 0.63-0.66).results CONCLUSION: FIB-4 had higher diagnostic efficacy for F3-4 than NFS or HFS, but this varied greatly by age, BMI and T2DM, with better performance in older, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients. However, all NITs including FIB-4 had unacceptably poor performance in young or obese diabetic patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cgh.2022.05.015

    View details for PubMedID 35654298

  • NAFLD versus MAFLD: Prevalence, Outcomes and Implications of a Change in Name. Clinical and molecular hepatology Ng, C. H., Huang, D. Q., Nguyen, M. H. 2022


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about a third of the world's adult population and is a major public health concern. NAFLD is defined by the presence of hepatic steatosis and the absence of other causes of liver disease. As NAFLD is closely associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome, several experts have called for a change in nomenclature from NAFLD to metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) to better reflect the underlying pathophysiology of NAFLD as a metabolically driven disease and shift to a "positive" diagnostic criteria rather than one of exclusion. Recent studies have suggested that the global prevalence of MAFLD is higher than that of NAFLD, and patients with MAFLD have more metabolic comorbidities compared to those with NAFLD. Emerging data also suggest that all-cause and cardiovascular mortality may be higher in MAFLD compared with NAFLD. In this synopsis, we discuss differences in clinical features, prevalence and clinical outcomes between NAFLD and MAFLD. In addition, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of a name change from NAFLD to MAFLD from the perspective of the scientific community, care providers and patients.

    View details for DOI 10.3350/cmh.2022.0070

    View details for PubMedID 35545437

  • Characteristics and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with macrovascular invasion following surgical resection: a meta-analysis of 40 studies and 8,218 patients HEPATOBILIARY SURGERY AND NUTRITION Huang, D. Q., Tran, A., Tan, E. X., Nerurkar, S. N., Teh, R., Teng, M. P., Yeo, E., Zou, B., Wong, C., Esquivel, C. O., Bonham, C., Nguyen, M. H. 2022
  • Global and regional long-term survival following resection for HCC in the recent decade: A meta-analysis of 110 studies. Hepatology communications Reveron-Thornton, R. F., Teng, M. L., Lee, E. Y., Tran, A., Vajanaphanich, S., Tan, E. X., Nerurkar, S. N., Ng, R. X., Teh, R., Tripathy, D. P., Ito, T., Tanaka, T., Miyake, N., Zou, B., Wong, C., Toyoda, H., Esquivel, C. O., Bonham, C. A., Nguyen, M. H., Huang, D. Q. 2022


    Surgical resection for HCC remains a major curative treatment option, but it is unclear whether there are differences in outcomes by region and whether outcomes have improved over time. We aimed to estimate pooled overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and complication rates in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following curative surgical resection and to compare outcomes by region and by time period. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 15, 2020. We selected studies reporting OS, RFS, and complications in adult patients with HCC undergoing curative surgical resection. Two authors independently searched the literature and extracted the data. We screened 6983 articles and included 110 eligible studies with 82,392 patients, with study periods spanning from 1980-2017. The global pooled 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 88.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.1-90.4) and 56.2% (95% CI 52.8-59.6) for OS and 71.1% (95% CI 67.6-74.3) and 35.2% (95% CI 32.5-38.0) for RFS, respectively. Five-year OS was higher in Asia (57.03%) than in other regions (Europe 48.3%; North America 48.0%; and South America 49.5%); p=0.002. Five-year RFS was higher in patients with hepatitis B virus versus patients with hepatitis C virus (34.8% vs. 24.1%; p=0.02). There was no significant improvement in 5-year OS and RFS over time. The pooled rate for complications was 27.6% (95% CI 23.4-32.3), with 9.7% (95% CI 6.3-14.7) classified as major. One-year OS after surgical resection for HCC is excellent (~90%). However, 5-year OS (~55%) and RFS (~35%) are still poor, suggesting that long-term care is suboptimal. Greater efforts are required to improve survival through enhanced surveillance and preventing recurrence through antiviral therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep4.1923

    View details for PubMedID 35234371